Page 1

SANAT

NEW

PAZARININ

ACTORS OF

YEN‹

THE ART

AKTÖRLER‹

MARKET

A

k›nc› Türklerin, Viyana Kuflatmas›ndaki hezimetinden sonra bir daha toparlanamadan,

or at least 200 years and since the defeat of

F

Raider Turkish Raiders in Vienna Siege, without

Bat›da gidebilecekleri son noktay› hayaledebilme gücü

gathering their strength, it has continually been on

yerine; uygarl›¤›n-de¤er hükmü tafl›yan anlam›yla-

the agenda of this society to reach the west on the

bat›ya ulaflabilme, bir seviye ve ideal ve hatta bir

context of civilisation as a level, as an ideal and even

kompleks olarak; hedeflerine bir ölçü olarak bat›y›

as a complex instead of imagining the last point they

örnek alma tutumu, kesintisiz en az bir 200 y›ld›r bu

could reach.

toplumun gündemindedir. Bilmem söylemeye gerek varm›? ‹nkilaplar›n›n

It is not necessary to mention but natural results of French Revolution did not only affect the

do¤al sonucu, ‹lerlemeci düflünceleriyle sadece

Ottomans with its progressive ideas but they were also

Osmanl›y› de¤il tüm dünyay› kendine hayran b›rakan

admired by the rest of the world. However Ottomans

1789 Frans›z ‹htilali’nin s›n›fsal temeli, Osmanl›

did not understand the class basis of this revolution.

taraf›ndan hiç anlafl›lamam›flt›r. Dolay›s›yla

As far as the innovation attempts could be

monarflinin bahçesinden kavranabildi¤i kadar›yla

understood from the garden of monarch, when the

yenileflme çabalar›n› , bir tren yolununun son

last station of a railway had to pass through Sur-u

istasyonu, sur-u sultani’ nin içinden geçece¤i zaman,

Sultani (the walls around Topkap› Palace), with his

Sultan Abdülaziz, trenyolu için ‘gelsin de isterse yatak

longing for technology Sultan Abdülaziz was

odamdan geçsin ‘ diyerek teknolojiye olan hasretiyle,

expressing abnegation with these words "it could pass

fedakarl›¤› ifade ediyordu.

through my bedroom".

Onun döneminde Ahmet Ali (fieker Ahmed

In his period Ahmed Ali (fieker Ahmed Pafla)

Pafla) 1867 Paris sergisine bir karakalem Abdülaziz

joined 1867 Paris exhibition with an Abdülaziz

portresiyle kat›lm›flt›r. 1869-1870 y›lar›ndaki Salon

drawing. By the inquiring attempts of Adnan Çoker

V


d’Exposition sergilerine Gerome ve Boulangerin

we have recently learnt that he joined Salon

ö¤rencisi olarak kat›ld›¤›n› da yak›n bir geçmiflte

d’Exposition exhibitions between 1869-1870 as a

Adnan Çoker’in merakl› çabalar› sonucu ö¤renmifl

student of Gerome and Boulanger. fieker Ahmed Pafla

bulunuyoruz. Mesele Bat›y› fethetmek, bat›yla afl›k

is a first, a pioneer in this subject on a context to

atmak, yada ilerlemek ; nas›l ifade edeceksek

conquer and compete with the west or to proceed.

bilmiyorum , fieker Ahmet Pafla bu konuda bir ilktir, bir öncüdür. ‹kincisi Paris Salon sergisine kabul edilen son

The second is the last caliph heir apparent Abdülmecit Efendi who was accepted to Paris Hall exhibition. This very special caliph, a Tanzimat

halife veliaht Abdülmecid Efendi’dir. Bu çok flahs›na

intellectual is presented in the painting ‘La leçon

mahsus halife, bir tanzimat münevveri,’ La leçon

Histoire’ while he is giving history lessons to his

Histoire’ adl› tabloda, çocuklar›na bir masa üzerine

children on a map laid on a table. The year is 1914. It is

serili harita da tarih dersi verirken gösteriliyor. Sene

possible that the Ottomans (Osman Hamdi, Süleyman

1914. 1870 den 1914 e Osmanl›lar›n (Osman Hamdi,

Seyyid, Halil Pafla, Hoca Ali R›za) joined other

Süleyman Seyyid, Halil Pafla, Hoca Ali R›za) Pariste

exhibitions from 1870 to 1914 as they were in Paris.

bulunmalar› nedeniyle baflka sergilere de kat›lm›fl olmalar› muhtemeldir.

