Page 1


An Incubator for a Sustainable Vegetarian Lifestyle Transformation of Trøjborg Center/ Aarhus N summary report

Maja Sønderskov 4000441 Supervisor Walter Unterrainer


content _________________

prologue 4 background 5 vegetarianism 5 types of vegetarianism 5

data & facts 6 environment 6 scenarios 2050 9

ethics 10 battery farming 10 intensive pig-farming 11 dairy farming 11

2

fishing 12

health 13 cuisine 14 evolutionary history of agriculture 16

global history of human evolution

18

Danish agricultural evolution 18

global & local mapping of vegetarianism

20

urbanization of food production 23 case studies 24

context 26 location 26 quantification 26 neighborhood 28 site 30


the existing structure 30 brief history of Trøjborg Center 31 climatic conditions 31

diary from the future 32 volumetric studies 33 extrusion 33 Eiffel Tower (high-rise exercise) 34 Flatiron Building (high-rise exercise) 36 dissection 38 conjunction 40 location 43

circulation 45 horizontal circulation 46 vertical circulation 48

architectural manifestation 51 optimizing the structure 52 vision 2050 53 ingredients to the Incubator 55 concept 55 ETFE-cushions 55 LED growing light 56 photovoltaic cells 58 rainwater harvesting 59

cv 65 list of references to be found in the appendix

3


“Slaughter houses don’t have glass walls, otherwise we would all be vegetarians.” 1 Earthlings

4 prologue _________________ Being a vegan myself and understanding the environmental issues our planet has been experiencing since industrialization, I find it relevant and important to make people reflect about alternative habits and choices on essential aspects and to challenge their prejudices The project challenges the choices of individual beings on vegetarianism with the help of architecture. and speculates upon alternatives to the established lifestyle. The current situation of misuse of natural resources and consumerist mindset is approaching its end. New times It speculates on how implementation of new ideas on will welcome a shift towards a cooperative ownership, food and nutrition, mentality, functions and technology efficient distribution of the urban space and above all would eventually lead to an alternative scenario for vegan diet. Year 2050. The Incubator should become an embodiment and The potentials of Trøjborg area and Trøjborg Center manifestation of the new times and a new lifestyle, are explored and exploited through introducing seen as a sustainable autonomous homeostasis within an Incubator for local organic plant-based food the urban canvas. production, making Trøjborg area a sustainable, autonomous part of the city, completely independent Even though the new times can be misunderstood and from food import. The Incubator should be seen as an rejected (as in case with Eiffel Tower) they gradually architectural platform for a new and environmentally win the hearts and gain the recognition through an sustainable lifestyle, potentially transferred to other ability to give back. parts of Aarhus, Denmark, the world. The present Master’s Thesis questions the conventional methods of today’s food production and furthermore food consumption, in terms of environmental impact, human health and spatial demands.


background _________________ vegetarianism “Vegetarianism is the theory and practice of voluntary non-consumption of the flesh of any animal, including sea animals, with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs”.2

groups of people denouncing the eating of meat. Either initiated by war (Dig for Victory), as a counterculture, inspired by Eastern ideas, or maybe as a result of moral, religious and economic reflections, vegetarianism has been evident in cultures all over the world.

Vegetarianism has a long history, dating back to ancient times, where both in Greek and Eastern histories’ With the population growing, ecosystem being abstention from meat along with practice of non- destroyed, resources depleting and health deteriorating, violence and respect for all life forms have been crucial. vegetarianism gains broader attention nowadays. Thus, organically produced plant-diet has to be investigated Throughout the human history, there have always been within the context of Trøjborg Center.

types of vegetarianism

?

vegan

vegetables, legumes, fruits, grain, nuts, seeds

ovo-vegetarian

+ eggs

lacto-vegetarian

+ dairy products

ovo-lacto-vegetarian

+ eggs, dairy products

omnivore

red meat, poultry, sea food, stocks, gelatin

5

grounds for vegetarianism 3

environment

soil

water

population

animals

fished

farmed

x

ethics

speciesism

compassion

equality

no leather 2

health

better health

strength

strong heart

FIVE SENSES

cuisine

gourmet

tasty

stimulating

digestion

diabetes4

obesity


data & facts _________________ environment As for the environmental issues of today’s lifestyle there are some data and facts that undoubtedly signal an urging necessity to change humans’ conduct and habits.

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) produce huge volumes of food through industrial means. The repercussion of the industrialized and mechanized agriculture are air and water pollution with waste, gases, excrements and antibiotics; deforestation; Growing population demands enormous resources desertification, mono-cropping; spread of diseases, of water, energy and above all food, while increased infections and pests.5 urbanization makes it necessary to feed a large number of people living in cities.

<1,7

1,7-3,4

3,4-5,1

5,1-6,7

>6,7

Ecological footprint/capita of countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population (in global hectares)6

6

30% of globe is used for animal production=153 million km27

New Delhi, 22 million people Google Earth/2014 Digital Globe10.

A decaying albatross dead from ingesting too much plastic13.

80% of deforestation in Amazon is used for grazing of the cattle = 480.000 km29

60% fed to farming =760 million ton8

The Ewaso Nyiro River, dried riverbank11.

Intensive chicken production14.

Willamette National Forest12.

Cattle feedlots15.


7.000.000.000

=

17.840.000 km2

9.400.000.000

=

23.192.000 km2

2050

2015

total area for feeding population in 2015 16

+

total area for feeding population in 2050 16

7 soil, fossil fuel and water required for 1 kcal plant vs. meat protein 17

7 kg grains / day 17

vegan diet- 629 km omnivore diet- 4758 km 17

fossil fuel required for 1 kcal wheat vs. meat protein 17


700 l

900 l

apples potatoes

1.300 l

1.800 l

3.300 l

3.900 l

4.800 l

5.000 l

15.000 l

cereals

soy beans

eggs

chicken

pork meat

cheese

ox meat

water required for 1 kg production water Food Print http://www.waterfootprint.org/?page=files/productgallery

Alongside with switching to public transport, reducing According to the FAO breeding of animals for slaughter the amount of natural resources in domestic as well contributes with 18% CO2, which is more than all as in industrial consumption, elimination of meat transport branches taken together (15% CO2) consumption will dramatically improve climate conditions and will reduce global warming. 17 kg

8

290

meat

270

dairy food total

250

grain

230 210 190 170 150

2013

2012

2014

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) 18 kg 160

denmark

140

sweden

120

usa

100

china

80

india

60 40 20 0

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2002

during the past 40 years consumption of meat in Denmark is more than doubled in comparison with other countries.19


scenarios 2050 _________________ state of affairs

earth

2015

1,6

population20 24

water21

animal heads22 fish farmed23 fish fished

1-550l/ pers.

7,3

60 bln

51bln

92 bln

120 bln

184 bln

“zero”

2050.1 2050.1

2

9,4 bln

1-550l/ pers.

2050.2 An alternative scenario for 2050, suggested change in production, consumption and habits. 2050.2

1

8,3 bln

50l/ pers.

“zero”

“zero”

“zero”

As an alternative to the misuse of natural resources and cooperative ownership, efficient distribution of consumerist mindset, the thesis suggests vegetarian urban space, while investigating and testing spatial or preferably vegan lifestyle, local organic production, requirements and potentials of Trøjborg Center, as a laboratory for a bigger scale.

current vs. possible future CO2

GMO

18%

stock-farm consumerism pollution

water deforestation scarcity

CO2

ecothinking

reduced pollution

50%

pests

antibiotics

GMO

12%

stock-free farm

gmo

water recycling

Switching to organic vegetarian lifestyle and moderate, sustainable consumption could secure preservation of the forests, reduce water-waste and soil pollution, could increase biodiversity and polyculture, would dramatically reduce the use of antibiotics, germs, pests, antimicrobial resistance, hormone disbalance and would improve health for a vast majority of people.

biodiversity

gmo

less pests antibiotics

A quantification on the amount of organic vegetables production needed per person per day and further for all the locals of Trøjborg area is presented further in the paper.

