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Plant guide

A growing success...


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Publisher:

Layout and text:

Photos delivered by:

Water colour illustrations:

Tropica Aquarium Plants Mejlbyvej 200 DK-8250 Egaa Denmark Tel. +45 86220566 Fax +45 86228466 E-mail: tropica@tropica.dk www.tropica.com

envision Christiansgade 30 DK-8100 Aarhus C Denmark

Jan Ole Pedersen Claus Christensen Ole Pedersen Christel Kasselmann Oliver Knott Eu It Hai Olaf Deters Martin Rask Thomsen George Farmer

Verner Hancke Kirsten Hjørne Kirsten Tind

Illustration: Staurogyne repens

Printing: Scanprint A/S Š All rights reserved


Habitat for Staurogyne repens

Discovering new plants for the aquarium… It is Tropica’s aim to continuously contribute new planting opportunities for the aquarium hobby. That’s how it has been since 1970 and how it will continue into the future. One of our latest successes has been the introduction of Staurogyne repens that was found in the Rio Amazonas, Brazil (little picture). Staurogyne can be attached to stones and roots or it can form a dense carpet in the foreground of the aquarium. It can also form a compact cushion growth, as shown in the picture. The use of watercolours in the diagrams helps to reproduce an accurate representation of how the plant appears in the aquarium in terms of colour and texture. This plant guide contains an extensive list of interesting plants that will provide you with both inspiration and advice for how to get the best experiences possible for this wonderful hobby. Read and enjoy!

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Welcome to Tropica With this guide we would like to give you the best possible opportunities for getting the most from your aquariums. We know that the inspiration and desire to take up this great hobby often starts from a beautiful aquarium that you have witnessed; perhaps at a friend’s home, in a magazine, website, or at an aquatic retailer. Unfortunately, we also know that many new aquarium owners will give up this hobby; sometimes after only six to twelve months. So, why is this? Even if you are an experienced hobbyist it can be difficult to select and purchase the appropriate equipment required for your aquarium. In many aquatic retailers you will often find an overwhelming choice of aquariums, fish, plants, lighting options, substrates/gravel, liquid fertilizers, CO2 units and filters. This guide will help you to identify your specific needs, but it is also important to consult with a retailer that has appropriate experience in planted aquariums. Through this publication we will assist you in ensuring a successful start. We highlight the fundamental conditions that you must be aware of whether you are a beginner or an experienced aquarist. You will find this guide focusing mainly on aquarium plants. These plants have been produced by dedicated and experienced professionals who every day ensure you receive the best possible quality products and advice. Please visit our website, www.tropica.com where you can gain further inspiration and information. We wish you a very successful start and long-term success with your hobby! Yours faithfully, Lars Green Managing Director

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Content Let the dream become reality

Page 6

Examples of layouts Page 7 Introduction to Tropica’s product range

Page 12

Pots and XL’s Page 13 AquaDecor – plants grown on wood and lavastone Page 14 Mosses – plenty of opportunities Page 16 Floating plants – another perspective Page 17 Bunched plants – easy and fast planting Page 18 Bulbs – the joy of expectations Page 19 Plants from A-Z

Page 20

Tropica’s ABC Page 87 Before you start Page 88 Tips and tricks for planting and growing Page 90 Algae growth can be limited by simple methods Page 94 Tropica AquaCare

Page 96

Index

Page 98

Illustration: Azolla caroliniana

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Let the dream become reality Through inspiration and advice Tropica will help you to get started on the right path. On the following five pages you will find five different layouts: The classic layout, the starter layout, the children’s aquarium, the nano aquarium and finally an example of a high-impact and colourful layout. Each layout is detailed and you will see the list of the plants in the aquarium and a layout plan (the number of pots used are indicated in parentheses). Visit www.tropica.com for more photos, layouts and information. Relevant information concerning difficulty and technical equipment will also be discussed. This information is also available on our website. The above issues are meant as a guideline to help you get the best possible start with your aquarium, but it is also to help you maintain your interest in this hobby!

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Photo: Oliver Knott


The Classic Layout An example of an aquarium that will fit in several settings: The living room, the kitchen or in your office. This layout is classic because of its island composition. The foreground is a thriving carpet of Lilaeopsis and the colorful ’Rosanervig’ is the focal point of the aquarium. By planting Anubias and Cryptocoryne in the middle of the aquarium will create a contrast of dark green to the bright green carpet and the colorful ’Rosanervig’. Java moss attached to wood will create both depth and maturity. The composition of plants provides a fine balance between fast growing plants (they take up nutrient and reduce algae growth) and slow growing plants that require less maintaining. Tip! ’Rosanervig’ is an undemanding plant. Nesaea crassicaulis or Rotala rotundifolia are suitable alternatives as easy and coloured plants.

Difficulty

Volume

Dimensions

Light

co2

Time/Week

Some experience

128 L

80 x 40 x 40 cm

2 x 24 W (T5)

20 mg/L

1 Hour

Plant List A

G

D

B

G

F

H

A

C

H

E E

H E

E G

A

Ceratopteris thalictroides (x 2)

B

Hygrophila polysperma ’Rosanervig’ (x 1)

C

Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia ”1705” (x 1)

D

Anubias barteri ”coffeefolia” (x 1)

E

Anubias barteri var. nana (x 4)

F

Cryptocoryne becketti ”petchii” (x 1)

G

Lilaeopsis brasiliensis (x 5)

H

Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia) (x 1)

G

Result 55 days after set-up A A

B

H H

D

E

C

F

G

E

G

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The Starter Layout In most pet shops it’s easy to find a starter aquarium kit. It is a complete set containing aquarium, light, heater and filter. Most beginners would like a thriving aquarium with bold colours and a large number of fish. However, experience shows that a starter kit often provides low lighting levels so there are only few plants suitable to this type of aquarium. We have for this set-up chosen standard plants only! Microsorum and Cryptocoryne are both slow growing and Echinodorus and Vallisneria to create volume in the aquarium. Limnophila is centrally planted, right under the light and is an example of a plant that grows fast and which helps creating a good balance in the aquarium. Tip! By using AquaDecor products with plants like Microsorum and Anubias for the set-up, the aquarium will look more adapted from the start. These products require less light and they are already well established on root or lavastone.

Difficulty

Volume

Dimensions

Light

co2

Time/week

Easy

54 L

60 x 30 x 30 cm

15 W (T8)

INGEN

0.5 hour

A

B

C

D

E

Plant List A

Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae) (x 1)

B

Limnophila sessiliflora (x 1)

C

Vallisneria americana (natans) (x 1)

D

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’Tropica’ (x 1)

E

Microsorum pteropus ’Windeløv’ (x 1)

F

Cryptocoryne parva (x 1)

F

Result 48 days after set-up

C

A

B E D

F

8


The Children’s Aquarium Some of the main considerations when planting the children’s aquarium are colours, impact and action. We have chosen a dinosaur/ animal layout for this set-up, but you can find a large selection of ornaments at your local shop such as pirates, castles, treasure chests, sunken ships etc. In order to ensure the correct balance in the children’s aquarium you will definitely need plants! The number of plants must be adjusted to the number of fish. It should be plants that easily adapt to the environment and that help the water to stay clean and algae free. Below we have listed a selection of both fast and slow growing species that are all good starter plants. Tip! Buy livebearing fish for the children’s aquarium such as guppies and platies. They are hardy, brightly coloured and breed frequently. They also eat algae. Ask your local dealer for further information.

Difficulty

Volume

Dimensions

Light

co2

Time/week

Easy

112 L

80 x 40 x 40 cm

2 x 18 W (T8)

None

0.5 hour

Plant List C A B

D

F

E F

A

Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae) (x 1)

B

Ludwigia repens ’Rubin’ (x 1)

C

Microsorum pteropus (x 1)

D

Microsorum pteropus ’Windeløv’ (x 1)

E

Anubias barteri var. nana (x 4)

F

Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia) (x 2)

Result 48 days after set-up

A

C

F F

D

B E

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The Nano Aquarium Over the last few years nano aquariums have become very popular. Partly because they fit well into the modern family’s way of living and also because the use of different mosses and shrimps are a growing trend. This layout is more advanced and requires both good light and CO2. Three different foreground plants have been used for this layout. All with different leaf shapes. Hemianthus with it’s millimeter-sized small leaves that capture tiny oxygen bubbles, Staurogyne with slightly bigger leaves and a creeping growth, and finally Pogostemon that creates dense, curly leaves. Behind the stony soil a Heteranthera contribute with plumpness and vigor. Many plants are suitable for the nano aquariums and especially mosses are popular! Most plant types are suitable but frequently cutting is a must if using taller and fast growing plants. Tip! Small algae-eating fish and shrimps, frequent water change and regular care are important elements to maintain an optimal water quality in your nano aquarium. Difficulty

Volume

Dimensions

Light

co2

Time/week

Experienced

12 L

30 x 20 x 20 cm

24 W (T5)

25 mg/L

1 Hour

D

Plant List

A

A

C

A

Staurogyne repens (x 2)

B

Pogostemon helferi (x 2)

C

Hemianthus callitrichoides ’’Cuba’’ (x 4)

D

Heteranthera zosterifolia (x 1)

B B

C B

C

B

C

Result 42 days after set-up

D

A C

B

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The Show Aquarium The Aquarium for plant lovers! This aquarium contains a large number of plants, it’s colourful, contains new plants and has an impressing layout with rocks and “spider-like roots”. We show with this layout how transitions can be made entirely from low foreground plants to rock formations and how to create a wedge between the rocks by using medium high plants. We use Vallisneria as an easy carpet in the background. Space is created for the Echinodorus ‘Ozelot’ that may be the most beautiful, coloured Echinodorus in the aquarium. Christmas moss has been attached to the roots and helps to creating depth and a sense of maturity in the aquarium. Tip! Carpets of foreground plants help to maintain a good balance in the aquarium and need to be maintained regularly. There are many suitable species; Eleocharis, Lilaeopsis, Echinodorus tenellus… the list is long!

Difficulty

Volume

Dimensions

Light

co2

Time/week

Experienced

297 L

132 x 50 x 45 cm

4 x 54 W (T5)

25 mg/L

1-2 Hours

A

B

I

I

D

A

C

F

E

D

H

E

F G

H

H

Plant List A

Vallisneria nana (x 8)

B

Echinodorus ’Ozelot’ (x 1)

C

Lindernia rotundifolia (x 2)

D

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’’brown’’ (x 2)

E

Staurogyne repens (x 3)

F

Pogostemon erectus (x 3)

G

Hemianthus callitrichoides ’’Cuba’’ (x 1)

H

Eleocharis parvula (x 10)

I

Vesicularia dubyana ’Christmas’ (x 1)

Result 55 days after set-up B

A

A

C

I

I

F E H

G

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Introduction to Tropica’s product range On the following eight pages we will introduce to you our range of high quality products. These different groups will help you to understand the extensive possibilities you will have when selecting these plants, whilst also providing a source of inspiration. The product groups are being divided into pots, XL-plants, AquaDecor products, mosses, floating plants, bunches and bulbs. The alphabetical index on page 98 list all plant varieties, all marked with rate of difficulty, and an index on page 99 has divided all plants into product groups.

Hygrophila polysperma ’Rosanervig’ • Dense and bushy stem plant • White and pink marbled leaves • Adapts to most environments

Glossostigma elatinoides • Attractive and challenging foreground plant • Compact and vigorous growth • Require intensive light

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Nesaea pedicellata • Colourful and easy stem plant • Addition of CO2 to achieve intense colour • Suitable for middleground

Limnophila sessiliflora • Attractive and fast growing stem plant • Develop a dense and bushy growth • Good starter plant

POTS Tropica have a great selection of pots. The demands of the plants vary from easy to difficult, and this also can affect the price. We ensure good quality by ensuring a great deal of plant material is in each pot. Every potted plant can de divided into several smaller portions for planting. Furthermore, we can guarantee healthy and well-developed roots in all plants. XL – when it’s the size you require Some of our pots are also available as XL-plants if you ever need fully grown plants for your aquarium. XL-plants are more sturdy and are suitable for Cichlid aquariums. XL and pot

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AquaDecor – plants grown on wood and lavastone AquaDecor products are a range of plants taking root on bogwood or lavastone. Plants that grow directly on wood and stone will be far more hardy than plants growing in pots. The AquaDecor products gives you a variety of applications. You can create an aquarium that looks mature from the very start. For aquariums with fishes that are hard on plants both Microsorum and Anubias (hardy plants) are recommendable.