1918 2. Turkish Siege of Vienna Celal Esat (Arseven) makes a painting atelier built in

VI

1918 Türklerin 2. Viyana Ç›kartmas›

fiiflli Bulgarian Bazaar in 1917. Celal Esad is the son of

1917’de Celal Esat (Arseven) fiiflli’de Bulgar

Ahmet Esad Pasha who worked as the director of

pazar›nda ahflaptan bir resim atölyesi kurdurur. Celal

Mekteb-i Osmani (Ottoman School) which was

Esad, Pariste aç›lan Mekteb-i Osmani’nin

founded in Paris. His closeness to the Palace and his

müdürlü¤ünü yapm›fl olan Ahmed Esad Pafla’n›n

background works were guarantors for his future

o¤ludur. Saraya yak›nl›¤› ve yapt›¤› ifller yapacaklar›na

studies. The aim was to show Turkish power not only

kefil bir flahsiyettir. Dolay›s›yla bir atölye kurdurup,

in the war but also in art by founding an atelier,

burada çal›flacak sanatç›lar›n ve dahi d›flardan

opening an art exhibition by the contribution of

kat›l›mlarla oluflturulacak bir sanat sergisinin, Avrupa

artists working in this atelier and others and showing

merkezlerinde sergilenerek, Türkün gücünün sadece

this exhibition in European centres. In the difficult

savaflta de¤il, sanatta da gösterilmesi hedeflenmifltir. Bu

atmosphere of war, ‹brahim Çall›, Nam›k ‹smail,

atölyede savafl›n zorlu ortam›nda , her türlü devlet

Hikmet Onat, Mehmet Sami Yetik, Ali Sami Boyar,

deste¤iyle ‹brahim Çall›, Nam›k ‹smail, Hikmet Onat,

Mehmet Ruhi Bey, Ali Cemal Benim painted large

Mehmet Sami Yetik, Ali Sami Boyar, Mehmet Ruhi Bey,

paintings with the support of the state. Mehmet Ali

Ali Cemal Benim büyük boyutlu tablolar yapar. Bunlara

Laga, Feyhaman Duran, Avni Lifij ve Abdülmecit

d›flardan kat›lan Mehmet Ali Laga, Feyhaman Duran,

Efendi , Harika Sirel han›m (Lifij), Ömer Adil bey,

Avni Lifij ve Abdülmecid Efendi, Harika Sirel Han›m

Cevat Bey, Halil Pafla, ‹smail Hakk› Bey, Mahmut Bey,

(Lifij), Ömer Adil Bey, Cevat Bey, Halil Pafla, ‹smail

fievket Da¤, Seyit Bey, Tahsin Diyarbak›rl›, Ruflen


Hakk› Bey, Mahmut Bey, fievket Da¤, Seyit Bey,

Zamir Han›m joined this group with their works

Diyarbak›rl› Tahsin, Ruflen Zamir Han›m, 1918 de

which were created outside the atelier and the

Viyana Üniversitesi salonlar›nda sergilenmifl ve çok da

exhibition in Vienna University in 1918 attracted

alaka toplam›flt›r. Fakat 1. Dünya savafl› sona ererken

attentions. However the project to take the exhibition

sergiyi Berlin’e götürme projesi gerçekleflememifltir.

to Berlin could not be realised during the ending of

Sanat Tarihine fiiflli Atölyesi ismini hediye eden Adnan

the 1. World War. According to Adnan Çoker, who

Çoker’e göre sanat tarihimiz bu sayede büyük boyda

added the name fiiflli Atelier to the History of Art, our

çoklu figürleriyle kompozisyonlar kazanm›flt›r. ‹lkler

art history acquired large and multiple figure

aras›nda 1918 Viyana Sergisi, Türklerin ilk toplu

compositions by this way. 1918 Vienna Exhibition,

Avrupa ç›kartmas›d›r.

which is among the firsts, in the first total European landing of Turks.