9


ethics _________________

The majority of people think of meat as a ready product, avoiding the thought of killing, while the marketing is helping to create a story of “farm fresh” and “100% natural”, without showing the real face of stock-farming. 25

on global environment and monopolized some of the world’s resources.

Livestock demands more resources than one can possibly get back. To protect the environment means as well taking care of all the earthlings, animals are During the past 50 years, the consumption of meat has exposed to pain and live in a very unnatural environment dramatically increased, which has direct consequences of industrialized production. animals slaughtered worldwide. Official and estimated heads , 2011. figures presented in millions. 26

1383 296

58.110

430

2817

517

649

654

10

battery farming At the battery farms, poultry get their beaks trimmed off with red-hot knives, broilers are growing so quickly that they have chronical leg pains. They are on a lighting regime to trick the chickens’ body into thinking that two days have passed in the one day, hence increasing egg production. This stress on the body can cause reproductive tumors and prolapses.

slaughter size. Due to intensive selective breeding and a manipulated lighting regime this time has been halved to 5-6 weeks. To reduce the chance of disease that would be inevitable in these stressful conditions, the chickens are fed full of antibiotics. 27

For the most part, roosters are considered useless and are either gassed or ground up alive when a couple of Naturally, it takes chickens 12-16 weeks to reach days old.

H2O + NaCl

18 months

debeaking


intensive pig farming Intensive pig farming is a subset of pig farming and of Industrial animal agriculture, all of which are types of animal husbandry, in which domestic pigs are raised up to slaughter weight. In this system of pig production, grower pigs are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, whilst pregnant sows are housed in sow stalls (gestation crates) or pens and give birth in farrowing crates. 28

produce two litters per year with approximately 10 to 12 piglets per litter. Her time as a breeder will last about three years before she is sold for slaughter.

Farrowing crates severely restrict movement and frustrate sowsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; strong motivation to build nests before giving birth. They prevent sows from being able to get away from their piglets if needed (for example, if they bite). It is common for piglets to have their teeth ground Within a couple of weeks of giving birth, sows are down or clipped, without anesthetic, to minimize biting inseminated again (often artificially) and begin their injuries. Pigs get as well parts of their tails cut off, while next pregnancy. A commercial sow will normally males are castrated without anesthesia. 29, 30, 31

sow stalls

15% die

80 kg 8-10 months

gestation crate castration tail and teeth trimming

11

dairy farming Dairy farming has been a part of agriculture for thousands of years. Dairy cows are bred specifically to produce large quantities of milk. They are required to give birth to one calf per year to continue producing milk. Cows are usually artificially inseminated within three months of giving birth.

6-8 weeks - weaning 24 months - 1st calf 15 months - breeding 2 months - dry period

5 years

steer 1-5 months

cash knocker

These high milk producing cows are only productive for an average of 3 years, after which they are culled and the meat is normally used for beef. Over the past 40 years milk yield has increased up to 30 liters milk per cow per day, while naturally cows intend to produce just enough to feed their calves, this would be about 3 or 4 liters a day. 32-36


fishing According to the National Fisheries Research Center, “aquaculture” has contributed to 68% of fish extinction worldwide. Methods of catching and killing fish are clearly abusive. When fish are hauled up from a considerable depth, the sudden change in pressure on their bodies gives painful decompression that often causes their gills to collapse and their eyes to pop out. As soon as fish are removed from water, they begin to suffocate.

industry, fish “farming” involves large-scale, highly mechanized production. In most cases, each fish is allotted a space scarcely larger than their body. Farmed fish is fed by pallets made of industrial fish.

Much coastal land has been cleared of forests, swamps, and rice patties to make room for fish “farms.” When farmed fish, laden with antibiotics, escape and breed with free-living fish, aquatic ecosystems may be thrown out of balance. Escaped fish raised in intensive Fish who are “farmed” rather than caught experience confinement may spread disease to free populations of more-prolonged suffering. Like the chicken-flesh fish. 37, 38, 39, 40

363.000 kg / netting

3-4 kg wild fish

1 kg farmed fish

12 pallet recipe: fishmeal (trash fish) fish oil vegetable proteins cereal grains vitamins and minerals antibiotics dyes (pink color)

throwing net

fish farming

cricket farming The life cycle of a cricket usually spans no more than three months. Development of the larvae in a controlled, warm (30 °C) farm environment takes four to five weeks for all cultivated species. After the fourth or fifth larval instar the wingless larvae moult into the winged imago which lives for around one month.

Basically, there is no such difference whether a cow or a cricket is bred for slaughter. Being vertebral, crickets have a nervous system, which allows them to feel pain, what makes it inacceptable to use them for cooking if vegan. 41, 42 6 weeks

7-12 days

= 600.000 cricket

1 cow

50 m2 6 weeks

100.000 m2 24 months

7-12 days 7-12 days


health _________________

As for health benefits, vegetarians have lower blood There exist some concerns though, referring deficiency pressure, lower risk of death, less chances of heart in various elements and minerals, which could be disease, lower risk of cancer, diabetes and obesity. 43 a reason preventing a majority from switching to the vegetarian/vegan diet. 44 The above-mentioned nutrients can be obtained via the following products:

26

D

B-12

Vitamin

Vitamin

10 min D-fortified mushSUN plant-milk rooms

Fe Iron

55, 845

cereals soy/rice fortified milk products

20

beans leafy +C vit vegetables

omega 3

Ca

Calcium 40,078

13 dairy broccoli, ca-fortified products beans, cereals and dried figs, juices seeds

flaxseeds

virgin walnuts oils

fats serving-2

oil - 5 ml

fruits serving-2

fruit- 125 gr fruit juice - 125 ml dried fruit - 60 gr

vegetables serving-4

cooked vegetables 125 gr raw vegetables - 250 gr vegetable juice - 125 ml

legumes, nuts & other protein sources serving-5

beans, peas, lentils - 125 gr tofu / tempeh - 125 gr nuts / seeds - 2 tbs meat analog - 28 gr

grains servings-6

bread - 1 slice cooked grain - 100 gr ready to eat cereal - 28 gr

Vegan Food Pyramid, recommended daily intake. (Loma Linda University) 45


cuisine __________________

Many vegans choose to avoid specialty substitute ingredients, as these products are often highly processed, contain sodium and allergen ingredients. Cooking with whole-foods such as unprocessed legumes, grains, nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables can be a healthier approach to veganism. Many nonvegans will also enjoy these foods. Vegans often find that cooking â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;realâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; foods rather than substitutes result in higher quality, better tasting meals that appeal to vegans and non-vegans alike. 46

Vegetarian foods can be classified into several different types:

-traditional foods that have always been vegetarian include cereals, grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts - soy products including tofu and tempeh which are common protein sources -textured vegetable protein (TVP), made from defatted soy flour, often included in chili and burger recipes in place of ground meat -meat analogues, which mimic the taste, texture, and When preparing non-vegan recipes in accordance with appearance of meat and are often used in recipes that a vegan diet, meat, eggs, honey, and dairy are replaced traditionally contained meat. with a substitute ingredient. Substitute ingredients try to replicate the taste and texture of an ingredient or Vegans may also use analogues for eggs and dairy its other useful properties. Substituting an ingredient products. works to greater or lesser degrees, depending upon the recipe, and some ingredients are almost impossible to replace.

14 baked zucchini with rice and mushrooms 47

vegan sandwich 47

potato pancakes 47

wheat free pancakes 47

breakfast lunch dinner apple rings 47

snack


15 Sugar Snap Pea and Carrot Soba Noodles 48

Instructions

1. toast the sesame seeds for about 4 to 5 minutes 2. cook the soba noodles for about 5 minutes, drain and briefly rinse under cool water. 3. cook the frozen edamame for 4 to 6 minutes, before draining, toss the halved peas into the boiling edamame Ingredients water and cook for an additional 20 seconds, drain. Soba 4. combine the soba noodles, edamame, snap peas and 6 ounces soba noodles carrots in a large serving bowl. Pour in the dressing and 2 cups frozen organic edamame toss with salad servers. Toss in the chopped cilantro 10 ounces (about 3 cups) sugar snap peas or snow and toasted sesame seeds. peas 6 medium-sized carrots, peeled ½ cup chopped fresh cilantro (about 2 handfuls) Ÿ cup sesame seeds ginger-sesame sauce Serving Size: 1 Calories per serving: 233 calories protein: 7.5 g


evolutionary history of agriculture ______________________________

During the past 6.000.000 years, the humanity has been in a constant development, i.e. evolution. This evolution has a direct link to agriculture, as finding and providing with food has always been essential for any living creature, humans inclusive. As primates’ brain grew bigger, a gradual transition from wild harvesting to deliberate cultivation evolved accordingly.