AquaDecor for creating life-like landscapes: • Products that create depth in the aquarium • An easy and fast way to achieve the result • Hardy plants that adapt easily

AquaDecor with Anubias and Microsorum for Cichlids: • Cichlids rake up the bottom of the aquarium • Cichlids eat off the plants • Hardy plants that adapt easily

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AquaDecor is available with suction caps • Create hiding places for the fish • Create depth in the aquarium • Can hang both on the side and on the back of the wall in the aquarium

AquaDecor Sizes • Roots – approx. length: Nano (  7-10 cm) Small (12-25 cm) Large (30-40 cm) • Lavastone – approx. sizes: Small (  7-15 cm) Large (20-30 cm)

Microsorum pteropus ‘Windeløv’ – photo: Jan Ole Pedersen

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Mosses – plenty of opportunities! Moss is available in a large number of varieties, and has become more popular over the last few years. The moss is normally sold as portions and it has many various possibilities for planting. A common aspect for mosses is that they should be attached to wood or stone. Tip! To avoid or minimize algae growth you should have a large number of algae-eating shrimps, fishes and snails in the aquarium. It is also recommended to put some floating plants when you start up the aquarium. Floating plants will take up the nutrient until the aquarium obtains a good balance and the mosses are growing willingly.

Attaching mosses to driftwood with sewing thread: • Can be attached to all kind of decoration materials • Must be pruned frequently to maintain shape • See index p. 99 and “Plants A-Z” for species

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Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia) – photo: George Farmer


Ceratopteris thalictroides • A potted plant that is suitable also as a floating plant • Develop very decorative roots • Fast growing and take nutrient

Limnobium laevigatum • Most decorative floating plants • Creates shadow and hidings for surface fish • See index p. 99 and “Plants from A-Z” for more floating plants

Floating plants – another perspective! Floating plants are normally sold as portions, in the same way as Tropica’s mosses. They are fast growing, rapidly take up nutrients and help to create shade. These plants are therefore ideal to help reduce algae growth during the start-up of the aquarium. Their decorative roots make a good hiding place for breeding fish and their fry.

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Bunched plants – easy and fast planting! Bunched plants are mainly stem plants without roots. The most common bunched plants like Egeria, Cabomba and Vallisneria are all easy plants that quickly develop roots in their bottom layer. Most bunched plants are fast growing and are therefore suitable for the start up of your aquarium. They also take up nutrition rapidly and minimise algae growth. TIP! Make sure not to plant stems too close knowing that the types are fast growing. Re-plant runners and new stems as well as top shoots.

Egeria densa • Popular bunched plant • Fast growing • Undemanding

Vallisneria natans • Easy and steady starter plant • Suitable for planting in the corners behind in the aquarium

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Nymphea lotus (zenkeri) • Beautiful and popular bulb plant • Numerous green and red colours • Good light increases colour intensity

Aponogeton bulbs • Bulbs have many forms • Leaves can be curled, wavy or thick • The plants are vigorous and decorative

Bulbs – the joy of expectations! Plants like Aponogeton and Nymphea when under water produce new shoot from the bulb. When planting the bulb in the bottom of the aquarium make sure that the shoots won’t be covered as they will then rot. Bulb plants are recommended as solitary plants as they are fast growing and takes up a lot of space in the aquarium. TIP! When you buy bulbs make sure that they have a healthy shoot. When planting it into the bottom of the aquarium only the bulb itself must be covered in the gravel. The shoot must be on the surface of the gravel.

Nymphea lotus (zenkeri) – photo: Claus Christensen

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Plants from A-Z To help you get started with the understanding of the plant species and varieties, we will explain how to read the plant diagrams. Below you will see an example of a plant diagram with all relevant information and numbers referring to the list below. Further information is available on www.tropica.com

Nesaea crassicaulis

033B

1

4

PRICE GROUP: POT 5

3

6

2

FamilY: Lythraceae

5

ORIGIN: Africa

7

HEIGHT:

30 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

8 - 15+ cm

8

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 28°C

9

GH:

1 - 13 dH

10

pH:

5.5 - 8.5

11 12

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH

13

FAST

14

DIFFICULT

15 16

Nesaea crassicaulis is a beautiful and highly recommended aquarium plant, although it has high demands for light. It has red-brown, cognac-coloured leaves. Grows best in soft and slightly acidic water. Make sure the lower leaves get sufficient light, otherwise they will die off. This plant is similar to Ammannia species and is often mistaken for them. But in the aquarium it can be recognised by its yellow-green stems. Easy to propagate by side shoots or cuttings, which can be cut off and planted in the bottom.

1 The plant’s latin name

6 Picture of sales pot 

2 Tropica’s order number

7 Area of origin – where the plant is most widespread

3 Hand painted water colour illustration

8 Plant height/width – average size after 2 months in the aquarium

4 Varieties and price groups (see the section for product range)

9 Temperature – range tolerated by the plant

5 Name of the plant family

10 GH (water hardness) – medium hardness is GH 5-10 dH 11 pH Tolerance – neutral pH is 6.5-7.5

www.tropica.com

30-50 cm

8-15+cm l B

5

(!7AD24J-addcai! Nesaea

crassicaulis

Fast

� � � � � Easy

13 Light conditions – medium requirement referred to as 0.5 Watt/L 14 Growth rate

� � � � � Slow

12 The letter refers to the “Tips & Tricks” diagram on page 90 for  plantation and maintenance

15 Plant’s demands. Each plant is marked with a colour spot that  indicates the growing conditions required: Green = easy, Yellow = medium, Red = difficult

Difficult

� � � � � 033B POT

79C

220032

CTRP02 5_B.pd x105m f m

20

www.tropica.com

16 How the plant looks after it has adapted to the conditions of  the aquarium.

CTRP02 5_F.pdf x105m m

Africa 22-28°C pH: 5.5-8.5 GH: 1-14dH


Alternanthera reineckii 'Pink' (roseafolia)

023 PRICE GROUP: POT 5, BDT 3, XL 9

FamilY: Amaranthaceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

17 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

The purple colour underneath Alternanthera reineckii ‘Pink’ leaves provides an effective contrast to the many green plants in an aquarium - particularly when planted in groups. Good light encourages the leaves to turn red. Easy to propagate by nipping off the terminal bud and planting it in the bottom. This also makes the mother plant more bushy, because more side shoots are formed.

Alternanthera reineckii 'Purple' (lilacina)

023B PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Amaranthaceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

17 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 13 dH

pH:

5-7

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Alternanthera reineckii ‘Purple’ needs plenty of light to grow and form dark-red leaves. In open aquariums it grows willingly up through the surface, and like other difficult plants growth improves considerably if CO2 is added. Shortage of micronutrients results in pale leaves. Like other stem plants Alternanthera reineckii ‘Purple’ is best in groups.

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Anubias barteri var. angustifolia

101C PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: West Africa HEIGHT:

10 - 15+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

D

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Anubias barteri var. angustifolia is a beautiful plant with long, narrow leaves. Anubias barteri var. angustifolia used to be sold as Anubias afzelii, but the latter is actually a much larger species. It is grown in the same conditions as Anubias barteri var. nana. It is not eaten by herbivorous fish.

Anubias barteri var. barteri

101A PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: West Africa

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Anubias barteri var. barteri is an undemanding plant. It grows somewhat larger than Anubias barteri var. nana but is grown in the same conditions. Anubias barteri varies considerably in terms of size and leaf shape. Like other Anubias-species, it is best planted in a shady spot to restrict algae growth on the leaves. It is also suitable for terrariums and aquaterrariums. Herbivorous fish do not eat the very tough and robust leaves.

22

HEIGHT:

25 - 45 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

D

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia ''1705''

101U PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 12

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

7 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

D

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia “1705’’ is also simply called “1705’’ (the number used by an Australian tissue propagation laboratory). It is a very beautiful variety with heartshaped leaves. The leaves live for several years, so Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia can easily form large groups despite its slow growth. A group of Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia growing more than 50 cm wide in a few years is not unusual.

Anubias barteri ''coffeefolia''

101G PRICE GROUP: POT 9

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Cultivar

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HEIGHT:

15 - 25 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

D

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Anubias barteri “coffeefolia’’ is a very beautiful, low variety of Anubias barteri. It is characteristic that the leaves arch considerably between the leaf ribs, and the new leaves are red-brown. The colour combination and leaf shape make it an attractive variety in both large and small aquariums. It flowers frequently under water but does not produce seeds there. Anubias-species seem to grow so slowly that they do not realise that they have been submerged. It is not eaten by herbivorous fish.

Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia ''1705'' 101U 23


Anubias barteri var. nana

101 PRICE GROUP: POT 8, AquaDecor

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Cameroun HEIGHT:

5 - 15 cm

WIDTH:

8 - 12+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

D

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Anubias barteri var. nana is a small, attractive plant which thrives in all conditions. It grows slowly, and the leaves survive for several years, giving slow-growing algae the chance to become established. The best result is achieved by planting on a stone or tree root. Fishing line can be used to attach the plant until it gains a hold. If planted on the bottom the rhizome must not be covered because it tends to rot. It flowers frequently under water. It is not eaten by herbivorous fish.

Aponogeton boivinianus

088 PRICE GROUP: POT 9, KN 7

FamilY: Aponogetonaceae ORIGIN: Madagascar HEIGHT:

30 - 60+ cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

16 - 30째C

GH:

9 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: C

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Aponogeton boivinianus is a large, strong plant which is only suitable for large aquariums. In favourable conditions it can form very large leaves (up to 80 cm long and 8 cm wide). The oldest leaves are deep dark-green, while younger leaves are light-green and sometimes brownish until they are fully developed. In the wild Aponogeton boivinianus is found in fast-flowing water, and it prefers some flow in the aquarium water. It needs a dormant period when the root does not produce leaves.

24

Anubias barteri var. nana 101


Did you know… Tropica was the first to introduce the Anubias barteri var. nana back in 1973-74 to the world market. Anubias barteri var. nana originates from Cameroon in Africa, and was brought to Denmark by the 2. Galathea-expedition (1950-52). In 1969 Tropica’s founder, Holger Windeløv, found it in an aquarium shop in Copenhagen. The price was back then settled per leaf! With the assistance from an English company they managed to propagate the plant and to launch the plant in larger quantities.

!

The Galathea-expedition discovered the Anubias barteri var. nana by the foot of Mount Cameroon.

A section from a map of Africa

25


Aponogeton crispus

083 PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Aponogetonaceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: C

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Aponogeton crispus looks good in any aquarium with its light-green, transparent leaves. It makes few demands, although growth is always best in soft, slightly acidic water with a nutritious bottom. In such conditions the plant produces a mass of leaves, and it flowers very frequently in optimum conditions. Aponogeton crispus is generally found in ponds that are only filled with water in the rainy season, but it does not need a dormant period in the aquarium.

Aponogeton longiplumulosus

089D PRICE GROUP: POT 9, KN 7

FamilY: Aponogetonaceae ORIGIN: Madagascar HEIGHT:

35 - 60 cm

WIDTH:

25 - 50 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: C

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Aponogeton longiplumulosus has large, fluted leaves, making it a wonderful plant which can be recommended for large aquariums. It is relatively undemanding, and makes no special demands on water quality. It also flowers frequently, making it a beautiful addition to any large open aquarium. It stops growing at regular intervals, but normally starts again after a few weeks of dormancy.

26

Aponogeton crispus

083


Aponogeton madagascariensis

089 PRICE GROUP: POT 9, KN 7

FamilY: Aponogetonaceae ORIGIN: Madagascar HEIGHT:

25 - 50+ cm

WIDTH:

25 - 30+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: C

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Aponogeton madagascariensis is a speciality in botanical gardens all over the world. Aponogeton madagascariensis makes such high demands on water quality and the bottom that it can only be recommended as a solitary plant in large, specialised aquariums in which the water is replaced frequently. There are several varieties, with different structures and leaf widths.

Aponogeton ulvaceus

086 PRICE GROUP: POT 9, KN 7

FamilY: Aponogetonaceae ORIGIN: Madagascar HEIGHT:

30 - 50+ cm

WIDTH:

30 - 35 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: C

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Aponogeton ulvaceus is one of the most beautiful species in the Aponogeton-family. The leaves are delicate light-green and transparent with fluted margin. A single root can produce more than 40 leaves. This means that the plant is best as a solitary plant in large aquariums. It is relatively tolerant, and thrives in both soft and hard water, particularly if CO2 is added. There are many varieties of Aponogeton ulvaceus, some of which need a dormant period when the root does not produce leaves.

27


Azolla caroliniana

013 PRICE GROUP: POR 6

FamilY: Azollaceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

1 - 2 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

5 - 26째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE:

J

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Azolla caroliniana is a small floating fern housing blue-green algae in its leaves. These algae are capable of absorbing nitrogen from the air, which can then be used by the plant. Azolla caroliniana is used as nitrogen fertiliser in rice paddies, and as animal feed. There are several related varieties on the market, with similar appearance. A decorative plant for open aquariums.

Bacopa australis

043A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN:

Brazil

HEIGHT:

7 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

2 - 4+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Bacopa australis was discovered in southern Brazil (australis = southern), and it does not come from Australia, as might otherwise be assumed from its name. Like the other Bacopa-species, Bacopa australis is also easy to grow in an aquarium. Under certain conditions it creeps across the bottom to form an elegantly decorative light green cushion. When Bacopa australis grows in a good light, the leaves become reddish. It is easily propagated by taking side shoots and planting them in the substrate.

