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Representation • Music Videos have been used more and more as a way to create, reflect or distort certain representations of either individuals or groups of people. Tying in with Narrative, as discussed next, It allows the artist to show how they feel people currently are and should be represented, maybe controversial to some views but mainly it’s a fight for justice.

Narrative • Music is one of the oldest forms of storytelling, and even in the modern world this heavy use of music as a way to tell story stands strong. Topics can vary from anything serious to outrageously bizzare. For example, The Pretender by the American rock band Foo Fighters was made with a political message that was to address issues at the time it was wrote, compared to South Korean rapper Psy's Gangnam Style, a song about a young guy in a neighborhood in South Korea known for hard partying, telling about who he is and the girl he wants. • This doesn't always carryover to music videos though, as videos can vary from the narrative driven ones such as the two listed above, can be a lyrical video such as The Rolling Stones' Paint it Black where lyrics appear on screen with animated effects, or performance videos where the focus of the video is on the band or artist performing their song such as Nothing Compares 2 U by Sinéad O'Connor.


Camera Work • There are three key parts when exploring the codes and conventions for camera work. • Firstly, there are shot types. This • Next is the Camera Angles • Finally, Camera Movements need to be analyzed

Camera Shot Types Shot types are essential to creating a good video as they can create different moods or portray different things as explored below. Long Shots: A long shot shows the artist, however the main focus is the location the artist is in. This is used to help set the scene the audience understand the location and when used in combination with other effects, can be used to create emotions.

Extreme Long Shots: An extreme long shot is similar to a regular long shot, however, the artist/focus is even further away, allowing much more of the location to be viewed.

Camera Shot Types Mid/Medium Shots: A mid-shot is a type of shot that incorporates the majority of the main subject and the surrounding setting. This type of shot is mainly a narrative driven shot since it allows the camera to focus on multiple subjects at once, a contrast to the majority of close-ups, without being to far away to understand what is going on unlike a long shot which mainly focuses on setting.

Camera Shots Close Up: A close-up is a shot type that focuses closely on the focus item. If this is a person, it is generally their head. This helps create emotion as the audience are right in front of the focus. Big Close Up: A Big close up is even closer to the artists face, showing just the facial features and not even the whole head. Whilst this in some situations is used to make the audience feel uncomfortable, it can also be used to portray strong emotion. An excellent example of this is Nothing Compares 2 U by Sinéad O'Connor (Originally by Prince). The entire video (save for some cut aways to her walking through Parc de Saint-Cloud) is her face, not even the top of her head sometimes. Near the end of the song, she tears up. Because we are this close to her, we sympathise with Sinéad and it causes the audience to start feeling emotional as well. Extreme Close –Up: The closest shot possible, focuses solely on a key feature of an Artist’s face such as their eyes or lips.

Camera Shot Types Point of View (POV): A point of view shot is one that is viewed through the eyes of the focus character. It helps the audience feel more immersed in the setting of the video, enforcing the emotions that they feel and enhancing them. A good use of POV is the song I Got U by Duke Dumont. When the focus character puts this strange helmet on, you start watching through his vision. When the shots are POV, everything is perfect in a way. The location is of a Caribbean getaway island and he experiences activities and events that seem luxurious and a distant dream to many people. In conjunction with the upbeat music, it creates a sense of relaxation and joy. The fact that this is shot through a POV may help the audience feel that they are part of this experience, feeling the joy that the focus character is.

Mise-En-Scene • The Mise-En-Scene is everything that is visible in front of the camera. This includes props, costumes, lighting, characters and location. Depending on the genre of the music and direction of the video, different conventions apply accordingly. • Mise-En-Scene is used to convey the importance and significance of certain factors in the video such as characters or events that are taking place.

Sound • Sound comes in two different formats, these being diegetic and non-diegetic sound. • Split between these two formats are three separate sound types. These being Music, Sound Effects and Vocals.

Sound – Diegetic and Non-Diegetic • Diegetic sound is audio that can be heard both by the audience and the characters on screen. Examples of this include character conversations, vehicles and a radio that the character is using. • Non-Diegetic sound is audio that only the audience can hear, generally used to set a mood. A couple examples of this include narration and music that is not part of the scene. For example, much of the music in music videos is non-diegetic as it can’t be heard b the characters in the video. This is not true 100% of the time though as there are cases where the music plays a part in the video such as in Duke Dumont’s Need U (featuring A*M*E).

Sound – Music, Sound Effects and Vocals • Music is the audio that is the central part of a MUSIC video. Without music, there would be no purpose for the video. • Sound Effects are the bits of audio that aren’t part of the main score (music) or vocals. Usually, they are sounds that are diegetic such as splashes of water or vehicles. They help immerse the audience into the song as it seems more real if non-song related audio is still present. • Vocals can be one of the most important parts of a music video, depending on genre and artist. This type of audio can be both diegetic and non-diegetic, depending on situation. If the artist is lip synching such as in Geroge Ezra – Budapest or non-diegetic such as in I Got U by Duke Dumont

USEFUL WEBPAGES – DELETE WHEN FINISHED • -of-music-videos-finished - C&C Example • s-101-camera-shots-styles/ - Camera shots

Codes and conventions  
Codes and conventions