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D I P L O M A

BOOKLET

Small gestures

- The importance of details in architecture

Maja Westman Studio 7 KTH School of Architecture Professor Elizabeth Hatz Carl W채rn Peter Lynch Peter Carroll

25 August 2015 1


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T A B L E

o f

CONTENTS

Sammanfattning.............................................................................................................5 Summary........................................................................................................................7

T h es i s Objective........................................................................................................................9 Why does the small gesture matter?..............................................................................11 Method...........................................................................................................................13

C a se S t u d y Description of Case Study: Aalto, Frank & Lewerentz..................................................15 Säynätsalo Town Hall.................................................................................................17 Villa Wethje................................................................................................................25 Malmö Cementary ....................................................................................................33 Case Study: a Summary.................................................................................................41

A p p l i c a t i on P r o j ect the Applicaion Project...................................................................................................43 Site & Program..............................................................................................................45 Tingshuset......................................................................................................................47 Study #1: Square........................................................................................................51 Study #2: Entrance & Foyer.......................................................................................57 Study #3: Main Study Room......................................................................................63 Study #4: Research Rooms........................................................................................69 Coherence......................................................................................................................75 the Families....................................................................................................................95 the Handle - a Conclusion.............................................................................................101 References ....................................................................................................................109

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Vad är en liten gest? Sammanfattning av Case Study: Alvar Aalto, Josef Frank, Sigurd Lewerentz Detaljer som gör skillnad

mänsklig skala Stora ytor är uppdelade i mindre, mer relaterbara ytor Precision vid användning av en privat skala, både i publika och privata sammanhang Volym, rum och detalj i relation till användare, funktion och känsla

rumsindelning Subtila indelningar - Små, försiktiga skillnader av volym, färg och material Indelningar gjorda av rumshöjd, räcken och fönster - inte bara med väggar Indelningar skapade med ljus - artificiellt och naturligt

material Djup, hållbarhet och textur i material och fasad Material med naturliga färger - begränsad användning av tillagda färger

objekt Obejkt från det privata hemmet - i en publik miljö Objekt med haptiska och användarvänliga kvaliteter Repetition skapad av en större mängd objekt istället för den minsta komponenten Objekt som tillhör ett större sammanhang och en identitet- både inom och utanför sin egen skala

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Diploma

S a m m a n f a ttn i n g Detta masterprojekt ämnar undersöka värdet av detaljer och små gester inom arkitekturen. Som arkitekte tar vi beslut om hur människans vardag ser ut. Det är min tro att de detaljer vi ritar påverkar upplevelsen av vår omgivning mer än något annat. Byggnader, rum och platser uttrycker ett värde, som påverkas av de små gesterna vi ritar. Den omtanke som vi lägger på formgivning av en byggnad och dess detaljer, speglar det värde vi sätter på människan. Vi behöver känna att vår omgivning är omhändertagen och oavsett om den lilla gesten är en teknisk detalj, ett materialval eller en lampa, påverkar den den totala upplevelsen av ett rum, och den förmedlar den omtanke vi lagt ner på vår design. Därför har projektet underökt frågan: Vilka detaljer gör mest skillnad för upplevelsen av ett rum och vilka är dessa små gester som uttycker omtanke och värdighet? Detaljen berättar om användbarhet, skala och känsla. Studierna visade vikten av att prioritera de detaljer som vi interagerar med mest och de små gester som upplevs närmast våra kroppar. Vi designar för människan och våra kroppar bör därför alltid vara vår måttstock för de designbeslut vi gör. Vi ser, känner och upplever med vår kropp, och de detaljer som talar till alla våra sinnen, uttrycker omtanke. Ett rum med högt i tak gör oss stolta, sittplatser får oss att känna oss välkomna och ett fönster på rätt ställe kan göra att vi känner oss fria. Detaljer som utrycker funktionalitet, beständighet och hållbarhet kommunicerar omtanke och de gester som får oss att känna oss trygga, uttrycker omtanke. Med detaljen kan man också berätta om helheten. Även om vi inte alltid designar omgivningen, kan en liten gest knyta an till det befintliga, skapa nya värden och ge ny identitet till dess omgivning. När de små gesterna kompletterar de stora, känns rummet genomtänkt. Att tänka igenom detaljer öppnar upp nya frågeställningar som hjälper designen av helheten och det är ett bra sätt att leva sig in i rollen som brukare. Duktiga arkitekter använder samma kompromisslöshet, skärpa och konsekvens i små detaljer som i den stora helheten. De ställer samma höga krav, renodlar, och drar saker till sin spets. De små gesterna är det som grundar byggnaden i verkligheten, och oavsett skala på byggnaden, är det just detaljerna och de små gesternas precision som talar till människan. Projektet har undersökt detaljer i tre kategorier: Division of space, Materiality och Elements (Rumsindelning, Materialitet & Objekt), dels genom studier av kända byggnader från arkitekterna Alvar Aalto, Josef Frank och sigurd Lewerentz, och dels genom att rita ett förslag på en ombyggnad av Tingshuset i Katrineholm till kommunarkiv. Ombyggnaden har testat olika små gester, som till exempel bord, stenläggningar och dörrhandtag, samt deras förhållande till varandra och byggnaden som helhet. 5