28

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Bacopa caroliniana

043 PRICE GROUP: POT 5, XL 9, BDT 3

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: USA HEIGHT:

10 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

3 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Bacopa caroliniana has been used as an aquarium plant for many years. Apart from relatively good light it makes few demands. Its slow growth rate makes it one of the few stem plants that do not need much attention. Like most stem plants, it is most decorative when planted in small groups. Easy to propagate by cuttings; take a side shoot and plant it in the bottom.

Bacopa monnieri

044 PRICE GROUP: POT 4

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: Pan Tropic HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

8 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-9

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Bacopa monnieri is an easy and highly recommended plant which thrives in almost all conditions. It is a plant which is suitable for the hard water found in many European aquariums. Propagate by cuttings; take a side shoot or terminal bud and plant it in the bottom. Most beautiful when a great number of shoots are planted in a group.

29


Bolbitis heudelotii

006 PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11, AquaDecor

FamilY: Lomariopsidaceae ORIGIN: West Africa HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 25+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5-7

CODE:

D

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

A water fern with very beautiful transparent green leaves. When planting do not cover the rhizome because it will rot, and it is best to plant Bolbitis heudelotii on a root or stone. Keep the plant in position with fishing line until it has gained a hold. Easy to propagate by splitting the horizontal rhizome. Growth can be increased considerably by supplying CO2, and is only optimal in soft, slightly acidic water.

Cabomba caroliniana

015 PRICE GROUP: BDT 3

FamilY: Cabombaceae ORIGIN: South America

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

A very popular aquarium plant owing to its beautiful foliage. The least demanding of the Cabomba-species, but still causes problems in poorly lit aquariums. If there is not sufficient light, try Limnophila sessiliflora, which requires less light. Most decorative when planted in groups. Eaten locally as a vegetable.

30

HEIGHT:

30 - 80+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 8+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 26째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

4-7

CODE:

B

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Cardamine lyrata

024 PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY:

Brassicaceae

ORIGIN:

Japan

HEIGHT:

20 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 24°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cardamine lyrata is actually a marsh plant. But it is also a familiar aquarium plant which thrives under water. A characteristic trailing growth form makes it highly decorative, and “water roots’’ often form on the plant itself. Plant in groups, and make sure the water temperature does not exceed 28 degrees for long (this makes the leaves much smaller and the plant more leggy). Also suitable in garden ponds in the summer.

Ceratophyllum demersum 'Foxtail'

021A PRICE GROUP: POR 8

FamilY: Ceratophyllaceae ORIGIN: Cosmopolitan

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HEIGHT:

5 - 80+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

10 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-9

CODE:

J

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Ceratophyllum demersum ‘Foxtail’ was found in a smaller tributary in Bolivia during an expedition to Rio Guapore, a boundary river between Brazil and Bolivia. Ceratophyllum has no roots as such, but it can still be planted in the bottom of an aquarium. ‘Foxtail’ differs because its leaves are closer together and it has lateral shoots, which gives it an attractive, compact appearance. The plant also distinguishes itself because it is hardier and its stalks do not break as easily as those of other Ceratophyllum-varieties.

31


Ceratopteris thalictroides

005A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Pteridaceae ORIGIN: Pan Tropic HEIGHT:

15 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-9

CODE: M

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This plant normally grows fast, but the addition of CO2 may be necessary to promote growth. In small open aquariums it can grow out of the aquarium and form beautiful surface leaves. The finely branched leaves are very decorative and provide good contrast to other leaf shapes. In good light Ceratopteris thalictroides grows fast and helps prevent algae by consuming large amounts of nutrients. This makes it a good starter plant in small aquariums.

Cladophora aegagrophila

000C PRICE GROUP: STK 5

FamilY: Cladophoraceae ORIGIN: Cosmopolitan HEIGHT:

3 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

3 - 10 cm

TEMPERATURE:

5 - 28째C

GH:

9 - 30 dH

pH:

6 - 8.5

CODE: M

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Cladophora aegagrophila is not really a plant, but a ball of algae, so it is a decorative exception from the rule about avoiding algae at all costs. It is normally found in shallow lakes, where the movement of the waves forms it into a sphere. In an aquarium it must be turned regularly to keep it in shape. Cladophora aegagrophila can be divided into smaller pieces, which become spherical with time, or which form a carpet, if attached to roots and stones. Protected in parts of Japan.

32

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


DID YOU KNOW… It is Tropica’s aim to produce plants of the best possible quality but also with the lowest possible use of resources! In 2007 Tropica built entirely new and state-of-the-art production facilities that made it possible to optimise the consumption of energy, reduce the use of water, fertilizer and chemicals. Tropica has the MPS certificate – in international standard that proves that we are dedicated to reducing resource consumption continuously. As an example all rainwater is being gathered from the roof of the nursery. The surface covers 11,000 m2 and conducts the water into a 1,400 m3 tank that supplies the nursery with water. All rainwater is being recycled.

Watertank (1,400 m3)

!

Tropica’s roof surface is 11,000 m2

Watering of a production platform with Samolus valerandi

33


Crinum calamistratum

094A PRICE GROUP: POT 9, XL 13

FamilY: Amaryllidaceae ORIGIN: West Africa HEIGHT:

40 - 120 cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: L

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Crinum calamistratum is a very graceful bulbous plant with dark-green, very narrow leaves. It forms smaller bulbs than the other Crinum-species, and demands more light. In the aquarium plants that are thriving form a number of small bulbs. It is not eaten by herbivorous fish. It can also be used in brackish aquariums with low salt concentrations.

Crinum natans

094 PRICE GROUP: POT 9, XL 13

FamilY: Amaryllidaceae ORIGIN: West Africa HEIGHT:

50 - 150 cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: L

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Crinum natans is a very beautiful and graceful bulbous plant with dark-green leaves. Plant so the top 2/3 of the bulb is visible. When the plant grows older (if it is thriving) it sometimes forms small bulbs and sends a flower stem up to the water surface with a beautiful and aromatic lily flower. The plant varies considerably in leaf width and the shape of the leaf margin. It is also suitable for indoor ponds, and is not eaten by herbivorous fish.

34

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Crinum thaianum

093 PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 10

FamilY: Amaryllidaceae ORIGIN: Thailand HEIGHT:

60 - 200+ cm

WIDTH:

20 - 25 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: L

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Crinum thaianum is a distinctive bulbous plant belonging to the lily family. It is undemanding apart from the fact that it needs plenty of space. Plant so the top 2/3 of the bulb is visible, because otherwise the bulb tends to rot. When the plant grows older it sometimes sends a flower stem up to the water surface with an aromatic, elegant lily flower. Herbivorous fish leave it alone due to its tough leaves. In Thailand the bulb is used in a cream used to soften the skin. It is also suitable for indoor ponds.

Cryptocoryne beckettii ''petchii''

108A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

10 - 15 cm

WIDTH:

8 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cryptocoryne beckettii “petchii’’ is a small variety of Cryptocoryne beckettii, which has beautiful, slightly fluted leaf margins. Like many other Cryptocorynes, the leaf colour and shape depends largely on environmental conditions in the aquarium. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

35


Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae

125 PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Thailand HEIGHT:

20 - 60+ cm

WIDTH:

15 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

5-9

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae is the oldest known variety of Cryptocoryne crispatula. In the region it comes from in southern Thailand there are limestone mountains, and the water can be very hard. Like many other Cryptocorynes it needs to acclimatise before growth starts in earnest. In recent years a narrow-leaf variety called Cryptocoryne crispatula var. flaccidifolia has often been sold.

Cryptocoryne parva

106 PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

5 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 7 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 29째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Cryptocoryne parva is the smallest of all Cryptocorynes. It is one of the few species that does not significantly change its leaf shape and colour depending on cultivation conditions. It needs more light than most other Cryptocorynes because it almost loses its leaf blade under water. So it must never be overshadowed by other plants. Individual plants should be planted a few centimetres apart, and after about six months they will form a cohesive low group of plants. Recommended for foreground planting.

36

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Cryptocoryne undulata ''broad leaves''

110A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

15 - 25+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Unlike the common Cryptocoryne undulata, this plant has wider leaves and a beautiful, flecked leaf pattern. It also grows larger. It is known botanically as a triploid variety. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

Cryptocoryne wendtii ''brown''

109C PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

15 - 25 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cryptocoryne wendtii “brown’’ is a beautiful brown variety of Cryptocoryne wendtii. It is a mistake to believe that Cryptocorynes require soft water. In large parts of Sri Lanka the water is hard, so Sri Lanka Cryptocorynes are almost all suitable for hard European water. If the plant is affected by the so-called “cryptocoryne disease’’, do not remove it from the aquarium because a few weeks later it will produce new shoots. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

37


Cryptocoryne wendtii ''green''

109 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

5 - 10+ cm

WIDTH:

8 - 10 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cryptocoryne wendtii “green’’ is suitable for small aquariums. When grown in an open space the leaves will virtually lie on the bottom. Like most other Sri Lanka Cryptocorynes, it also grows well in hard water. Like many other plants, it can be affected by cryptocoryne disease. One way to prevent this is by only leaving the 4-5 newest leaves on the plant when planting. It is a good foreground plant, even in small aquariums. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

Cryptocoryne wendtii 'Mi Oya'

109D PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

25 - 35 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This beautiful variety of Cryptocoryne wendtii is only found in the river Mi Oya. It has characteristic red-brown, slightly hammered leaves. Many Cryptocorynes can grow at high temperatures. In the wild this plant is found in streams with a temperature of more than 30 degrees C. At even higher temperatures the light intensity must be higher or the days longer. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

38

Cryptocoryne wendtii ''green'' 109


Cryptocoryne wendtii 'Tropica'

109E PRICE GROUP: POT 7, XL 11

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

6 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

8 - 12 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This beautiful variety with the dark, hammered leaves is named after ‘Tropica’. When grown in an open space the leaves will virtually lie on the bottom. It is suitable for small aquariums. Like most other Sri Lanka Cryptocorynes, it also grows well in hard water. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

Cryptocoryne x willisii

107 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Araceae ORIGIN: Sri Lanka HEIGHT:

7 - 20+ cm

WIDTH:

7 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

There is some confusion about the name of this plant. It used (mistakenly) to be called Cryptocoryne nevillii, but this is the name of a species that has never been used in aquariums. Like many other Cryptocorynes, not much happens the first month after planting. But then it starts to grow, and willingly produces plenty of runners which form a compact group. See other Cryptocorynes for further information.

39


Cyperus helferi

133A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Cyperaceae ORIGIN: Thailand HEIGHT:

20 - 35 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 25 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cyperus-species are widespread all over the tropics, but only a few of them are good underwater plants. Cyperus helferi is the first Cyperus-species used in aquariums. It requires a relatively large amount of light, and CO2 addition is recommended to promote growth. In aquariums with good water flow the plant sways beautifully in the current.

Didiplis diandra

031 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Lythraceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

10 - 15+ cm

WIDTH:

2 - 4+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 26째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Didiplis diandra is a fine foreground plant which should be planted in small groups. In good light it develops red shoot tips which form a beautiful contrast with other green plants. A demanding plant which needs a lot of light and prefers soft water. CO2 addition boosts growth considerably. Also known as Peplis diandra.

40

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Echinodorus 'Aquartica'

074F PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

10 - 20+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

6.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Characteristic of Echinodorus ‘Aquartica’ are its round, bright green leaves. Its compact, low habit makes it suitable as a decorative solitary plant. Slow growing and easy to care for, Echinodorus ‘Aquartica’ retains the refreshing green colour of its leaves in normal lighting and nutrient conditions in the aquarium. The plant is a cross between several different cultivated plants, including Echinodorus horemanii and several roundleafed Echinodorus species. Echinodorus ‘Aquartica’ was developed by Kristian Iversen from the “Aquartica’’ company.

Echinodorus x barthii

072A PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

16 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus x barthii is a decorative and beautiful solitary plant for large aquariums. The leaves change colour from dark-red in the youngest leaves to dark-green in the oldest. The colour develops well when the light intensity is high and there are sufficient micro-nutrients in the aquarium. A nutritious bottom and CO2 addition promote growth. This plant takes a lot of light from plants underneath, so it must be pruned occasionally. It used to be sold as “Double Red’’.

41


Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae)

071 PRICE GROUP: POT 5, XL 10

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

20 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

25 - 40 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus bleheri is undemanding and beautiful. A nutritious bottom promotes growth, but the plant needs pruning to prevent it depriving plants underneath of light. Echinodorus bleheri does well even in poorly illuminated aquariums, as it grows towards the light. It is a hardy and easy solitary plant for both beginners and the more experienced with quite large aquariums. It has been sold under the name ‘’Paniculatus’’.

