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Communication

Jerek Hollender Maile Reiniche


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Preface This book addresses and explores the many different types of communication. From ancient cave paintings to body language. The preferred forms of communication have changed through out the years. Even though the medium of expression has evolved the desire to communicate has stayed the same.

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Table of Contents Body Language

5-6

Cave Painting

7-8

Latrinalia Cards

9-12 13-16

Texting 17-18 Facebook

19-24

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Opinions Based on

Interaction

7% 38% 55% Words

Tone

Body Language

* Data from Albert Mehrabian

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People can communicate to one another without using words. People might not always tell each other how they are feeling but their body language can give you vital clues to how a person is doing. Facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture and the tone of voice give insight into other’s emotions. Although people might not notice it, they are constantly sending nonverbal cues to each other. Silence can even be a cue to someone’s inner feelings. People make judgments of others even before they speak to them based on body language. Eye contact can be a telling sign. On average American’s only make eye contact 40-60% of the time. If someone is maintaining eye contact 60% of the time it usually denotes attraction to the other person. Lack of eye contact denotes lack of interest or selfconfidence. People are less likely to make eye contact in crowded public circumstances. Overall in the United States eye contact is regarded as a positive nonverbal signal of self-confidence and interest. Sometimes eye contact can be used negatively when two individuals are displaying their

aggression towards one another. If people make eye contact persistently it come off as creepy to the other person participating in the conversation. While partaking in a conversation the person listening makes eye contact twice as much as the person talking. People are better able to articulate answers while not making eye contact The ability to read someone’s body language while participating in a conversation is helpful skill. Many people do not express how they truly feel by what they are saying. By observing another’s body language people can better respond to what is happening.

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Cave Paintings:Art or Vandalism?

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Humans have been writing on walls for over 35,000 years. Over time the locations have changed from cave walls to buildings and bathroom stalls but the purpose has stayed the same. Generally there is three accepted theories for the purpose of cave art: art for arts sake, hunting, and ritual/spiritual. The first ‘Art for Arts sake’ simply says the paintings were created as a form of artistic expression with no real intent, for example to decorate the walls of a living space. The second theory states that the purpose of the paintings was to communicate hunting areas and conditions to other hunters passing through the area. The third states that the paintings serve a more spiritual purpose such as depictions of deities.

Angles sur l’Anglin’ France 12,000 BC © http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/Images/countries/French%20pics/dordoignenude1.jpg

“Hunting Scene” Lascaux Cave, France © http://whatafy.com/storage/2011/11/cavepaint-728304-195x300.jpg

“Hand Painting” from Chauvet Cave, France

Although the true intent of cave paintings may be never known there is some compelling evidence that they could be nothing more than ancient graffiti. In an article by David Flickling he analyzes some of the paintings of he walls of the legendary Lascaux caves in France’s Dordogne using modern forensic techniques. One of the most common things depicted on the cave walls are

©http://billboyheritagesurvey.files.wordpress. com/2012/01/chauvet-cave-hand-1.jpg

“Four Hunters and their Chief” Castellón, Spain 6,000 BC © http://www.sandrashaw.com/images/AH1L01Remisia.jpg

handprints. “Professor Guthrie used forensic techniques to study one of the most common shapes represented: human handprints. By comparing them to the hands of nearly 1,000 modern people, he found that they were mostly made by adolescent boys. This is interesting because many scientists believe that Paleolithic shaman rather than adolescent boys made the paintings. A common theme on the cave walls is the human form. Generally when people were depicted in cave paintings they are clearly defined as male or female by their genitalia, in fact all most all of the cave paintings include genitalia. One could make the argument that there is not much difference between the genitalia shown on cave walls and a modern adolescent boy sketching a penis on a bathroom stall. “In schools all over the world, you go to the toilets and far enough back in the toilet booth you’ll start seeing these same sexual images,” said Professor Dale Guthrie, a USbased expert in the field. In his new book, The Nature of Paleolithic Art.

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Latrinalia

noun markings made on the walls of restrooms, bathroom graffiti.

y t i l a x e Homos

Jokes Poems s g in

w a r D 9


Sexu

Love

al De

sires

Names

Conv

s n o i t ersa

Sexism

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Folklorist Alan Dundes coined the term latrinalia in 1966. Graffiti ranges from inspirational, vulgar, drawings, personal, sad or funny. In most places writing on bathroom walls is temporary because they are constantly being covered up. It falls into the category of graffiti and defacing private property, however, it seems more accepted by society. Some bathrooms in order to avoid their walls being destroyed have added whiteboards or blackboards for people to write on. This just goes to show the prevalence of bathroom graffiti in society today.

Graffiti on men’s restroom in Willamette Hall. 120 Willamette Hall Eugene, OR 97403

Graffiti in a women’s restroom at Max’s Tavern. 550 E 13th Ave Eugene, OR 97401 (541) 349-8986

Bathroom walls are a place where you can express yourself anonymously. Abel and Buckley (1977) look at graffiti as a psychological phenomenon, “a form of communication that is both personal and free of everyday social restraints that normally prevent people from giving uninhibited reign to their thoughts.” You can say things that you would never dream of saying to someone else in person. Conversations can be made back and forth between any number of people. You can revisit the same bathroom stall to continue conversations or just to see what someone else has added. People are willing to open up to complete strangers through conversations more likely than they are with people that they are close to.


