Zebra Glass

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Zebra Glass Invasive Color & Material Emily Marquette | Mahsa Banadaki | Wei Huang

Zebra Glass Invasive Color & Material



Marziehsadat Banadaki First year grad student, CCS MFA Color & Material Design Emily Marquette First year grad student, CCS MFA Color & Material Design Wei Huang Grad student, CCS MFA Intergrated Design

Instructor Matthew Strong B.Sc., M.Arc Adjunct Professor, CCS MFA Color & Material Design


01 03 13 21 33 41 49 51


Project Statement Invasion Mussels Glass Color Result & Future work Summary Collaborators & Citations


Project Statement

Established invasive species are rarely able to be completely removed from their new habitat. Stigmatizing these species makes harvesting them for their potential commercial value more difficult. Seeing recently introduced species as causing temporary imbalance in their ecosystems, and then prioritizing their harvest as a way to mitigate the impact of their permanent place in the ecosystem is a more effective approach. Seeing ecological imbalance through a lense of materiality helps identify the opportunities that invasive species offer. Efforts to remediate the devastating effects of zebra and quagga mussels on the great lakes ecosystem have been largely ineffective. We propose using zebra and quagga mussels as a source of calcium carbonate in the creation of region specific artisanal soda lime glass. Through design thinking, invasive species can be transformed from an “othered� ecological threat to an over-abundant local resource that reinforces place, identity, and awareness of local ecosystems.







The first law limiting the introduction of non-native species in the united states was passed in 1900. The Lacey Act focused primarily on trade in illegal wildlife, to curb rampant and indiscriminate commercial hunting and the interstate sale of poached game. It prohibited the intentional introduction of fruit bats, mongoose, meerkats, starlings, and English sparrows. Other vertebrates, mussels, and crabs that are “injurious to human beings, to the interests of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, or to wildlife.� [4] Plants were added in an amendment in 2008. In 1990, the US Congress passed the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act. This law focused on unintentional, but preventable, introductions. It was largely a response to the invasion of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes and focused on controlling species spread through ballast water.

In 1996, the law was expanded and renamed the National Invasive Species Act. The law has been valuable, but had several shortcomings, especially in its failure to regulate other vectors such as aquaculture and the pet trade. NISA expired in 2002, but aquatic nuisance species continue to be regulated by the 1990 law. [5]


Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki


Aliens & Invaders

The Invasive Species Specialist Group describes the relationship between alien species and invasive species as: “In the process of transitioning from an alien species into an invasive species, the alien species establishes a self-reproduction group, which thrives and enters an expansion period of exponential growth within the region. This results in the invasive species building a permanent place within the unoriginal ecosystem.” [1]

If a non-original species begins to harm the inhabitants of their new environment, we label them as “invasive.” [2]

Though the differentiation between “alien” and “invasive” is helpful in describing the potential impact an introduced species may have on its new ecosystem, the labels’ efficacy as accurate descriptor of the potentially manageable relationship between

the introduced species and its ecosystem and as language that effectively mediates our participation in the imbalance created is questionable. This is further complicated by the fact that “Once nonnative species are established in an ecosystem they are rarely able to be removed.” [3]

Dingo Members from the University of Pretoria in South Africa argue that long-term alien species become “native,� once species in the disrupted ecosystem learn or are forced to become predators. [6] However this definition is not as straightforward as it might seem. The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) was introduced to Australia about 4000 years ago, but its status as an invasive species is still disputed due to its lack of predators, exceptions being rare instances of crocodile and python predation. [6]

Norway Rat

Asian Carp Asian Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), were introduced to the United States in the 1970s in order to help control algae on catfish farms in the south. During floods in the 1990s, these fish escaped into the Mississippi River and currently pose a threat to the Great Lakes ecosystem, as they consume large amounts of algae, grow and reproduce quickly and lack native predators [8].

Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki


One of the earliest examples of documented invasive species introduction was the Norway Rat or Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus). Originating in northeast China, the rat spread throughout islands in the Pacific Ocean and throughout the world through shipping routes in the 18th and 19th centuries. They quickly proliferated preying on native birds, reptiles and amphibians and remain firmly established in ecosystems and urban environments globally.[7]


Silver Fin

Due to Asian carp’s negative reputation as an invasive species, steps have been taken by former Illinois Lieutenant Governor Evelyn Sanguinetti to help restaurants create demand by rebranding Asian carp as “silver fin”. Clint Carter, a commercial fisherman and owner of Carter’s Fish Market states,

“Eating them not only reduces the risk for the Great Lakes … but creating a demand for them puts people like me out there to get them out of the water” [11]. By labeling species “invasive” we stigmatize them as “other”. The intent is to marshal resources against them in order to defend the local ecosystem, but once invasive species gain an ecological foothold, they are rarely purged. What we instead accomplish is to stigmatize a permanent resident of the local ecology, making it more difficult to use them and thus step in as an active participant in the ecosystem, namely as a surrogate predator.

Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki

Alternative Approaches


Emerging alternative philosophies on invasive species management question the utility of labeling species as separate from the ecosystems that they come to inhabit. Dr. Nicholas Reo, Associate Professor of Environmental Studies and Native American Studies at Dartmouth College and citizen of the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians in Michigan is helping redefine existing labels and approaches to invasive species.

“I have been told by some Anishinaabe collaborators that every plant and animal is useful to us in some way or multiple ways...It is our responsibility to figure out how they are useful.� [9]

Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki


Eat the Invaders

Eat the Invaders and Can’t Beat Em’ Eat Em’ are organizations that seek to provide recipes and information regarding invasive species that are safe to eat. Chef Phillippe Parola, originally from France, now lives in Louisiana and works with the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries to destigmatize Nutria (Myocastor coypus).

species introduction, humans have an obligation to re-establishes homeostasis through surrogate predation, ideally leveraging markets to establish a demand that supply can then meet.

“‘It’s all food, it’s natural protein and it’s a shame to see it wasted’...Instead of spending time and resources attempting to eradicate these species, Parola advocates for the creation of a commercial market for edible invasive products.” [12]

“Our goal is to raise awareness...”

This approach encourages humans to step in as a surrogate alpha predator in ecosystems which have not yet established a natural predator for invasive species. As the vector for invasive

Tom Kaye, Executive Director of Institute of Applied Ecology says,

He says. “...To the general public, to tell them that invasive species are out there and they do serious harm to ecosystems.” With four culinary categories – meat, vegetarian, desserts, and beverages – the cookoff draws over 200 attendees each year and touts “eradication by mastication” as a way to help reduce the damage imposed by invasive populations” [13].

Material Overabundance We must revisit the utility of defining a species as “invasive.” Destigmatizing introduced species has the potential to reframe their place in local ecosystems and remove a significant barrier to their consumption, both in the food industry as well as other product categories. What is needed is a concerted rebranding of invasive species by way of the products that we can make from them, one that tells a local story about conservation, identity, and humanity’s place in and responsibility to nature. Efforts to build product markets from invasive species are generally grassroots efforts that have failed to establish themselves in mainstream commercial product markets. Although we now regularly see recycled fishing net plastic and sustainable or green material sourcing in high end products, invasive species sourcing 12 ZEBRA GLASS

Megan Heeres created the Invasive Paper Project at Simone DeSousa Gallery in Detroit, MI in 2017 as a form of community outreach to raise awareness about invasive plants through craft. Paper making workshops using honeysuckle and other invasive species

“Addresses invasive plants not as things to be cast-off, but rather as potential assets to our communities if treated carefully.” Lousie Barteau hosts “Paper Making from Plants” to workshops in Philadelphia as she creates her own paper by using invasive Japanese knotweed, phragmites, Amur peppervine, oriental bittersweet, Japanese honeysuckle, hostas, daylilies, and Japanese stiltgrass [14]. As part of Sudburry Weed Education and Eradication Team in Sudburry, Massachusetts, Nancy Reilly helps to reduce the stigma of invasive Asiatic bittersweet by using it to build bespoke furniture [15]. still remains in its infancy.

Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki




Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki



Quagga mussels (Quagga Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) and Zebra Mussels (Zebra Dreissena polymorpha) arrived from the Ukraine and Russia in the 1980’s, transported here in the ballast tanks of transport ships. Since their introduction they have transformed the great lakes ecosystem, growing at densities of 7,790 mussels per cubic meter and proliferating at depths of 540 feet. Each mussel can lay a million eggs per year, live 2 to 5 years, and begin producing eggs of their own after just 12 months.[16]


Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki

Effects on Ecosystem & Infrastructure


Zebra mussels can attach themselves to almost any surface using strands called byssal threads. Once attached they clog water treatment and power station pipes, cling to boats hulls, docks, and propeller blades, clog engine intakes, and make beaches inhospitable with their sharp shells [17]. Invasive mussels overwhelm native mussels by growing over them, suffocating them, and then outcompete them for food. By coating the bottom of lakes they prevent aquatic life from burrowing and spawning in lake bottoms. By over consuming plankton, they increase water clarity, allowing light to reach deeper, causing toxic algae blooms, threatening human and aquatic life. As they rapidly consume plankton, they also biomagnify toxins leading to the poisoning of native species that prey on them as well as the water around them [18].




Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki

Efforts to remediate zebra and quagga mussels have been largely ineffective due the high cost. Zebra mussels have been collected and ground into sand for road work construction. A machine called “The Beachmaker” was created by Gregory Books in 2012 to “transform unusable beaches buried beneath piles of razor-sharp, bacteria-laden shells back to warm, soft, sandy beaches” by grinding the shells into sand [19]. Molluscicide has also been used to try to deter mussels from forming colonies on infrastructure, but has been known to cause damage to other species within the ecosystem [20]. These efforts have been largely ineffective at diminishing or halting the proliferation or ecological impacts of zebra and quagga mussels [21].

Zebra Glass


Looked at as a material resource, zebra and quagga mussel shells are composed of approximately 95% Calcium Carbonate as well as other elements including trace metals and other chemicals that they bioaccumulate. A study done by Michele Regina Rosa Hamester, Palova Santos Balzer and Daniela Becker of Instituto Superior Tupy and the Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina in Brazil reveals that “Calcium Carbonate can be obtained from oyster and mussel shells and is technically possible to replace...commercial Calcium Carbonate” [25] When heated to 1000 degrees Celsius, Calcium Carbonate is transformed into calcium oxide (lime). [26] This chemical reaction has been known and

utilized for thousands of years in the production of glass. “Roman glass [is] generally believed to be made from quartz sand (silica) containing marine shells (calcium carbonate), and mineral natron (sodium carbonate) as main compounds of the batch.”[27] Zebra mussel shells also contain trace amounts of other minerals and metals, which will constitute natural or bio-accumulated colorants for zebra glass, giving the glass different color properties depending upon the region or lake the mussels are harvested from [28] “As little as 0.001% metallic oxides will impart color to glass” [29].





Local Glass Production

The Great Lakes region has a very long history of glass making, through nearby large- and small-scale glass production and manufacturing.

“Michigan ranks third in the US in industrial sand production� a significant

proportion of it supplying the glass industry. Libbey Glass has been operating in the region since 1888 when it moved to begin production of Edison light bulbs [22]. Automotive glass has been produced in factories throughout the upper and lower peninsulas of Michigan to supply the automobile industry. [23]



Material Chemistry

SiO2 (Silica) A former (silica) from sand which constitutes 7075% of the mix by weight “According to Dr. Glenn K. Lockwood, a ceramic engineer, ‘At high temperatures, Silica liquefies into a very viscous melt that generally impedes crystallization kinetically when it goes below its melting temperature.’…”

CaCO3 converts to CaO (Lime) A stabilizer (lime) or calcium oxide makes up 10-

NaHCO3 converts to NaO (Soda) A flux (soda) or sodium oxide makes up 12-16% of the mix. “…helps reduce the melting temperature of the silica. However, its addition also makes the resulting glass soluble in water.” which necessitates…. The final % is made up of balancing agents and colorants.