1923-1945 Cumhuriyetin Kurulufl y›llar› ve Kemal’in ‹nflaî Program›*

1923-1945 Founding Years of the Republic and

Cumhuriyetin ilk y›llar› 6 dönem CHP tek parti dönemi,

Kemal’s Constructive Program*

sanata devlet deste¤inin devam etti¤i zorlu y›llard›r.

The first years of the Republic, 6 periods of CHP

Fakat bat›ya ö¤renci gönderme kesintisiz devam eder.

single party period were difficult years when the state

Bu kez elitler de¤il halk›n çocuklar› bu nimetten

continued to support art. They continue to send

yararlanmaya bafllam›flt›r. ‘Güzel Sanatlar› sevmek ve

students to the west. This time not the upper class,

onda yükselmek ‘ ülküsü cumhuriyetin 10. Y›l›ndan

but the children of the public used this opportunity.

itibaren meyvelerini vermeye bafllar. Adnan Çoker’in

The ideal of “Loving Fine Arts and rising in them”

‘Cumhuriyetin Çocuklar›’ olarak isimlendirdi¤i d grubu

started to give its fruits beginning with the 10. Year of

sanatç›lar› devlet deste¤inin d›fl›nda kendi bafllar›n›n

the Republic. Group D artists, who were named as

çaresine bakacak yollar deniyorlard›. Bu sanatç›lar

“The Children of Republic” by Adnan Çoker, were

flunlard›r: Baflta kurucular› Zeki Faik ‹zer, Nurullah

trying on their own without state support. These

Berk, Elif Naci, Zühtü Mürido¤lu, Cemal Tollu, Abidin

artists: their founders are Zeki Faik ‹zer, Nurullah

Dino olmak üzere, Cemal Nadir Güler, Bedri Rahmi

Berk, Elif Naci, Zühtü Mürido¤lu, Cemal Tollu,

Eyübo¤lu, Turgut Zaim, Eflref Üren, Arif Kaptan, Eren

Abidin Dino and the other members are Cemal Nadir

Eyübo¤lu, Halil Dikmen, Salih Urall›, fieref Akdik, Sabri

Güler, Bedri Rahmi Eyübo¤lu, Turgut Zaim, Eflref

Berkel, Leopold Levy, Pierre Bonnard, Nusret Suman,

Üren, Arif Kaptan, Eren Eyübo¤lu, Halil Dikmen,

Fahrünnisa Zeyd, Hakk› Anl›, Zeki Kocamemi’dir. Bu

Salih Urall›, fieref Akdik, Sabri Berkel, Leopold Levy,

sanatç›lar sanatta izlenimcili¤in d›fl›nda baflka e¤ilimlere

Pierre Bonnard, Nusret Suman, Fahrünnisa Zeyd,

bakarken ayn› zamanda sergilemelerini de resmi

Hakk› Anl›, Zeki Kocamemi. The artists were looking

salonlar›n d›fl›nda arayarak, flartlar› zorluyorlard›. Aç›l›fl

towards inclinations other than impressionism in art

sergisi Beyo¤lu’ndaki 388 numaral› boflalt›lm›fl Mimoza

and they were also challenging the conditions by

flapka dükkan› kiralanarak yap›ld›. Di¤er sergilerde buna

searching exhibitions out of official halls. The

VII


benzer tecimsel olamayan, Beyo¤lu Halkevi, Tenis

opening exhibition was opened by renting Mimoza

Eskrim Da¤c›l›k Klübü, Taksim; Galatasarayl›lar Klübü,

hat store on Beyo¤lu number 388. Other exhibitions

Eski Frans›z Tiyatrosu gibi mekanlarda olmufltur.

were also in non-commercial places like Beyo¤lu

Bu dönem d grubu üyelerinin bir k›sm›n›n kat›l›m›yla yurt d›fl› sergiler de yap›lm›flt›r. Bunlar

Climbing Club Taksim, Galatasarayl›lar Club and Old

1934 Moskova, Leningrat, 1937 Atina, 1946 Paris, 1950

French Theatre.

tekrar Atina sergileridir. Bu sergileri, Cumhuriyetin

In this period there were also some exhibitions

kurulufl y›llar›ndaki geliflkinli¤i Bat›ya gösterme ve

abroad with the attendance of d group members.

paylaflma gayretleri olarak tarihleyebiliriz.

