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TYPES OF RESEARCH – Mahdi Mustafa

Type of research

Definition and types of data

Advantages of method

Disadvantages of method

Examples of techniques

PRIMARY

Primary research is first hand research that can be obtained by you. This includes polls/surveys etc. This type of information is not used in arguments

1. It is first-hand information which no one has obtained before.

1. The Information they you collect are not always correct.

1. Polls

(http://en.wikipedia.o rg /wiki/Primary_researc h)

SECONDARY

Secondary Research is the way majority people gather their information. It involves looking at information and texts already gathered and published. (

2.Questionnaire 3.Focus Group

2. The data is up to date with the location/date/time so the information gained is very relevant. 3.The data can be obtained very easily as the researcher spends less time with the person they are gathering the information from as primary research is purely based on small and short answers. 1.The information is very easy to obtain and also can be up to a professional slandered and very detailed 2. You do not need to waste any time and effort to get the answer you are looking for as you can simply research it online or use a book. 3. The information that has been obtained can be very hard to access

2. It costs a lot of time and effort to get exactly the results you are looking for. 3. May provide mis-leading results if the sample is not large enough or chosen with care or if the Questionnaire questions are not worded clearly, which means the results would not be valuable. 1. Sometimes the information gained by the researcher is not exactly what they were looking for. This includes results, style of answers etc. 2. The information that is gained by the researcher has been seen by many and also used. This means that nothing unique is found from the research and does not have an “informative advantage”.

1. Internet (Google, Wikipedia) 2.Book 3.Yellow pages


QUALITATIVE

Qualitative data are ways of collecting data which are more in depth and describes rather than short and small numeric answers. (http://www.holah.ka roo.net/quantitativeq ualitative.htm)

through primary research which means that the secondary research brings in information the researcher could never get hold of or find any answers to.

3. The research gained can be very bias and inaccurate. The researcher might not be able to check the reliability of the information.

1. Advantage for qualitative data is that the researcher gains a richer and detailed answer and this can be used broadly for a different range of things.

1. A disadvantage for qualitative data is that it is very time consuming and depending on the level of information you want to gain it can take a lot of time.

2. Another advantage would be that when someone starts a project lacking on the background of the subject he or she can do quality research and gain a huge amount of knowledge in under ten minutes.

2. Another disadvantage on qualitative data is that it can be very bias depending on the way someone interprets it.

3. Another advantage for quality research Is that a lot more information is gained which means that

QUANTITATIVE

Quantitative data are those which focus on numbers and rather than on in depth meaning and experience. Quantitative methods are very easy to understand and also quite reliable.

1. A advantage for quantitative data is that it is easy to understand 2.An advantage for this type of research can be that it is very to gain the information which

1.Interview 2.Case study 3.Focus groups

3. A disadvantage for qualitative data would be that if too much information is gained then the researcher will not know what part is relevant and what isn’t.

1. A disadvantage for Quantitative data would be that you would need to study a large sample of people to gain a more accurate result as two or three people would be

1.experiments 2.questionnairs 3.Polls


(http://www.holah.ka roo.net/quantitativeq ualitative.htm)

means it is less time consuming and can be done very easily. 3.An advantage for quantitative data would also be that it doesn’t involve a lot people and can be done by yourself. Even using social networking sites

bias. 2. A disadvantage for Quantitate research would be that you also get a lack of information from this type of research. 3. A disadvantage would also be that it lacks the chance of someone to extend their opinion or answer and explain in more detail.

Type of research and sources

Definition and types of data generated by this technique

Advantages of method

Disadvantages of method

Examples of techniques

DATA GATHERING AGENCY - BARB

BARB was set up in 1981 to provide the industry standard television audience measurement service for broadcasters and the advertising industry. BARB is owned by BBC, ITV, Channel 4, Channel 5, BSkyB

1. AN advantage for having barb would be that Television broadcasting channels will be able to see their ratings for their programs. This means that they will be able to tell if a show is doing good or not and if they should

1. A disadvantage for Barb is that the correct viewing figures are not actually given.

Many TV companies and channels destitute a special box to people who are willing to take it This box records what the viewer is watching and then this information is transmitted to barb which

2. Another disadvantage would be that not everyone in the UK has this box which means the ratings can not be


Ethnographic

and the IPA (Institute of Practitioners in Advertising) and is a not for profit company limited by guarantee.

remove the show from their schedule.

Ethnographic is a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. Ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing, the culture of people.

1. The advantage of Ethnography is that it is very much first hand research.

2. Producers can keep track of their competitions from other TV shows and channels.

2. Also the researcher gets involved with the research and can also make sure nothing bias is going on.

shown fully.

calculate the ratings.

3. Also not all channels get the privilege to see their viewing figures as this service costs a lot.

1. A disadvantage can be that it is very time consuming and can take up to months to gain solid results.

1. Observing 2.Interviewing 3.Asking questions 4.Reserach

2. Another disadvantage would be that Invasion of privacy can occur

5. Collecting and Reading Cultural Artefacts


media types