16

The development of agriculture into its modern form was made possible through a continuing process of mechanization and nevertheless due to The Green Revolution, which notion refers to a series of researches, development, and technological experiments, started by Norman Borlaug between the 1940s and the late 1970s. It involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernisation of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. The Green Revolution credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, making the food more available and cheap. 52

For about 2,6 million y.a. the earliest hominids explored stones and bones as tools for starting fire, hunting and cutting food. 49 This period is known as “The Dawn of Technology”. Their diet mostly consisted of berries, nuts and meat. The consequences to The Green Revolution medal is rather toxic. The consequences of “benefiting” from The ending of The Neolithic and beginning of The modified seeds, fertiliser, and pesticides in favour of Bronze Age is considered to be the first agricultural organic farming during the past 50 years is chemical revolution as humans of that era began domesticating pollution of soil, water and air, genetic damage, and plants and animals, as convenient food sources. The health ailments. 53 diet consisted of whole grains, beans, legumes, fruits, vegetables, dairy and meats. The period became a Food-production has turned into a high-tech industry, which allows more people to buy more processed turning point in human community evolution. products and factory-farmed meat than ever before Grain agriculture became more sophisticated and in human history. This fact has environmental prompted a division of labour to store food between consequences for our planet and health. growing seasons. Labour divisions then led to the rise of a leisured upper class and the development The present thesis comes up with an alternative way of cities. The growing complexity of human societies to today’s system of cultivating agricultural industry, necessitated systems of writing and accounting. general overconsumption and striving after a constant Agriculture bred immobility, as populations settled economic growth. down for long periods of time, which led to the Danish agricultural (r)evolution accumulation of material goods. 50 Agricultural technology continued to improve. During the Iron Age there has been developed iron melting, which has dramatically improved agricultural tools. A new type of plough has appeared, that could work with heavy wet soils. This invention led to the first examples of deforestation. 51 By the period of the Industrial Revolution, a land reform was implemented. A further consolidation of large, privately owned holdings encouraged the improvement of productivity through experimentation. By the 1750s the market for agriculture was substantially commercialized. New methods of four-field crop rotation (wheat, turnips, barley and clover) resulted in large additions to the amount of arable land. It allowed livestock to be bred year-round.

Danish history of evolution started for about 12.000 y.a., when the first humans settled along the shores of the Cimbrian Peninsula. Their diet consisted of forest plants, berries and fish. 6.000 years later there appeared the first agricultural establishments, where ancient Danes used stone tools and weapons to provide themselves with food. For 3.800 y.a., when Denmark was introduced to bronze, it became possible to create agricultural tool for processing wet and heavy soil. It became as well the time of the first deforestation. 54 In the beginning of The Iron Age, for about 2.500 y.a., Denmark established a trading contact with Romans, to whom they sold slaves, furs, skins and amber in return for Mediterranean luxuries: spices, wine, olives, figs.

The developments of heat processing and refrigeration in the 19th century led to a new revolution in the meat The first trading settlements appeared along the coast industry, as they allowed meat to be shipped long for 1.300 y.a. in Hedeby and Ribe. During that time, distances without spoiling. Denmark was divided into several kingdoms, but 200 years later, it got united under one king. A long history


of powerful dynasty started and the epoch of Vikings role in establishing a new form for society, based on has launched. cooperatives. 57 Some critics would call that culinary period for “waste kitchen”, which established a platform During the Middle Ages, Danish Kingdom grew bigger for the modern Danish diet based on left-overs, fat and and stronger. It was focusing on expanding the sugar. 58 monarchy and trading. This period brought a variety of new eating habits. 55 Rye bread and beer became the Stimulated by the basic need to provide with food, main ingredients of that time. Fish was an important humans have evolved from foragers to a generation of part of the diet, as it was the only type of meat allowed industrial production farmers and (over)consumers. It by the Catholic church during the fasting days, all in all has become possible to develop chemical fertilizers, 180 days per year. 56 which secure bigger harvests of genetically modified crops; to establish intensive animal farming, producing During a period of time, up to The Welfare Period, cheap, packed with antibiotics meat or to drain the commoners used to eat grains, porridge, cold-hardy sea waters for fish. These tendencies destroy the vegetables (cabbage, carrots, leeks, peas, etc.) and fish environment and ecosystem for the future generations. (herring, cod, other seawater spices), meat as well as spices were a privilege of rich people. To avoid such a fate, the project suggests returning to the basics of stoic traditions of non-violent diet, After national bankruptcy and loss of Norway In compassion, equality, non-speciesism mentality, sharing 1813, Danes started looking inwards in order to find and cooperation. The idea is tested and suggested in their own identity. Agriculture played an important the urban context of Trøjborg Center.

17

“We are living in a scarcity because the good things are expensive and the bad things are cheap. Sustainability is the capacity to respond to basic needs of everyone with what you have, it’s how ecosystem works.” Gunter Pauli


st on ea ge

global history of human evolution

th e

e nz

6.000.000 y.a.

4.000.000 y.a.

dawn of technology

increased brain size

2.600.000 y.a.

800.000 y.a.

turning point

e th

e ag

o br

agricultural revolution

6-3.000 y.a.

12.000 y.a.

genus

brain evolution

physical evolution

18

Danish agricultural evolution

life style

plant food

animal food

tools

first humans arrive

ro n eb

th

ze

e ag th

ne to s e

ag e

pre-human primate

first deforestation


3.000-500 y.a.

te nm en t

d mo

on

i at iz

n ba

ur

500 y.a.

in du s gl tri ob al al iza iz at tio io n n

th e

e

th

e ag

en li gh

ir on

ag e

n er

green revolution

200present

300 y.a.

19 human

expanding Danish kingdom

m so

t

ab

m he

e at st l a e on ar ti elf a n w

lu t

o

ro n ei th trading raiding Europe

e ag

is

ag e

n

r de

the free trade agreement co-operatives

mandatory education

GMO

50%

2

. 50

io

sc

ar en

20


global and local mapping of vegetarianism _____________________________________

There can be found countless restaurants and cafes with pure vegan or vegetarian profile all around the world. Top 5 vegetarian-friendly 59

Top 5 meat-consuming 60

countries: cities:

countries: cities:

India Tel Aviv Uk Berlin Thailand Chennai Turkey Vancouver Israel Portland

USA San Francisco Denmark Bristol Spain Santiago Australia Ribeirao New Zealand Mexico

20

vegetarian friendly countries

vegetarian friendly cities

meat-consuming countries

meat-consuming cities

â&#x20AC;&#x153;UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet. A global shift towards a vegan diet is vital to save the world from hunger, fuel poverty and the worst impacts of climate change, a UN report said today. 61â&#x20AC;&#x153; The Guardian 2 /6/2010


8 1 1 1 4

20 3

2

2 2

5

1

60 13 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

10 1 1

1

fully vegan / vegetarian place

1

vegan-friendly place

4

7

1

21

3

Since the outbreak of mad cow disease in the early 2000s, more people than ever are embracing vegetarianism. Berlin, for instance, has become a vegan mecca with its 28 pure vegan eating places and hundreds of listings on HappyCow.

1

As for Denmark, there are plenty of fully vegetarian/ vegan or vegetarian-friendly places all around the country (see the map above). The highest concentration of places is in Copenhagen (78) and Aarhus (9) keeping up. 62,63, 64


22


urbanization of food production ____________________________

Globally, more people live in urban areas than in rural, with 54% of the world’s population residing in urban areas in 2014. In 1960, 36% of the world’s population was urban, and by 2050, 70% of the world’s population is projected to be urban.