These are 1934 Moscow, Leningrad, 1937 Athens,

Ölmeden bir y›l önce, Cumhuriyetin ilk kurulufl

1946 Paris and again 1950 Athens exhibitions. We can

y›llar›na rastlayan 1937 y›l›nda Mustafa Kemal, ivedilikle

describe these exhibitions as the attempts to show

Resim Heykel Müzesini kurdurarak, Meflrutiyet

and share the development in the founding years of

y›llar›nda bafllayan ileri bat›l› sanat hamlelerini baflka

the Republic with the West.

ileri bir noktaya tafl›m›flt›r. Ça¤dafl Türk sanat› için yer

VIII

Community Centre, Tennis Fencing Mountain

Mustafa Kemal made the State Museum of Fine

olarak da Dolmabahçe Saray›’n›n veliaht dairesini uygun

Arts founded in 1937 in the first years of the

görmüfltü. Böylece Osman Hamdi Bey’in Güzel Sanatlar

Republic, one year before he died and added much

Akademisini kurmas›ndan yaklafl›k 50 y›l sonra Resim

to western art movements beginning with

Heykel Müzesi aç›lm›flt›r. Müzenin ilk koleksiyonu için

Constitutional years. Heir apparent room of

1936 a¤ustosunda Akademi salonlar›nda aç›lm›fl olan

Dolmabahçe Palace was found an appropriate place

Türk Sanat›n›n 50 y›l› sergisi baz al›nm›flt›r (Elvah-›

for Contemporary Turkish art. Thus, 50 years after

Nakfliye Koleksiyonu). Bu sergide d grubu sanatç›lar› 3.

the founding of Fine Arts Academy by Osman Hamdi

Katta yer al›yorlard›. 1939 y›l›ndan itibaren, mütemadi

Bey, the State Museum of Fine Arts was opened. For

olarak her y›l aç›lan sergilerden devletin kurumlar› için

the first collection of the museum, the exhibition

devlet eliyle sat›n al›mlarla, sanat ve sanatç› desteklendi.

named 50 Years of Turkish Art (Elvah-I Nakfliye

Zaten Cumhuriyetin ilk y›llar›nda tüm kurumlar devlet

Collection), which was opened in Academy halls in

deste¤i görmenin d›fl›nda bizzat devlet eliyle

August 1936, was taken as a basis. Group d artists were

oluflturulmufltu. Bunun güzel bir örne¤i olan ‹fl

on the 3. floor in this exhibition. After 1939, art and

Bankas›’da, 1940 dan itibaren bu sergilerden eser

artist have been supported by the state by yearly

almaya bafllad›. Ayr›ca Merkez Bankas›’n›n, önemli

exhibitions and state purchases. In the first years of

koleksiyonunun temelleri de, 1930’lu y›llarda at›lm›flt›r.

the Republic, all the institutions were founded by the

Bu bir devletin kültür ve sanat politikas›d›r.

state itself. ‹flbank, as a good example of these

1938-1943 aras› CHP nin program›yla sanatç›lar

institutions, began to purchase pieces from

Anadolu nun muhtelif köflelerine gönderilerek eser

exhibitions after 1940. Besides, the basis of the

üretmeye teflvik edildiler. 1944 de bu alt› y›ll›k program›n

important collection of Central Bank was also created

ürünü olan 675 tablo Ankara Sergievi’nde sergilenmifltir.

in 1930s. This is the culture and art politics of a state.


Her y›l aç›lan sergilerden devlet, resim heykel

Between 1938 and 1943, with the program of

müzesine ve di¤er devlet kurumlar›na sat›n almayla

CHP, artists were sent to various parts of Anatolia and

sanata destek oldu ve yap›lara ve kamusal alanlara

they were encouraged to produce works of art. 675

sipariflleriyle tek al›c› konumunu uzun y›llar

paintings, as the product of this 6 years program,

muhafaza etti.

were exhibited in Ankara Exhibition Centre in 1944. State continued to support art by purchasing

Demokratikleflme çabalar› ve sanat piyasas› için

pieces from the exhibitions every year for State

denemeler

Museum of Fine Arts and other state institutions and

Demokratikleflme ve ekonomide liberalleflme

preserved its position as the sole purchaser with its

çabalar›n› kapsayan 1950’li y›llarda Maya Sanat

orders to buildings and public areas.

