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70 YEARS OF

PAKISTAN

READ INSIDE

Partition: 70 Years On

Page 12

Property Corner Page 6

Body Language

Page 15

CUT PIECE Page 22-23

READ INSIDE Left: Rs. 5 currency note issued right after Pakistan’s independence in August 1947. The note was issued by the Reserve Bank of India. It had King George’s image on it because at the time Pakistan was ‘an independent dominion of the British Commonwealth’. King George was the dominion’s first head of state. Right: Pakistan Times on August 15, 1948 - the country’s first Independence Day anniversary. It was also the first anniversary of the Pakistan Times. Interestingly, at the time Pakistan’s Independence Day fell on 15th August.


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Sheffield Councillors Welcome HS2 Announcement Lib Dem group leader on Sheffield Council, Shaffaq Mohammed, confirmed cross party support in Sheffield for the announced HS2 route via Sheffield’s central train station. The high speed route will offer twice hourly journeys from central Sheffield to London. The news has been broadly welcomed by businesses and the public but there are some that oppose the decision with houses set to be lost in the process.

20Mph Speed Limit Proposed For City Centre People are being asked for their views on imposing a new 20mph speed limit throughout Sheffield’s city centre, including the new retail quarter. Sheffield City Council is proposing to introduce a signonly 20mph speed limit which will include areas such as Grey To Green, the Knowledge Gateway on Paternoster Row and the Sheffield retail quarter, currently being built in the city centre. All roads would become sign-only 20mph zones under the plans, apart from major thoroughfares such as Arundel Gate, Derek Dooley Way and Sheaf Street. Residents and businesses are being asked to have their say about the plans as a month-long consultation process which began Friday 14 July. Councillor Jack Scott, cabinet member for transport and infrastructure at Sheffield City Council, said: “Our city centre is changing rapidly and for the better – and it needs to be a place where safety and sustainable travel are actively supported and encouraged. “Part of this means that speed limits have to be looked at – we hope as many residents as possible have their say on the plans.” The city centre has both residential areas and commercial retail areas with significant pedestrian and cycle movements. A 20mph speed would help make the city centre a more attractive place to visit, and enhance the regeneration of the central area. It may also help reduce the fear of collisions and contribute towards the creation of a more pleasant, safer and accessible envi-

ronment for residents, businesses and visitors. The introduction of a 20mph speed limit in the city centre would be in keeping with the Council’s 20mph Speed Limit Strategy which aims to establish 20mph as the maximum reasonable speed in suitable residential areas of the city. The restriction has already been introduced with great success in areas such as Darnall, Gleadless Valley, Heeley and Stannington. Any comments can be e-mailed to 20mphAreas@sheffield.gov.uk

Sheffield A Great Place To Bring Up Children More than eight out of ten Sheffield parents (86 percent) feel that Sheffield is a good place to bring up their children, according to The Sheffield Parents Survey. The survey of nearly 2,000 parents from across Sheffield gathers views on issues such as childcare, services for children, health, schools, bullying and safety. The majority of people surveyed said Sheffield is a fantastic place to bring up children as you have all the benefits of living in a large city but with the friendliness and warmth of village life. There is a variety of activities throughout the city, which include ice skating at Ice Sheffield to music groups with the Sheffield Music Hub. Sheffield also benefits from so much green space both in and surrounding the city ensures Sheffielders have the best of both worlds. The survey also found that: • Half (50 percent) of parents take part in physical activities most days as a family. • Over three quarters (76 percent) of parents use some form of childcare, including friends and family. • 89 percent of their children either read or are read to at home most days. • 90 percent of children brush their teeth twice a day most days. The results will be used to shape how council services are delivered, how they are accessed and to identify priorities going forward. Councillor Jackie Drayton, Sheffield City Council’s Cabinet Member

for Children, Young People and Families, said: “We want to make sure that we provide the services so that all children have a great start in life, so that all children and young people can achieve their full potential. “It is great to see such positive results from this survey, confirming what we already know, that Sheffield is an excellent city to raise a family.”

Fewer Ambulance 999 Calls To Be Classed As ‘Life-Threatening’ Fewer 999 ambulance calls will be classed as life-threatening and needing a super-fast response in the biggest shake-up of the service in 40 years. The move by the NHS in England - and agreed by ministers - will result in about 8% of call-outs being classed as needing the quickest response. Currently half of call-outs are, but many are not serious or could wait longer for paramedics to arrive. NHS bosses said it would free up crews to reach the sickest more quickly. They said the targets that were being used now were "blunt" and "dysfunctional" and meant too many ambulances were being dispatched just to meet targets rather than prioritising patients appropriately. The changes have been backed by medical experts after being carefully piloted on 14m 999 calls over the past 18 months. In one of the pilot sites, cardiac arrest patients received a response 30 seconds quicker than they did previously, the evaluation by Sheffield University found. If this was repeated across the country, it could save 250 lives. Wales has already introduced a similar system, while Scotland is piloting its own version.

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Under the changes, call handlers will also be given four minutes before they need to send out a crew to assess what the patient needs - currently they have only 60 seconds. Combined with fewer patients being classed as life-threatening, the pilots suggest this will create an efficient system and will put no patients at risk. Currently about a quarter of life-threatening calls do not end up needing hospital treatment, but the rush to hit the eight-minute target to reach them can see multiple crews dispatched - one in four "blue-light" calls are stood down before they reach the scene. However, it does mean some patients who should have received an eight minute response, such as those who have suffered a stroke, could now wait 40 minutes. Doctors, though, argue what is more important is that they get the right treatment in hospital - and this will now be more closely measured under the new system of targets. Currently an estimated one million people a year - one in four of those who need transporting to hospital - find themselves in this situation. Under the changes:

8% of calls will be classed as life-threatening with 90% expected to be answered in 15 minutes - currently 50% are, but crews have been failing to hit their eight-minute target. This group includes cardiac arrests and trauma injuries 48% will be classed as an emergency with a target of 90% to be seen in 40 minutes set - this category includes the likes of stroke patients who could have expected an eight-minute response previously The remainder will be classed as urgent or non-urgent and should expect an average response time of 120 and 180 minutes respectively, this could include people with stomach pain and back pain. Currently there are no targets for these groups The new system will also measure average waits for life-threatening and emergency cases - this is to ensure that every call out counts towards the target. One of the criticisms of the existing system is that once the target time has been missed there is less incentive to get a crew to the patient quickly. The changes will be rolled out across the service by the autumn after pilots in three of England's 10 ambulance services.