What makes a Small Gesture? Summary of Case Study: Alvar Aalto, Josef Frank, Sigurd Lewerentzdetails that make a difference

Human scale A grid within a grid - Large surfaces are split up into smaller human scale Precision and usage of domestic scale, both within private and public rooms Volume, space and details in relation to user, function and emotion

divisions of space Seamless divisions - Subtle changes of color and material Divisions made by ceiling height, railings or fenestration - not only with walls Divisions made by light - artificial and natural

materials Depth, durability and texture in Material and facade Materials with natural colors - limited use of additional color

elements

Domestic Artefacts - In a public environment Elements with a haptic and user centered ability Repetition rather made by a larger sum of elements then by the smallest component Elements as part of a larger context and idenetity, within or outside of its own scale

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Diploma

Summary This master project aims to explore the importance of details and small gestures in architecture. As architects we make decisions about the environment that people live in. It is my belief that the details we design, affect peoples everyday life more than anything else. Buildings, places and rooms express a value, that is influence by how we design these small gestures. The value that we as architects inscribe in our buildings and its details, reflects how we value the user. We need to feel that out environment has been cared for and whether the small gesture is a technical detail, a choice of material or a lighting fixture, they all influence how we experience a room, and they all influence the value communicated to the user. Therefor, this project has studied the following question: What difference does the detail do to the experience of a room as a whole & which are those small gestures that show care and intentionality? I found that the detail tells a story of usability, scale and emotion. To prioritize those details that we as humans interact with and those details which are closest to our bodies, shows care and thoughtfulness. We are designing for humans, and the human body should always be the reference for our designs. Our body is that what we measure things to; we see, feel and touch with our body. A room with a high ceiling makes us feel proud, seating makes us feel welcome and a window in the right place makes us feel free. A design that speaks to all of our senses, feels cared for. A design that communicates functionality, durability and sustainability, feels cared for and the small gestures that make us feel safe, makes the room feel cared for. The detail can also communicate coherence. Even if we don’t always design the surroundings, the detail can connect with the existing, create new values and give a new identity to its surroundings. To think through the small gestures helps the design of the whole and it is a good way to put yourself in the role of the user. Good Architects use the same uncompromising, sharp and consistent thinking when designing details as they do for the whole. They have high standards and focus to push things to its limits. The details are that which grounds the building in reality, and no matter the scale of the building, I believe that it is the detailing and its sensability that speaks to the human. The project has explored details in three categories: Division of space, Materiality & Elements, partially though studies of renouned buildings from architects such as Alvar Aalto, Josef Frank and Sigurd Lewerentz, as well as though the proposal of a redesign of the courthouse of Katrineholm to a Municipal Archive. The redesign tested small gestures such as tables, pavements and door handles, as well as their relationship to each other and to the buildings surroundings. 7


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Thesis

O b j ect i v e This diploma project aims to explore the importance of details and small gestures in architecture. Whether its a technical detail, a choice of material or a lighting fixture, these seemingly small gestures all influence how we experience a room. It is my belief that these little details, can make a big difference to how we experience our everyday life and that they communicate care and thoughtfulness. To make the right design decisions, it’s important that we as architects understand which of the many details in a room that influence the users experience. For that reason, the project will study the following questions: What difference does a minor change in material, division of space or a door handle do to the experience of a room as a whole? Which are those small gestures that show care and intentionality, and why is it that these small gestures do matter?

“We should work for simple, good, undecorated things, but things which are in harmony with the human being and organically suited to the little man in the street.” - Alvar Aalto

“He who today wants to create something alive, has to incorporate all that lives today. All of its time, including its sentimentality, its excess and lack of taste, which at least are alive. Therefore the art of building will be born from our times’ lack of taste, from the confusion, blotchyness and sentimentality, from all that is alive and can be felt: finally the art of the people not art for the people” - Josef Frank