Political and jurisdictional measures should go hand in hand with the architectural investigations and scientific achievements.

Food and water are vital sources of energy in human life. Careful distribution and well-considered choices Continuing population growth and urbanization are of consumption and production are crucial, especially projected to add 2.5 billion people to the world’s urban with the growing population. population by 2050, with nearly 90% of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. According to NASA, the total area used for agriculture in 2015 corresponds to the size of South America, by As the world continues to urbanize, sustainable 2050 there will be needed extra 30% of cultivated development challenges will be increasingly land, which we don’t have. The current situation of concentrated in cities, particularly in the lower-middle misuse of natural resources and consumerist mindset income countries, where the pace of urbanization should see its end. New times demand a shift towards is fastest. Integrated policies and new measures to a cooperative ownership, efficient distribution of the improve the lives of both urban and rural dwellers are urban space and above all vegan diet. needed. 65

23 36%

1960

54%

2014

70%

2050

urbanization over times 64

The thesis questions conventional methods of producing food in rural areas and transporting it to the urban areas. It suggests reducing CO2 footprint by eliminating food import and “autonomizing” Trøjborg area through introducing an Incubator for a plantbased food production. Food production should take place locally and provide organic produce, using the newest and utter efficient technology. Grow Your Own Food Poster, Abram Games, 1942

The following chapter will suggest a number of casestudies dealing with the issue of urban farming. Quantification of the methods will throw light upon their potential. The most efficient and relevant methods will be further applied in the process.


case studies The prerequisite for the various plant-based food production is the following calculation:

1 person = 2000 kcal 100 gr veggies = 60 kcal (on average) 2000/60 = 33 100 x 33 = 3.300 gr /pers/day

Case Study #1 Michael Sorkin, Terreform, Linear Towers of NYC. 66 A system of hydroponics raised up into towers on the outskirts and forgotten areas of cities. The footprint of the constructions corresponds to a building size of a NYC block. 660.000 m2 ------------------ = 44 m2 /pers 15.000 people

80 m

24

275 m

22.000 m2 30 floors

Case Study #2 PlantLab 67, Veemarktkade 8a, 5222 AE ’s-Hertogenbosch A system of hydroponics and LED-light based plant production. Is a research of Plant Lab company. The concept is fully independent of light and is characterized by reusing water and nutrition resources. 160.000 m2 ------------------ = 16.5 m2 /pers 100.000 people

100 m

160 m

16.000 m2 10 floors

Case Study #3 “A-Go-Gro” technology, 68 Singapore An A-construction, based on rotation of the growing trays and using gravity for water circulation. The system depends greatly on a light source and is ideal for areas with constant sun/day light source. 5,5 m 2 = 4.76 kg vegetables 1m

5m

5m2 6 m high


Case Study #4 Baumann Farm, 69 Sweden family: 5 members area: field 400 m2 greenhouse + 55 m2

400 + 55 237 ---------- + -------- = 209.5 m2 /pers 5 people 2 people

additionally required*: 237 m2 14.5 m * required for 2 people: 20 kg oat flour 20 kg rice flour 20 kg chickpeas 20 kg millet 15 kg rye flour

60 m2 37 m2 60 m2 30 m2 50 m2

209.5 m2

14.5 m

Case Study #5 Dan Lucovich, Creekside Mushrooms, 70 1 Moonlight Dr, Worthington, PA 16262, USA The morphology of mushrooms demands no light at all, what makes them into an ideal food source, for an underground cultivation. area 8.200.000 m2

3m

potential: 27.200.000 kg/year real:

10.433.000 kg/year 3.6 m2

1.2 m

mushroom tray 0.6 kg /tray Case Study #6 Green City Growers, 71 600 Windsor Pl, Somerville, MA 02143, USA A rooftop garden is not news anymore. It is practised all over the world and has a tremendous success among urban growers activists.

roof top 1570 m2 --------------------- = 2.89 kg /m2/day produce 4540 kg

The following case studies will be integrated into the Case study #6 provides data for transformation of roof thesis, transforming the area into a self-sufficient tops into growing spaces, while Case Study #5 will be growing laboratory. projected onto mushroom and sprout production. Case Study #4 will be applied for transformation of all For a more intensive and efficient plant-based food the horizontal surfaces (75 % of infrastructure, inner production, Case-study #2 (a system of hydroponics yards, green areas and cemeteries) into plant based and LED-lights) will be applied. food production, resembling a notion of allotments.

25


context _________________ location mapping

Trøjborg Center is situated North from the center of Aarhus. The area is one of the most resourcefully strong areas in Aarhus, 72, 73 mostly inhabited by young and open-minded people. A close proximity to the university together with a safe and secure environment, a forest and a seashore nearby, invite many students and young families to inhabit the area.

infrastructure

grocery shops

“Smart Aarhus proposes a new way of organizing efforts to find effective and sustainable solutions to the challenges faced by many cities today. How do we make the city of the future a good place to live?” Rethinking City Development 74 “Cities are communities of shared capital, technology, and knowledge. A Smart City is able to both create and harvest these shared resources.” Jonas Kroustrup, Central Denmark Region

75

green-grocers

courtyards cemetery

26 flat roofs

quantification Imagining that during the following 35 years private transportation will be reduced to minimum and the infrastructure will primarily be used for public transportation (25%), the remaining 75% together with the green areas (back yards, pedestrian streets, cemeteries) can than be used for production of plant-based food. Topping it with flat roofs in Trøjborg district releases an area of 497.144 m2 Based on the calculations from Case Study #4, it will allow 2.373 locals live from their own food-produce.


total area 76: 852.246 m2 infrastructure & green areas: 210.105 m2 & 438.199 m2 total area of flat roofs: 11.986 m2 population 2015 77: 11.347 population 2050: 13.956

27

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oes

O

Ald

Nor dre R

ingg ade

ers

rov ej

gad

e


neighborhood _________________

from city to Trøjborg

28

rema 1000

shared houses

city houses


from Trøjborg to city

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trøjborg center grocery shop doctor’s small shops parking

private houses


site ____________

Trøjborg Center dates back to 1978 and is in need of a Access to the site happens mostely from two directionsvisionary transformation and not a “patch work”. Nordre Ringgade and Otte Ruds Gade (which are as well marked by the two existing entrances). For the present moment it consists of: a four-floors section (top floor is not in use), a one-floor section The surrounding area is paved and used for parking and (shopping area), a basement for parking and a rooftop walking. Some apple trees are planted around the area, (not in use). Structurally, the building has a column/ but they are not used by the locals. beam structure which can only take the existing load.

the existing structure

drive-out entrance

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drive in entrance

materials:

brick

Eternit

concrete

glass

facades:

Nordre Ringgade

Willemoesgade

Otte Ruds Gade

Aldersrovej


brief history of Trøjborg Center 78, 79, 80

up to 1907 liquor factory, owned by Viggo Ormsley

1983 Cinema “Saga” closes, more shops are built

1969 The building demolished. the site under negotiations

2016 Incubator for a Sustainable Lifestyle

image missing

1907 new owner: electronic company /S Jydsk Elektro”

1976 a joint stock company builds Trøjborg Center, (architect Thomas Bang Termansen)