Echinodorus cordifolius ssp. fluitans

073D PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Mexico HEIGHT:

20 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

A comparatively fast-growing Echinodorus, suitable for large aquariums. Unlike other round-leafed varieties of the species, Echinodorus cordifolius ssp. fluitans is less likely to grow up over the water surface. If it grows large enough, it forms large leaves just under the surface instead.

42

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Did you know… Tropica was the first aquarium plant producer in the world to use stone wool as a growing media. The use of stone wool made it possible to grow plants in pots. In the early 1970’s all aquarium plants were sold as either bunched plants or as loose plants. By using the stone wool a new era opened for the production of aquarium plants. All over the world other producers of aquarium plants quickly adapted this way of producing plants as it is most suitable for export. Furthermore, it is the best way of protecting the plant’s roots from producer to end user.

Use of stone wool for the potting of the plants

!

Potting of Pogostemon helferi

Bacopa caroliniana with well developed roots

43


Echinodorus macrophyllus

073 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

30 - 50+ cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus macrophyllus is one of the large, orbiculate “sword’’ plants which grow up out of even large aquariums in good growing conditions. If light is available less than 11 hours a day it is easier to keep down inside the aquarium. It is suitable for open aquariums, where it forms decorative heart-shaped leaves above the water surface. It is a good idea to spray the plant to prevent it drying out. It used to be sold as Echinodorus “radicans’’.

Echinodorus osiris

072 PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN:

Brazil

HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

In the 1970’s coloured aquarium plants were rare, which is why Echinodorus osiris with its red colour quickly became popular. A nutritious bottom promotes growth, and when there is a shortage of micro-nutrients new leaves turn pale, thus indicating that fertiliser may be necessary. It is generally an undemanding plant which is suitable for both soft and hard water. The red colour of the leaves grows stronger at higher light intensities. It used to be sold as Echinodorus rubra. It is not eaten by herbivorous fish.

44

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Echinodorus 'Ozelot'

073F PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

20 - 40+ cm

WIDTH:

25 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus ‘Ozelot’ is a decorative hybrid between Echinodorus schluteri ‘Leopard’ and Echinodorus x barthii. Naturally, it is the elliptical black spots on the red-brown leaves that have given this plant the name ‘Ozelot’. The spots are darkest on the youngest leaves, and unlike many other spotted Echinodorus, ‘Ozelot’ retains its spots even at low light intensity. It is an undemanding, good plant for beginners.

Echinodorus 'Ozelot Green'

073G PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

20 - 40+ cm

WIDTH:

25 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

A beautiful, dark-green variety of Echinodorus ‘Ozelot’. The dark spots form a bigger contrast on the light leaves. The leaf margin is fluted. A nutritious bottom promotes growth. It is an easy and highly recommended plant, which thrives in almost all conditions.

45


Echinodorus palaefolius var. latifolius

076 PRICE GROUP: POT 7, XL 11

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN:

Brazil

HEIGHT:

20 - 40+ cm

WIDTH:

20 - 40+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

In marshy conditions Echinodorus palaefolius var. latifolius has round leaves with a horizontal leaf base. Under water the leaves are narrower and longer. In the aquarium it tends to grow out of the water. This can be prevented by removing the long leaves just before they reach the water surface. The next leaves will then become shorter and the plant will remain under water. In open aquariums the plant can be allowed to grow out of the water, but the leaf margins often dry out if air humidity is low.

Echinodorus quadricostatus

068 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

10 - 15 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This plant has characteristic light-green leaves which form a good contrast to the darker aquarium plants. It is most beautiful when planted in groups. In good conditions it produces runners which spread over the bottom. Very light leaves are a sign of a shortage of micro-nutrients. There is some confusion about the name of this plant, and it has been sold as Echinodorus bolivianus var. magdalenensis.

46

Echinodorus palaefolius var. latifolius 076


Echinodorus 'Red Diamond'

074D PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

15 - 25 cm

WIDTH:

20 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus ‘Red Diamond’ appeared as a culture in the Ukraine, and is probably a cross between Echinodorus horemanni ‘Red’ and Echinodorus x barthii. The resultant hybrid is an attractive plant with ruby-red sword-shaped leaves. Unlike many of the other Echinodorus-species, Echinodorus ‘Red Diamond’ remains moderate in size, so it is extremely well suited as a solitary plant, even in small aquariums. Increasing the nutrients in the substrate results in more abundant growth, while favourable light conditions promote the formation of the ruby-red leaves.

Echinodorus 'Red Special'

073J PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

10 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

A hybrid of several different cultivated plants, characterised by copper-coloured, spatula-shaped leaves. In some cases these have darker red patches. The plant grows abundantly in a compact shape, and is very decorative as a solitary plant.

47


Echinodorus 'Rosé'

072B PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

25 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 25 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This beautiful plant is a hybrid between Echinodorus horemanii “Rot’’ and Echinodorus horizontalis. It was first produced in 1986 by Hans Barth in Dessau. New underwater leaves are a beautiful pink, and initially the leaves have red-brown spots. A nutritious bottom promotes growth, but otherwise Echinodorus ‘Rosé’ is undemanding and thus an excellent plant for beginners.

Echinodorus 'Rubin'

074B PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 13

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

30 - 50+ cm

WIDTH:

20 - 40 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Echinodorus ‘Rubin’ is a decorative hybrid between Echinodorus horemanii “rot’’ and Echinodorus x barthii. The transparent, ruby-red leaves with light leaf ribs provide a particularly intensive sheen. An undemanding plant whose growth is stimulated by CO2 addition and a nutritious bottom. A good solitary plant for large aquariums.

48

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Echinodorus tenellus

067 PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

5 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 8+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

19 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Small foreground plants for aquariums are in short supply, but Echinodorus tenellus is one of the best. The runners spread round the aquarium. A true “lawn’’ effect is only achieved at high light intensities, so you must make sure larger plants do not overshadow the plant. Plant individual plants a couple of centimetres apart (easiest with tweezers). A nutritious bottom promotes growth.

Echinodorus uruguayensis

070A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

20 - 55+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 30 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 26°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus uruguayensis has long, narrow, transparent, dark-green leaves, making it a very beautiful solitary plant for large aquariums. The leaf length and width vary considerably. In good growing conditions it forms an unusual number of leaves, and a nutritious bottom and CO2 addition and slightly acidic water promote growth. A number of species formerly regarded as distinct are now included under the name Echinodorus uruguayensis.

49


Echinodorus 'Vesuvius'

067C PRICE GROUP: POT 9

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

10 - 20 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Echinodorus ‘Vesuvius’ is a cultured species based on Echinodorus angustifolia from Oriental Aquarium Plants. The narrow and twisted green leaves makes it an unusual addition to the Echinodorus. It grows vigorously with many medium length and narrow leaves, and is highly decorative as a solitary plant. ‘Vesuvius’ spreads readily with runners. An easy and undemanding plant that requires medium to high light conditions.

Egeria densa

058 PRICE GROUP: BDT 3

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: Cosmopolitan

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Egeria densa is a good plant for beginners, and its rapid growth helps create a balance in the aquarium from the start. It can also help prevent algae because it absorbs a great number of nutrients from the water. The plant secretes antibiotic substances which can help prevent blue-green algae (a type of bacteria). The growth rate depends largely on the amount of light and nutrition available. Growth does not stop in unfavourable conditions, but the plant turns light in colour and the tendrils grow thin.

50

HEIGHT:

40 - 100 cm

WIDTH:

3 - 5 cm

TEMPERATURE:

10 - 26°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE:

B

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Did you know… Tropica’s employees are highly dedicated. Based on their long-term and vast experiences with aquarium plants you are guaranteed a top quality product. Despite the use of modern electronic equipment in the production of 130 species, it still takes a great deal of experience to identify and evaluate the necessary processes to optimize plant growth and health. It is Tropica’s philosophy that decisions concerning both the company and the products are being taken in accordance with our employees considerations. Job satisfaction and participation on decision-making processes ensures Tropica employees’ morale and motivation levels are outstanding.

!

Packing of Limnobium laevigatum in the submerged department

51


Eleocharis parvula

132C PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Cyperaceae ORIGIN: Cosmopolitan HEIGHT:

3 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

10 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: H

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Eleocharis parvula has short leaves and fast growth making it one of the most impressive carpet-forming foreground plants. It spreads rapidly by runners. It is a relatively easy and undemanding plant that does best with good light and a nutritious substrate. Can be planted in small portions in the substrate and can form a dense carpet in a matter of weeks given the right lighting and conditions. When the leaves get too long they can be pruned with scissors to about 2cm height, encouraging new growth.

Glossostigma elatinoides

045A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: New Zealand HEIGHT:

2 - 3+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 26째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: G

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Glossostigma elatinoides is much in demand in Japanese-inspired aquariums. It is one of the smallest aquarium plants, and thus a good foreground plant. A difficult plant demanding a lot of light. Grows upwards if light is poor. Make sure larger plants do not overshadow it. When planting in the aquarium small clumps (approx. 1/8 pot) should be placed at intervals of a few centimetres to help the plants grow together more quickly. CO2 addition and soft water promote growth significantly.

52

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Hemianthus callitrichoides ''Cuba''

048B PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: Cuba HEIGHT:

0.5 - 3 cm

WIDTH:

3 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: G

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Hemianthus callitrichoides is one of the smallest aquarium plants in the world, and creeps over the bottom with millimetre-sized round leaves. If planted in small clumps a few centimetres apart, it will spread rapidly and cover the bottom like a carpet. Hemianthus callitrichoides is an attractive foreground plant for small aquariums. Found on Cuba west of Havana.

Hemianthus micranthemoides

048A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

5 - 15+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: G

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Hemianthus micranthemoides is a graceful plant whose small, arched leaves make it look like a miniature version of Egeria. It has a characteristic trailing growth in intensive light, so it can be used as a foreground plant. A compact group of Hemianthus micranthemoides is very beautiful with its small, light-green leaves. In terrariums the plant forms a compact cushion. Used to be called Micranthemum micranthemoides.

53


Heteranthera zosterifolia

096 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Pontederiaceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

30 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Heteranthera zosterifolia is an extremely beautiful plant which forms a lot of side shoots and thus quickly forms a bushy plant group. In strong light growth is intensive, and the plant must be pruned before it becomes so compact that no light reaches the lower leaves. Water roots often form on the stem. In open aquariums it forms small blue flowers if some shoots are allowed to spread on the surface.

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (maritima)

039A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Apiaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

3 - 8 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides is a beautiful plant which can be difficult to grow. Intensive light is vital. In the wild it is found in very arid conditions which are rarely flooded. Used to be sold as Hydrocotyle “maritima’’.

54

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Hydrocotyle verticillata

039 PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Apiaceae ORIGIN: America HEIGHT:

3 - 7 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

10 - 26째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Unlike other Hydrocotyle species, this plant retains its trailing growth form. Optimum growth is only achieved in strong light and soft, slightly acidic water. It does not need to be rooted, but can be used as a floating plant. Hydrocotyle verticillata is definitely a foreground plant which can also be used in garden ponds. It can also be used as an indoor plant if the soil is kept moist.

Hygrophila corymbosa

053 PRICE GROUP: BDT 3

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HEIGHT:

30 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

B

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Hygrophila corymbosa is an undemanding starter plant that originates from Asia. In the aquarium it will spread fast and create bright green, long and wide leaves. It is a fast growing plant that must be pruned frequently. New shoots will spread from the stem and make the plant look bushier. The cuttings can be re-planted in the bottom of the aquarium where new roots form quickly.

55


Hygrophila corymbosa 'Angustifolia'

052A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

25 - 60 cm

WIDTH:

20 - 35 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Under water Hygrophila corymbosa ‘Angustifolia’ has relatively narrow leaves which are grouped close together. Plants sold in the shops are normally cultivated above water, and have rounder leaves with larger gaps between them.

Hygrophila corymbosa ''Compact''

052D PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

5 - 15 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

A very compact variety of Hygrophila corymbosa, with the leaves set close to the stalk. Forms numerous side shoots, enhancing the compact appearance. The leaves are a dark brownish green when the plant is delivered, but after a transitional period in the aquarium they turn light green and silver-white on the underside. In strong light the newest leaves are reddish brown in colour and in time the oldest ones die away - especially in dimmer light. New side shoots form often, to replace the old.

56

Hygrophila corymbosa 'Angustifolia' 052A


Did you know… Tropica’s tissue laboratory was started in 1994 and today more than one million plants are produced there annually for our own production, spread over more than 50 cultures (e.g. Hygrophila, Bacopa, and Pogostemon). Plants from the tissue laboratory get the perfect start to their lives with optimum growth conditions from both light and nutrition as they are being produced in glass containers isolated from their surroundings. Uniformity, heightened survival capacity, greater compactness, many plants in each pot, enhanced adaptability – these are just a few of the ideal properties that associated to plants that begin their lives at Tropica’s tissue laboratory.