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Shrinkflation The size of thousands of goods is reducing, but prices remain unchanged. More than 2,500 products have shrunk in size over the past five years, but are being sold for the same price, official new figures show. It is not just chocolate bars that are affected by the so-called "shrinkflation" phenomenon, according to the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Toilet rolls, coffee and fruit juice are among the 2,529 goods that are also getting smaller without getting any cheaper. While the move has had little impact on the headline rate of inflation, the change in packet size has contributed 1.22 percentage points to the rate of inflation for products such as sugar, jam, syrups, chocolate and confectionary. The ONS said most manufacturers blamed the need to resize their products on rising raw material costs. But the European import price of sugar sank to its lowest level on record in March this year, while cocoa prices have dropped sharply since the record highs seen in 2015, the ONS said. In November 2016, Mondelez, the maker of the iconic triangular bar Toblerone, said it had

increased the spacing between the distinctive chunks and reduced its weight by almost 10% due to rising ingredient costs. The same month, Mars too pointed to rising costs for its decision to shrink the size of Maltesers packets by 15%. In recent years the firm has also come under fire for reducing the size of Mars and Snickers bars. Since Brexit, the pound has tumbled against the US dollar, making imported goods more expensive. However, the ONS said it had seen no evidence of a Brexit effect on the shrinking size of chocolate bars. "Manufacturers' costs may also be rising because of the recent fall in the value of the pound - leading some commentators to attribute shrinkflation on the UK's decision to leave the European Union," the ONS said. "But our analysis doesn't show a noticeable change following the referendum that would point towards a Brexit effect. "Furthermore, others (including Which?) had been observing these shrinking pack sizes long before the EU referendum, and several manufacturers have denied that this is a major factor."

30 Hours Free Childcare Deadline Approaches Parents of three and four year olds, and disadvantaged two year olds, currently have access to 15 hours free childcare per week but the Government will soon double this allowance for some three and four year olds. From September 2017, if parents work at least 16 hours a week, they could get up to 30 hours

free childcare per week. To access the additional hours – for the term beginning this September – they must apply before the end of August. Parents can still apply after this deadline, however, if their children will start at a later date. The scheme aims to support children’s development, ensure children are ready for school and help parents manage childcare costs and working patterns. The free childcare can be taken in playgroups and pre-schools, nursery schools, nursery classes in primary schools, or with childminders. Research by the Department for Education shows that good quality early education has lasting positive effects on children by helping their speech and language development; literacy and numeracy; social development; and readiness for school. They also show that the effect of attending any pre-school is the equivalent to achieving seven higher grades at GCSE and it is especially beneficial for the most disadvantaged children and those with low-qualified parents. To check eligibility and to apply for 30 hours free childcare, please visit www.gov.uk/government/ publications/30-hours-free-childcare-eligibility.

What Is Chlorine-Washed Chicken (And Why Is It Banned)? It sounds like something from a truly terrible recipe book, but what exactly is chlorinated chicken? Also known as chlorine-washed chicken, it is a method used to clean the chicken that we eat, but it has been sucked into Brexit talks recently. Most British people won’t have ever tasted chlorine-washed chicken, as the EU have banned it based on health grounds. However international trade secretary Liam Fox has recently suggested this ban could be lifted following Brexit, partly to secure a quick trade agreement with the US, where chlorine-washed chicken is legal. Critics of chlorinated chicken claim the practice increases the risk of diseases such as salmonella and that some abattoirs rely on it as a decontamination method. EU safety regulators say that the process, which happens after the

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chicken carcass has been eviscerated, can foster a mentality of carelessness in food handlers. Advocates of washing chicken carcasses in strongly chlorinated water say it reduces the risk of contamination between the bird’s digestive tract and the meat.

Leaseholds Could Be Banned For New Houses Developers could be banned from selling newbuild houses as leaseholds to prevent homeowners being left with extortionate fees. Communities Secretary Sajid Javid says buyers of new leasehold houses are being exploited and left with unsellable properties. More than four million people live in leasehold properties in England, giving them the legal right to occupy and use the property for a set period usually 99 to 999 years. But the associated fees - including service charges and ground rents can increase by huge amounts each year, leaving some leasehold properties unsellable. Ground rent can increase at such a rate that a homeowner could end up having to find many thousands of pounds a year, on top of service charges and their own mortgage payments. Under plans put forward by Communities Secretary Sajid Javid leaseholds on new builds would be illegal, while ground rents would be massively reduced. Legal loopholes would be closed to protect

leaseholders exposed to possession orders and rules on Help to Buy equity loans would change so they could only be used for "new build houses on acceptable terms". Leaseholders pay fees to the freeholder, who owns the ground on which the home is built. The system has existed for a long time in England and Wales and is particularly common for blocks of flats. But the trend for new homes being sold as leaseholds has grown in recent years, particularly in the North West of England. Mr Javid said: "It's clear that far too many new houses are being built and sold as leaseholds, exploiting home buyers with unfair agreements and spiralling ground rents. "Enough is enough. These practices are unjust, unnecessary and need to stop. "Our proposed changes will help make sure leasehold works in the best interests of home buyers now and in the future." The proposals are subject to an eight-week consultation.

Knife Amnesty Campaign South Yorkshire Police have launched a new campaign to reduce knife crime by offering an amnesty to people prepared to hand in their blades. They're using #droptheknife to raise awareness. There's been an increase in knife crime over the last year, and police say it's mostly down to men fighting - young men in particular. They're now warning that anyone caught with a knife - could be jailed for 4 years - just for possession. Knife crime in South Yorkshire is up by almost 50 per cent year-on-year with 1,176 incidents to March 2017 compared to 807 incidents in the previous year. The figures include possession of a knife, threat and injury. Police say the number injured from stab wounds has risen steadily in the last five years. Detective Superintendent Una Jennings, Force lead for Armed Criminality, said: "The aim of this campaign is to raise awareness of the grave and serious consequences that carrying a knife can have, whether it's carried for 'protection' or 'status', the fact remains you have a lethal and dangerous weapon in your possession. "Do you carry a knife, or does someone close to you carry one? Please consider the life changing impact it could have on yourself or on your loved one, and take the opportunity to safely dispose of the weapon during our surrender. "I would also urge anyone who may be in possession of knives or bladed weapons, such as daggers, swords, axes, that may have been passed down as family heirlooms and are no longer wanted, to please also make use of the surrender

and hand them in, to prevent them from falling into the wrong hands and being used in criminality." The knife surrender lets people anonymously hand in any bladed weapon at one of 4 police stations across South Yorkshire and be exempt from prosecution for possession of the weapon the time of handing it in. However all the weapons surrendered will be forensically examined, and if there are any indications they may have been used criminally, an investigation will start with the potential for prosecutions. In Sheffield, a multi-agency operation, has been running recently in the Burngreave, Spital Hill and Pitsmoor area of the city. Dedicated officers have proactively been collating information, executing warrants and conducting open land searches, resulting in the recovery of various weapons and making 12 arrests; four for possession of offensive weapons and bladed articles and eight for drugs related offences. And there have been knife arches at certain venues across Sheffield in the evenings, an increased police presence and test purchase operations in bars and shops. There are knife bins located at four police station enquiry desks across the county for people to hand in any knives or bladed weapons. They are Snig Hill in Sheffield, College Road in Doncaster, Churchfield in Barnsley and Main Street in Rotherham.