15% of the mix “…Although an excess of calcium oxide to a silica melt will cause devitrification, additions of small amounts of lime stabilize the glass melt with respect to water, fixing the problem of water solubility introduced with the soda component.” [24]



To process zebra glass we begin by collecting zebra and quagga mussel shells off of the beaches of Muskegon and Lake St. Clair, where the species was first introduced in 1989. Then the shells are boiled to remove excess organic matter. The shells are then ground into a fine texture with a mortar and pestle. Lastly, the newly ground shells are sifted to ensure a fine, uniform consistency.




Two of our main ingredients Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) go through several chemical reactions, losing a great deal of mass in CO2 and H2O as they transform into Soda (Na2O) and Lime (CaO). In order to have the correct proportions of final ingredients carried out batching calculations using molar masses. We decided to try two recipes at the extremes of the (flux&stabilizer)/(silica) range for soda glass from our research. The stabilizer/flux ratio was held fairly constant for this experiment‌ Recipe 1 high flux/stabilizer, low silica: (15% Lime, 15% Soda, 70% Silica) corresponding to (20% mussels, 30% baking soda, 51% sand) Recipe 2 low flux/stabilizer, high silica: (12% Lime, 13% Soda, 73% Silica) corresponding to (16% mussels, 27% baking soda, 57% sand) Recipe 1

Recipe 2


Firing Firing temperatures and ramp rates are crucial to avoid boiling over of the melt which can affect batch mix proportions and potentially cause damage to the kiln. For our initial 2 recipes we ramped up at 3C/min pausing for an hour at each chemical reaction temperature to allow for the controlled venting of CO2 and H2O. We then held for 5 hours at our melting temp. After melting we ramped quickly down through the vitrification range at 10C/min to the anneal range holding at 480C for one hour and then ramping down at .5C/min until 370C at which we ramped to ambient at 3C/min.


851 C

1000 C

1000 C

Ramp to 100 C and hold 1 hour

Ramp to 851 C 3 C/min hold 1 hour

Ramp to 1000 C 3 C/min hold 1 hour

At 100 degrees C sodium bicarbonate is converted to sodium carbonate, H2O, and CO2. An hour hold prevents rapid steam formation and bubbling.

At 851 degrees C Sodium carbonate is converted to sodium Oxide (soda) and CO2. An hour hold prevents bubbling.

At 1000 degrees C Calcium carbonate is converted to calcium Oxide (lime) and CO2. An hour hold prevents bubbling

1300 C

370 C

Ramp to 1300 C 3 C/min hold 5 hours

Ramp to 480 C 10 C/min hold 1 hour

Ramp to 370 C .5 C/min

Ramp to ambient 3 C/min 21 hour total cycle

Full melt occurs at 1300 C. A 5 hour hold ensures full melt and homogeneity.

Quickly transitioning through 480 C prevents vitrification and crystallization

Slowly transitioning from 480 C to 370 C anneals the glass preventing internal stresses that can lead to spontaneous explosion

After reaching max temperature the kiln slowly ramps down. Total cycle time is approximately 21 hours

Bauccio, 1994 M.L. Bauccio (Ed.), Engineered Materials Reference Book (second ed.), ASM International, USA (1994) H.G. Pfaender Schott Guide to Glass, Chapman & Hall, London (1996)