Cutting of Marsilea hirsuta mother material

!

Tissue laboratory

More than one million plants sees the light in Tropica’s laboratory

57


Hygrophila corymbosa 'Siamensis'

053A PRICE GROUP: POT 4, XL 9

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: Thailand HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Under water the leaves are light-green and dense. In open aquariums Hygrophila corymbosa ‘Siamensis’ grows easily above the water surface, where it forms blue-green leaves and small blue flowers. It grows fast and the shoots must be pinched out regularly if you want to keep the plant under water. An extremely hardy plant, suitable for beginners.

Hygrophila corymbosa 'Siamensis 53B'

053B PRICE GROUP: POT 4

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

15 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Hygrophila corymbosa ‘Siamensis 53B’ is a variety of Hygrophila corymbosa ‘Siamensis’. This Hygrophila ‘Siamensis 53B’ forms an incredible amount of side shoots and becomes bushy relatively rapidly. Its beautiful bright green leaves are narrower than the regular ‘Siamensis’ and it can achieve red-brown leaves in good light conditions. An undemanding, fast growing plant that must be pruned frequently to maintain a bushy growth.

58

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Hygrophila difformis

051 PRICE GROUP: BDT 3

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

20 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 25 cm

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE:

B

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Hygrophila difformis is beautiful and undemanding. A plant for beginners which can help create a balance in the aquarium from the start. Its rapid growth helps prevent algae because the plant absorbs a great number of nutrients from the water. The shortage of micro-nutrients leads to pale leaves, which may be an indication that the aquarium needs fertiliser. In large aquariums its lobed leaves can create a distinctive group.

Hygrophila pinnatifida

051A PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: India HEIGHT:

15 - 40+ cm

WIDTH:

15 - 30+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Hygrophila pinnatifida originates from India. It obtains brown, patched leaves on the surface with a distinctive burgundy colour underneath. It creates horizontal side shoots and the top shoots should be pinched out in order to maintain compact and attractive growth. The horizontal side shoots easily attach to both wood and rocks. Growth is moderate and the colour is attractive when planted in small groups with a plain background. Intense lighting ensures compact growth due to the plant’s slow to medium growth rate.

59


Hygrophila polysperma

050 PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

25 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Hygrophila polysperma is one of the hardiest aquarium plants available. It is particularly good for beginners because it grows in almost all conditions. It normally grows so fast that it is important to prevent it crowding out other plants. The shoots must be pinched out regularly. Leaves lying on the surface form small new plants. Hygrophila polysperma varies considerably in leaf shape and colour, depending to some extent on the light supplied.

Hygrophila polysperma 'Rosanervig'

050B PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

20 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

6 - 10 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Hygrophila polysperma ‘Rosanervig’ is normally an undemanding plant. But if you want deep-pink leaves you must provide intensive light. The distinctive colouring of the light leaf ribs is probably caused by a virus which prevents chlorophyll from being produced in the cells around the leaf ribs, making them white. However, this virus does not affect other plants in the aquarium.

60

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Juncus repens

133F PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY:

Juncaceae

ORIGIN: USA HEIGHT:

7 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 7+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Juncus repens is widespread in shallow water and along the banks of ponds and lakes in North America. In an aquarium Juncus repens is decorative and distinguishes itself from other aquatic plants. If it grows under water, Juncus repens forms leaves in rings, and, depending on its growth conditions, it often develops a thick, bushy habit. The leaves are normally light green, but in good light the underwater form of Juncus repens most frequently becomes reddish. New shoots form willingly from the nodes, so Juncus repens is easy to propagate.

Lilaeopsis brasiliensis

040 PRICE GROUP: POT 6

FamilY: Apiaceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

4 - 7 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 26°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Lilaeopsis brasiliensis can grow very compact, but a “lawn effect’’ is only achieved at high light intensity. When planting in the aquarium small clumps (approx. 1/8 pot) should be placed a few centimetres apart to help the plants grow together more quickly. Place in an open position without shading from other plants to ensure good light. Lilaeopsis brasiliensis can be used in garden ponds, and also tolerates low salt concentrations in brackish aquariums.

61


Lilaeopsis mauritiana

040B PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Apiaceae ORIGIN: Mauritius HEIGHT:

5 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This Lilaeopsis species demands less light than Lilaeopsis brasiliensis. Tropica’s founder, Holger Windeløv, found it on Mauritius in 1992. The plants height and distance between its leaves depend on the light intensity. The more light it gets, the lower the plant and the denser the leaves. The runners spread round the aquarium. Should be planted like Lilaeopsis brasiliensis.

Limnobium laevigatum

063 PRICE GROUP: POR 6

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: South America

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Limnobium laevigatum is a decorative plant that is particularly suitable for open aquariums. It is also good in traditional aquariums, because the fine, long and decorative roots provide protection to gouramies and other surface fish that like the roots of floating plants. If there are enough nutrients in the water and the light intensity is good, new leaves will appear above the water surface.

62

HEIGHT:

1 - 5 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE:

J

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Limnophila aquatica

046 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

15 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

An extremely beautiful aquarium plant circled by light-green and finely branched leaves. In the right growing conditions with added CO2 and a nutritious bottom this plant grows fast. In good light it forms horizontal side shoots and becomes attractive and bushy. Most decorative when several stems are planted in a small group. In open aquariums it sometimes sends shoots above the water surface, forming small blue flowers.

Limnophila sessiliflora

047 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Limnophila sessiliflora is a good and undemanding plant which is a good alternative to Cabomba, which demands a lot of light. The plant often grows leggy in poor light, but this can be counteracted to some extent by stimulating growth by CO2 addition. Most beautiful when planted in groups. In good growing conditions it sends out runners and spreads across the bottom. Limnophila sessiliflora used to be called “Ambulia’’.

63


Lindernia rotundifolia

045 PRICE GROUP: POT 6

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

15 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 26°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Lindernia rotundifolia grows on sandy banks along streams in Asia. The plant is undemanding and the stems with marbled leaves quickly form compact groups. Lindernia rotundifolia is suitable both for background and as a solitary mid-ground plant with leaves growing tightly from top to bottom. A good starter plant that thrives under most conditions.

Lobelia cardinalis

053C PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Lobeliaceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

20 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

7 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 26°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

In the nursery this plant is cultivated in marshy conditions, forming dark-green leaves which are purple underneath. In aquariums the leaves turn a beautiful shade of light-green. It needs intensive light to thrive. Widely used in Dutch aquariums in so-called “plant streets’’. In open aquariums it grows above the water surface, where it forms very beautiful scarlet flowers and the leaves regain their colour. Can be used in garden ponds.

64

Lindernia rotundifolia 045


Ludwigia arcuata

035 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Onagraceae ORIGIN: USA HEIGHT:

25 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

3 - 5 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This is a narrow-leafed Ludwigia species, so it is often mistaken for Didiplis diandra. It requires a relatively large amount of light before forming a red stem and red leaves, and thrives best in slightly acidic, soft/medium hard water. The most decorative effect can be achieved by planting it in groups. It is suitable for small aquariums, and can also be used as a terrarium plant.

Ludwigia glandulosa

035A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Onagraceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 12 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Ludwigia glandulosa is a very beautiful water plant. It is slowgrowing and requires CO2 addition to grow well. The leaves turn greener if sufficient light is provided. Used to be sold as Ludwigia perennis.

65


Ludwigia repens 'Rubin'

033D PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Onagraceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

20 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Variety of Ludwigia repens with striking dark red leaves and stalk. It makes a fine colour contrast to the green shades in the aquarium. Plant in large groups to enhance the decorative effect, and prune regularly to encourage bushy growth. The plant makes few demands, but if light is insufficient the lower leaves tend to fall off. In strong light the colour becomes more intense.

Marsilea hirsuta

010 PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Marsileceae ORIGIN: Australia HEIGHT:

2 - 10+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: H

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Marsilea hirsuta is a fascinating plant, usually delivered with leaves like a four-leaf clover. After a transitional period it develops different types of leaves, possibly a low form with single leaves like a large Glossostigma, or alternatively develop two, three or four-lobed leaves varying in height, depending on the growth conditions. Whichever form the plant adopts, it forms runners and spreads rapidly round the aquarium.

66

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Micranthemum umbrosum

048 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Scrophulariaceae ORIGIN: USA HEIGHT:

10 - 15+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 26째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: G

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Micranthemum umbrosum is a beautiful plant with small round leaves. It is suitable for small or large aquariums. Relatively demanding in terms of light. CO2 addition is recommended to promote growth. Once the plant starts growing it grows fast, and the shoots have to be pinched out often (can be planted as cuttings in the bottom). Most beautiful in groups of many stems.

Microsorum pteropus

008 PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11, AquaDecor

FamilY: Polypodiaceae ORIGIN: Asia

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HEIGHT:

15 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

12 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE:

D

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Microsorum pteropus is a water fern which should be grown on a root or stone, attached with fishing line until it has gained a hold. If it is planted in the bottom, do not cover the rhizome because it will rot. Easy to propagate by splitting the horizontal rhizome. A hardy plant which grows in all conditions. The black spots under the leaves are sporangia (reproductive organs), not signs of disease as many believe.

67


Microsorum pteropus 'Narrow'

008A PRICE GROUP: POT 8, AquaDecor

FamilY: Polypodiaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

10 - 20 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE:

D

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Microsorum pteropus is a highly variable species, and new varieties are easily bred. Microsorum pteropus ‘Narrow’ has narrower leaves, which grow at a less acute angle from the stem than the normal Microsorum pteropus. The plant attaches readily to roots and stones. A decorative plant, which is also suitable for smaller aquariums. See also Microsorum pteropus.

Microsorum pteropus 'Windeløv'

008B PRICE GROUP: POT 8, XL 11, AquaDecor

FamilY: Polypodiaceae ORIGIN: Cultivar

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Microsorum pteropus ‘Windeløv’ is a patented variety of Microsorum pteropus, named after Tropica’s founder Holger Windeløv. Its finely branched leaf tips make it one of the most beautiful aquarium plants. A hardy and easy plant for both beginners and the more experienced. Best results are obtained by planting it on a stone or tree root. If planted in the bottom the horizontal rhizome must not be covered. This plant is not eaten by herbivorous fish.

68

HEIGHT:

10 - 20 cm

WIDTH:

12 - 18+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE:

D

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Did you know… Microsorum pteropus ‘Windeløv’ was the very first plant to be patented. During an inspection in 1992 of 10,000 Microsorum pteropus plants, Holger Windeløv (founder of Tropica) discovered two plants that were unique from the rest! The tip of a leaf divided, and this division had two tips dividing again. Through a long propagation and selective process they succeeded in re-creating this species. On the occasion of Tropica’s 25th anniversary this new plant was named Microsorum pteropus ‘Windeløv’ after the founder of Tropica. Both it’s name and patent has been of great value to Tropica, and to the quiet enjoyment of Holger!

!

Holger Windeløv in the year of 2010 with Microsorum pteropus ‘Windeløv’

69


Monosolenium tenerum

002C PRICE GROUP: POR 7, AquaDecor

FamilY: Monoseleniaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

2 - 5+ cm

WIDTH:

3 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

5 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: K

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Monosolenium tenerum is an attractive liverwort, which looks most like a giant Riccia that simply stays at the bottom, where it forms cushions. It is a brittle plant, and pieces break off easily, so it is best to place it in the aquarium attached to stones with fishing line or in small clumps among other plants such as Eleocharis. Once Monosolenium has established itself, it is very undemanding. This plant is mistakenly known as Pellia.

Myriophyllum mattogrossense

037 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Haloragaceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

30 - 60 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Myriophyllum matogrossense originates from Matto Grosso in the Rio Amazonas, Brazil. It has decorative and feather-like, reddish stems and finely divided bright green leaves. In good light conditions the leaves spread out in a fan shape. Myriophyllum is relatively easy and is suitable for the background. It needs to be pruned frequently to maintain its bushy form. It is fast growing and requires a good deal of nutrition. A good starter plant.

70

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Myriophyllum mezianum

037B PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Haloragaceae ORIGIN: Madagascar HEIGHT:

5 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Myriophyllum mezianum has finely dissected light green leaves with reddish apical shoots and it grows significantly slower than the already known species of Myriophyllum. It was found on Madagascar where it formed dense stands in shallow water. During planting, the individual shoots should be placed few centimetres apart in small groups in the middle ground of the aquarium. Myriophyllum mezianum requires both high light and CO2 injection to obtain the best possible result and, in addition, the plant is also nutrient requiring.

Nesaea crassicaulis

033B PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Lythraceae ORIGIN: Africa HEIGHT:

30 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

8 - 15+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8.5

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Nesaea crassicaulis is a beautiful and highly recommended aquarium plant, although it has high demands for light. It has red-brown, cognac-coloured leaves. Grows best in soft and slightly acidic water. Make sure the lower leaves get sufficient light, otherwise they will die off. This plant is similar to Ammannia species and is often mistaken for them. But in the aquarium it can be recognised by its yellow-green stems. Easy to propagate by side shoots or cuttings, which can be cut off and planted in the bottom.

