Newsletter 2021/04

Page 1

Newsletter 2021/4


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

Sustainable aviation is finally within

one step closer to the goals of Europe’s

reach. The MAHEPA consortium has

Green Deal for making Europe climate-

spent the last four years exceeding

neutral by 2050.

expectations, achieving milestone after milestone, and proving that zeroemission flying is possible. There is no doubt that 2020 made aviation history because of the maiden flight of the perfected Hy4 aircraft.

This flight

demonstrated

technology

developed

that

within

the this

project

was

Fig. 1: The European Green Deal

successful not only on the ground but also in the air. MAHEPA created the technological foundation to enable clean, quiet, safe,

and

sustainable

aviation

by

demonstrating new technologies and showcasing that long-range and safe zero-emission flights are indeed possible. The achievements of 8 consortium partners have thus brought aviation

MAHEPA brings Europe Green Deal’s aviation goals one step closer to reality.


MAHEPA ACHIEVEMENTS IN 2020

model for the Rotax 915 iS was also developed to apply the test bench

The MAHEPA project’s success story

emission measurements in order to

would not have been possible without

estimate the real emissions generated

the knowledge and experience of all

during the Panthera test flights.

consortium partners. A motor test rig was constructed to Ulm

test the Compact Dynamics motors

completed its work on the PMCD module

in a climate chamber. To adapt to the

and, following the final adjustments, the

laboratory, a full control architecture

PMCD demonstrated its functionality

was developed and implemented to

during the Hy4 flight tests. At the same

simulate the main flight computer (MFC)

time, the emission measurements of

functions and to control the motor in a

the Rotax 915 iS were carried out at the

similar manner as to that during the Hy4

University of Ulm’s test laboratory. The

ground tests.

Last

year,

the

University

of

levels of CO, CO2, NOx, and unburned hydrocarbon concentrations measured for Super 98, Super E10, Super E20, and AvGas fuels showed clear variation in emissions levels based on fuel choice.

Reducing emissions is a key challenge for today‘s transportation technologies. By using the knowledge gained through experimental measurements, planning

With the developed methods in the test bench research, the ICE-hybrid

the optimal fuel as well as management

combustion engine can operate with

between battery and ICE usage makes

optimal exhaust emissions for the given

it possible to reduce emissions.

flight phase. Furthermore, the emission

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

3


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

Fig. 2: Hy4 aircraft in flight

Hy4 PERFORMS FIRST FLIGHTS WITH AN IMPROVED 6TH GENERATION POWERTRAIN

MAHEPA were thoroughly improved and implemented in the controllers and the main flight computer. Optimized safety functions and system reliability were

Hy4

completed

an

achieved with the new firmware. The fuel

first

cell cooling system was integrated on

flights with the new and improved 6th-

the middle wing in such a way that the

generation powertrain. Prior to ground

cooling performance was significantly

testing, the fuel cell system, PMCD, and

improved. The Hy4’s fuel cell hybrid

drive unit were all installed on the middle

powertrain was designed for higher

wing. The control software functions in

performance and improved reliability.

astounding

its

year

achievement

with its


In November 2020, the hybrid-electric Hy4 aircraft, which was being perfected by H2FLY throughout the past three years, successfully completed more than 30 flights from Maribor Airport, achieving a major milestone for the MAHEPA project and the future of cleaner aviation. Initial qualification tests and data dissemination show that the fully redundant Hy4 powertrain architecture can be scaled up to larger aircraft,

enabling

AirTaxi,

The MAHEPA project allows us to develop emission free electric flight with hydrogen propulsion and together with our partners we can show that it is possible to fly emission free. Prof. Dr. Josef Kallo DLR

General

Aviation and Regional Aircraft to hold up to 40 seats and reach a range of 2.000 km.

The Hy4 hydrogen aircraft is innovative, quiet and climate-friendly. It shows that CO2-free aviation is already possible and feasible at present. This new method of flying has what it takes to change mobility in the long term.

Fig. 3: Hy4 development team

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

Andreas Scheuer, German Federal Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure

5


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

HYBRID PANTHERA AWAITS THE GREEN LIGHT FOR TAKE-OFF

positioning process. The instrument panel, on the other hand, with its multiple dedicated systems used for monitoring

The focus of the past year has been on

and controlling the powertrain, needed

integrating the ICE- hybrid powertrain

a special set of qualification tests to

components

ensure the correct functioning of the

into

the

Panthera’s

fuselage and on ground testing.

entire powertrain.