Galerisi de¤iflen konjuktüre ayak uydurma gayretiyle ortaya ç›km›fl ilk önemli figürdür. Ondan önce de bir

Democratization struggles and attempts for art

tak›m sergileme imkanlar› Beyo¤lu ve Taksim

market

etraf›nda vard›r ama ticari olarak sanat›n serbest

In 1950s which cover democratization and

piyasa ekonomisine sunuluflu Maya Galerisi ile

liberalisation attempts Maya Art Gallery is the first

olmufltur. Di¤er birkaç k›sa süreli denemeden de

important figure to keep up with the changing

bahsetmek mümkün.

conjecture. There had been a few exhibition

Sanat tarihimiz incelendi¤inde, sanatç› ile

possibilities before this gallery around Beyo¤lu and

sanat al›c›s› aras›ndaki iliflkinin oldukça geç bir

Taksim but the presentation of art to free market in a

dönemde ortaya ç›kt›¤› görülüyor. Bir anlamda

commercial meaning began with Maya Gallery. It is

sanatç›lar, uzun y›llar yaln›z bafl›na büyük bir sanat

possible to state a few other short term attempts.

tutkusu ile olmayan bir pazara ürettiler. Asl›nda

It is seen that the relation between artist and art

postmodern bir deyifl olan üretmeyi, 50li y›llar›n

purchaser emerged very late in our history of art.

sanatç›lar› kullanmaktan imtina ederlerdi eminim.

Artists produced for a non-existing market for long

Onlar›n para kazanma de¤il sadece geçinme dertleri

years with their artistic passion. In fact I am sure the

vard›. Sanat bir ülküydü ve ülkeyi ileri götürecek

artists of 1950s would refuse to use the term produce

ülküydü. Cumhuriyet devrimlerine canla baflla omuz

which is a postmodern saying. They did not care to

vermekten kimse yüksünmedi. Hikmet Onat 80

earn money, they cared to manage their living. Art

yafl›nda açt›¤› ilk sergisiyle yaflama veda etti. Üstelikte

was an ideal which would take the country forward.

bu galeri de sanat› desteklemek üzere programlar›n›

Nobody saw supporting Republican revolutions

yapm›fl olan bir banka galerisiydi. K›sacas›

burdensome. Hikmet Onat died with his first

profesyonel bir galeri de¤ildi. Buna benzer örnekleri

exhibition which was opened at the age of eighty.

ço¤altmak mümkün.

This gallery was also a bank gallery programmed to

Maya bu anlamda ilk profesyonel galeridir. Profesyonel fakat ticari olmayan. Maya genç

support art. In short it was not a professional gallery. It is possible to give more similar examples.

IX


avangartlar›n s›¤›na¤› olur. ‹lk sergilerini Maya da aç›p da bugüne gelmeyi baflarabilenlerden ilk akl›ma

(professional but non-commercial) on this context.

gelenler, Bedri Rahmi Eyübo¤lu, Nedim Günsür,

Maya becomes the shelter of young avant-gardes.

Zühtü Mürido¤lu, Avni Arbafl, Füreya Koral, Ferruh

Bedri Rahmi Eyübo¤lu, Nedim Günsür, Zühtü

Bafla¤a, Alofl (Ali Teoman Germaner), Nuri ‹yem,

Mürido¤lu, Avni Arbafl, Füreya Koral, Ferruh Bafla¤a,

Kuzgun Acar, Ömer Uluç, Sadi Diren, Adnan Çoker,

Alofl (Ali Teoman Germaner), Nuri ‹yem, Kuzgun

Lütfü Günay, Yüksel Aslan. Maya dört y›l yaflayabildi ve

Acar, Ömer Uluç, Sadi Diren, Adnan Çoker, Lütfü

17 May›s 1955’de Adnan Çoker-Ali Durukan’›n Non-

Günay, Yüksel Aslan are some of the artists who had

Objektif resim sergisiyle kapand›.

opened their first exhibitions in Maya and succeeded

Benzeri bir sivil davran›fl, 1952 ocak ay›nda ,

to reach today. Maya could live for four years and it

Ankarada, Hasan Kaplan’›n sergisiyle Helikon

was closed with Adnan Çoker-Ali Durukan's Non-

Derne¤i’nin faaliyete geçmesidir. 6-7 Eylül 1955

Objective painting exhibition on 17th May 1955.