71


Nesaea pedicellata

033C PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Lythraceae ORIGIN: Africa HEIGHT:

20 - 40+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Nesaea pedicellata is an attractive, decorative and easy stem plant. Leaf colours range from green to yellow and orange and reddish shades depending on growth conditions in the aquarium. The stems keep their intense red colouring, something that can also be seen when the plant is grown in a swamp. Compared with Nesaea crassicaulis, Nesaea pedicellata has narrower leaves and its colours are warmer. We recommend planting Nesaea in the mid-ground of the aquarium as a contrast to the tall green background plants.

Nymphaea lotus (zenkeri)

019 PRICE GROUP: POT 9, KN 7

FamilY: Nymphaeaceae ORIGIN: West Africa HEIGHT:

20 - 80 cm

WIDTH:

25 - 60 cm

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: C

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

A beautiful and very varied species with leaves of green to red-brown and varying numbers of purple spots. Before forming floating leaves Nymphaea lotus (zenkeri) forms many underwater leaves. If you don’t want floating leaves, prune the roots and leaves. The beautiful, aromatic flowers can be fully appreciated in open aquariums. A nutritious bottom encourages growth. Often available in a red and a green variety. Recommended as a solitary plant for large aquariums.

72

Nesaea pedicellata

033C


Pogostemon erectus

053F PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Lamiaceae ORIGIN: India HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

The Indian Pogostemon erectus forms compact groups of bright green, conifer-like stems. Pogostemon erectus is suitable as a background plant and creates a wonderful focal point in both smaller and larger groups. Intense light helps the plant to stay compact for a longer period. Moderate growth and vigorous roots.

Pogostemon helferi

053H PRICE GROUP: POT 8, AquaDecor

FamilY: Lamiaceae ORIGIN: Thailand HEIGHT:

2 - 10 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

6 - 7.5

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

This plant was discovered by aquarists in Thailand, close to the border with Burma. It is called ‘Daonoi’ (little star) in Thailand, and it is easy to see why. Pogostemon helferi is an unusual and distinctive aquatic plant with a compact habit, curly leaves and a strikingly beautiful green colour. With good light conditions and a substrate rich in nutrients Pogostemon helferi forms many side shoots, which develop small roots, and the plant rapidly forms an impressive carpet of foreground vegetation.

Pogostemon erectus 053F 73


Pogostemon stellata (Eusteralis)

053G PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Lamiaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

15 - 25+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

22 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Pogostemon stellata is distinguished by its beautiful shape and colour. It is difficult to grow in aquariums. It requires intensive light and the addition of CO2 to grow well. The shortage of micro-nutrients leads to pale leaves, which may be an indication that the aquarium needs fertiliser. Even in good conditions growth sometimes stops suddenly. Plants in aquarium shops are generally low, compact plants grown in marshy conditions, and do not reveal their full glory until planted in the aquarium.

Polygonum sp.

023F PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Polygonaceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

30 - 60 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Polygonum oringates from South America and is highly attractive with its arrow-shaped, red leaves. It demands both high lighting and CO2 levels. After it has adapted to submerged existence its leaves turn a reddish colour. The most decorative effect is achieved by planting it into smaller groups. Polygonum sp. requires a good deal of nutrition, and should be pruned frequently to maintain healthy growth.

74

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Proserpinaca palustris ''Cuba''

037C PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Haloragaceae ORIGIN: Cuba HEIGHT:

10 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

10 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5 - 7.5

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Cultivated above water and delivered with saw-toothed leaves, which after a transitional period in the aquarium develop into long, finely denticulated, needle-like leaves. In good light conditions it turns a beautiful copper colour and its characteristic appearance is a pleasing contrast to the other plants. Proserpinaca palustris varies in form according to its origin. The Tropica cultivar is found on the Isla de la Juventud off Cuba. In the USA the plant is commonly known as “mermaid weed’’.

Riccia fluitans

001 PRICE GROUP: POR 7, AquaDecor

FamilY: Ricciaceae ORIGIN: Cosmopolitan HEIGHT:

1 - 4+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

10 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: K

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Japanese Takashi Amano has inspired many aquarium owners to keep Riccia fluitans submerged. It can be kept down by tying it to a stone with a piece of fishing line, but new shoots always grow towards the surface, so it may be necessary to prune it with scissors. Under water Riccia fluitans thrives best with added CO2 and in good growing conditions small oxygen bubbles form on the leaf tips. As a traditional floating plant offers good protection for young fish.

75


Rotala rotundifolia

033 PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Lythraceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

15 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

The Latin name means “the plant with the round leaves’’. But this only applies to the marsh variety, which has circular leaves. In aquariums Rotala rotundifolia has long, thin leaves. Unlike other Rotala species it is relatively undemanding, although it needs good light to produce red leaves. It forms side shoots willingly, becoming compact and bushy. This also means that it is hard for light to reach the lower leaves, so the plant should be pruned frequently. Also known as Rotala indica.

Rotala sp. ''green''

033A PRICE GROUP: POT 5

FamilY: Lythraceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

40 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

1 - 20 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Rotala sp. “green” is very similar to Rotala rotundifolia, but its leaves remain fresh and bright green, even with intensive light. The plant forms many side shoots willingly and obtains a beautiful, bushy and “hanging” growth. It should be pruned frequently to maintain healthy growth. An ideal starter plant that looks best when planted in large groups.

76

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Rotala wallichii

032A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Lythraceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

10 - 30 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5-7

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Rotala wallichii is a demanding plant that develops red shoot tips in good light conditions. The most decorative effect can be achieved by planting a large number of stems in a group. Rotala wallichii is a good foreground plant, and suitable for small aquariums because it is easy to prune if it grows too large. CO2 addition boosts growth considerably. It also prefers soft, slightly acidic water.

Sagittaria platyphylla

081 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: North America HEIGHT:

15 - 40 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 25 cm

TEMPERATURE:

19 - 26째C

GH:

1 - 13 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Sagittaria platyphylla is an ideal foreground plant for large aquariums or in the middle of smaller aquariums. It forms a slightly dispersed group with its runners. A nutritious bottom promotes growth. If there is a shortage of micro-nutrients the plant turns pale, indicating that the aquarium may need fertiliser. This is a robust starter plant which is also suitable for the hard water that is found in many European aquariums.

77


Sagittaria subulata

079 PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Alismataceae ORIGIN: South America HEIGHT:

5 - 30+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

16 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: E

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Sagittaria subulata is an ideal, undemanding foreground plant whose short runners form a compact group. Place individual plants 2-4 cm apart. This plant may cause problems because in certain conditions it suddenly grows to a height of 50 cm when it grows older. But if it is then moved into the background it may become low again. In the aquarium it sometimes sends a long flower stem to the surface, and small white flowers unfold just above the water surface.

Salvinia natans

011 PRICE GROUP: POR 6

FamilY: Salviniaceae ORIGIN: Cosmopolitan

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Salvinia natans is a floating fern that grows quickly if there is sufficient nutrition and light. Light leaves are a sign of a shortage of micro-nutrients. It tends to take light from the plants at the bottom. Salvinia varieties have small hairs on their leaves, making them water resistant. Helps prevent algae by shading parts of the aquarium and using nutrients in the water. Grows very big in the wild and in optimum conditions. A decorative plant for open aquariums.

78

HEIGHT:

1 - 3 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

12 - 30째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE:

J

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Samolus valerandi

026 PRICE GROUP: POT 4

FamilY: Primulaceae ORIGIN: America HEIGHT:

6 - 12 cm

WIDTH:

6 - 12 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 26째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: F

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

In favourable light and nutrition conditions Samolus valerandi is a very beautiful foreground plant in the aquarium. It normally grows in marshes, and often takes time to adapt to life under water and start growing. If light conditions are good and the bottom is nutritious, the plant will do well. Samolus valerandi is also suitable as a pond or terrarium plant, as well as an indoor plant if placed in a north-facing window.

Shinnersia rivularis 'Weiss-Gr체n'

053E PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Asteraceae ORIGIN: Cultivar HEIGHT:

10 - 50 cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20 cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Variety of Shinnersia rivularis, distinguished by the white veins on the leaves. This colour mutation was discovered at the Dennerle aquarium plant nursery. The plant grows rapidly and soon reaches the water surface, but shoots can simply be pinched off and planted back on the bottom.

79


Staurogyne repens

049G PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Acanthaceae ORIGIN:

Brazil

HEIGHT:

3 - 10+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: A

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Staurogyne repens is a freshly green, compact and hardy plant for the foreground of the aquarium and it was found in River Rio Cristalino in the southern Amazonas. Its nearest relative in the aquaristic is Hygrophila but Staurogyne is different with its marked compact, low and bushy stature and small green leaves. During planting in the aquarium, the longest upright shoots should be cut off and new horizontally creeping shoots will soon form from the plant basis and gradually colonize the gravel.

Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia)

003 PRICE GROUP: POR 7, AquaDecor

FamilY: Hypnaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

3 - 10+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 28째C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5-8

CODE: K

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Taxiphyllum barbieri is a hardy plant which makes few demands on the water or light. The moss grows willingly on any surface, so it is ideal for decorating stones and tree roots or concealing installations in the aquarium. Attach the plant with a piece of fishing line until it has gained a hold on the bottom. If its growth becomes too luxuriant, it can be pruned with scissors. In breeding aquariums Taxiphyllum barbieri is a wonderful hiding place for the young fish.

80

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Did you know‌ For the past 40 years Tropica has travelled around the world searching countless rivers and tropical wetlands for new plants. The list of plants that have been found and brought to the hobby is long and come from many different places such as; Cuba, Thailand, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Bolivia and Mauritius. More than 100 varieties of potential aquarium plants are constantly being tested and evaluated in the research and development department at Tropica. This is the way we have been able to contribute new and exciting plants to the hobby and enrich the possibility of recreating a slice of nature into the aquarium.

Holger Windeløv keeping Cryptocoryne crispus var. balansae in a Thai river

!

Habitat for Staurogyne repens

Ole Pedersen at the habitat of Pogostemon helferi in Thailand

81


Utricularia graminifolia

049B PRICE GROUP: POT 8

FamilY: Lentibulariaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

2 - 8 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

16 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 7

CODE: G

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Utricularia graminifolia belongs to the bladderwort family. All the plants in this family are insect eating, perennial water and marsh plants. Bladder traps are a unique feature of this family, which Utricularia graminifolia forms after a short period of time in the aquarium. The species name means ‘with grass like leaves’ and the fresh green leaves after a short period of time form a pretty mat which looks like a lawn. Utricularia graminifolia is therefore an ideal foreground plant.

Vallisneria americana var. asiatica

056A PRICE GROUP: BDT 3

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

20 - 50+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

6 - 8.5

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Vallisneria americana var. asiatica has twisted, green leaves that make a beautiful contrast when planted in groups. Its shorter leaves differ from most other Vallisneria-species and do not overshadow other plants in the aquarium. An easy plant that readily propagates via runners.

82

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Utricularia graminifolia 049B


Vallisneria americana (gigantea)

054 PRICE GROUP: POT 8, PL 5

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

50 - 100+ cm

WIDTH:

10 - 20+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Vallisneria americana (gigantea) is an easy plant that grows fast, suitable for large aquariums. In most aquariums the leaves grow so long that they float on the surface. So the plant needs pruning to stop it taking too much light from plants growing beneath. The leaves are tough and strong, so they are not normally eaten by herbivorous fish. Vallisneria americana is easy to propagate using runners, which are prolific if the bottom is nutritious.

Vallisneria americana ''mini twister''

056B PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

10 - 15+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 15 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

6 - 8.5

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Vallisneria americana “mini twister’’ is yet another graceful variety of Vallisneria americana. “mini twister’’ develops short, attractively twisted leaves, and can thus be placed between foreground and background plants. “mini twister’’ is easy to grow and thrives even in less intensive light and without addition of CO2 to the water.

83


Vallisneria americana (natans)

055 PRICE GROUP: BDT 3

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: South-east Asia HEIGHT:

50 - 100 cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

18 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Vallisneria americana (natans) is a hardy plant for beginners. It has fine, narrow leaves so it does not overshadow other plants much. Easy to propagate using its many runners.

Vallisneria nana

056C PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: Australia HEIGHT:

30 - 80 cm

WIDTH:

2 - 10 cm

TEMPERATURE:

20 - 28째C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Vallisneria nana is a solitary contrast plant with dark green, rosulate, narrow leaves. It is extremely suitable as a mid-ground plant, but can also be used as a background plant in small aquariums. The leaves are much narrower than with other species of Vallisneria, nor are they quite as long. In its natural habitat in northern Australia Vallisneria nana reaches a height of only 15 cm, but in aquariums it typically grows to 30-50 cm, which no doubt reflects the different light and nutrient conditions. Vallisneria nana produces offshoots very readily, so compact vegetation will soon develop in good conditions.