2005-2011 Several renovations, espiecially at the 1st floor

climatic conditions sun diagram 81 Summer Solstice lat: 56.172468 lon: 10.211844 date: 21/06 Equinoxes lat: 56.172468 lon: 10.211844 date: 23/09; 20/03 Winter Solstice lat: 56.172468 lon: 10.211844 date: 22/12

wind diagram 82 N Procent: > 10.8 m/s 5.5-10.7 m/s 0.3-5.4 m/s W

E

S

31


diary from the future ____________________ aarhus 2050 Trøjborg 03-03-2050

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Even though predicted 35 years ago, a global food discount while ordering at the Incubator shop, cooking crisis has never dawned upon the humanity. facilities, invitations to the arrangements and talks on sustainable lifestyle together with green cooking Thanks to the courageous researchers, horticulturists, (ground level). The rest have become shareholders architects and engineers, by 2015 the world started and now represent the Incubator, while benefiting perceiving urban canvas as a new potential for feeding from the food it produces and facilities is has. people. The tower is as well a good economical support for the Rising population and vanishing resources created a area, as it creates working places for the locals. platform for fear, but also for discussions and eventual hope. We have reduced consumption of meat. For The structure is self-sufficient in terms of energy and some it was a question of health (high blood pressure, partially water. It uses minimum energy, harvested obesity, diabetes, cancer) others were concerned from the UV cells and reuses all the water and nutrients. about the climate change (18 % CO2 pollution is caused by meat industry), another group of people Even though criticized for its volume and height back were affected by cruelty and negligence towards the in the early days, the Incubator grew long and strong animals, that escalated during the past decades. roots into the soil of Trøjborg and is now an integrated part of the local community and a landmark for the And so the majority of us decided to go herbivore. By sustainable future. 2025, 70% of yields, produced in the open agricultural fields were used for feeding us- humans; 20% for biofuel and only 10% for animal production. Aarhus was among the pioneers for creating an Incubator for a Sustainable Lifestyle, by spreading the knowledge, ideas and reaching out for people through growing and cooking, the structure could show that vegetarianism IS a way to take care of the mother Earth. By January 2016, there was suggested to turn all the open surfaces as well as flat roofs in Trøjborg area into platforms for growing local, organic, seasonal food. The calculations have shown that the area can support 2.373 people. But what about the rest? What about 11.583 people, who have not got a chance to acquire a lot and grow their own food? An answer to that became an Incubator, designed on the site of an old shopping center, Trøjborg. This translucent, light steel construction, covered with ETFE-cushions became a manifestation of all that food-energy people, living in Trøjborg area, need. The Incubator absorbs the light during days and works on LED-light during nights, manufacturing local, organic produce 40 times more efficient than in the open fields, making food cheaper, reducing CO2 footprint and producing O2. There is a constant interaction between the Incubator and the locals. Those 2373, having lots, contribute with the seeds from their own produce into the seed bank (underground level) and receive a good


volumetric studies _________________ extrusion The initial calculations are based on Case Study #1 with With a starting point in the structure of the existing the required 44 m2 per person and show that in order Trøjborg Center, the geometry of the volume is extruded to provide 11.583 locals with a plant-based food, there and tested on the site. is needed a 300 meter high tower with the footprint of the existing volume.

33

The image of the tower, risen 300 m high has a strong reference to the history of Eiffel Tower. Being rejected and despised by contemporary Parisians, it achieved the recognition and acknowledgement through a period of time.

A study of Eiffel Tower and Flatiron Building, presented in the following chapter, contributes to understanding the structure but also the psychological impact architecture might have on people.


Eiffel Tower _________________ high-rise exercise constructed in: 1889 height: 324 m tall (about 81-storey building) weight: 7300 tons structural engineer: Maurice Koechlin main contractor: Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel materials: puddled iron, concrete structure: 18,038 iron pieces joined by 2.5 million rivets characteristics: the base pillars of the Eiffel Tower are oriented with the four points of the compass, the two feet near Seine are groundet by 15 m concrete foundation. 1

34

broadcasting,

276m

Gustave Eiffel’s office panoramic view the champagne bar 1:50 model

125 m 125 m

324m

working powers: 132 workers wind resistance: it sways only 6–7 cm in the wind. maintaining: 50 to 60 tonnes (49 to 59 long tons; 55 to 66 short tons) of paint every seven years to protect it from rust

souvenir shops the buffet the Jules Verne Restaurant the story window

stairs, elevator 115 m stairs, elevator

stairs, elevator

base: 2 m (2 feet) 15 m (2 feet) bolts: d=10 cm 7,5 m long

the 58 Tour Eiffel restaurant the transparent floor gustave eiffels’ room installations relaxation areas souvenir shop


Paris, France Year 1887 French government announces an open competition on a monument, celebrating 100th anniversary of the French Republic, which is to be opened by the World’s Fair 1889. More than 100 artists submit their designs, among which an acclaimed bridge builder, architect and metal expert, Gustave Eiffel, who together with a structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin, has just designed the metal framework for a gift from the people of France to the United States of America, the Statue of Liberty. Their design of a 10.000 tons heavy and 324 m high iron tower wins, but... rises a lot of negative publicity. Some people are afraid of the dimensions of the coming construction, others consider it to be an eyesore. But Eiffel is a bold and ambitious man, who often says: “My tower will be the tallest edifice ever erected by man. Will it not also be grandiose in its way? And why would something admirable in Egypt become hideous and ridiculous in Paris?” 83, 84

The construction begins in February 1887. 2 years, 2 months and 5 days later the tower is ready to host the first guests. Originally though as a temporary construction (20 years) the tower becomes a permanent and indispensable part of Paris as well as whole France. In 1909 the tower is planned to be torn down, but… by that time its importance is impressive. It is the main spot for broadcasting, a platform for scientific experiments and grandiose events but above all the world’s famous attraction spot. It’s controversial and it’s different from everything Paris has seen before. It makes people feel great and omnipotent and gives a panoramic view over the city of love and romance. During the WWI the tower relays zeppelin alerts, while during the WWII it decodes messages sent by Nazis. Being the tallest structure during the first 40 years of its existence, the tower has a long history of hate and skepticism turned into acceptance and dependability, gradually grown into admiration and an indefeasible symbol of one nation.

35


Flatiron Building _________________ high-rise exercise

constructed in: height: weight: architect: contractor:

June, 1902 93 m tall (22-story) 3,680-ton Daniel Burnham The Fuller Company

materials: steel, limestone, terra-cotta structure: steel construction tiled with limestone at the bottom and glazed terra-cotta. characteristics: the tower soars directly up from street level, making an immediate and striking contrast against the lower buildings surrounding it. 85

36

wind resistance: the steel construction is engineered to withstand four times the amount of wind force registered in the area. 93m

capital

shaft

base basement -6 m


New York, north of the Wall street Year 1899 Two brothers, Samuel and Mott Newhouse (mine owners) buy the property, covering a triangle intersecting Broadway and Fifth Avenue at 23rd Street. The area is un-glamorous but New York reminds of a quick shape-shifting organism and every corner of the city has a great potential. Three years later the Newhouses create a syndicate with G.A. Fuller Company and make plans of building on the plot. A prominent architect from Chicago, Daniel Burnham, is invited to design the building. The crowd is skeptical and critical towards the design, people are concerned about the triangular shape and height, fearing the collapse of the structure. Some critics focus on the potentially dangerous windtunnel effect created by the triangular building at the intersection of two big streets.

But there is a growing group of admirers, who praise a richly decorated manifestation of Beaux-Arts style, which is based on a skeleton of steel and fronted with limestone and terracotta tiles. Despite a couple of constructional oversights, like missing ladiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; restrooms and the elevators stopping at the 21st floor, the construction attracts a lot of artists and creative people, praising the building and setting life into the new district. Very soon the nearby area will be called Flatiron district and vill attract publishing houses, real estate companies, restaurants, cafes and people of art. 113 years later, the building will be estimated at a value of $190 million and by 2020 it will be turned into a hotel, paying a tribute to one of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cultural and historic landmark. 86, 87

37


dissection

8

14 15

1

4

9

2

5

10

16

22

3

6

11

19

23

27 31

7

38

12

20

24

28

32

13

21

25

29

33

26

30

34

Dissecting the extruded structure into building The exercise is aimed at exploring the volume, height elements and creating three different heights (75m, and relation to the surroundings together with 37.5m, 18.75m) allows playing with the form in order to investigating the boarders of the site. obtain variations.

All the components are incorporated into the test. The volumes are used vertically and stretch over both sides of Otto Ruds Gade. The high rise consists of two incorporated and one free-standing tower. It is voluminous and somewhat chaotic.