Sarfraz Ahmed To Join Yorkshire Yorkshire have signed Pakistan's Sarfraz Ahmed as a replacement overseas player for Peter Handscomb. Handscomb is due to leave Headingley at the end of the month to link-up with the Australia squad to tour Bangladesh. Subject to obtaining a visa, wicketkeeper-batsman Sarfraz will be available for five NatWest T20 Blast fixtures, as well as any potential involvement in the knock-out stages of the competition. Sarfraz, who captained Pakistan to victory in the Champions Trophy, is looking forward to his first spell in county cricket.

"I've always wanted to play county cricket so this is an exciting opportunity for me," he told Yorkshire's official website. "Yorkshire are a big club with a rich history and huge reputation and I'm proud to be following in the footsteps of other Pakistanis who have played at Headingley like Younus Khan and Inzamam-ul Haq. "It's a dream come true for me and hopefully it can help me become an even better professional. "I hope I can contribute towards some victories while I'm there and provide the crowd the sort of entertainment they're looking for. I look forward to having a taste of the T20 Blast."

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PROPERTY CORNER

THE LEASEHOLD / FREEHOLD DEBATE

Mohammed Mahroof BSc (Hons) MRICS Consultant: Mark Jenkinson & Son If you have been following the news recently this has been a major news item. It is a topic I am fairly familiar with but most people probably will not be and why should they. When you buy a property you are told it is held either on a freehold or leasehold title which probably means very little to you. Lets explain the difference between the two: Freehold - This is when you own the property outright including the land it is built on. It is the most complete property ownership. Leasehold - If you are a leaseholder you own the property and land for a period of time agreed with your freeholder, paying a ground rent. When the lease ends the property and land returns to the freeholder. There are millions of property owners who own their properties on a leasehold basis. Leases on residential properties can range from 99 years to 999 years at a nominal ground rent which could be a peppercorn or a monetary sum of 10p per annum to £100 per annum. In other examples ground rents may well be indexed linked or reviewed on a regular basis. As a leaseholder you may also have covenants in the lease which oblige you to seek consent for improvements, extensions, transfer, sale and many more. In return for consent you may be charged an administration fee and consent charge. Another major issue is when your lease drops below a certain number of years, it becomes more difficult to obtain a mortgage or sell your property. In situations like this you will either need to extend the lease or buy the freehold of your property. The reason it has become a major issue is that there are many examples where leaseholders have been charged exorbitant fees

for lease extensions and consents. In some extreme cases where leases have dropped below a certain number of years it has become difficult for people to sell their properties. The difficulty being the cost of extending the lease or buying the freehold is beyond their budget thereby ending in a dilemma for the owner. Others have encountered difficulties in selling their properties because of increasing ground rents. The most extreme case I have encountered is when an owner did not realise his lengthy lease was coming to an end and there was the real possibility the property would transfer to the freeholder. In this particular situation the owner had to negotiate almost the market value of the property to keep their home. The alternative being the freeholder could have taken ownership of the property. One important point to bear in mind is that as a residential leaseholder you have the legal right to buy your freehold interest. The process is laid down and you really need to take the advice of a solicitor or a Chartered Surveyor before proceeding. The Government has now put out a consultation paper, the main tenor of which is that any new properties being built and sold should be on a freehold basis. If there are to be leaseholds the rents should be fairer. Just for clarification the rules around commercial properties are very different. In conclusion it is important when you are buying a property to be aware if it is leasehold or freehold. If you are a leaseholder wanting to buy your freehold it is important you take the right professional advice.

Deadline Looms For Old £1 Coins Consumers have less than three months to spend, bank or donate their old £1 coins before shops can refuse them. People are being urged to dig out their old coins which stop being legal tender on 15 October. The warning about the looming deadline comes as the Treasury announced there are now more new 12-sided pound coins in circulation than their predecessor. In the fast-moving introduction of the new coin, described as one of the most secure in the world, has seen millions of the old coin, introduced 30 years ago, taken out of circulation. However, with less than 100 days to go, the clock is ticking. The treasury are urging the public to spend, bank or donate their old pound coins and asking businesses who are yet to do so, to update their systems before the old coin ceases to be legal tender.

The new 12-sided pound coin, which features a gold-coloured outer ring and a silver-coloured centre, entered circulation in March and boasts high-tech security features to combat counterfeiting. But after less than a month some were apparently losing their middle part. The old coins are being melted down, with the metal used to help the Royal Mint create the 1.5 billion new coins joining the other seven coins, two pound, 50 pence, 20p, 10p, 5p, 2p and 1p, in use. The new 12-sided 1 pound coin was brought in to tackle the rise of counterfeit coins, which cost businesses and the taxpayers across the UK millions of pounds every year. The Royal Mint has been producing British coinage for more than 1,100 years, originally based in the Tower of London where it was established in the year 886, remaining there for 800 years.

Over 100,000 People Over 90 Still Have Driving Licences More than 100,000 people aged 90 or over still has been plenty of heated debate on the issue of hold driving licences, figures from the Driver and the safety of older drivers. Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) show. The lat- However, a study from Swansea University last year claimed more mature est data shows that 248 road users are no more people aged more than dangerous than other driv100 still hold valid licences, ers. While reaction times compared with 100,281 decreased as people got over-90s. older, this was compensated Once motorists reach 70 by older drivers taking more they have to renew their care on the road. licence every three years Other figures from the DVLA and answer written quesshow that of the 39,975,351 tions about medical condilicences issued, 54.1% were tions and eyesight quality. issued to male drivers and As senior citizens are more the oldest provisional driving likely to have a range of licence holder is a woman health problems and slowaged 103. er reaction times, there

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Ummah Channel Closes Down The Blackburn-based Ummah Channel was set to close at the end of July. The channel, which broadcasts on Sky 828 in English and Urdu, aired a mixture of religious, lifestyle and debate shows. It was particularly targeted at Barelvi Sufi Muslims living in the north. Ummah Channel was established nine years ago and was one of the first Muslim channels to broadcast on the Sky platform. It was, when it opened, one of the first Islamic Channels that looked to air more opinionated programmes and looking to engage more with British Muslims. On its website it says that its mission is to provide “spirituality, humanity and morality and to

teach and educate all viewers … in the true way of Islam.” In recent years though, the channel it seems has failed to attract a wider range of viewers that may have led to owners pulling the plug.

British Skin Foundation Warns Over ‘Dangers Of Black Henna’ The British Skin Foundation has warned about the dangers of applying black henna temporary tattoos (BHTT’s). Of the 288 dermatologists who took part in the recent Skin Health Alliance 2017 Dermatologist Survey, 72% thought the incidence of patients with a reaction to black henna temporary tattoos is increasing year on year. Accoridng to the British Skin Foundation, the majority of BHTTs are not based on henna at all, but a substance called para-phenylenediamine (PPD)

which is found in hair dyes. PPD is allowed for use in hair dye, but its use for skin contact products such as temporary tattoos is illegal in the European Union. When PPD is used on the skin in this way it can cause blistering, painful skin burns and may even lead to scarring. It can also leave the person with a lifelong sensitivity to PPD, which increases the risk of a severe allergic reaction when using hair dye in the future.