Initially, a completely refurbished engine mount was manufactured and tested to safely accommodate the complex, hybrid-electric drivetrain. Subsequently, integration began in two parallel ways: installing of the high-power components (such as batteries, electric motor, internal combustion engine, etc.) and mounting the instrument panel. Installing the components, including many different systems and up to seven an

cooling

circuits,

necessitated

extremely

precise

components

Fig. 4: MAHEPA Panthera hybid-electric powertrain


was

MAHEPA Panthera’s flight tests will

concluded, the initial communication

initially focus on the determination of

and low-power ground tests were

the powertrain and flight performance,

successfully completed. The system

thus permitting the researchers to gain

responded as expected, therefore it was

a deeper understanding of how the

possible to move on to the high-power

system behaves flight. Once the first

ground tests, which are currently still

flight test phase is complete and the

Once

the

integration

phase

in progress. The results of the ground tests, which are promising, will soon enable the MAHEPA ICE-hybrid aircraft to finally take off on its most exciting journey, the flight test campaign.

flight envelope is expanded, the flight test campaign will shift to a series of missions which will explore the benefits of hybrid flight. From fuel consumption analysis

through

in-flight

chemical

emissions mapping, power management strategies, innovative human-machine interface spiral development and noise measurements, the MAHEPA project

The MAHEPA Panthera Hybrid will enable all-electric take-offs, reducing both chemical and noise emissions in the proximity of airports.

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

will

provide

researchers

with

the

most comprehensive set of flight test data on hybrid-electric flight to date. With the ability to validate theoretical models with real flight test data, the future generation of hybrid-electric aircraft will improve efficiency and performance,

leading

the

aviation

industry into a new era of quieter and greener air transportation.

7


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

NEW DEVELOPMENTS TO PROVIDE PRECISE RESULTS

such as take-off, climb, cruise, etc., and specific

power-intense

manoeuvres.

This subdivision into several segments Delft

University

of

Technology

requires additional boundary conditions

developed a mission simulator over

and thus computational effort to solve

the past year with the intention to

the problem.

determine the best mission trajectory and power management for both the fuel-cell aircraft (Hy4) and the hybridelectric ICE (Panthera) aircraft. The mission simulator provides two approaches to the optimization problem: the first one is single-phase, where the mission is considered as a whole. This is advantageous in terms of computational time, but some aspects cannot be

Fig. 5. An overall optimization block diagram

fully reproduced, such as the different

The simulator is an important step

aerodynamics due to the deployment of

towards the comprehensive evaluation

the flaps. On the other hand, the multi-

of flight characteristics, as well as to

phase approach allows a distinction to be

exploit the powertrain through the best

made between various flight segments,

management of the energy source.


Due to its modular approach, it allows the

The HYPERION tool allows fast and

consideration of different aircraft as well

accurate preliminary sizing of clean-

as different powertrains. Future activities

sheet design solutions based on mission

will be dedicated to the simulator’s

requirements. Design applications include

validation by evaluating possible solutions

a 19-pax commuter and a 70-pax regional

through actual test flights.

liner intended to substitute current aging

MARKET POTENTIAL OF HYBRIDELECTRIC AIRCRAFT

models and boost European mobility in

In addition to developing two novel

CHANCES (Component-based Hybrid-

hybrid-electric

the

electric Aircraft Noise and Chemical

MAHEPA project is also exploring new

Emission Simulation) allows the estimation

possibilities for regional transport and

of the environmental impact of HE aircraft

producing much-needed strategies for

operations at airport level, considering

the smooth implementation of hybrid-

emissions

electric aircraft – and that’s where

circuits, according to varied power-train

academic experts come in.

management strategies.

Politecnico

di

(HE)

powertrains,

Milano

has

achieved

the near future.

in

take-off

and

approach

ARES (Airport Recharging Equipment

amazing results throughout the MAHEPA

Sizing)

project. By developing several original

and scheduling of a battery-charging

methodologies and tools, they delivered

infrastructure in support to an electric-

invaluable results for the consortium

powered

and exciting prospects for the future

the

deployment of hybrid-electric aircraft.

while

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

provides

fleet.

overall

the

The

cost

considering

to

optimal

method be

sizing

allows

minimized,

numerous

real-life

9


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

specifications, constraints, and various recharging options. SHARONA

(Short-Haul

Air

Route

Optimal Network Assessment) combines two innovative methodologies aimed at scenario predictions for HE regional aviation

potential

travel

demand

assessment, based on type of service, geographic

information

and

aircraft

performance, and generation of the the best possible route network to capture such

demand,

through

a

dedicated

Politecnico di Milano’s engagement in electricpowered aviation is contributing to a swift and scientificallygrounded transition towards a truly sustainable mobility.

location and routing algorithm.