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Vallisneria americana (natans) 055


Vallisneria spiralis 'Tiger'

055A PRICE GROUP: POT 7

FamilY: Hydrocharitaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

30 - 55+ cm

WIDTH:

5 - 10+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 30°C

GH:

4 - 30 dH

pH:

6-8

CODE: I

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

Vallisneria spiralis ‘Tiger’ is an excellent plant for beginners, growing in virtually all light and water conditions. The name ‘Tiger’ is due to its striped leaves. The relatively short leaves make it suitable for small aquariums, and the leaves are also narrow so they do not overshadow smaller plants. Forms runners easily, and is thus easy to propagate.

Vesicularia dubyana 'Christmas'

003A PRICE GROUP: POR 8, AquaDecor

FamilY: Hypnaceae ORIGIN:

Brazil

HEIGHT:

1 - 3+ cm

WIDTH:

3 - 5+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 28°C

GH:

1 - 30 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: K

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT

A special moss originally seen in Japanese aquariums and known as “Amazonia Willow Moss’’. Also called “Christmas tree moss’’, because of its side branch structure which distinguishes it from ordinary Vesicularia dubyana and looks like fir tree branches. It is more demanding than ordinary Java moss and grows more slowly. It attaches readily to roots and stones, and as it spreads in the water it needs pruning to keep its shape attractive. See also Taxiphyllum barbieri.

85


Vesicularia ferriei 'Weeping'

003B PRICE GROUP: POR 8

FamilY: Hypnaceae ORIGIN: Asia HEIGHT:

1 - 3+ cm

WIDTH:

3 - 5+ cm

TEMPERATURE:

15 - 28°C

GH:

4 - 20 dH

pH:

5.5 - 8

CODE: K

LIGHT: LOW GROWTH RATE: SLOW DEMANDS: EASY

Vesicularia ferriei ‘Weeping’, commonly known as Weeping Moss, is believed to originate from China and has been distributed by Oriental Aquarium Plants. ‘Weeping’ is a fleshy, hanging moss with teardrop-like bright green shoots. It is best attached to driftwood or roots, as its drooping growth pattern helps to create depth and contrast in the aquarium. ‘Weeping’ has low demands, is fast growing and should be pruned frequently with scissors to maintain an attractive shape.

86

Vesicularia ferriei ’Weeping’

HIGH FAST DIFFICULT


Tropica’s ABC… It’s time to get started! Our goal with the “Tropica’s ABC” is to give you a simple guide to the most important topics that you need to understand to ensure a successful and trouble-free start. What should be considered before the start up? How do I set up the aquarium? And what is required afterwards? You are about to embark on a wonderful hobby, but you must be aware that a bad start can cause you worries. If you follow the basic instructions on the following pages you will be well-prepared for this amazing underwater world. We also recommend that you visit our website www.tropica.com where you can gain further information, get detailed advice and guidance through an extensive number of plant articles and plant news.

The decoration of the aquarium before planting

Result 6 weeks after set-up

87


Before you start… To help you with the start up of your aquarium we have listed some fundamental issues that are important and can influence the results you experience.

Location Do not place the aquarium in direct sun light as it will certainly provoke algae problems. Place it in a dark corner with minimal ambient light. The aquarium itself will bring light and atmosphere to the room. Place on a stable surface in level.

Aquarium The aquarium is the housing of your water environment and should look subtle without distracting from the content. The size of the aquarium is your choice but smaller aquariums (less than 50 L) can be more difficult to maintain than larger tanks, as environmental stability is reduced in smaller volumes of water.

Decoration Materials for decoration are for example wood, roots and stones. By using decorative materials you will be able to create depth, nature-like landscapes, and options for attaching plants. To avoid damage to the bottom of the aquarium you can place a piece of Styrofoam underneath larger rocks.

Light Light is the energy source for all plants. Plants need light to grow and thrive but their need for light varies. A good rule of thumb would be 0.5 Watt per Litre of water. Read carefully the instructions of the lamp’s power (in Watts) and select a lamp with enough Wattage compared to the aquarium volume. The composition of the light colours can vary from warm to cold shades. Plants adapts best to light as close to daylight as possible. Colours appears also best in daylight. Light should only be switched on for 8-10 hours a day – more hours will only benefit algae! For the start up (about 2 weeks) 6 hours light a day will be sufficient.

88


Heating

FertiliZer

Heating your aquarium is necessary when plants and fish require

Fertilizers are a must in order to achieve good plant health and

a higher temperature than the ambient temperature. Suitable

growth. The addition of liquid fertilizer can be recommended for all

temperatures are common for most plants. To achieve good plant

types of plants, and a good substrate for plants with thriving roots.

growth we recommend a temperature of 22-25 degrees Celsius.

See page 96-97 for further information of Tropica’s fertilizer series.

Note that some pump types have and internal heat source.

Pump/filter The function for the pump and/or filter is to create water circulation. It helps bring the biological balance into the aquarium and to avoid stagnant water in some parts of the aquarium which can cause problems. A filter system will clean the water mechanically and biologically to prevent the water from becoming dirty and polluted. But it’s important to remember that a filter system does not replace the need to change water.

Carbon dioxide

Substrate

CO2, carbon dioxide, is very important for all plants. Only

The bottom layer is fundamental for the development of the plant

very few plants thrives with the limited amount of CO2 in

roots. The gravel grain size varies, but it’s important that both

an aquarium that does not have any CO2 equipment con-

water and nutrition can circulate. Gravel with a grain size of

nected. The supply of CO2 will increase growth, colours,

2-4 mm is ideal for aquarium plants. The bottom layer can be

and lushness of the plants significantly. It’s easy to test the

supplemented with a nutrient-rich substrate if it has not already

effect of CO2 in your aquarium by adding a cup of mineral

been added to the product.

water per 100 L every day. Plants do only take up CO2 when the lights are on. Your dealer carries a large selection of CO2 equipment for your aquarium, from simple, manual methods to fully automated systems. On www.tropica.com you can see the diagram for recommended CO2 concentrations depending on water hardness.

89


Tips and tricks for planting and care

Code

Type

Examples

Planting and care

a

Stem plants

Hygrophila, Alternanthera, Nesaea

Remove the pot and the mineral wool carefully from the roots. Plant the stems at intervals and spread the loose roots into the bottom layer. Pinch off the slips when trimming and they can be planted in the bottom layer.

B

Stem plants

Cabomba, Egeria

Bunches. Remove the lowest leaves and cover the remaining lowest leaves with the bottom layer – plant the stems at intervals. Pinch off the top shoots and plant them in the bottom layer.

C

Bulbs

Aponogeton, Nymphaea

Remove any pots and mineral wool and cover the bulb with the bottom layer. The shoot should be above the bottom layer. Remove any sick leaves before planting. Remove whole leaves when trimming. Bulbs can be kept from two to four months (store in damp, cool conditions).

D

Rhizomatous

Anubias, Microsorum

Remove the pot and the mineral wool carefully from the roots. The root stem (rhizome) should not be covered fully by the bottom layer or it will rot. Plants can also be fastened to a stone or roots. Trim by cutting pieces from the root stem.

E

Rosulate

Echinodorus

Remove the pot and the mineral wool carefully from the roots. Remove the outermost leaves as they will die under water under any circumstances and the plant will rapidly develop new leaves adapted to conditions under water. Shorten the roots and spread them when planting. Remove whole leaves when trimming, pinch off offshoots and plant them in the bottom layer.

F

Rosulate

Cryptocoryne

Remove the pot and the mineral wool carefully from the roots. Remove any sick leaves. Plant the individual plants in the pot at intervals. Remove whole leaves or whole plants when trimming.

Stolon

Glossostigma, Hemianthus

Remove the pot and cut the mineral wool block so that about 1 cm is left together with the plants. Use this mineral wool as an anchor to hold the plant in the bottom layer. The pot contains many plants that can be divided into several groups (typically four to eight) and planted at intervals. Trim with scissors like a lawn.

H

Stolon

Marsilea, Eleocharis

Remove the pot and cut the mineral wool block so that about 1 cm is left together with the plants. Use this mineral wool as an anchor to hold the plants in the bottom layer. Then cut down the plants until they are about 1 cm above the mineral wool. They will rapidly develop new leaves adapted to conditions under water. The pot contains many plants that can be divided into several groups (typically four to eight) and planted at intervals. Trim or thin with scissors.

I

Stolon

Vallisneria, Lilaeopsis

Remove the pot and the mineral wool carefully from the roots. Remove any sick leaves. Plant the individual plants in the pot at intervals. Remove whole leaves whole plants when trimming.

J

Floating plants

Salvinia, Ceratophyllum

Portions. Place them on the surface (Ceratophyllum can also be planted in the bottom layer). Trim by removing material from the surface.

K

Mosses

Riccia, Monosolenium

Portions. Can be used as floating plants or fastened to a stone or root where they will form cushions or carpets. Trim by removing material or with scissors.

L

Bulb

Crinum

Separate the bulb carefully from the mineral wool. Remove any sick leaves before planting the bulb in the bottom layer. Parts of the bulb must be above the bottom layer. Trim by removing whole leaves.

M

Various

Cladophora, Ceratopteris

Examples of plants that can be used in different ways – search for information on these and other plants on our web site.

G

90


From planting to end result We will here show you three plant types at three stages – from sales pot to planted inside the aquarium. Most plants can be divided into smaller portions when planting. To avoid the plant creating excess shade for other plants or to prevent it from growing inappropriately, it is important to prune it in time. For more specific plant advice see page 90.

A: Stem plant

Polygonum sp.

1) Sales pot

2) Divide in 3-4 portions

3) Result 4-5 weeks after planting

E: Rosette

Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae)

1) Sales pot

2) Keep only new leaves (remove the older ones)

3) Result 4 weeks after planting

H: Stolon

Eleocharis parvula

1) Sales pot

2) Divide in 8-16 portions

3) Result 6-8 weeks after planting

91


The best way of caring for your plants in the aquarium! Your aquarium plants require water, heat, light and fertilizer, but in moderation. Too little or too much may cause impaired growth and if missing only one of these things the plants will not be able to survive.

Water change

Algae check

When starting up the aquarium, water needs to be changed

Check regularly for algae. The first signs for algae can be unclear

twice a week for 2-3 weeks. Subsequently once a week to

water, coatings on the glass, the leaves or decorations, or perhaps

prevent algae growth. Change approx. 25% every time.

as fine threads. Initial signs can be hard to spot so look carefully! Read more about algae on page 94.

Add fertilizer

Pruning

Fertilizer must be added with caution. Start out

Pruning of the plants should be done frequently

with only half of the recommended dose and check

(each or every other week). At longer intervals the

on the development of the plants. If leaves or the

cuttings will be more difficult and it may disturb

entire plant turns pale or transparent then they need

the balance of the aquarium. Also the risk of algae

fertilizer. Begin by using the fertilizer without nitrogen

increases. See examples on cuttings on page 93.

(N) or phosphorous (P). Once the plants are in good growth a fertilizer containing N and P can be added as a supplement (see page 97 about Tropica’s fertilizer products “AquaCare”).

92

Inspection of the technique

Remove dead material

Technical equipment must be checked frequently.

Dead material can be plant residues, dead fish

Are the fluorescent tubes functioning, does the

or shrimp, algae residues, etc. Dead material will

plug-in-timer work, is the temperature appropriate,

release nutrients and consume oxygen which will

is there any CO2 left in the bottle…?

create an imbalance in the aquarium.

Removal of dead material must be done frequently.


Pruning the plants We know that many aquarists have trouble pruning their plants in time! Avoid harsh pruning that brings imbalance in the aquarium. Prune regularly by removing the oldest leaves on rosette plants, the longest stems, superfluous runners and trim mosses and ground carpets. That will keep the plants in good growth and keep them from providing shade for each other and maintain their vigour. A: Stem plant

Polygonum sp.