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School Leavers Encouraged To Take Up Vaccines Teenagers and students who are eligible for the MMR and meningitis vaccines are being encouraged to ensure they take them up this summer – before heading off to festivals or to university. The first dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine – known as the MMR – is offered to all babies at one year old, and children are given a second dose before they start school. However, teenagers who only had one dose as young children may not be fully protected against measles, mumps and rubella, and are now being encouraged to visit their GP and have the vaccination. The Men ACWY vaccination, meanwhile, protects against four different strains of bacteria that cause meningitis and septicaemia. It is currently being offered to all students going to university or college for the first time. To have the vaccine, prospective students aged up to 25 should contact their GP, ideally before the start of the next academic year. Councillor Jackie Drayton, cabinet member for children and young people at Sheffield City Council, said: “Across the country there is an increase in the number of cases of measles and mumps. And we know such outbreaks often occur around music festivals, colleges and universities – places where young people gather”. Meningococcal disease, which the MenACWY vaccine protects against, can kill within a matter of hours, while those who recover may be left severely disabled.

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Since 2009, there has been a large increase in one kind of meningococcal disease, MenW. Although eligible students may have had a MenC vaccination before, they should still have their free MenACWY vaccine as this gives the extra protection needed. The MMR vaccine helps protect against measles mumps and rubella and, if not up to date, young people should get this at the same appointment. Last year there were 52 confirmed measles cases that were known to be linked to music and arts festivals in England and Wales, and half of these cases affected teenagers aged between 15 and 19. Meanwhile, there are currently several large and serious measles outbreaks across Europe – so young people travelling during the summer break could put themselves at risk if they are not vaccinated.

Sheffield City Council Reaction To Government’s Air Quality Announcement Sheffield City Council has reacted angrily to the Government’s Clean Air Strategy, calling it “woefully inadequate.” The authority has said it is questionable whether the strategy meets the Government’s legal duties, and contains a lack of real action in tackling this huge problem. The Government revealed that sales of all diesel and petrol vehicles will be scrapped by 2040 and that money may be made available to help councils tackle emissions from diesel vehicles. However, the Government’s strategy does not include any coherent plans for areas with high pollution, nor are there plans for any scrappage scheme for some of the worst polluting vehicles. There is also an absence of the infrastructure investment at the scale that is needed to improve dangerous air. Councillor Jack Scott, Cabinet Member for Transport and Sustainability, has called on the Government for a clearer plan and greater action. He said: “Air pollution is a public health emergency, causing around 40,000 deaths per year, with around 500 of those in Sheffield. The first duty of any Government is to protect its citizens from harm. This Government is obviously failing in that role and unfairly passing the buck on to local councils, whilst cutting the money we need to address pollution problems. “I’m highly sceptical that the Government’s announcement today even meets their legal duties on air quality, and their response has been woefully inadequate. “Whilst I welcome any financial support that can help us to make faster improvements, particularly to improve our bus fleet, today’s announcements are especially disappointing given that last week the

Government broke its promise on the electrification of Midland Mainline, which would have made a big difference to pollution. “In Sheffield we have never been afraid to take radical action to improve air quality and public health. We have a very clear vision for a green and sustainable future – as seen through our Air Aware campaign in schools and recent consultation on introducing idling fines. I also want to look into a scheme of Air Quality Community Champions for Sheffield in the near future. “So whilst I am pleased the Government seem to be waking up to the scale of the problem, today’s announcement is entirely lacking in action, funding and leadership. Sheffield City Council will continue to do everything in its power to tackle air pollution despite today’s disappointments.” The council launched Sheffield’s Green Commitment last year and has now published a sustainability vision, which includes improving air quality across the city. Air Aware The council’s DEFRA funded Air Aware campaign focuses on how what we do makes a difference and the ways to reduce air pollution caused by road traffic – from walking or cycling more, driving less, switching to less polluting vehicles such as petrol, petrol hybrid, electric or hydrogen when you next replace your vehicle. It promotes ways to protect yourself from air pollution by walking away from heavy traffic areas and walking and cycling instead of sitting in a car – air pollution levels are higher inside your car than out.

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SCIENCE FOR DEVELOPMENT Dr A Q Khan No one can deny the importance of science and technology in national development. Every aspect of our existence depends on advancements in these fields. However, there can be no scientific advancement without education. The healthy growth of science and technology in any country depends on the availability of trained manpower. In fact, human resources with relevant competencies build the socioeconomic and cultural profiles of a country. This is primarily governed by the availability of facilities and public awareness about the need to acquire technical skills. Successive governments have embarked on a number of socio-economic reforms including efforts to accelerate human resources and infrastructural development in science and technology in order to achieve self-reliance in vital areas. During the last century, we have seen how countries that have established a sound science and technology base have become economic giants. However, those countries that did not – or could not – achieve these targets lagged behind socially and economically even though they possess enormous natural resources. Japan, China, France, England and Germany – which have been devastated by war or famine – became superpowers within a few decades. This was partly done by dint of the hard work put in by their people and partly through systematic and effective policies on science and technology. Compared to these countries, there are many others in the world that are rich in natural resources but remain dependent on the technologically-advanced countries for their needs owing to the lack of a scientific base. The GDP of almost all oil-rich Middle Eastern countries put together cannot compare to the GDP of a medium-sized European country that is able to sell a few dozen aircrafts and earn more in one year than those supplying crude oil, minerals or ores would in several years. The establishment of a science and technology infrastructure – the tool to achieve our national objectives – needs to be prioritised as a national commitment. This infrastructure includes appropriate scientific education centres, a sophisticated scientific research organisation, state-of-the-art equipment in laboratories, well-trained manpower in laboratories, library facilities and the provision of a suitable working environment. The overall scenario of the education sector in our country is quite dismal as we ranking in the 127th position in terms of world literacy. Statistics indicate that only a fraction of those who attend schools are able to finish high school. Moreover, only 3.5 percent of stu-

dents between the ages of 17 and 24 are at universities. Compare this to 60 percent in the US, 32 percent in Korea and 10 percent in India. This is not surprising as successive governments have allocated a minimum amount of funds to the education sector and, in particular, science and technology. We are ranked among those countries in the world that have the lowest allocations for education. There needs to be a minimum of five percent of GDP expenditure in order to raise the standard of science education to acceptable levels in the country. If we want to be at par with India, we need to establish at least 200 top-class universities by 2050. The number of schools and colleges would have to be increased by a factor of four with a double-shift system. One can imagine the amount of funding that this objective requires. Owing to the inadequate educational facilities, there is an acute shortage of trained experts and manpower in the existing science and technology organisations. The number of active researchers is even smaller. There are only about 5,000 PhD students in all science subjects and most of them are working in the education sector. There is also a lack of support staff as there are very few technical training institutions in the country. This situation has been further aggravated by the ban imposed on fresh recruitments during the past years leading to brain drain. At this stage, science is evolving at a fast pace. Enormous amounts of data are generated every day and everyone working in a particu-