Some of the components are subtracted, trying to reduce the height of the construction and approach it the city scale. The composition consists of two structures: a minor tower on the little site and a major on the main site. The endpoints are nearing the urban canvas of the site, but is still erratic.


Playing with the towers and defining a certain hierarchy. The outer points are floating with the top of the nearby houses, while the rest of the composition is ascending above the city. The structure is still excessively high for the given context, but a horizontal and vertical hierarchy creates a rhythm in the composition.

More volume is subtracted. Less than 1/3 of the components are incorporated. The volume creates an ascending composition, floating organically with the city canvas. There is a certain hierarchy of the structure vs. city, but the volume is far from being sufficient for feeding 11.583 locals.

In order to reduce the height and integrate as many components as possible, the initial volumes are tested horizontally. The exercise strongly deviates from the original volume and has a very vague reference to the origin of Trøjborg Center.

Building further upon the previous test, by applying components in a “add on” mode upon the vertically standing structures.

A composition of vertical and horizontal volumes is tested here. An “intense“ addon composition is tested over two sites. A connection between the two sides of Otte Ruds Gade is established through a vertical connection. The composition appears massive and dominant. Its architectural qualities and esthetical contribution to the city are doubtful.

39


conjunction The following investigations are based on the Case Study #2 (hydroponics plus LED-light system) and are rooted to the key figures, provided by PlantLab. “A PPU (Plant Production Unit) can produce crop yields that are 2 to 3 times higher than the best greenhouse, and 30 to 40 times higher than an open crop field. Growing 7 ounces of fresh fruits and vegetables for one person every day for a year requires 10 square feet of space. To feed 100,000 people would therefore require a PPU with 10 growing levels (divided over 1 or more stories), each 330×330 feet in size. This is equivalent to the area of less than 2 adjacent soccer fields stacked 10 levels high. The convenient truth is that, unlike what some people have suggested, we do not need another planet to feed our growing population.” 81 cube unit #1 1 cube: 2 pers. production: 6 levels at 50 cm circulation: 1m x 3m (33%)

40

Quantification: 1 person = 2000 kcal 100 gr veggies = 60 kcal (on average) 2000/60 = 33 100 x 33 = 3.300 gr coefficient: 3300 gr/200gr = 16.5 1m2 x 16.5 = 16.5 m2 (per person/year)

every cube unit is optimized to provide food for TWO people. a flow for a horisontal circulation for one person and the necessary equipment is ONE meter wide

incubator cubes: 5791 floors: 71 height: 248.5 (3.5m x 71) cube unit #2 1 cube: 2.6 pers. production: 7 levels at 44 cm circulation: 1.1m x 3m (35%)

by adding 10 extra cm to the circulation and increasing the cube to 3.1 m in each direction, the productivity is increased to TWO point SIX people per cube.

incubator cubes: 4.455 floors: 55 height: 198 (3.6m x 55)

the height of the incubator is reduced with 3 floors.

cube unit #3 1 cube: 3 pers. production: 8 levels at 40 cm circulation: 1.2m x 3.2 m (37.5%) incubator cubes: 3861 floors: 48 height: 177.6 (3.7m x 48)

In the present volumetric study the main focus is on the incubator, producing plant-based food for 11.583 locals. Other functions (a cafe, cooking center, educational center, a seed bank, a restaurant) are not considered in the calculations, but could eventually be additional constructions.

by adding 20 extra cm to the circulation and increasing the cube to 3.2 m in each direction, the productivity is increased to THREE people per one cube. this relatively minor adjustment will reduce the height of the incubator with 9 floors and 34 m respectively.


An Incubator-test consists of interlocking cube units. A logic, optimal, pragmatic and utterly efficient construction with no space and resources wasted. It is optimal for establishing and controlling the required indoor climate. During the day, the inner cubes will require LED lighting, making the tower glow a slight magenta color, while during the night a non-stop production will lit the tower completely up.

A shaft in the middle of the incubator creates access for the light and air (which has still to be tested). The construction increases the height of the building. It will probably not require additional light source during the daytime. From the outside it is perceived as reserved as the previous test, but inside it creates an open space and a possibility for an external vertical circulation, connecting the levels with each other.

The test consists of four independent towers, what creates a possibility to install some equipment for electricity production. Each tower has an internal circulation, besides that, the towers might acquire common external circulation. The distance between the towers is equal.

A variation of the previous test, where the towers are placed with a varying distance from each other, following the site footprint. The same intention with a potential equipment can be applied here.

An Incubator consisting of two towers is tested here. The composition creates an air flow between the structures. As well as in the previous two cases there is a possibility to install â&#x20AC;&#x153;the equipmentâ&#x20AC;?. The character of noisy mills has though to be carefully investigated. The towers have an internal circulation and are interconnected with each other externally. The quarry should follow the strongest direction of the wind in the area. A further variations to this volumetric study could be the following:

41


The structure is built up after the ground rules of a classical high rise - a tiered construction. A variation of four towers, growing into one is tested here.

Building further on the tiered concept and the concept of Eiffel Tower: fourlegged structure growing into smaller and topping with the slimmest construction.

42

A separation of the initial singular tower into more towers is tested here. The towers are spread within the site. Each tower has its own internal circulation and is interconnected with the neighboring externally. A variation in height is possible. The example has somewhat a monumental expression, but has a potential for creating a high-rise dungeon on the site and furthermore is not the most efficient in terms of construction and resources.

A “rising“ Incubator follows the sun path, lowing down towards the south. Terraced structure has certain advantages in bringing more sun/day light to the building, saving electricity costs, creating outdoor public spaces. A reversed construction could eventually “connect” the Incubator to the site, rising from the lowest points of the surroundings toward the highest and continuing up.

A mesh of cube units, spread over the site, creates a base for the growing towers of food production. In plan, it resembles a chessboard. The mesh does not necessarily has to be complete and some of the cubes can be omitted, creating voids. The growing towers rise higher on the west-northern side, where the shadow affect the neighborhood least.


location

43


Seen from the architectural point of view, a cube unit is a generic element characterized by a great flexibility. A cube here should be seen as a pragmatic calculation of a volume needed for producing plant-based food for three people. The concept allows a bigger variation in height and breadth.

Being a prominent construction, the Incubator needs enough space around its volume and has to be as “respectful” towards the surrounding building as possible. A number of exercises on tower’s location is therefore conducted here.

A connecting path between Nordre Ringgade (a busy The variation of 3.2 x 3.2 m cubes with 81 cubes per road) and Otto Ruds Gade (a small, internal street, used floor is tested here. With a perimeter of 32 x 32 m (25% by locals) is crucial for the site. The two accesses define the flow towards the tower. Visitors coming from the circulation included), the tower gets 177.6 m high. city-center will arrive from Nordre Ringgade, those living in Trøjborg will most likely use Otto Ruds Gade.

The tower is partially placed on the path. It is pulled back from Nordre Ringgade and creates a respecting distance towards the surrounding buildings. It is placed on parallel with Aldersrovej, what creates a cornering towards the arriving.

44

The tower is turned about 15 degrees towards the points of access and is “welcoming“ the visitors from both sides. It acquires enough space around its own volume and creates a good space for establishing an active out-door life.

Centrally placed tower creates enough space for if necessary integrating additional functions. It reflects the Western edge of the site, which seems reasonable, but the location is somewhat awkward in comparison to the rest of the site.

The tower approaches the Eastern edge of the site and respects its direction. This location creates a rich place towards the Wes, but is “suffocating“ the nearby city house. The immense height will as well cast shadows onto the house and into its yard in the afternoon.


circulation _____________

45

seed donation 1. access to the shop from the terrane (obsolete)

seed bank

2. access to the shop through the incubator (obsolete)

mushrooms

sprouting

3. seed donation: seeds go to sprouting shop incubator cafe 4. mushrooms go to: shop cafe restaurant


A working proposal and a reflection upon additional functions: a shop, a conference center, a cafe is tested in the following exercise. The idea of add-ons has been a part of the investigation, but became obsolete under the process. Eventually, the function became fully integrated into the construction and not merely added on.