480 C





Glass Color & Chemistry

Cadmium Sulfide

Gold Chloride Manganese Dioxide

Nickel Oxide


Chromic Oxide

Cadmium Sulfide

“Soda Lime Glass is primarily colored through added earth metal ions, colloidal particles formed within the glass, or from particles that are colored themselves. ” [30] Metal oxide ions absorb light wavelengths resulting in coloration. Colloidal particles are formed in suspension during glass formation. They scatter light of specific frequencies resulting in coloration. Colored particles can also be introduced directly into the glass batch resulting in coloration. We anticipate metal oxide ions from the environment that the mussels have ingested will constitute the majority of color expression. Common metal colorants for Soda Lime Glass include: Cobalt Oxide: Blue, Nickel Oxide: Violet, Sulfur: Yellow-Amber, Iron Oxide: Green Brown, Copper Compounds: Blue, Red and Green and Led Compounds: Yellow.” [31]


Uranium Oxide

Iron Oxide

Selenium Oxide

Carbon Oxides

Copper Compounds

Lead Compounds

Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki

Geological Color


Minerals and metals within bedrock contribute to regional chemical compositions, and in turn, can come to define the biochemistry of great lakes ecosystems. “Precambrian bedrock hosts concentrations of minerals mined to recover elements such as iron, copper, and gold” [32]. Lake Superior’s watershed contains “the world’s largest untapped copper deposit — an estimated 4 billion tons of copper-nickel ores that may be worth more than $1 trillion” [33]. A Northern Michigan Nickel and Copper mine (Eagle Mine, Marquette, Michigan) alone contributes $4.3 billion for Michigan’s economy. “The mine is expected to produce 365 million pounds of nickel, and 295 million pounds of copper, and trace amounts of other minerals over its estimated mine life (2014 – mid-2025)” [34]. Because copper, iron and nickel minerals are already found in Lake Superior’s watershed, it is likely that their coloring will contribute to the color of Zebra Glass, making the glass from this region blue, green or red from copper, green or brown from iron and violet from nickel [35]. Lake Huron will likely have white or yellow attributes due to the region’s high levels of Quartz (87%-94%), Feldspar (10-18%) and magnetite (1-3%). “Potash, bromine, sodium, and chloride are mined near and below the Detroit Region”, contributing

bio accumulated colors to Lake Huron and to Lake Erie [36]. “Calcite, Fluorite, Quartz, Chalcedony, Sphalerite” are minerals specific to the Ohio region of Lake Erie, resulting in yellow brown color. The areas surrounding Lake Ontario are “leading producer of metals such as platinum group metals, nickel, cobalt, gold, copper, silver and zinc. To date, the total value of all metal production in Ontario is estimated at $534 billion dollars” [37]. Traces of Nickel, Cobalt and Gold within Lake Ontario’s ecosystem will may contribute to a bluish-gray tone for Zebra Glass. Lastly, Lake Michigan contains “very high silica [due to surrounding sand dune] and very low metal oxide content” [38]. “Wisconsin has 1,148 records of mines listed by the United States Geological Survey” [39]. Lead , Zinc , Copper , Iron , and Silver mines located in Wisconsin, likely contributing to a bluish violet color for Zebra Glass [40].

Aqueous Color Our predictions for zebra glass color will require confirmation and experimentation through process and material iteration.

Although ““Polluted sediments are considered the largest source of contaminants, including metals, in Great Lakes food chains [42]… the results clearly showed that except for Mg, metal concentrations in zebra mussels were not significantly influenced by concentrations of metals in nearby sediments.”

Trial and error will help build a catalog of results from which we can make founded judgements on the relationship between glass color, zebra mussel biochemistry, and regional macro and micro chemical concentrations.


Many factors can affect trace element concentrations in mussels ranging from “natural occurring mineral formations,… individual size,…season of sampling,…the effectiveness of internal regulation,…and the unique environmental characteristics of each site.” [41] There is some uncertainty as to how much regional geology will effect zebra glass color.