lar field needs to be aware of this. For this, all scientific organisations need to acquire specialised journals and periodicals. This is also the age of informatics through elaborate computer networks and all scientific organisations should have access to these facilities. Without accessing the latest information, no meaningful research can be carried out. The path of scientific development is not an easy one. In the words of Sir Michael Foster, “progress may not be in a straight line, there may be swerving to this side and to that. Ideas may seem to return to the same point of the intellectual compass but they always will have reached a higher level”. All this requires a conducive environment. But this concept has not been stressed in our society. It is simply assumed that scientists will deliver irrespective of their environment. It is disheartening to see what the average working environment of a scientist in Pakistan is. There is also a wide gulf between the service structures, promotions and facilities given to other professionals as compared to those offered to scientists. How can science flourish under such conditions? Everyone knows that science and technology has invaded our homes – through processed foods and television – and our professional lives – in the form of machines, electronics and computers. Even our leisure, health and travel are influenced by it. Advancements in science have not always been accompanied by progress in human relations and social order. This gap needs to be bridged because it can create social and moral disorder by eroding traditional values. The assimilation of science into culture has been a slow and difficult process. Even though the number of universities and institutes has multiplied over the past 70 years, the qualitative aspects of such institutions remain neglected. Most alarming is the fact that not a single Pakistani university is listed among the 500 top universities of the world. A large segment of the affluent youth have gone abroad for higher education or attended expensive universities at home while poor and middle class families have no option but to send their children to mediocre institutions. The Higher Education Commission was set up to bring in viable reforms. The purpose of this commission was to transform institutions of higher education into world-class places of learning. By strengthening the science and technology infrastructure and providing requisite resources where they are required, we will be in a better position to strengthen our fragile economy and ensure the development of the country.

Pakistan’s Supreme Court Ousts PM Sharif Over Corruption Claims Pakistan's Supreme Court HAS toppled Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, who resigned after the court ruled he was unfit to hold office and ordered a criminal investigation into his family over corruption allegations. Sharif's ruling Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) party, which has a majority in parliament, has named his brother Shabaz Sharif as new prime minister to hold office until elections due next year. In a surprise move, the court also dismissed Finance Minister Ishaq Dar, one of Sharif's closest allies, who has been credited with steering the economy to its fastest pace of growth in a decade. The disqualifications plunge Pakistan into another bout of political turmoil after a period of relative stability, which coincided with improving security in the nuclear-armed nation. The ousting of Sharif, who served as premier on three separate occasions, also raises questions about Pakistan's fragile democracy as no prime minister has completed a full term in power since independence from British colonial rule in 1947. The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Sharif should be disqualified after an investigative panel alleged his family could not account for its vast wealth. "He is no more eligible to be an honest member of the parliament, and he ceases to be holding the office of prime minister," Judge Ejaz Afzal Khan said in court. Prior to the decision, several cabinet ministers, including Sharif's closest allies, said the ruling party would respect the Supreme Court's verdict. "Go, Nawaz, Go," shouted supporters of the PTI opposition party who had gathered outside the court and jeered politicians from

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Sharif's party. Sharif's supporters echoed the prime minister's previous declarations of a conspiracy. "Those who are happy and dancing will cry tomorrow," said Abid Sher Ali, a junior minister. "They have stabbed democracy in the back." Analysts have warned that another bout of political turmoil would spook foreign investors, who are already reticent to invest in Pakistan, deterred by security fears and a tough business climate. Pakistan's benchmark stock index, which was one of the world's best performing in 2016, has recorded major outflows during the twomonth investigation into Sharif. The currency, which is part of a managed float, has largely been stable. Sharif, 67, has always denied any wrongdoing and has dismissed the investigation into him as biased and inaccurate. Sharif's two previous stints in power were also cut short, including by a military coup in 1999, but he returned from exile to win a resounding victory in general elections in 2013. The Supreme Court ruled in April there was insufficient evidence to remove Sharif from office - by a 2-3 verdict - but it ordered a probe by an investigative panel that included members of the military intelligence agencies. The Joint Investigation Team (JIT) this month returned its findings in a 254-report that said Sharif's family assets

do not match their earnings. The panel also accused his children, including daughter Maryam, of signing forged documents to obscure ownership of the London flats. Analysts expect Sharif to push for one of his allies to form a government until elections are held next year, when his brother Shahbaz, who is the chief minister in Punjab province, may take over the party leadership. But the Supreme Court ruling has not only imperiled the political career of Maryam, but endangers the entire dynasty.

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PARTITION 70 YEARS ON: THE TURMOIL, TRAUMA - AND LEGACY As India and Pakistan celebrate 70 years of independence, Andrew Whitehead looks at the lasting legacy of the Partition of British India, and the turmoil and trauma which marred the birth of the two nations. It's about 700km (430 miles) from Delhi to Islamabad - less than the distance between London and Geneva. A short hop in aviation terms. But you can't fly non-stop from the Indian capital to the Pakistani capital. There are no direct flights at all. It is only one of the legacies of seven decades of mutual suspicion and tension. Take another example: cricket. India and Pakistan played each other a few weeks ago in the final of the Champions' Trophy. Both countries are cricket crazy. However, the game was played not in South Asia, but in London. India and Pakistan don't play cricket in each other's countries any more, although they have met in one-day matches around the world, including in countries in their region like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. But it is almost 10 years since they faced each other on South Asian soil in a Test match. Despite a lot of shared culture and history, they are not simply rivals, but more like enemies. In the 70 years since India and Pakistan gained independence, they have fought three wars. Some would say four, although when their armies last fought in 1999, there was no formal declaration of war. The simmering tension between India and Pakistan is one of the world's most enduring geopolitical fault lines. It has prompted both countries to develop their own nuclear weapons. So the uneasy stand-off is much more than a regional dispute: it is fraught with wider danger. India and Pakistan gained their independence at the same moment. British rule over India, by far its biggest colony, ended on 15 August 1947. After months of political deadlock, Britain agreed to divide the country in two. A separate and mainly Muslim nation, Pakistan, was created to meet concerns that the large Muslim minority would be at a disadvantage in Hindu-majority India. This involved partitioning two of India's biggest provinces, Punjab and Bengal. The details of where the new international boundary would lie were made public only two days after independence. Partition triggered one of the great calamities of the modern era, perhaps the biggest movement of people - outside war and famine - that the world has ever seen. No one knows the precise numbers, but about 12 million people became refugees as they sought desperately to move from one newly independent nation to another. Amid a terrible slaughter in which all main communities were both aggressors and victims, somewhere between half a million and a million people were killed. Tens of thousands of women were abducted, usually by men of a different religion. In Punjab in particular, where Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs had lived