Fig. 6. Microfeeder studies for Northern Italy: Captured demand as a function of fleet size (left) and optimal network between 8 – 9 a.m. for a fleet size of 80 A/C (right).


The activities of Politecnico di Milano have

been

concerned

mainly

with

regional air transportation studies: aircraft

design

methodologies,

environmental impact assessment, sizing of battery-recharging infrastructure at airports, and scenario studies. This work is being complemented with the needed ground

infrastructure

investment

plan and finally the strategy towards implementation

of

hybrid-electric

aircraft, conducted by the University of Maribor. The

MAHEPA

ground

The implementation strategy of hybridelectric aircraft will provide the basis for further development of aviation, based on new hybrid technologies.

infrastructure

investment plan was a first step that provided an operational, financial, and regulatory aspects of hybrid aircraft operations at airports and was the very first serious attempt of economic assessment

for

relatively

novel

investments needed. On the other hand, the developed strategy will provide

Fig. 7. Airport ground infrastructure

plausible new business models based on a structured research approach.

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

11


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

2020 AT A GLANCE

examination

of

various

aspects

of

the necessary adaptation of airport Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020

infrastructure that will enable smooth

was a fruitful year for the MAHEPA

operation of ICE-hybrid and FC-hybrid

project. The consortium managed to

aircraft in the future.

hold the MAHEPA and EASA webinar, questions

The final event of the year was the

about the future certifiability of hybrid-

MAHEPA Autumn School, which was

electric

industry

initially aimed at students from European

leaders participated in an intriguing

universities, but the innovative nature of

online event where EASA provided

the MAHEPA project attracted students

much-appreciated guidance on specific

from all over the world. 76 students

research areas and the development

from 27 world-renowned universities

of the necessary relevant standards for

applied for a place in the 5-day event

hybrid-electric aircraft.

and selected 20 were able to participate

which

raised

important

aircraft.

Renowned

in a week of intensive lectures from The MAHEPA project also organized

MAHEPA partners.

an out-of-box seminar at the ICTS 2020,

where

ground

infrastructure

requirements for hybrid-electric plans were introduced. The entire academic community

was

engaged

by

the

Listen to the student’s impressions here.


The MAHEPA Autumn School was a good dissemination event because of the level of detailed information that was provided to us. It definitely exceeded my expectations. Dominik Janisch, attendant Fig. 8. MAHEPA Autumn School attendees

The MAHEPA Autumn school was a great opportunity for the consortium to see how younger generations of engineers are interested in novel technologies and we had an opportunity to even increase their curiosity.

The MAHEPA Autumn School was not only about learning new technical knowledge, but it was also about making connections with other people, working together, experiencing together and having new ideas about the future of hybrid-electric aviation.

Fabrizio Gaspari, MAHEPA project coordinator

Fabrizio Oliviero, project partner from TU Delft

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

13


MAHEPA proves flying green is possible

UPCOMING PROJECT EVENTS MAHEPA workshop: Safety and HMI considerations in hybrid-electric aviation Online | tbd.

MAHEPA final conference: Deployment challenges of hybrid-electric aircraft and future research areas EASN Virtual Conference | September 1st - 3rd 2021

We welcome you to join us at our final conference as we close this innovative MAHEPA chapter. Join us to hear about the most outlandish ideas, the biggest challenges, and the innovative thinking that materializes when aviation experts from across Europe pursue the common goal of more sustainable aviation. Discover how the collaborative work of the MAHEPA consortium set a major steppingstone for future green technologies.


PROJECT PARTNERS

PIPISTREL VERTICAL SOLUTIONS d.o.o.

Vipavska cesta 2, Ajdovšcina 5270 Ajdovšcina, Slovenia PROJECT COORDINATOR

Fabrizio Gaspari

MORE INFO WEBSITE: www.mahepa.eu EMAIL: info@mahepa.eu MAHEPA project MAHEPA project #MAHEPA

MAHEPA Newsletter 2021/4

15