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Thesis

W h y d oes t h e s m a ll g est u r e m a tte r ? The space we live in expresses impressions and emotions, just as interaction from human to human; we interact with our environment. We need to feel, that our environment has been cared for. We inscribe human dignity in our designs., and the value we give to our buildings, reflects how we value the user. If our buildings are cared for, the user feels cared for. The detail is one way to show that care and intentionality. To care for the small gestures, shows an extra effort, and that the building is not just put together in a haste. Caring for the detail shows knowledge of the user and its surroundings. The detail is important because it makes the building relatable in scale; people can get a better understanding of the building’s purpose and identity; whether it’s a monument, a housing block or a café. The details are also what people interact with the most, what we touch and feel. It is that what grounds the building in reality. However, today many parts of architecture are split up; the profession is divided up in a line of production. The architect usually chooses from a set of standard products with very little control of the detail, and very little is designed from scratch. The history of architecture paints a little bit of a different picture. Many architects were given the liberty to design handles, railings, their own patterns and prints. To be able to make the right choices today, in our mostly standardized world, I believe we can learn a lot from looking at these historic examples. If you are able to design details yourself, you are most likely going to make a better choice from the catalogue. The following are a few examples of architects who in one way or another fit in to the description above, who are architects and designers. They are all architects of a certain time that I find interesting and inspirational, a time when many details were drawn by the architect him-/ herself. Their projects show coherent, cared for spaces. The highlighted architects were studied further in the Case Study Booklet Josef Frank Alvar Aalto Sigurd Lewerentz Charles & Ray Eames

Jean Prouvé Sven Markelius Ragnar Östberg Gunnar Asplund

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Arne Jacobsen Leonie Geissendorff Eileen Gray Charlotte Perriand


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Thesis

Met h o d This diploma project is divided up into a thesis declaration and a case study, followed by an application project. Extracts of the thesis declaration and case study is presentend in this booklet, and the full extent of the application project. The Application project was used as a testing ground for the findings in the case study. Both the case study and the application project is illustrated by sketches, drawings, photography and renderings. All studies deal with details and small gestures in three categories: Division of Space, Materiality & Elements. These categoeries are explained further in the description of the case study

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Case Study Desc r i p t i on o f C a se S t u d y : A a lto , F r a nk & L ewe r ent z The case study was made as a background research for the application project. The research looked at specific spaces by Alvar Aalto, Josef Frank & Sigurd Lewerentz, and tried to determine the importance of the details of those spaces. The case study was made by site visits to the specific projects and analysed by sketch and photography. The focus of the study was on 3 different types of gestures; Division of space, Materiality, and Elements. Each category was analyzed in relationship to its context; how does the detail affect the whole? 1. Division of Space. Which gestures are dividing the house into different spaces? 2. Materiality

Which materials are in the building?

3. Elements

Which elements stand out as original for the building? Is there a railing, a chair or a handle that stands out?

For every case I asked myself: Which are the details that conveys the experience & function of a room? Which small gestures communicate the most care & thoughtfullness? What is the rooms purpose and how do these small gestures enable that? Who is the user and which details will the user interact with the most? What makes a Small Gesture? The following pages shows an extract of the case study, displaying one analysis from Säynätsalo Town Hall by Alvar Aalto, one analysis from Villa Wethje by Josef Frank and one analysis from Malmö Cementary by Sigurd Lewerentz.

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Alvar Aalto

S 채 y n 채 ts a lo T own H a ll Town hall in central Finland. Buildt 1951. This study has its focus on the entrance foyer of the townhall

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Floor plan of S채yn채tsalo Town Hall 18


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Floor plan of Entrance Foyer 19

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Entrance sheltered by wood roof and window poles for greenery Wall folding down onto floor, creating space around the corridor

Materials of furniture overlapping and complementing the brick floor Window sill & seating in the same language as the floor

Previous page: Photo of entrance foyer 21


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Alvar Aalto

Details & Small gestures of the foyer

divisions of space Proportion of the windows: Divides room in a rhythm in proportion to the human body. The window elongates the rooms. Continuity of materials: Staircase and foyer are of the same material. The brick helps binding the building together. In the corridor it separates the walking space from the door openings, making the corridor seem lighter and not so tight.

materials

Brick: Gives the foyer a color, that is inherit in the material itself, it represents durability and depth. The brick color is matching the warmth of the wood and leather in the rest of the building.

elements Furniture are in the same color scheme as the brick, in durable and breathable leather. The windows are equipped with a set of wood sticks that allows for greenery to climb on the outside. The greenery filters the light into the room. Addition of greenery makes the room feel more natural and human. Handles on doors and windows are merged with the locks, simplifying the amount of disparate parts creating a more harmonious element.

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J o s e f Fr a n k

V i ll a W et h j e Falsterbo, southern Sweden. Buildt 1936. This study has its focus on the entrance of the villa, from the garden into the hallway. The sketch below is an interpretation of the pragmatic, yet artistic approach i read from Josef Frank. Seemingly functional boxes merged together into an organic whole. When the boxes merge the edges are dealt with, they become small gestures. A merge can become either a continuous curves, a hard edge or a point.