Variations of compositions with integrated, detached and attached functions are tested. During the project development, the shop has acquired a digital character (online ordering and picking up orders), conference area has floated into the hall of the Incubator, the cafe occupies the first floor of the Incubator and the restaurant remains on the top of the construction.

horizontal circulation The composition consists of a tower in the center, surrounded by the extra functions as add-ons.

shop conference center seed bank

cafe

A flow between the outside and inside of the Incubator takes place in several areas: from Nordre Ringgade through the shop into the incubator; from the smaller street directly into the incubator. from the incubator into the conference center, from the outer yard into the conference center; through the cafe into the Incubator and back. The composition is rather packed, The ground floor of the incubator functions as a the core, it becomes a transition within the flow. A vast outer area is not at all integrated into the circulation.

conference center

46

In comparison to the previous version, the conference center is detached from the tower and is placed out in the landscape.. The shop is a one-storied structure and is â&#x20AC;&#x153;attachedâ&#x20AC;? to the tower. A slightly different flow occurs and in-between spaces appear. All the programs added to the tower are placed on the top of the surface.

shop

seed bank

cafe

conference center

shop

seed bank

cafe

The exercise presents an attempt to integrate the volume of the shop into the tower and to make it a part of the hall (ground floor). A fall in the landscape opens the shop up towards the East, while the Western part is covered by the landscape. The primarily functions for the hall is meeting the visitors, donating seeds into the seed bank and transition. Sharing the room with the shop will take somewhat of the formality and cleanness of the room.


conference center

An idea of a shop, integrated into the highest point of the landscape is tested here. The shop consists of 2 levels and is the access point for those arriving from the West. By entering the shop, visitors gradually move through the area and the levels. The lower level is adjacent to the tower hall. Further, proceeding into the hall and further to the cafe is possible here.

shop seed bank

cafe

conference center

shop seed bank

While the previous versions represent an idea of a cafe, as an adjacent part of the tower, here a variation of an integrated cafe is tested. Furthermore, placing the cafe on the first floor in stead of the ground opens up for a flow in a vertical direction. By establishing an outdoor/indoor terrace, a diversion in the facade can be created. The restaurant here is uplifted and creates an in-between space on the top of the structure. It is windy and uncomfortable for staying so high up in the sky, though it can still be used as an observation deck. interval, a technical space or as a break in the rhythm of the space.

cafe

The whole ground level is turned into a plaza with an overhang for stabilizing the structure, gathering the rain-water and protecting the visitors against the rain and wind. conference center seed bank

The level incorporated a seed bank and is a transformable space for official and non-official gatherings. The hall is 10 m high and merges with the surrounding green area. A cafe occupies all of the first floor. A restaurant and a bar are on the top of the structure and offer a panoramic view over the city. Inspirational cooking facilities are located in the cafe.

47


vertical circulation The whole circulation is defined by two types of flow: -working -visiting The Incubator should be perceived as an efficient food producing factory, which has its own rules for hygiene, contamination and therefore accessibility. The physical obstacles should by no means influence its openness and “communication” with the visitors. Certain architectural solutions should establish transparency

and visual connection between the visitors and the new landmark for a sustainable lifestyle. People should have a look into the production and experience the changing scale and landscape of the vertical farm. In the beginning of the process an idea of dividing the vertical circulation into several parts in order to establish a guided experience and an observation level was considered, but it became obsolete as it hampered the logic and logistics of the farm.

2nd observation deck

2 elevators

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1st observation deck

4 elevators

The circulation is divided into two steps. It guides the visitors from the outer towards the inner part of the production via a regulated elevator shift. Something what is well-functioning for the visitor’s flow, is completely irrational for the working.

Four elevators are common for the working and the visiting flows. The same concept of dividing the circulation into two parts is being tested. Introducing a longer “walk“ between the vertical transportations, the flow has a better opportunity to exhibit the production and the new technology.

A combination of the previous two tests with a longer walk and a single inner elevator core, offering more space for production is tested here.


2nd observation deck

2 elevators

1 elevator

1st observation deck

2 elevators

1 internal (working) and 1 external (visiting)

Reducing the number of elevators form four to two, giving more space for production and for the horizontal flow in the hall. The same principal of division of the circulation into two parts is tested here.

An integrated heavy duty working elevator is servicing all the floors together with supplying the shop, cafe and restaurant. An external elevator gives visitors a possibility to look out at the city and into the production goes up to the first observation deck. A change of elevators exhibits a part of the production line and brings people further to the restaurant.

no interruption of the flow

2 working 2 visiting

In order to establish a logical and uninterrupted production line, all the elevators are external. They become as well a part of the bearing construction. Working and visiting flows are separated, no interference occurs. All depending on the functions, elevators might vary in character and eventually size.

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50


architectural manifestation architectural manifesto __________________________ for an atmospheric and experiential composition of an incubator for a sustainable vegetarian lifestyle

programmatic facilities

what

how

extra information

production

know-how of LED light and hydroponics

seasonal Nordic vegetables, fruits, and legumes production at an accelerated rate, while saving resources

learning

observing participating

guided tour gathering ingredients for oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own juice (cafe)

digital interaction

ordering online database

incubator

shop

restaurant

e ciency

recycling

packaging

experience

surprise presentation of dishes (digital) interaction

taste

fresh ingredients variations nuancies

indulgence

flavours colors taste

inspiration

to eat healthy to cook more vegan food

relaxation

meditation snacking reading

communication

cafe

multifunctional space

online ordering picking up at stands no shopping time time-saving

friends family business partners study buddies

no queues convenience reuse

amazement provocation perfection ordering observing Incubatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s produce

ingredients selection cooking

spices

social experiences

working studying

smaller individual spaces

boosting

energy health

detoxification

learning

production juice recipes cold food recipes

flexibility

indoors/outdoors open/closed translucent/opaque

inspiration

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doing nothing cold food solo experiences

focusing

multi-functionality

Incubatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s produce

technology explanation recipe database

education cooking gathering partying enlightment cooking sharing

gradual shift to a sustainable vegan lifestyle food

zero food waste

change in mentality


optimizing the structure The latest details on water harvesting, circulation, flows and production have been crucial for clarifying, optimizing and finalizing the structure of the Incubator.

The following volumetric studies aim at optimizing the construction by dividing it into sections, so that it is possible to harvest rain water and to pump water-mix for the plants into the height of 177,6 m.

a straight-forward vertical direction of the tower suggests technical areas and a possibility to pump water gradually.

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Here, the tower is divided into the sections. Each section is off-centered towards the top. The structure appears dynamic and allows harvesting more water. There is though an overlapping of the surfaces, which reduces water-harvesting.

A static and plane structure, logic and very pragmatic construction. A smaller overhang is placed at a 10 m height, but has to be tested in terms of protecting against the wind load.

The whole structure rests on a bearing construction integrated into the elevator shafts. Food production in itself is elevated 10 m high, what creates an integrated public space.


A combination of a water-harvesting system, with a structure of a trapezoid. A number of variations with increasing area of structures for better result has been elaborated.

The same principle of the tower divided into the sections is tested here. The only difference is a rotation added to the construction. The rotation does not increase the harvesting area, but it adds a certain dynamics

vision 2050

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ingredients to the Incubator _______________________ concept

As stated in the manifestation, the Incubator is a combination of education, learning, sharing, production, consumption, observation and leisure, all combined under an umbrella notion of experiential learning. It is a landmark for new times, where visitors arrive to learn about the aspects of a sustainable lifestyle and an example for future incubators all over the world. Programmatically there is no hierarchy. The functions are interconnected to each other and aim at spreading knowledge and sparking an interest for veganism. The production originates from the donation of the seeds into the seed bank. It is sold back to the locals or is distributed between the cafe and the restaurant. Visitors arrive to the cafe for working, meeting, relaxing and enjoying fresh local produce on a daily basis, while eating at the restaurant is an exclusive experience, which has to be arranged in advance.