“This lack of influence occurs despite the presence of highly significant differences in metal concentrations among sites in both mussels and sediments and a significant relationship between % fines and concentrations of all the metals in sediments and some of the metals in mussels. Metal concentrations in the soft tissues of zebra mussels generally vary with concentrations in ambient waters. [43] Thus, results of the data analysis suggest that metal concentrations in the water to which the mussels were exposed in this study were driven by other more influential factors than sediment metal concentrations.” [44]

Illustration by Mahsa Banadaki


Chromatic Identity

Using color as a tool to represent location provides the opportunity to regionally brand Zebra Glass, expressing community and belonging by revealing something as deeply emotional and personal as color. This chromatic identity will be expressed through local and regional bio-accumulated colorants. This visual representation of the region questions what it means to be invasive. Ideally, Zebra Glass utilizes Zebra and Quagga Mussels from each Great Lake, resulting in subtle or even dramatic color shifts based on the unique mineral and metal signatures of each ecosystem.




results & future work


Glass Extraction

After removal from the kiln the crucibles were cut in half. One half was preserved as a section of the batch melt. The glass was extracted from the other half of the crucible, documented, and then crushed for later casting.



Glass Appearance & Color

Recipe 1 Our high flux/stabilizer, low silica mix, presented as an iceberg blue with veins of green. White bubbling can be observed on top. These results are likely due to a higher flux/stabilizer content corresponding to a higher mass of chemical reaction meaning more CO2 production and frothing during ramp up and at max temp. This could have also caused more bubbling over which may have skewed ingredient proportions in the mix, leading to less flux and a lower viscosity at max temp. The green veining is likely due to the higher bioaccumulated colorant content, or perhaps a lower viscosity due to the loss of flux in bubbling over. The lighter color may be due to the incomplete mixing of the green and blue bioaccumulated colorant.

Recipe 2

Glaze There was a great deal of bubbling over, which can be fixed by ramping up much slower, perhaps 1C/ min rather than 3C/min. This bubbling over lead to a thrilling discovery: Zebra Glass is an excellent ceramic glaze. The glass that flowed up and out of the crucible coated the sides in an even layer without bubbles. Ceramics as a medium opens up a new realm of possibilities for exploration as well as other product markets and applications.


Our low flux/stabilizer, high silica content mix, presented as a deeper aqua blue. Che Rhodes, founder of the glass department at University of Louisville, identified the final glass color as “likely a copper blue,� aligning with high levels of copper in the Lake Michigan Region. Glass color and consistency was fairly homogeneous likely due to low flux & stabilizer content which created less bubbling over during ramp up and at max temp preserving recipe proportions and evincing fewer bubbles in the mix that had to separate out.

Next Steps For further experimentation to test the accuracy and range of regional color… 1. Pure calcium carbonate can be used instead of Zebra Mussels to establish a baseline for color. 2. Rinsing the zebra mussels instead of boiling them to keep organic material intact could intensify color by including the bioaccumulated metals in the zebra mussel flesh. 3. Zebra Mussels from different regions, different lakes, or even different locations in the water column for instance deep-water vs. shoreline Zebra and Quagga Mussels can be compared and cataloged.


4. Zebra Glass as a glaze for ceramics

Applications In conjunction with our collaborators, we are currently exploring several applications of zebra glass: • Zebra Glass can raise awareness about invasive species, local ecologies, biochemical processes, material science, and design through cooperation with local museums, science centers, and science programs. • Create identity within the region by collaborating with local glass and ceramics artists creating the potential to build local identity and local markets through branded color. • Defining identity outside the region through industrial and corporate partnerships in product categories ranging from home goods to accessories.




Zebra Glass seeks to explore a need for invasive species (Zebra and Quagga Mussels in the Great Lakes) to be mitigated while identifying new material methods that remove stigma, create demand and contribute to the conservation of native ecosystems. Viewing invasive species through a lens of materiality creates an opportunity to focus on these species as an abundant, sustainable resource that creates local connections and awareness, while redefining the stigma of “invasion�. What was once a stigmatized invader, can be an abundant source of solidarity, purpose, and beauty.