People are sensitive to the quality of the bathrooms and establishments. It is apparent that there are more instances of vandalism on bathrooms walls in bars than any other place. This seems to directly relate with the presence of alcohol. People lose their inhibitions while under the influence. Architect Adolf Loos writes about graffiti in his essay, “Ornament and Crime.” In this 1908 essay Loos said, “It is obvious that this urge overcomes man; such symptoms of degeneration most forcefully express themselves in public conveniences. One can measure the culture of a country by the degree to which its lavatory walls are daubed.” Bars contain the most graffiti. The topics and drawings are more also more profane in bars. If you look at men’s and women’s bathroom stalls there are some differences. Men seem to write on bathroom walls a lot ore frequently than women do. But other than the abundance of bathroom scrawling’s, the subjects seem to vary by the sexes. According to anthropologists Bruner and Kelso men write about sex while women are more conversational and men make isolated statements.

Graffiti in the women’s restroom at Lillis Bussiness Ceter. 1208 University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403 541-346-3300

Bruner and Kelos said, “Women’s graffiti are more conversational and deal with relationships; men’s are more individualistic and deal with isolated sex acts and organs (242-243).” One can tell a lot by a person or society itself by examining latrinalia.

Graffiti in a women’s restroom at Max’s Tavern.

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Cards

80% 20% WOMEN

MEN

Buy greeting cards

50+ of

%

of greeting cards bought are Birthday cards

*Data from About.com

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With evolving technology people do not take the time to write handwritten cards and when they do it is a simple and short message. Cards take longer to get to people so they are reserved for special occasions such as birthday’s, weddings, get well cards, condolences, and so on. The U.S. Postal Service is suffering due to the drop in people sending letters to each other. People now communicate instantly through text messaging and e-mail. Handwritten cards are more personal and carry more meaning because they take time and effort to write. Letters are special because they are something you can hold onto and keep with sentimental value. Everyone enjoys receiving letters

but interestingly do not always want to put the effort into writing letters to others. Opening a letter is different than opening an e-mail or text. Letters require a lot of thought, editing, stamps and time which makes them all the more special to the reciever. In today’s society everyone is in a hurry, always on the go, looking for the next thing they have to do. Store bought cards are a more efficient way of sending a card. There is already a message written in the card, all they have to do is write a short “Happy Birthday,” and sign their name. More time is given to picking out a card then writing a personal message in it. Much of the time Hallmark cards are read and

then thrown out shortly after. Homemade cards are usually kept for far longer due to sentimental value and appreciation of the time the sender put into the card. Homemade cards with handwritten messages may be less visually attractive but they are original and thoughtful. Time is such a valuable commodity in society that taking time out of your day to make something for someone else really shows how much you care. Homemade cards can be made specific to the person you are making them for. Ironically people spend so much time looking for the perfect card at Hallmark when they could have been making their own.

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Generation

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31of 71of %

%

ADULTS TEENS Prefer Text Messaging over Calling

We live in a day and age where people almost avoid taking on the phone. Something that was once a part of daily life to by many is now more of a chore. The rise in technology has lead to in increase in texting and emailing while having a phone conversation is something that is becoming as uncommon as using morris code. Almost one-third of U.S. adults prefer to be reached by text message rather than a voice call on their mobile phone, according to a study by the Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project. Three-quarters (73%) of U.S. adults text and 83% of U.S. adults are mobile phone owners. The study found that when it comes to a preferred method of contact, 31% of adults would choose a text message, 51% would choose a voice call and 14% say it depends on the situation. Fifty-five percent of heavy texters — those who exchange 50 messages or more a day — prefer texting to talking. This is the first year Pew has polled the preferred

contact method, says the study’s lead researcher Aaron Smith. Young adults between 18-24 text most frequently, sending on average 109.5 messages each day or 3,200 texts each month. The average mobile phone user in that group sends or receives 50 texts each day or 1,500 texts each month. The findings also reveal that mobile usage has leveled off among the U.S. adult population. These statistics are very similar to 2010’s results. On average, 41.5 texts are sent or received on a given day. The average adult sends or receives 10 texts each day. Cellphone users make or receive 12 calls on average each day. The survey polled 2,277 adults over age 18, between April 26 and May 22. The margin of error for the survey is plus or minus 2.3% and plus or minus 2.7% among mobile phone users.

* Data from lab42.com

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Facebook

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901M 526 488 I L L I O N Monthly active users at the end of March 2012

Daily active users on average in March 2012

3.2

Dai l y act i ve users on average in March 2012

LIKES

B I L & L I COMMENTS O N

PER DAY

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Data Visualization of Facebook Friendships ŠPaul Butler 21


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Social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, & Myspace are way to communicate instantly. Someone can post a status or picture and people comment or “like” it instantaneously. These sites are ways for people to keep in touch through distances. Frequently people will communicate with others that they are not close friends with. As the trend of social media is growing, people are posting even the most personal information on the Internet. As an experiment I posted a picture myself wearing a ring with the caption “ENGAGED,” as seen on the right. I wanted to see how many people would believe something just because it was posted on Facebook. To make this even more interesting I was not even dating anyone. I let a couple of people in on it. However, surprisingly everyone seemed to believe it.

No one even questioned whom I supposedly was engaged too. I received a few texts asking about if it was true. However, the most interesting part was the number of phone calls my parents received. People were calling that did not even have Facebook. This information spread like wild fire demonstrating how seriously and frequently people use sites such as this one. Without the ability to interact in person people more easily accept information. This can be seen through more than just social websites such as in texts, e-mails, and cards. The written word does not provide the ability to read body language, which we heavily rely upon in communication. With technology allowing us to communicate at a distance people also run the risk of misunderstanding what is said which could result in fights. For example sarcasm is not always perceived without the tone of voice to rely on. Although technology allows new opportunities for communication it also presents new challenges iin communication.

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Communication