together for generations and spoke the same language, a stark segregation was brought about as Muslims headed west to Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs fled east to India. This was not a civil war with battle lines and rival armies - but nor was it simply spontaneous violence. On all sides, local militias and armed gangs planned how to inflict the greatest harm on those they had come to see as their enemies. Those wounds have been left to fester. No one has been held to account - there's been no reconciliation process - and for a long time, the full story of what happened has been smothered in silence. Literature and cinema found ways of representing the horror of what happened. Historians initially focused on the politics of Partition. It took them much longer to turn their attention to the lived

experience of this profound rupture. Big oral history projects have got under way only in the last few years, as the number of survivors dwindles. There are no towering memorials to the Partition dead. The first museum devoted to Partition opened in 2016 in Amritsar in Indian Punjab. Partition poisoned relations between India and Pakistan, and has shaped - many would say distorted - the geopolitics of South Asia as a whole. Pakistan initially consisted of two wings 2,000km (1,240 miles) apart, but in 1971, East Pakistan gained its independence, with Indian military support. Another new nation, Bangladesh, was born. Among the loose ends of the independence arrangement was the future of Kashmir, a princely state in the foothills of the Himalayas which had a largely Muslim population. The maharaja, a Hindu, decided his state should become part of India. Within months, Indian and Pakistani troops were fighting each other for control of Kash-

mir. The complex conflict remains unresolved and, more than any other issue, has bedevilled relations between the two countries. India also accuses Pakistan of supporting militant organisations which have carried out terrorist-style attacks in Indian cities. Pakistan says India colludes with breakaway movements in areas such as Balochistan. The political leaders of the two countries have met from time to time. There have been occasional hopes of a breakthrough in relations but, at the moment, relations are distinctly frosty. The consequences have been far-reaching. The two countries are not well informed about what is happening on the other side of the border. No major Indian or Pakistani news organisation currently has a correspondent in the other country's capital. For both Indians and Pakistanis, travelling to the other country is not easy - even if it is to visit family. It is not the difficulty of getting a visa or the lack of direct flights between the two capital cities. There are very few air links between the two countries at all. Despite a lengthy shared border, India and Pakistan have hardly any border crossings. In Pakistan, the army and its intelligence wing are by far the most powerful institutions - and the country has had repeated spells of military rule. The abiding sense of a military threat from its much larger neighbour has - many feel - boosted the power of the armed forces and hindered the development of a mature democracy. Pakistan has a population of about 200 million - mostly Muslims. India has almost 1,300 million citizens and about one in seven follow Islam. There are almost as many Indian Muslims as Pakistani Muslims. One projection suggests that by 2050, India will overtake Indonesia to become the country with the world's biggest Muslim population. But Muslims are under-represented in India's parliament and many other areas of public life. Some observers believe the perception - however unfair - that Indian Muslims sympathise with Pakistan has fed prejudice and discrimination. The pride that almost all Indians and Pakistanis feel about their nation is self-evident. Patriotism is a powerful force in both countries. It is on public display every time they play each other at cricket. But both have been unable to overcome the legacy of the tragedy which accompanied what should have been their finest moment 70 years ago. And the result of their most recent tussle on the cricket pitch? Well, for the record, Pakistan won a surprise - and emphatic - victory. Some in India were gracious in defeat. But on social media, and some sections of India's news media, there was anger and anguish - losing face to your old rival remains, for many, almost too painful to endure.

Law Abiding Citizens You may think you’re a law-abiding citizen, but sadly, you’re wrong. Because we’re a nation of petty criminals, with the average Brit committing around 32 different ‘offenses’ every year. Although before you set up a Neighbourhood Watch scheme, it’s probably worth noting the crimes are as minor as not paying for supermarket carrier bags, parking on the payment and pocketing incorrect change. Other commonlycommitted crimes include beeping a car horn for any reason apart from alerting traffic, dropping litter and cycling without lights after dark. A study found two thirds of the population think many of these laws are completely unnecessary – although seven in 10 admit they do feel a little guilty if they break them. A third of people asked revealed they have been caught doing something illegal, with over a third claiming they simply weren’t paying attention. Despite the regular minor crimes, people are extremely reluctant to consider themselves crooks. The study found that out of 2,000 UK adults, 98% consider themselves to be law abiding. Among the more serious misdemeanors are cycling through a red light and smoking in a nonsmoking area. How many laws have you broken?

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1. Drank alcohol under the age of 18 2. Sworn or gestured to other road users 3. Eaten or drank whilst driving 4. Vacuumed between the hours of 6pm & 8am on a weekday or 1pm & 8am on a Saturday or on a Sunday 5. Parked partly on a pavement 6. Cycled on pavements 7. Speeding while driving 8. Pocketed change when given wrong amount 9. Beeped a horn for any reason other than alerting traffic 10. Been drunk on the street, in a pub or in a restaurant 11. Changed a CD while driving 12. *** in a public place 13. Bought cigarettes under the age of 18 14. Dropped litter 15. Taken illegal drugs 16. Disturbed people by ringing their doorbells / knocking at their doors and leaving before being answered (or playing knock, knock, ginger - also known as knock down ginger) 17. Not worn a seatbelt during a car journey 18. Flown a kite in a park 19. Used a fake name on the internet 20. Stuck a postage stamp upside down

21. Used a mobile phone while driving 22. Cycled without lights after dark 23. Parked on double yellow lines 24. Driven through a red light 25. Not paid for a carrier bag at a self-service check-out 26. Had *** when you were under 16 years of age 27. Not had a TV licence and watched TV 28. Used someone else’s Wi-Fi without them knowing 29. Smoked in a non-smoking area 30. Thrown tree cuttings back over your neighbours’ garden 31. Claimed an item at the self-service till without paying for it 32. Taken a child out of school for a holiday - without the head teacher’s permission 33. Not informed the DVLA of a change of name or address 34. Not cleaned up after your dog has pooped on the street/public path 35. Cycled through a red light 36. Fiddled your expenses 37. Sung or chanted a crude football chant in the street 38. Gone fishing without a licence 39. Parked opposite a junction

40. Put makeup on while driving The research also suggested that 83% of Brits are often confused by what’s illegal and what’s not. Parking on double yellow lines, cycling on the pavement and throwing tree cuttings into their neighbour’s garden were all among other laws commonly broken. Vacuuming after 1pm on a Sunday is among the more unusual laws on the list and could land you in trouble with environmental health officers for making too much noise. Sticking a postage stamp to an envelope upside down is treason in the eyes of the law. Flying a kite in a park could lead to a fine of up to £500 if it obstructs other members of the public. And, although for many it’s an ‘innocent’ childhood prank, knocking on someone’s door and running away another ‘small’ law broken by Brits.