Beyo¤lu provakasyonu ve ya¤malama olaylar›ndan

X

Maya is the first professional gallery

A similar civil behaviour was activated by Helikon

sonra baflka bir sanatç› s›¤›na¤› olan Helikon

association in Ankara in January 1952 with the

kovuflturmaya u¤rayarak kapat›ld›. Daha sonra

exhibition of Hasan Kaplan. After September 6-7th 1955

aç›lmas›na izin verilse bile karakoldaki memleket

Beyo¤lu provocation and depredation events, another

durumlar›n› yaflam›fl olan Ecevit, sanatla de¤il siyasetle

artist shelter, Helikon was closed. It is permitted to be

ilgilenmek gere¤ine inanarak derne¤i, sanat›, ve sanat

opened later but Ecevit, who lived the conditions of the

elefltirilerini bir kenara b›rakarak siyasete at›l›r.

country in police headquarters, believed that it was

Yabanc› misyon, salonlar›n› her zaman sergilere ve Türk sanatç›lara açm›flt›r. Ancak bir tanesinin Türk sanat tarihinde çok önemli ve seçkin bir yeri vard›r.

necessary to deal with politics instead of art and left his artistic criticism and joint politics. Foreign missions have always opened their halls

Damat Robert Anhagger (Mualla Eyubo¤lu ile

to exhibitions and Turkish artists. But one has an

evliydi), Maya’n›n misyonunu yüklenerek 1959

important and special place in Turkish history of art.

y›l›ndan 72 y›l›na kadar Türk Alman Kültür

Groom Robert Anhagger (was married to Mualla

Derne¤i’nin bünyesinde, önce Alyon sokakta, sonrada

Eyubo¤lu), has taken the mission of Maya and worked

Müeyyet Han’da galericilik yapm›flt›r. Kesin bir rakam

gallery first in Alyon street then in Müeyyet Han in

verme olana¤› belgelerin kaybolmas› sebebiyle

the body of Turkish-German Culture Association from

mümkün olmasa da, 200’e yaklaflan sanatç›dan, 104

1959 to 1972. It is not possible to give an exact

sanatç›n›n sergileyebilme imkan› buldu¤unu

number as the documents were lost but 104 artist of

belgeleme imkan› var.

200 could exhibit their works.

Bu sanatç›lar›n bir k›sm›na Maçka Sanat Galerisi

Maçka Art Gallery, which was opened in 1976,

sahip ç›karak 1976 y›l›nda aç›ld›. K›sacas› 50’lerden

shelterd some of these artists. Shortly those who

yetmifllere nefesi yetenler diyebiliriz, bu galeride

could reach from 50s to 70s, conceptualists,

kendilerine yer bulabildiler ve kavramc›lar ve

performance artists and avant-gardes who did not


yerlefltirmeciler ve performans sanatç›lar› ve satma

have the purpose and even possibility to sell, could

telafl› ve hatta flans› hiç olamayan avangartlar bu

express themselves in this gallery. Maçka Art Gallery is

galeride kendini ifade edebildiler. Maçka Sanat

going to celebrate its 35. Year and it is the 2. gallery

Galerisi, 35. Y›l›n› kutlama haz›rl›klar› içinde Türk

with the longest life in Turkish Art.

Sanat› içinde uzun sürmüfl galercilik ünvan›n› elinde tutan 2. galeridir ayn› zamanda. 1964 de de Yine Melda Kaptana’n›n Niflantafl› buti¤inin bir k›sm›n› sanata ay›rmayla bafllayarak giderek buti¤i galeriye çevirmesiyle 74 y›l›na kadar galericili¤ini

In 1964, Melda Kaptana started to transform Niflantafl› boutique into an art gallery and again took the mission of Maya until 1974. There was also an attempt to collect Maya documents to form a book. In the private gallery line of 60 years from 1950s