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Floor plan of Villa Wethje 26


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Floor plan of Hallway 27

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Staircase & railing directing movement Outdoor lamp, marking the entrance

Reflective & durable floor Hallway hook, same language as the rest of the building

Previous page: Photo of entrance foyer from main room 29


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J o s e f Fr a n k

Details & Small gestures of the foyer

divisions of space The circular window placement brings nature into the hallway as a first direction of space, and then by bringing light into the hallway and directs you further into the main room. The ceiling height and its different levels directs movement and shows the importance of the different rooms, from the closet in the hallway to the big living room space and the corridors. The curved walls of the adjoining rooms directs in a flowing motion the movement from one room to another, either from hallway to corridor or hallway to main room.

materials The reflection of the hallway floor leads way and brings justice to the large circular window. The floor is durable and genuine, with a bleeding border that allows for perfects squares to fit in the middle of the room. The parquet floor is in the direction of the main room, announcing itself on the edge of the hallway space.

elements The staircase leading up to the mezzanine floor is turned to follow the direction leading from the hallway to the next room. A domestic scaled lantern marks the entrance, a domestic element that is recognized as a cared for entrance. The hooks in the hallway closet speaks the same language as the rest of the building. It belongs.

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Sigurd Lewerentz

M a l m รถ C e m ent a r y Chapels S:t Knut & S:t Gertrud at Malmรถ Cementary. Built 1943 This study has its focus on one of the back entrances and its surrounding volumes, creating the narrative of the entrance.

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Floor plan of Chapels S:t Knut & S:t Gertrud 34


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Floor plan of back entrance 35

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Incline of lamp, marking its safe space underneeth it Pavement as part of landscape

Change in facade material Change in roof height

Previous page: Photo of back entrance 37


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Sigurd Lewerentz

Details & Small gestures of back entrance

divisions of space The height of the volumes, always playing with normal eyeheight of a person, directs the movement into the entrance. The high volumes are further away and you later step down into the entrance, changing your focus from the surroundings to the entrance area. The edges and railing of the entrance is rounded, contrasting the hard edges of the volumes around it. Showing how it becomes more intimate as you approach the entrance.

materials The facade material on the one higher volume is different from the rest, keeping the overall height experice low. The stepping stones in the entrance area are rounded to create a softer feel, and so that they blend better into the gravel, making it seem natural. The color scheme of the bricks, gravel, steel and concrete all go in the same nuance, keeping its inherent and natural colors.

elements The street lamps are slightly bent, and that gesture creates a protective space under the lamp. The same street lamp is found all over the cementary, showing the identity of the area.

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What makes a Small Gesture? Summary of Case Study: details that make a difference

Human scale A grid within a grid - Large surfaces are split up into smaller human scale Precision and usage of domestic scale, both within private and public rooms Volume, space and details in relation to user, function and emotion

divisions of space Seamless divisions - Subtle changes of color and material Divisions made by ceiling height, railings or fenestration - not only with walls Divisions made by light - artificial and natural

materials

Depth, durability and texture in Material and facade Materials with natural colors - limited use of additional color

elements

Domestic Artefacts - In a public environment Elements with a haptic and user centered ability Repetition rather made by a larger sum of elements then by the smallest component Elements as part of a larger context and idenetity, within or outside of its own scale

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Case Study

C a se S t u d y : a S u m m a r y The Case Study showed that there were certain features of a space that made a larger impact on my experience. To the left is my summary of which of the small gestures i found that evoked the most care & thoughtfullness. Alvar Aalto, Josef Frank & Sigurd Lewerentz all show great care for their buildings, but in different ways.

Alvar Aalto The buildings I looked at showed great attention to originality and user centered design. Handles, railings and pillars were especially cared for, binding the buildings together as whole. When you enter a building of Aalto, you recognize the originality and the identity of the building is very clear. Aalto also shows care for materials. All materials are genuine and show the finish craftsmanship. He works with nuances of the colors inherent in the materials themselves. He designs products made for standardization, but then uses them in ways so that they do not appear repetitive and boring. Lastly, he pays great attention to bringing nature into his designs.