References Instructor: Matthew Strong Adjunct professor in the MFA Color & Material Design Department College for Creative Studies B.Sc. civil engineering (engineering materials and structural engineering) University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign; Certification Krenov Fine Woodworking Program College of the Redwoods; M.Arch. Taubman College University of Michigan https://cargocollective.com/matthewstrong


Collaborators: 1. Jon Allan B.Sc. fisheries and wildlife Michigan State University, M.Sc. zoology Michigan State University retired in 2019 as the Director of the Office of the Great Lakes contributing experience in aquatic sciences and fisheries & wildlife to the office’s mission to protect, restore, and sustain the Great Lakes watershed https://www.jonallangroup.com/about 2. Ashley Baldridge Elgin Ph.D. Benthic Ecologist at NOAA; research interests: Aquatic Invasive Species, Climate Change, Dreissenid Mussels, Limnology B.S., Michigan Technological University, General Biology; M.A., Smith College, Marine Biology; Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, Aquatic Ecology https://www.glerl.noaa.gov/about/pers/profiles/elgin.html 3. Ebi Baralaye Assistant professor and section head of ceramics College for Creative Studies http://baralaye.com/

4. Sally Erickson Wilson Chair of MFA Color & Materials Design MA, Royal College of Art, BA[ HONS] Manchester Metropolitan University, Post Graduate Diploma in Marketing https://www.collegeforcreativestudies.edu/faculty/2623/sally-erickson-wilson 5. Kim Harty Chair of Materials and Crafts College for Creative Studies http://kimharty.com/ 6. Ian Lambert Dean of Graduate Students Interim Chair of MFA Interaction Design PhD, University of Edinburgh, MA, Central St Martins College of Art and Design, PG, University of Central England, BA (Hons), Birmingham Polytechnic https://www.collegeforcreativestudies.edu/faculty/3495/ian-lambert

Contributors: 1. Antonette Arvai Secretariat Great Lakes Water Quality Board and Physical Sciences Officer for International Joint Commision M.A.Sc., P.Eng. http://www.goc411.ca/en/92135/Antonette-Arvai

2. Daniel Hayes Ph.D. Ph.d. in Fisheries and Wildlife Michigan State University Fish population dynamics; fish habitat; statistics and mathematical modeling, professor at MSU https://www.canr.msu.edu/people/daniel_hayes


7. Andrew Scarpelli Ph.D. Assistant Professor at National Louis University B.Sc. biochemistry University of Michigan; Ph.D. molecular biology Northwestern University

3. Kelsey Leonard Ph.D. Water Scholar/Activist advocating for Indigenous water rights and international speaker B.A. Sociology and Anthropology from Harvard University; J.D. DuQuesne University; M.Sc. Water Science, Policy and Management from Oxford; Ph.D. Comparative Public Policy from McMaster University Enrolled citizen of the Shinnecock Indian Nation. http://www.kelseyleonard.com/ 4. Che Rhodes Associate Professor of fine arts and founder of the glass program at the University of Louisville M.F.A. Tyler School of Art


http://www.cherhodes.com/ 5. Michael Styczynski Adjunct Professor of Architecture, Lawrence Tech University; Design Architect at Smith Group Detroit B.A. Architecture, University of Michigan; M.Arch. Graduate School of Design, Harvard

Creative Approach to Remediation 9. Vermes, Jason. “Every Plant and Animal Is Useful to Us’: Indigenous Professor Re-Thinking How We Deal with Invasive Species.” CBC Radio, performance by Nicholas Reo, season CBC Radio, 20 Apr. 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/unreserved/earth-day-indigenous-scientistsacademics-and-community-members-take-the-lead-in-environmental-causes-1.4605336/everyplant-and-animal-is-useful-to-us-indigenous-professor-re-thinking-how-we-deal-with-invasivespecies-1.4605344) 10. Valentine, Katie. “New Research Advances Efforts to Combat Invasive Silver Carp.” Welcome to NOAA Research. Welcome to NOAA Research, March 28, 2019. https://research.noaa.gov/ article/ArtMID/587/ArticleID/2436/New-Research-Advances-Efforts-to-Combat-InvasiveSilver-Carp.