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Gold

Poet: Shaheryar A. Chishty

Gold is everywhere A gold bespatter Dripping, from the golden yellow pendant Staining, the cerulean ripples A tropical tie and dye The golden sun ripens Verdant, bold, apples Breathing, a yellow and iridescent flame A roasted golden apple The water rests its self on sand Stretching its arms wide to hug it A glistening gold concoction Autumn comes Dull colours fade The sun changes the leaves clothes Golden waistcoats, golden dresses Getting ready to float away Together, in couples As the sun takes rest on the horizon Its reflection becomes dimmer It stretches its arm along the sea To give one last good bye Returning to its abode Trailing its scintillating gown Covered with golden embers Finally, it hypnotises us By its intoxicating heat To send us to sleep And meet it again the next day

Drivers Still Undeterred 40% of drivers say causing an accident wouldn't stop them using a phone at the wheel The dangers of using a handheld phone at the wheel are still not resonating with a worrying number of drivers, new RAC research suggests. Despite positive changes including the introduction of tougher penalties, a problem of “Herculean” proportions still exists – with 40% of drivers claiming even the thought of causing an accident wouldn’t be enough to make them put their mobiles away for good. When asked whether causing an accident through illegal phone use would make them kick the habit for good, almost two-thirds (60%) agreed it would – a figure which should be higher. Other reasons which would make drivers immediately reconsider their use of a phone at the wheel include being caught, or the threat of being caught by a police officer (55% and 54% respectively); knowing somebody who had been the victim of a phone-related accident (54%), and causing a near-miss (53%). The boredom associated with sitting in traffic appears to be a high risk factor for many drivers, with 57% of those who reach for their phone most likely to do it during these periods – which is still illegal.

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Since March 1, motorists have faced stricter penalties for illegal handheld use with both the fine (£200) and number of points (six) handed out, doubling. It seems law enforcement is likely to be the most effective way of influencing lasting change. While 86% of those who admit to having used a phone while driving say they could be convinced into quitting, 25% of respondents said the police would be the most important group for making it happen. Other key influencers include family members (18%), road safety groups (18%), the government (8%) and friends (6%). While the mission of eliminating handheld phone use behind the wheel is clearly a huge one, there are positive things happening, the RAC points out. Alongside tougher punishments, police are undertaking far more highprofile crackdowns on roads up and down the UK. Cutting edge technology too, is playing its part in making the task more achievable. Most widely used smartphone operating systems, Apple’s iOS used on iPhones, is about to have an update that will offer a ‘drive safe’ model. This will join a range of apps already available for Android, such as Agent, which encourage smarter phone use in the car or cab.

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Los Angeles Confirmed As Host Of 2028 Olympics Los Angeles has reached a deal with international Olympic leaders to host the 2028 Summer Games. The city had been bidding to host the 2024 Olympics in a head-to-head competition with Paris. The news clears the way for the French capital to host in 2024. It will be the third time the Olympics is held in Los Angeles, which also hosted in 1984 and 1932. Paris has been passed over in recent bids, and was eager to mark the centenary of the 1924 Paris Olympics by hosting in 2024. But advocates for Los

Angeles - the only other bidder for the year - argued that French organisers would need to build expensive infrastructure to be prepared for the event. Donald Trump's travel ban on some Muslim-majority countries, as well as pollution and traffic in LA, had been seen to count against the American city's bid. The International Olympic Committee decided that its September vote in Lima would award both the 2024 and 2028 Games, meaning a deal could ensure both Los Angeles and Paris could host.

Al-Aqsa Mosque Dispute May Become Religious Conflict: UN Envoy The UN envoy on Middle East peace has warned that developments over the past few weeks in and around the al-Aqsa Mosque compound in East Jerusalem have demonstrated the grave risk that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict could become a religious one that could ultimately engulf the rest of the region. While recognising that Israelis and Palestinians, fortunately, have not succumbed to the torrent of violent upheaval that has engulfed the region in recent years, Nickolay Mladenov, UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, nevertheless told an open debate in the UN Security Council that: For nearly a century, despite myriad peace efforts, one conflict has evaded solution. His briefing to the 15-nation Council highlighted the latest clashes and rising tensions over the past two weeks in the Old City in Jerusalem. Violence has resulted in deaths on both sides. These developments demonstrated the grave risk of dangerous escalation that exists, a risk of turning the IsraeliPalestinian conflict into a religious one and dragging both sides into the vortex of violence with the rest of the region, Mladenov said, stressing the need for all parties to show restraint and promptly end this crisis. Noting that the final status issue concerning Jerusalem needs to be negotiated and decided by the two sides, he urged Israel to fulfil the responsibility to uphold its obligations under international human rights law and humanitarian law. He also urged

Palestinian leaders to avoid provocative statements that further aggravate an already tense environment. The latest incidents have taken place against a backdrop of other developments, the envoy stressed. Throughout July month, Israel continued to advance its plans to construct settlements in East Jerusalem. I must once again emphasise that settlement activity in occupied territory is illegal under international law and undermines the chances for the establishment of a viable, contiguous, sovereign Palestinian state as part of a two-state solution, he warned. On a positive note, it was pointed out that an interim power purchasing agreement between the two sides was signed on 10 July, which set the stage to negotiate a more comprehensive power purchasing agreement towards Palestinian energy independence. In addition, an agreement was reached to increase water supply for Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Turning to the situation in Gaza, he reiterated that the political standoff between two Palestinian factions Fatah and Hamas has taken the two million people living in the tiny enclave hostage. Since violently seizing control of Gaza, Hamas has tightened its grip on power and suppressed dissent, he explained. The punishing measures taken against Hamas, including electricity cuts, have worsened the humanitarian situation in Gaza. Whatever the political differences between the Palestinian factions, it is not the people of Gaza who should pay the price, but the Palestinian leaders must address the destructive consequences of the split. Finally, he said recent events are a reminder of how easy it could be to reach a dangerous escalation, and he, expressed hope that Israel's agreement with Jordan and positive engagement with religious authorities would result in actions that would circumvent violence in the future. We must not lose focus on the need to restore a political perspective, on the need to bring Palestinians and Israelis back into an environment that is conducive to negotiations on a final status arrangement and avoids turning the national Israeli-Palestinian conflict into a religious one, he emphasised.