Maya misyonu eksenine oturtuyor. Ve hatta Maya

to 2010, we see that the ideal of founding the artistic

belgelerini toplayarak bir kitap yapmas› da cabas›.

values of Republican Principles in the foreground and

1950’leri 2010’a ba¤layan 60 y›ll›k özel galericilik

commercial attempts in the background connect these

çizgisinde, bu dört galeriyi birbirine ba¤layan ve

four galleries to each other. With the understanding of

cumhuriyetin ilkelerini, onun sanat de¤erlerini

these four galleries only the museums can open

oluflturma ülküsü ön planda, tecimsel çabalarsa daha

exhibitions today. Maçka Art Gallery has developed

geri planda olmak üzere kristalize oldu¤unu

relationships with the West (France), it opened

görüyoruz. Bu dört galerinin çal›flma anlay›fl›yla bugün

exhibitions of French artists in its body and organized

sadece ve sadece müzeler sergi açabilir. Maçka Sanat

an exhibition with its artists in Cholet museum in 2004.

Galerisi bu anlamda Bat› (Fransa) ile iliflkileri

1970s are the years when Banks employed artistic

gelifltirmifl Frans›z sanatç›lar› kendi galerisinde

counsellors, opened culture centres, galleries and

sergiledi¤i gibi, 2004’de Cholet müzesine de kendi

collections in their advertisement budgets. In 1930

sanatç›lar›n› tafl›yan bir sergi tertip etmifltir.

banks like Central Bank and ‹flbank started these

1970’li y›llar bankalar›n, reklam bütçeleri içinde

support programs and then private banks continued this

sanat› da ele alarak bünyelerine sanat dan›flmanlar›

support. In 1964 Yap› Kredi and in 1970 Akbank have

ald›¤›, kültür merkezleri, galeriler, koleksiyonlar

began their art investments and continued up to now.

oluflturduklar› bir dönemdir. Dolay›s›yla 1930’lu

‹stanbul Culture and Art Foundation, which was

y›llarda Merkez Bankas› ve ‹fl Bankas› gibi bankalar›n

founded by businessmen in 1973, is another civil

bafllatt›¤› sanata destek programlar› yan›nda, özel

medium for artistic investment of private capital.

bankalar, baflta Yap› Kredi 1964’de olmak üzere,

Baraz Gallery, which was opened in Kurtulufl in

Akbank’da 1970 den bafllayarak sanat yat›r›mlar›n›

1975, made people like contemporary art and created

günümüze kadar art›rarak sürdürdüler.

new collectioners with its commercial successes. Baraz

1973 y›l›nda ifl adamlar›n›n kurdu¤u ‹stanbul

Gallery has reached today with an American

Kültür ve Sanat Vakf› özel sermayenin sanata yat›r›m

tendency, without an imposing behaviour and by

yapaca¤› baflka bir sivil mecra olarak ortaya ç›kt›.

presenting all artistic values at the same time. From

1975 y›l›nda Kurtulufl’ta aç›lan Baraz Galerisi

this point of view, we can connect International Art

XI


daha tecimsel baflar›lar›yla paran›n girmeye ve

Center gallery to this behaviour with their crystallized

dönmeye bafllad›¤› ortamda, ça¤dafl sanat› sevdirerek

gallery understanding. With a difference,

yeni kolleksiyonerler yaratt›. Daha çok Amerikan

International Art Center seems to be programmed to

tandansl› bir galericilikle, ayn› zamanda sanat

invade the west beginning with its name.

tarihinde empozan bir tav›r tak›nmadan, tüm sanatsal de¤erleri ayn› anda sunarak günümüze kadar geldi.

prepares itself as the new centre of art. And Vehbi

Bu bak›mdan International Art Center galerisini

Koç Foundation also opened a gallery in Berlin too.

kristalize olan galericilik anlay›fllar› içinde bu tavra

(www.tanasberlin.de)

ba¤layabiliriz. Bir farkla; ‹nternational Art Center

Biennales which were prepared until 1987

isminden bafllayarak kendini bat›y› fethetmeye haz›r

brought the west to Turkish artists. Due to

olarak programlam›fl görünüyor.