Josef Frank The designs of Josef Frank made me think he was a very pragmatic architect. He does not care for fancy or overly complicated details, but show great care for divisions of space. He works with fenestration and ceiling heigh, how volumes come together and the movement within a building. He is very precise with the usability of the spaces and for example the exact height of a retaining wall. You can understand that he is influenced by Adolf Loos, and then appreciate how this hertitage merges with an ordinariness. He has great feeling for prioritizing what is making a difference, and he very well takes into account the messy and unpredictable life of the user

Sigurd Lewerentz Lewerentz works always plays with the limits of human scale, and contrast to accentuate it. Certain areas within a building can have smaller spaces that only serves a few people, with a height or wall dimension fit exactly to that scale. He is also very good at subtle changes of materials. Every building has a color scheme found in natural materials, reflecting durability and honesty of the material. Lastly, the buildings are often a series of smaller elements or volumes, that come together in a harmonious composition.

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Application Project

t h e A p p l i c a i on P r o j ect The task of the application project was to design the refurbishment of an existing building in Katrineholm. This project serves as a testing ground for the details found in the case study. Here the task is not to only to find existing small gestures that makes a difference and that shows care and thoughtfulness, but to design new, cared for details that complements the old. Why not design a new building? Having an existing building to react to, enables greater reflection on the city of Katrineholm, its existing character and detail. Choosing an existing building is a way to make the project rooted in the city and a way to show care for existing qualities of Katrineholm In 2010 the courthouse of Katrineholm moved to another city, and Tingshuset has since then stood empty. The assignment was to use this building and redesign it into an archive-library; a building for the people of Katrineholm. The move of the municipal archive into Tingshuset was with the intention to function as node for history, education and identity in Katrineholm. The city today is growing south with its commercial center and the building will aim to connect the city back to the north part; the oldest part of the town. To be able to test which small gestures will matter in realationship to the larger whole, the project needs to establish what the aims for the whole should be. The changes and details I suggest should: • Enable the building as a link between the north and south part of the city. • Enable the building and its site to reflect the change of program from courthouse to public archive, introducing an informality and continuity of public space • Complement the existing, enhancing its new feel as a new whole • Make the new building more accessible to all citizens of Katrineholm The application project is divided into 4 smaller studies; the Square, the Entrance & Foyer, the Main study room & the Research rooms. All 4 studies adress the same topics as the case study; Divisions of space, Materiality & Elements. It then also addresses the project as a whole, in the chapter of Coherence and the families. Lastly the project is concluded with a 1:1 study of the Handle.

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Application Project

S i te : K a t r i ne h ol m Katrineholm is located south-west of Stockholm, having a long history of being a a node for train connections between many cities in Sweden. It’s a diverse city, recently taking in many new Swedes. The city is spread out and have a very low density of buildings and housing. Katrineholm started historically developing in the north, but more recent it has been developing its commercial city to the south. Now the city is divided, with the train station as a barrier. Not too far away from the site (North-West) lies one of the towns main churches.

Program The program of the new building is to extend the existing bomb shelter in the basement to house the new archive. The ground floor should house a new accessible entrance, a cafĂŠ, an exhibition space/gallery, study places and research rooms with tables for documents. The second floor has a small set of offices for 2-4 people

Previous page: Exisitng Aerial photo of Katrineholm 45


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Application Project

T i n g s h u set Tingshuset was built 1939 and was designed by architect Gustaf Clason, (son of Isak Gustav Clason), who was a professor at KTH Architecture and designer of, amongst many other buildings, Ă–stermalms Saluhall The park in front of Tingshuset has always had an important role historically as the railway park, with the city hotel, post office building, railway station building and the courthouse around it. Entering the site from the south, you come from the railway tunnel, entering from the north you arrive through a housing area or a green area. The following pages will show photos of the existing building and examples of its existing details.

Previous page: Exisitng Aerial photo of the site 47


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Existing railing above back entrance Existing stone ornament and pavement by main entrance

Existing stone ornament & framing on main entrance Existing facade and window

Previous page: Photo of existing building towards main entrance 49


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Application Project

Study #1: Square The main idea of the redesigned square is to open up the relationship between the new archive and the city, by creating a continuous floor and an informal new square. Today the square is orchestrated and mainly to look at and pass by. The new archive is more than a freestanding building, it needs to be rooted in its context. For that reason, I extended the project out to the square, extending the notion of entrance, connecting it to the tunnel entrance and the train station. The existing park is today creating a barrier, hindering free movement across the square to the archive. The main road Storgatan cuts off Tingshuset from the city and enhances the feeling of power and monument. Today Tinghuset sits in front of the park and my aim is to make it a part of it. In relationship to Katrineholm, to change the entire square can be considered a large gesture. My aim is to test if this large gesture can be made possible by the fact that you care for the small gestures. Can a large gesture be enabled only by its details, the small gestures?