People arrive from all over the world to get a glimpse at the locally produced food and be inspired by a fully sustainable and self-sufficient structure. The restaurant offers a panoramic view, top-modern, digitalized interactive food ordering and inspiration on cooking through observing the kitchen via cameras. Structurally, there is an obvious hierarchy. The production occupies the greater part of the Incubator, as it is aimed at supporting 11.583 people. But it is elevated and therefore creates a space underneath for the public, where people can gather for presentations, cooking, enjoying green areas. The Incubator occupies a certain volume but it as well gives back through embracing people and producing food for them. Being a gathering point, but above all a food factory, the Incubator has certain demands for production, which are: ETFE - cushion “skin” 88, PV cells 89, LEDlight, rain-water harvesting, bearing construction (hidden in the elevators shafts), plants and people.

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ETFE -“skin” The construction is covered by a double-layered ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) structure, a light and translucent material, which makes it easy to control the inner temperature and climate, it is resistant towards humidity and fire, while protecting

the production against contamination. A part of the membrane structure has PV-cells partially integrated into it on the Eastern, Southern and Westerns sides of the structure. The structure of the skin is inspired by a longitude section of a plant-cell.

advantages: 1 % of glass weight cost-effective: 24-70% less installation costs load capacity: 400 times its weight fire-resistant flexibility for all types of design elasticity recyclable disadvantages:

air supply air ejection

acoustics: tension in the cushions acts as a drum

95 % light translucency: 12 % scattered light 88 % direct light

longitudinal section of a plant cell


LED grow light LED grow lights are composed of light-emitting diodes, usually in a casing with a heat sink and builtin fans. Plants are especially responsive to red/blue (magenta) or red/white (pink) spectra, improving produce with 40%.

benefit for growing in confined spaces, where heat has to be controlled. Light intensity within the production is regulated automatically. As soon as the daylight drops lower than 2000 lumens, it is automatically switched to LED Grow Light.

Due to the fact that the bulbs donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t emit a lot of heat into the growing environment, it is possible to place the lights much closer to plantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; leafs, which helps to take advantage of the inverse square law for light. Air and water temperature are very important in a hydroponic grow, that is why LEDs are a massive

LEDs reach 18-22 lumens per watt, last anywhere from 25,000 to 100,000 hours before they are expected to fail. Three types of LED grow light is used for various types of plant-produce.

LED-light For smaller vertically growing plants in a scalable modular system, a unit with singular directions is suitable. It can refer to leafy greens, herbs, microvegetables (gastronomic experimental food).

coconut fiber

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water

For larger plants growing vertically: tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, etc. A singular system with two directions is most suitable. According to the tests conducted by Philips LED research group, the system is 20 % more efficient.

For a big-scale classical greenhouse type plant production, a series of top round bulbs are recommended.

quantification for El-consumption 90 16 watts /1 m2 1 floor of production - 48 floors of production -

5.242 m2 251.616 m2

251.616 m2 x 16 watts -

4.025.856 watts


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photovoltaics (PV) 91 Sustainability in the project is reflected through various parameters. An autonomous and self-sufficient energy production through the integrated PV into the ETFEmembranes is one of them.

amorphous thin-film solar cells embedded in ETFE laminates. This durable material is a well-tried solution in everyday practice. It is more durable than PVC membranes; it is resistant to UV-radiation; and its â&#x20AC;&#x153;selfcleansingâ&#x20AC;? surfaces ensure good resistance to soiling.

This technology is based on extremely flexible,

Here, PV layer substitutes for the upper layer of ethylene tetrafluoroethylene supported cushions and

serves not only to generate electricity, but to provide shade.

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A PV-cell is up to 5.7m2 and gives a power output of up to 480 watts.

A PV-cell - Required -

480 watts 4.025.856 watts

In total -

8.387 panels of 5.7 m2


rainwater harvesting Water is an essential element for plant-based food production. Hydroponics makes it possible to reduce the amount of it with up to 15 times. 89 To further reduce water-costs, an overhang, stretching through a part of the site, gradually integrated into the skin of the Incubator, while harvesting rainwater has been introduced. Basically, the area of the overhang is an offset of the 50

site, adjusted to creating covered vs. open areas. The covered area functions as a plaza and creates a “shelter“ for visitors at any time of day and night. While the open area is a continuation of the Nordre Ringgade and mostly functions as a green public zone. The overhang fulfils the following important functions: -protection against the wind, -protection against the rain -harvesting rainwater.

300

45 250

40 35

200

30 150

25 20

100

15 10

50

5 0

0

hydroponics

hydroponics

conventional

conventional

Water consumption hydroponics: 20 ± 3.8 L/kg conventional: 250 ± 25 L/kg

Dealing with a high-rise requires a certain approach to the water supply. Forty-eight floors of the food producing tower are divided into 6 compounds of 8 floors each. The water is gradually pumped through the pipes, running in the technical departments of the two working elevator shafts. A mixture of water nutrients is stored in the external containers for a day and is reused every 3rd hour.

The plants grow in a fiber of coconut shells. The roots float in the water that provides all the nutrition the plants need. Being living creatures, the plants transpire more than 95 % of water they consume. This vapor is collected in front of the exhausted fans and constitutes about 15 % of the whole water cycle. Reusing the water is saving up to another 20 % of the water supply.

working elevator with technical rooms

production area visiting elevators working flow

a section of 8 floors, having a connected water- supplying system

working elevator with technical rooms

Water-supply diagram #1 Horizontally, water accesses the production sections on the top level and runs towards the lowest. There are four production areas, Each supplied by its own waterline.

Water-supply diagram #2 Every section is equipped with a reservoir for water storage and reuse for one day.

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Water containers are external. Each of them provides water for 8 consequent floors of the production. The tanks are visible at a distance and close. Apart from being functional and informative on the technical parameters, they create a rhythm in the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure. Six water-belts of: 12(l) x 1(b) x 1.25(h) m times two 13(l) x 1(b) x 1.25(h) m times two.

An opposite to the previous exercise is tested here. The reservoirs are hidden within the structure of the building and can only be seen from afar. In comparison to the previous example, the water tanks occupy an area of 30 x 30 m and therefore are not higher than 11 cm. Six water containers of : 30(l) x 30(b) x 0.1(h) m

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A system of twenty containers supplying the production lines, ten on each side (Western, Eastern) are built up on the same principle of supplying 8 floors at a time. Technically, the system is more complex, expensive but not more efficient. Twenty water spherical containers of: d=1 m

quantification for water-consumption 1 person - 3.3 kg plants/day 1 person - 1204 kg plants/years 1 kg plant - 20 l water 20 l x 1.204 kg = 24.090 l /person/ year 278.918.640 l water/year/11.583 people 764.160 l water/day/11.583 people 764.160 l water/day : 6 =127.360 l water/day/section)= 127,3 m3


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cv ________

Maja Sønderskov +4541252514 maja.sonderskov@gmail.com

65 Master Thesis (Studio Architecture and Resources) An Incubator for a Sustainable Vegetarian Lifestyle Transformation of Trøjborg Center/ Aarhus N supervisor: Walter Unterrainer 9th semester (Studio Architecture and Resources) Transformation of Trøjborg Center supervisor: Walter Unterrainer 8th semester (internship C.F. Møller) Housing, a museum competition department 7th semester (Studio Context) Local Family Housing, Nagaon, India supervisor: Thomas Hilberth 2015-2016 Aarhus School of Architecture

2014-2015 internship C.F. Møller 2010-2013 Bachelor of Arts in Architectural Studies Aarhus School of Architecture 2008mentorship Seier+Sølvsten, Aarhus, DK 2008-2009 Architectural department at Krabbesholm, Skive, DK 2004-2005 MA in English Studies Moldova State Universityt, Chisinau 2000-2004 Bachelor in English and German Moldova State University, Chisinau 1988-2000 Secondary Education Gogol Lyceum, Chishinau, MD Aarhus School of Architecture


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An Incubator for a Sustainable Vegetarian Lifestyle  

A summary report of a thesis on an architectural project.The project examines the environmental challenges the world is facing today and is...

An Incubator for a Sustainable Vegetarian Lifestyle  

A summary report of a thesis on an architectural project.The project examines the environmental challenges the world is facing today and is...

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