connections during these biennales and also with

Kendini sanat›n yeni merkezi olarak haz›rlayan Berlinde bir galeri açan Galeri Artist’in peflinden Vehbi Koç Vakf›’da Berlin’de bir galeri açm›fl bulunuyor. (www.tanasberlin.de) 1987 y›l›ndan itibaren ‹KSV’nin öncülü¤ünde XII

Gallery Artist opened a gallery in Berlin which

other reasons 40-50 artists are moving in global circulation web now. Art Fairs have begun to be prepared in the leadership of International Plastic Artists Association which was founded in 1989. The numbers and

bienaller in düzenlenmesi sürekli bat›ya do¤ru

varieties of new actors of the art market and fairs have

hareket eden Türklerin aya¤›na bat›y› getirmifltir. Bu

increased in the last twenty years. Now Turkish

bienaller esnas›nda ki tan›fl›kl›klar sebebiyle ve baflka

galleries are in international fairs too. Tour

sebeplerle 40-50 sanatç› flu an dünya dolafl›m a¤›

companies prepare special tours to these fairs and

içinde hareket ediyor.

these companies have even specialization branches.

1989 da kurulan Uluslararas› Plastik Sanatç›lar

Auctioneer understanding about the

Derne¤i öncülü¤ünde sanat fuarlar› düzenlenmeye

presentation of art to market has been showing a rapid

bafllam›flt›r. Son yirmi y›l içinde sanat piyasas›n›n yeni

inclination from "antic" painting to contemporary

aktörleri, fuarlar›n, say›s› artm›fl ve çeflitlenmifltir. Ve

since 2000. Now old works are not seen and antique

art›k Türk galerileri de uluslararas› fuarlarda boy

stores are like contemporary art museums. As a result

gösteriyor. Bu fuarlara özel turlar düzenleyen seyahat

of this rapid revolution, the attempts of foreign

flirketlerinin ihtisas kollar› bile var.

auction companies for marketing Turkish art abroad

Sanat›n pazara sunumuyla ilgili müzayedecilik anlay›fl›nda ise 2000’li y›llardan bu yana ‘antika’

have become very successful. Turkish collectioners have an important role in this, too.

resimden ça¤dafla son sürat bir kay›fl var. Art›k eskiler tümüyle ortadan kalkm›fl ve antikac›lar ça¤dafl hatta güncel sanat müzeleri görünümünde. Bu h›zl› devinimin

Does art have borders?

sonucu yabanc› müzayede flirketlerinin son iki y›ld›r

An important characteristic of 2000s is that private

yurtd›fl›nda Türk sanat›n› pazarlama gayretleri gayet

collectionership interest was transformed to modern


baflar›l› oldu. Bunda Türk sanat›n›n yan›nda olmay› ilke

art centers and museums. We will see that 3.

edinmifl koleksiyoner Türklerin de üzerlerine düflen

generation industrialists will invest more money in

vazifeyi lay›k›yla yapm›fl olmalar›n›n pay› var.

art. It is not difficult to predict that art will benefit from crisis years. The place of Turkish art is still

Sanat s›n›r tan›r m›?

marginal in large, complex and multi centred art

2000li y›llar›n belirgin özelli¤i, 70’li y›llarda bafllam›fl

market but on the other hand ‹stanbul seems to

olan özel koleksiyonerlik merak›n›n müzelere, ça¤dafl

complete its preparations as the gates of the east to

sanat merkezlerine dönüflmesidir. Hergün 3. kuflak tan

the west.

sanayicilerin sanata daha fazla para yat›rd›¤›n›

Kemal’s Constructive Program is the name

görece¤iz. Krizli y›llar›n sanata yarayaca¤›n› tahmin

given to black and white collage by Polish artist

etmek hiç zor de¤il. Büyük, karmafl›k, çok merkezli

Mieczyslaw Szczuka in 1924. (discovery of Prof. Adnan

sanat piyasas›nda Türk sanat›n›n yeri halen marjinal

Çoker)

ama öte yandan ‹stanbul tüm do¤unun bat›ya aç›lacak kap›s› olarak, tüm haz›rl›klar›n› tamamlam›fl gibi gözüküyor. Kemal’s Constructive Program Polonyal› sanatç› Mieczyslaw Szczuka’n›n 1924 tarihli siyah beyaz kolaj›na verdi¤i isim. (Prof Adnan Çoker’in keflfi)

XIII

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