As the previous pages shows the existing square, the following pages will illustrate the new square - in relationship to both its new and its existing details. For drawings of the study see page 76-93

Previous page: Existing Square: Entrance from Railway tunnel 51


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New retaining wall and staircase New higher density of pavement detailing around Tingshuset & the pond

New continuous ground and carving for road & meeting with existing tree Existing cobblestone road and new pavement

Previous page: New Square: Entrance from Railway tunnel 53


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Application Project

New details and changes to the Site / New Square:

divisions of space New continuous surface; based on the old pavement tiles found on the site as well as on the ajointing square on the other side of the railroad. All forms of bushes are removed as they today serve as barriers, Trees are kept as they make the scale of the square more human and intimate. The heightdifference on the site only differs between 45.5 - 46.0 m (except for the tunnel and the loading bay for the archive) No curbs for the road; the road is a part of the square, cars must co-exist with pedestrians on their terms and their speed. The old cobblestone pavement is left in the main road, but only marked carvings in other place in need of car access. This minimizes the barriers and allows for more natural movements. The entrance ramp from the tunnel is extended out into the square. To make room for the prolonged ramp the existing staircase is moved to the right.

materials Density of pavement; a grid within a grid. The grid of the new pavement is densified in places that require focus. The denisty is also aligned with the road, as to make the road placement not a single element standing out, but a part of the whole.

elements Seating is part of the ground; retaining walls are creating informal seating places, and creating a safe environment to lean against. One seating block is serving as a roof light for the archive One street lamp is removed to change the axis. There used to be two symmetrical lamps marking the entrance of the courthouse.

Previous page: New Square: sketches of different approaches to new details and changes 55


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Application Project

S t u d y # 2 : E nt r a nce & Fo y e r The main idea for the new entrance is to extend the idea of the continuous floor into the building, as well as changing the appearance of the courthouse, from a house of power to an open public building. The existing entrance is on a central axis to the park, and is reinforced by the entrance staircase and stone ornament on and around the main door (stone ornament sculpted by a student of Carl Milles). The new foyer is shifted west of the old entrance, and has not only one monumental entrance - but five informal doors. What role has the gesture of the door to a building?

As the previous pages shows the existing entrance & foyer, the following pages will illustrate the new entrance & foyer - in relationship to both its new and existing details For drawings of the study see page 76-93

Previous page: Existing Entrance & Foyer: View from main staricases 57


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View from Gallery towards foyer & CafĂŠ Existing entrance tiles and floor

New informal door handle. Brushed steel New main axis - access to Main Study Room & Research Rooms

Previous page: New Entrance & Foyer: View from west 59


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Application Project

New details and changes to the entrance & foyer

divisions of space The ground outside the main entrance is elevated to the level of the first floor, creating an accessible main entrance, with a ramp both towards the tunnel as well as to the existing bakery to the east. To the west the entrance has a staircase that leads you to the outdoor seating for the café. The axis of the house is shifted to the west; connecting the building to the axis of the tunnel and the church. As the old axis was central, the new shifts the focus from the court narrative inside the building towards a more public program. Double height in the west wing & café; opening up to study places on the mezzanine floor. Also enhancing the shift of axis in the archive, leading you towards the main study room in the heart of the building. Opening the wall towards the east wing of the archive, where the exhibition/gallery connects the archive with the café, creating one large space in plan, successively becoming more narrow due to ceiling height and wall openings.

materials The floor of the entrance is a smooth terrazzo with high reflection, extenting out of the building to connect with the square. Outside the terrazzo adapts to the ground grid, but inside it flow as one surface throughout the building. The old wall tiles are kept, to keep the memory of the old foyer. The color of the tiles are picked up in the new furniture.

elements New entrance doors; adding to the exisitng stone ornament. The ornament today is part of the identity of the building, keept to merge the old and the new together. The entrance doors are now 5 instead of 1, all entering into the new café in the west wing of the archive. One door is also added to the back facade, creating a transparancy towards the more intimate outdoor room behind the archive. The doors also have new handles, studying the importance what that handle represents. Using a more subtle handle on the entrance marks informality of the building. See more of this gesture in the chapter of the Handle Previous page: New entrance & foyer: sketches of different approaches to new details and changes 61


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S t u d y # 3 : M a i n S t u d y Roo m The main idea of the study room is to create a calm space to study in. A room that just like the square, takes on an informality that is welcoming to many different people and movements. The existing room today has a great beam structure that is kept, and the space is basically left empty to enhance this existing quality. It used to be the main court room, the focal point of the old central axis. Today the room is used as a second-hand shop. With the shift of axis in the foyer, you now enter the room from the east-west axis. The new design is a room that allows for both being in the room, or looking at the room, depending on how you feel comfortable positioning yourself as a user. The room is hiding a bit to the rest of the building, but announces itself both to the new entrance and the research rooms. Can a room change its character only by taking on a new axis?