11. Thompson, Megan. “‘If You Can’t Beat ‘Em, Eat ‘Em:’ University of Illinois Serves Invasive Asian Carp for Dinner.” PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, January 26, 2019. https://www.pbs. org/newshour/nation/if-you-cant-beat-em-eat-em-university-of-illinois-serves-invasive-asiancarp-for-dinner. 12. “Check Out These Invasive Species Turned into Sustainable Delicacies.” PBS. Public Broadcasting Service. Accessed May 3, 2020. https://www.pbs.org/independentlens/blog/ invasive-species-turned-into-sustainable-delicacies/. 13. Eat The Invaders RSS. Accessed May 3, 2020. http://eattheinvaders.org/faq/. 14. “Creative Uses for Invasive Plants.” Ecological Landscape Alliance, July 16, 2012. https://www. ecolandscaping.org/07/landscape-challenges/invasive-plants/creative-uses-for-invasive-plants/. 15. “Creative Uses for Invasive Plants.” Ecological Landscape Alliance, July 16, 2012. https://www. ecolandscaping.org/07/landscape-challenges/invasive-plants/creative-uses-for-invasive-plants/.

16. “Zebra Mussel.” Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers. Accessed May 3, 2020. https:// stopaquatichitchhikers.org/hitchhikers/mollusks-zebra-mussel/. 17. Quagga & Zebra Mussels.” Center for Invasive Species Research, December 27, 2019. https:// cisr.ucr.edu/invasive-species/quagga-zebra-mussels. 18. “Study Shows Zebra Mussels Can Colonize Sand And Mud.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, May 11, 1998. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/05/980511075839.htm. 19. Beachmaker’ – Turning Shells into Sand.” Beach Treasures and Treasure Beaches, June 4, 2012. https://beachtreasuresandtreasurebeaches.com/2012/06/04/the-beachmaker-turning-shellsinto-sand/. 20. “Zequanox® Molluscicide: Zebra Mussel Control: Marrone Bio.” Marrone Bio Innovations, April 10, 2020. https://marronebio.com/products/zequanox/.


Zebra Mussels

Glass 21. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Libbey Inc.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., April 5, 2013. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Libbey-Inc. 22. History, www.srgglobal.com/our-company/history. 23. “Glass Compositions - Glenn K. Lockwood,” n.d. https://www.glennklockwood.com/ materials-science/glass-compositions.html. 24. Ashley Elgin. Zebra and Quagga Mussels, April, 10 2020. 25. Michele Regina Rosa Hamestera, Palova Santos Balzera, Daniela Beckerb


26. Kim Harty. “Glass Chemistry.” Glass Chemistry, March 3, 2020. 27. Freestone, I., Gorin-Rosen, Y. & Hughes, M. Primary glass from Isreal and the production fo glass in Late Antiquity and the Early Islamic Period. In Le Route Du Verre, 2000. Maison de l’Orient, Lyon. Pp 65-83.) (ii: Formation and composition of glass as a function of firing temperature, A Shugar & Th. Rehren, Institute of Archeology, UCL, 31-4 Gordon Squre, London WC1H0PY, UK) 28. Hamester, Michele Regina Rosa, Palova Santos Balzer, and Daniela Becker, n.d. https://pdfs. semanticscholar.org/1ad6/157eeb32f8caf07904bff7dc32533d203246.pdf 29. Sand and sand mining. Accessed May 3, 2020. http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/sand. html.

Color 30. Frontinisays, Gabriele, Lecturas de Domingo, and Michael Nourot. “The Chemistry of Coloured Glass.” Compound Interest, May 3, 2015. https://www.compoundchem. com/2015/03/03/coloured-glass/.

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