1) Stems approaching the surface

2) Cut just above where leaves set

3) Create side shoots willingly

E: Rosette

Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae)

1) The plant is too large

Eleocharis parvula

1) The “lawn� is long and bushy

2) Remove elderly leaves at the base

3) Make room for new growth

H: Stolon

2) Cut down hard with scissors (2 cm height) 3) Will create new leaves in a few days

93


Algae growth can be limited by simple methods Algae growth is usually the main reason for giving up this hobby. But algae will always appear in an aquarium. Algae are basic plants that require very similar conditions to regular aquarium plants i.e. light and nutrients. Too many fish in relation to plants will create an imbalance in the aquarium and is the most common reason of algae problems. The main reason to these problems is the remains of excess food and excrements which gives an excess of nutrients to the water. It promotes algae growth as well as direct sun light. Read more about algae on www.tropica.com. Algae can be prevented by: • Frequent water change • Good plant growth, use of fast growing or floating plants • Put a selection of algae eating fish, shrimps and snails into the aquarium as soon a possible

Most common algae types

Green Water algae

Thread algae

Benthic algae

Green Water algae are microscopic

Thread algae are typically green, thread-

Benthic algae can be green, brown and

single-celled algae which make the water

forming algae which are growing on the

black it their form and appear on leaves,

unclear and totally green. Try with frequent

plant leaves and on decorations. Try first

gravel, glass surfaces, stones and roots,

and larger water change, turn off the light

to remove them mechanically with a rough

etc. Try first to remove mechanically (with a

(2-3 days) and plant in more fast growing

surfaced stick and then add algae-eating

soft sponge), turn off the light for a couple of

plants. Do not add any fertiliser and mini-

shrimps and fish.

days and plant in fast growing plants. Then

mise fish feeding.

add appropriate fish, shrimps and snails that are effective algae eaters.

94

Cherry shrimps are effective algae eaters and they can breed readily in most aquariums!


10 good advices on how to get a good result Purpose Make up your mind about what you want to achieve with your aquarium, how much money do you want to spend, and how much time do you want to spend on maintaining it. Layout and decorations Make a design for your aquarium layout before you contact your local dealer. To help create depth and space for both plants and animals it is recommended to use decoration materials such as wood, roots and stones. Plants must be planted according to their size and to their need of light (the light in the corners of the aquarium are much less than in the centre of the aquarium). See www.tropica.com for more layouts and inspiration. Select your plants Select your plants in relation to the choice of technical equipment and also by bearing in mind the time you are prepared to spend on maintaining your aquarium. Difficult plants require good light and CO2 to achieve good results. Planting Follow the instructions for planting to get the best possible results. Remember that most plants are fast growing so make sure that the plants will get enough room from the start. Fast growing plants Fast growing plants take up a lot of nutrients and bring good balance to the aquarium. They do not necessarily have to remain a part of the layout but they are important when starting up the aquarium. Algae eaters Fish, shrimp and snails are effective algae eaters and by combining them in the aquarium they can control different algae types. They should be put into the aquarium as soon as possible after the start. Contact your dealer for more specific details. Water change You cannot change too much water! Change around 25% several times during the first couple of weeks and subsequently once a week. 25% per week minimum is the recommendation and up to 50% if there are signs of algae. Fertilizer A nutrient-rich substrate in the bottom layer is sufficient during the start-up of the aquarium. Wait for plant growth before starting with liquid fertilizer. During the start-up add only 50% or less of the dose recommended until new growth forms. Begin by using a fertilizer without nitrogen and phosphorous. Pruning Help your aquarium to maintain a good balance by pruning the plants frequently. You can prune them back considerably! Re-planting of stems and runners is recommended to maintain good growth. Prevent algae Prevention is better than cure. By using fast growing plants, algae eating fish, frequent water change and by mechanical removal you can reduce algae problems. When necessary turn off lights or minimise photoperiods too.

Photo: Ole Pedersen

95


Tropica AquaCare – when you want to treat your plants! Tropica plants have from the very start everything they need to grow large, healthy and beautiful. But even more sturdy plants make some demands on their surroundings if they are to grow optimally. AquaCare is adjusted to the plants needs and is developed on the basis of 40 years of experience with producing plants. The fertilizer is supplemented with nutrients that are not supplied by residues from fish feed and fish excrement. But add fertilizer with caution! If only the new/young leaves are pale (transparent) they require a fertilizer without nitrogen and phosphor. If the entire plant is pale it requires a fertilizer containing nitrogen and phosphorous.

96

Photo: Ole Pedersen


PLANT SUBSTRATE

2.5 / 5 L PLANT SUBSTRATE acts as a long term nutrition store for the plants and ensures vigorous and healthy growth. PLANT SUBSTRATE is a natural concentrate on clay and sphagnum, laid at the bottom of the gravel layer when you build your aquarium.

PLANT NUTRITION liquid

100 / 250 / 500 ml PLANT NUTRITION liquid contains most of the nutrients for healthy and sustained plant growth. PLANT NUTRITION liquid does not contain nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P). It supplies the nutrients that plants easily use and that the plants can ideally take-up via the leaves.

PLANT NUTRITION+ liquid

100 / 250 / 500 ml PLANT NUTRITION+ liquid contains all essential nutrients needed including nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P). PLANT NUTRITION+ liquid is suitable for aquariums with many plants in relation to the number of fish and where the plants can lack nitrogen and phosphorous that otherwise would be supplied by fish feed and fish excrement.

97


Plant Index

98

Plant name

Number

Heteranthera zosterifolia

096

Alternanthera reineckii ’Pink’ (roseafolia)

023

Difficulty Page 21

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides (maritima)

039A

54 54

Alternanthera reineckii ’Purple’ (lilacina)

023B

21

Hydrocotyle verticillata

039

55

Anubias barteri var. angustifolia

101C

22

Hygrophila corymbosa

053

55

Anubias barteri var. barteri

101A

22

Hygrophila corymbosa ’Angustifolia’

052A

56

Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia ’’1705’’

101U

23

Hygrophila corymbosa ’’Compact’’

052D

56

Anubias barteri ’’coffeefolia’’

101G

23

Hygrophila corymbosa ’Siamensis’

053A

58

Anubias barteri var. nana

101

24

Hygrophila corymbosa ’Siamensis 53B’

053B

58

Aponogeton boivinianus

088

24

Hygrophila difformis

051

59

Aponogeton crispus

083

26

Hygrophila pinnatifida

051A

59

Aponogeton longiplumulosus

089D

26

Hygrophila polysperma

050

60

Aponogeton madagascariensis

089

27

Hygrophila polysperma ’Rosanervig’

050B

60

Aponogeton ulvaceus

086

27

Juncus repens

133F

61

Azolla caroliniana

013

28

Lilaeopsis brasiliensis

040

61

Bacopa australis

043A

28

Lilaeopsis mauritiana

040B

62

Bacopa caroliniana

043

29

Limnobium laevigatum

063

62

Bacopa monnieri

044

29

Limnophila aquatica

046

63

Bolbitis heudelotii

006

30

Limnophila sessiliflora

047

63

Cabomba caroliniana

015

30

Lindernia rotundifolia

045

64

Cardamine lyrata

024

31

Lobelia cardinalis

053C

64

Ceratophyllum demersum ’Foxtail’

021A

31

Ludwigia arcuata

035

65

Ceratopteris thalictroides

005A

32

Ludwigia glandulosa

035A

65

Cladophora aegagrophila

000C

32

Ludwigia repens ’Rubin’

033D

66

Crinum calamistratum

094A

34

Marsilea hirsuta

010

66

Crinum natans

094

34

Micranthemum umbrosum

048

67

Crinum thaianum

093

35

Microsorum pteropus

008

67

Cryptocoryne beckettii ’’petchii’’

108A

35

Microsorum pteropus ’Narrow’

008A

68

Cryptocoryne crispatula var. balansae

125

36

Microsorum pteropus ’Windeløv’

008B

68

Cryptocoryne parva

106

36

Monosolenium tenerum

002C

70

Cryptocoryne undulata ’’broad leaves’’

110A

37

Myriophyllum mattogrossense

037

70

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’’brown’’

109C

37

Myriophyllum mezianum

037B

71

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’’green’’

109

38

Nesaea crassicaulis

033B

71

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’Mi Oya’

109D

38

Nesaea pedicellata

033C

72

019

72

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’Tropica’

109E

39

Nymphaea lotus (zenkeri)

Cryptocoryne x willisii

107

39

Pogostemon erectus

053F

73

Cyperus helferi

133A

40

Pogostemon helferi

053H

73

Didiplis diandra

031

40

Pogostemon stellata (Eusteralis)

053G

74

Echinodorus ’Aquartica’

074F

41

Polygonum sp.

023F

74

Echinodorus x barthii

072A

41

Proserpinaca palustris ’’Cuba’’

037C

75

Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae)

071

42

Riccia fluitans

001

75

Echinodorus cordifolius ssp. fluitans

073D

42

Rotala rotundifolia

033

76

Echinodorus macrophyllus

073

44

Rotala sp. ’’green’’

033A

76

Echinodorus osiris

072

44

Rotala wallichii

032A

77

Echinodorus ’Ozelot’

073F

45

Sagittaria platyphylla

081

77

Echinodorus ’Ozelot Green’

073G

45

Sagittaria subulata

079

78

011

78

Echinodorus palaefolius var. latifolius

076

46

Salvinia natans

Echinodorus quadricostatus

068

46

Samolus valerandi

026

79

Echinodorus ’Red Diamond’

074D

47

Shinnersia rivularis ’Weiss-Grün’

053E

79

Echinodorus ’Red Special’

073J

47

Staurogyne repens

049G

80

Echinodorus ’Rosé’

072B

48

Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia)

003

80

Echinodorus ’Rubin’

074B

48

Utricularia graminifolia

049B

82

Echinodorus tenellus

067

49

Vallisneria americana var. asiatica

056A

82

Echinodorus uruguayensis

070A

49

Vallisneria americana (gigantea)

054

83

Echinodorus ’Vesuvius’

067C

50

Vallisneria americana ’’mini twister’’

056B

83

Egeria densa

058

50

Vallisneria americana (natans)

055

84

Eleocharis parvula

132C

52

Vallisneria nana

056C

84

Glossostigma elatinoides

045A

52

Vallisneria spiralis ’Tiger’

055A

85

003A

85

003B

86

Hemianthus callitrichoides ’’Cuba’’

048B

53

Vesicularia dubyana ’Christmas’

Hemianthus micranthemoides

048A

53

Vesicularia ferriei ’Weeping moss’


Product range XL-plants

Number

Alternanthera reineckii

023

Difficulty

Page

Floating plants

Number

21

Azolla caroliniana

013

28 31

Difficulty

Page

Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia ”1705”

101U

23

Ceratophyllum demersum ’Foxtail’

021A

Bacopa caroliniana

043

29

Limnobium laevigatum

063

62

Bolbitis heudelotii

006

30

Riccia fluitans

001

75

Salvinia natans

011

78

Crinum calamistratum

094A

34

Crinum natans

094

34

Crinum thaianum

093

35

Cryptocoryne wendtii ’Tropica’

109E

39

Echinodorus x barthii

072A

41

Echinodorus bleheri (bleherae)

071

42

Echinodorus ’Ozelot’

073F

45

Bunched plants

Number

Echinodorus ’Ozelot Green’

073G

45

Alternanthera reineckii ’Pink’ (roseafolia)

023

Difficulty

Page 21

Echinodorus palaefolius var. latifolius

076

46

Bacopa caroliniana

043

29

Echinodorus ’Red Special’

073J

47

Cabomba caroliniana

015

30

Echinodorus ’Rosé’

072B

48

Egeria densa

058

50

Echinodorus ’Rubin’

074B

48

Hygrophila corymbosa

053

55

Hygrophila corymbosa ’Siamensis’

053A

58

Hygrophila difformis

051

59

Microsorum pteropus

008

67

Vallisneria americana var. asiatica

056A

82

Microsorum pteropus ’Windeløv’

008B

68

Vallisneria americana (natans)

055

84

AquaDecor

Number

Anubias barteri var. nana

101

Difficulty

Page

Bulbs

Number

24

Aponogeton boivinianus

088

Difficulty

Page 24

Bolbitis heudelotii

006

30

Aponogeton longiplumulosus

089D

26

Cryptocoryne becketti ”petchii”

108A

35

Aponogeton madagascariensis

089

27

Hemianthus callitrichoides ”Cuba”

048B

53

Aponogeton ulvaceus

086

27

Microsorum pteropus

008

67

Nymphaea lotus (zenkeri)

019

72

Microsorum pteropus ’Narrow’

008A

68

Microsorum pteropus ’Windeløv’

008B

68

Monosolenium tenerum

002C

70

Pogostemon helferi

053H

73

Riccia fluitans

001

75

Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia)

003

80

Vesicularia dubyana ’Christmas’

003A

85

Mosses

Number

Monosolenium tenerum

002C

Difficulty

Page 70

Riccia fluitans

001

75

Taxiphyllum barbieri (Vesicularia)

003

80

Vesicularia dubyana ’Christmas’

003A

85

Vesicularia ferriei ’Weeping moss’

003B

86

= Easy = Average = Difficult

Illustration: Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia ”1705”

99


Tropica Aquarium Plants A/S Mejlbyvej 200 DK-8250 Egaa Denmark Tlf. +45 86220566 Fax +45 86228466 E-mail: tropica@tropica.dk www.tropica.com

English ISBN 978-87-98685456

€3 | £3 | DKK 25

Tropica Plants Eng  

Tropica Plants Eng

Tropica Plants Eng  

Tropica Plants Eng

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