As the previous pages shows the existing main court room, the following pages will illustrate the new main study room - in relationship to both its new and existing details For drawings of the study see page 76-93

Previous page: Existing Main Room: View from main staricases 63


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View towards window, study seats as part of the wall Existing beams and existing lamps

Existing parquet floor with terrazzo frame bleeding into the corridor Study seating with hidden entrance corridors

Previous page: New Main Study Room: View towards small study room 65


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New details and changes to the entrance & foyer

divisions of space

The entrance to the room is shifted from a main central axis to an east-west connection, announcing itself out towards both the research rooms and entrance & foyer. To make this change of axis possible, the main staircases of the building has been pushed back slightly to allow for a functional circulation outside the Main room, reinforcing the new east-west movement trough out the entire building. The edges of the room are pushed back slightly to align themselves with the beam structure, allowing for entrances and seating niches to be part of the wall and the intermediate space outside the room.

materials

The old parquet is reused but put in a new context with a border of smooth reflecting terrazzo, marking the importance of the room as the center of the building. The terrazzo border is bleeding into the intermediate spaces, announcing itself to the rest of the building. This terrazzo has a slightly different shading than the terrazzo in the rest of the building.

elements New benches are a part of the wall and partially extended out of the room, allowing focus to be on the existing room, light and beams. Benches are in the same nuance of wood as the parquet floor. Lamps are kept as they are original and in harmony with the beams

Previous page: New main study room: sketches of different approaches to new details and changes 67


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S t u d y # 4 : Rese a r c h Roo m s The main idea of the new research rooms is to serve a practical archive usage, as well as connecting aesthetically to the rest of the building. The reasearch rooms are refurbished from old office spaces. The research rooms need to fit large gatherings of people, as well as serving individual researchers. The rooms need to be easy accessible from and to the archive elevator, and reachable from the rest of the building. For this purpose the old office spaces already are very suitable, and what needs to be addressed is the room divisions, furniture and lamps. Can you change a rooms purpose only by designing new furniture?

As the previous pages shows the existing offices, the following pages will illustrate the new research rooms - in relationship to both its new and existing details For drawings of the study see page 76-93

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Research table folded up into brick wall pocket, Existing window

Oak table on oak floor, steel and wooden legs. Large Research Room in the east wing

Previous page: New Research Room: View towards small study room 71


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Application Project

New details and changes to the entrance & foyer

divisions of space Walls removed in the east research room, to fit a larger group of people when the tables are folded up Connection to Main Study Room integrated with the new bench-niches of the Main Study Room, allowing for an informal circulation between the two

materials Existing floor kept with a border of terrazzo, same as in the Main Study Room. The existing parquet is not centered in this room, showing its subordinance to the Main Study Room

elements New lamps designed to serve researchers, with a rigid structure that also divides the rooms into smaller segments. The lamps have a handle that makes it easy to move with one hand. The handle also serves as a shelf to rest your phone on, for taking photos of the research documents. The placement of the handle is above the light source, reducing shading of the documents. The rigid steel frame stabilizes the otherwise shaky hands. New research tables are designed to fit large archive documents, but they are small enough for a person tto still be able to reach to the middle of table. The tables folded up on a small onebrick-shelf to the back wall, to make room for large groups of people.

Previous page: New main study room: sketches of different approaches to new details and changes 73


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C o h e r ence What is the small gesture without its context? Parallel to the cases, the details have throughout the project been tested against its larger context. This chapter aims to present the project as one coherent design, and to show how the small gestures relate to the whole.

The small gesture in relationship to its larger context. This relationship spans between scales, for example the bench in relationship to the square A detail’s relationship to its larger context can take on many scales, and a detail is always in proportion to the whole. For example, Tingshuset is a small gesture in relationship to the Square and Katrineholm, The Foyer is a detail in relationship to the entrance, and so are the doors in relationship to the entrance & the handle in relationship to the door. This train of thought helps you to think of all important details of the project, and allows you to consiously decide where the identity of the building begins.

The small gesture in relationship to its own scale This relationship is bound to the scale of a certain family of details, for example a door and its family of doors within a specific project. I have chosen to narrow down my designs of families to the context of the building it self, but the theory might as well be applied to larger contexts. For example, the door of Tingshuset, can also be part of the door family of the entire square, or in large, all of Katrineholm. The extents of the families relates to where you want to mark the start of the identity of the building. The extents of the familiarity of a certain gesture, might mark a certain quality, help the user to orient or create a more harmonious, cared for environment. The following pages presents the drawings of the project as a whole, where all the 4 studies are incorporated. The drawings aim to present the new project as a whole, next to drawings of the existing situation

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Existing Square


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New Square


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Existing Ground Floor PLan 78


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New Ground Floor Plan 79


Existing Sections 80


New Sections 81


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Existing Facade 82


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Existing Facade 85


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New Facade 87


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Existing Section Main room & Foyer 88


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New Section Main room & Foyer 89


Existing Section through entrance foyer window 90


New Section through entrance foyer door, replacing old window 91


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Existing Section Main room & Research Rooms 92


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New Section Main room & Research Rooms 93


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t h e F a m i l i es This chapter aims to study the identity of a detail in relationship to the family of detail within the same scale.

Ground Family The existing pavement and floor, in relationship to the new designs To be able to connect stronger to the existing site, and to root the project in Katrineholm, one important feature is the treatment of the ground. The ground can gather spaces and functions, lead and direct or show informality or durability. The floor outside the building needs to have equal importance as the inside floor. The ground family connects the existing grid of ordinary pavement tiles from squares all around Katrineholm, to the new entrance.

Seating Family The existing seating in the building and on the square, in relationship to the new designs. Today the park has almost no seating and the new retaining walls create new informal seatings all around the park, and just as the ground family it extends the identity of the building outside to the square. The retaining wall can also have the new bench design on top, allowing for a backrest and a more frendly wood material to sit on.

Lamp Family The existing lightning fixtures, in relationship to the new designs. Katrineholm and Tingshuset have a strong existing set of lamps that already belong together, and the task was to design the new lamp to seamlessly fit in.

Door Family The existing doors and frames, in relationship to the new designs. To be able to adapt to existing doors, the gesture of the door family is a steel plate, used as a common denominator. The plate can be added to both existing doors as well as new doors. The door can then have the appropriate door handle for its function, and be of various materials and ages, and still belong together. The new door handle is attached to a steel plate, that gives all the doors a common denominator, and creates a new whole. The following 2 pages show the families and their new coherence.

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Existing foyer floor meeting new in-situ casted terrazzo floor New square pavement - continuous floor. Pavement based on existing grid

Existing parquet with new in-situ casted border Existing cobblestone road, meeting with pavement

Ground Family 96


Existing original chair found in Tingshuset basement Existing pond on the square, used as seating

New retaining wall, used as seating New bench in main study room

Seating Family 97


Existing lamps in Main Study Room Existing outdoor lamp, above steel doors

New Lamp for Research Room Existing street lamp

Lamp Family 98


New sliding door over existing wood frame Existing door - new informal door handle Existing entrance frame - new informal handle

Existing steel door - with new informal handle New entrance dooor - new informal handle

Door Family 99


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t h e H a n d le - a C oncl u s i on The difference of one small gesture to another The exploration of the importance of the door handle concludes this project, and represents one of the findings in the Case Study; the human interaction with a building. It is important to give extra care for the parts of the building that our body interacts with, for example: things that we touch. The hadle is a study of door handles in scale 1:1. What features of the handle are related to the movements its supposed to do, to its gripablilty, or to the aesthetics of the building? Who is the user and what is its larger context? The handle i have explored is that of the main door, and in extents, how it fits into the door family of Tingshuset. To minimize the monumentality of the existing courthouse, I chose to use the same small handle on all of the doors, allowing all entrances to be of equal importance and informality. The following pages will show renders & drawings of the study of the Handle

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Existing door frame with new door & informal handle Existing door frame with new door & fuctional handle Existing door frame with new door & monumental handle 102


Fuctional handle / Monumental handle / Informal handle 103


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Drawing of new door handle Previous page: Render of handle and steel plate 105


Study models of Handles 1:1 Exhibited at Konstakadmien, Stockholm 106


Study models of Handles 1:1 Exhibited at Diploma Days KTH 107


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Diploma

Re f e r ences Architectural Design, “Future Details of Architecture”, July/August 2014 Demitri Porphyrios, “Sources of Modern Elcticism”, New York 1982 Edward R Ford, “The Details of Modern Architecture”, Cambridge, 1990. Eva Rudberg, “Alvar Aalto i Sverige”, Värnamo 2005 Jan Gehl, “Livet mellem husen” & “Byer for mennsker” Josef Frank, “Arkitektur som symbol”, Wien 1931 Juhani Palisma, “The Eyes of the Skin” Kenneth Frampton, “Studies in Techtonic Culture”, Illinois 1995 Mikael Bergquist, “Josef Frank arkitektur”, Borås 1994 Thomas Thiis-Evensen, “Arkitekturens Uttrycksformer”

Thanks to my professors, Katrineholms Municipality & Michael bergqvist Thanks to all of the people helping me to arrange site visits and letting me in to their buildings

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Profile for Maja Westman

Diploma Booklet  

Maja Westman's Diploma Booklet, 2015

Diploma Booklet  

Maja Westman's Diploma Booklet, 2015

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