How Fraudsters Scam You A new poll shows that Seven in ten Brits (69%) entering competitions risk being scammed after sharing their personal details without checking whether the offer is legitimate. Just one in three (31%) say they routinely check to determine whether an offer is real or fraudulent before entering private information such as their name, address and date of birth. The research from Nationwide Building Society, which surveyed 2,000 British adults, highlights how the risk/ reward radar can often be unbalanced by ‘too good to be true’ offers as it reveals most people are aware that providing such information could put them at risk of fraud, with many regretting doing it later. Around two thirds (63%) of Brits have previously entered private information such as their name, address and date of birth to enter a competition. Of these, seven in ten (69%) have done so without any due diligence checks, according to the poll. More than a fifth (22%) said they would consider giving all three key pieces of information

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(name, address, date of birth) to stand a chance of grabbing an offer – enough to give a fraudster a head-start on impersonating someone. According to the poll, 18-to-24-year-olds are four times more likely to give out their personal details on a cold call than those aged 55 and above, while they are also almost three times as likely as 35-to-44-year-olds to give their bank details to an unfamiliar website when shopping online. However, the nation’s generous approach to sharing their personal information is in stark contrast to their awareness of fraud – most understand that sharing their bank details (86%), date of birth (62%), home address (58%) and email address (42%) could put them at risk of fraud. This is perhaps why more than a third (38%) say they ended up regretting sharing their personal information. Seven in ten Brits entering competitions risk fraud by not checking they are legitimate The Nationwide Building Society’s advice is, if something seems too good to be true, it usually is, so it’s wise to be suspicious. People should take a bit of time to do some research and check the source is valid, particularly if it’s a website they are using for the first time. Hints and tips: Protect your personal details just like you protect your home and valued possessions. Don’t assume an email, text or phone call is genuine – you can always ring back on a known number. Don’t share PINs, passwords or card reader passcodes and don’t send money out of your account for ‘safekeeping’.

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Awareness of Body Language The difference between the words people speak and our understanding of what they are saying comes from non-verbal communication, otherwise known as "body language." There are sometimes subtle – and sometimes not so subtle – movements, gestures, facial expressions and even shifts in our whole bodies that indicate something is going on. The way we talk, walk, sit and stand all say something about us, and whatever is happening on the inside can be reflected on the outside, without intention, which is why when we are stressed others are able to identify it immediately. By becoming more aware of this body language and understanding what it might mean, you can learn to read people more easily. This puts you in a better position to communicate effectively with them. What's more, by increasing your understanding of others, you can also become more aware of the messages that you convey to them, so you can talk without saying a single word. There are times when we send mixed messages – we say one thing yet our body language reveals something different. This non-verbal language will affect how we act and react to others, and how they react to us. Recall a time when you met someone new at school. Or think about the last time you watched a speaker deliver a presentation. What were your first impressions? Did you sense confidence or a lack of confidence in them? Did you want to associate with them or not? Were you convinced by them? Did they stride into the room, engage you and maintain eye contact or were they tentative? What about their handshake – firm and strong or weak and limp? Moving along in the conversation, did they maintain solid eye contact or were they frequently looking away? Did their face appear relaxed or was it tight and tense? What about their hand and arm movements? Were their gestures wide, flowing and open or were they tight, jerky and closed? As you observe others, you can identify some common signs and signals that give away whether they are feeling confident or not. Typical things to look for in confident people include: • Posture – standing tall with shoulders back. • Eye contact – solid with a "smiling" face. • Gestures with hands and arms – purposeful and deliberate. • Speech – slow and clear. • Tone of voice – moderate to low. As well as deciphering other people's body language, you can use this knowledge to convey feelings that you're not actually experiencing. For example, if you are about to enter into a situation where you are not as confident as you'd like to be, such as giving a big presentation or attending an important meeting, you can adopt these "confidence" signs and signals to project confidence. However, often, the other person is defensive and doesn't really listen. If this happens during an appraisal meeting, and it's important for you to convey to your colleague that he or she needs to change certain behaviours, you really want them open and receptive to you so they take on board what you are saying. So how can you tell whether your message is falling on "deaf ears"? Some of the common signs that the person you are speaking with may be feeling defensive include: • Hand/arm gestures are small and close to his or her body. • Facial expressions are minimal.

• Body is physically turned away from you. • Arms are crossed in front of body. • Eyes maintain little contact, or are downcast. By picking up these signs, you can change what you say or how you say it to help the other person become more at ease, and more receptive to what you are saying. Equally, if you are feeling somewhat defensive going into a negotiating situation, you can monitor your own body language to ensure that the messages you are conveying are ones that say that you are

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• Eyes are glazed, or gazing at something else. • Hands may be picking at clothes, or fiddling with pens. • People may be writing or doodling. • They may be sitting slumped in their chairs. When you pick up that someone appears not to be engaged in what is going on, you can do something to re-engage him or her and bring their focus back to what you are saying, such as asking them a direct question. And while this is going on, make sure that your own body language is saying what you want it to. Lying Of all the non-verbal body language that we may observe, being able to tell whether a person is lying. Some of the typical signs and signals that a person is lying include: • Eyes maintain little or no eye contact, or there may be rapid eye movements, with pupils constricted. • Hand or fingers are in front of his or her mouth when speaking. • His or her body is physically turned away from you, or there are unusual/un-natural body gestures. • His or her breathing rate increases. • Complexion changes such as in color; red in face or neck area. • Perspiration increases. • Voice changes such as change in pitch, stammering, throat clearing. As with all non-verbal language, it's important to remember here that everyone's personal body language is slightly different. If you notice some of the typical non-verbal signs of lying, you shouldn't necessarily jump to conclusions, as many of these signals can be confused with the appearance of nervousness. What you should do, however, is use these signals as a prompt to probe further, ask more questions and explore the area in more detail to determine whether they are being truthful or not. Further clarification is always worthwhile when checking out your understanding of someone's body language, and this is particularly true during job interviews and in negotiating situations.

open and receptive to what is being discussed. Working With Groups and Disengagement Have you ever delivered a presentation, and had a sense that people weren't really buying into what you had to say? did some appear disengaged? Ideally, when you stand up to deliver a presentation or work with group, you want 100 percent engagement with all concerned. This often doesn't happen on its own, though. But you can actively engage the audience when you need to if you're alert to some of the typical signs and signals of people not being engaged. Some of these signs and signals include: • Heads are down.

Cat Cafe To Open On Cemetery Road Cat lovers will soon be able to walk into a coffee shop and enjoy a cup of tea in the company of furry friends. Tabby Teas cat cafe is set to open on Cemetery Road, Sharrow and aims to give a home to cats from animal rescue charities such as the Mill House Animal Sanctuary. The cat cafe concept originates from China and Japan where it has been popular with cat lovers who live in properties where animals are not allowed.

Mr Shumile J. Chishty

Interviews and Negotiations, and Reflection What do you do when you are asked a really good question? Do you ponder for a few moments before answering? You might simply blurt something out without taking time to think about the answer, or you could take a moment to reflect before answering. By taking some time to reflect on your response, you are indicating to the questioner that they've asked you a good question and it is important enough for you to take some time to consider your answer. Be that in an interview situation or when negotiating something with someone, showing that you are thinking over your answer, this is indeed a positive thing. Some typical signs and signals that a person is reflecting on their answer include: • Eyes look away and return to engage contact only when answering. • Finger stroking on chin. • Hand to cheek. • Head tilted with eyes looking up. So, whether you are on the receiving end of someone pondering, or you are doing the pondering, there are certain gestures that give it away.

Highway Code Stopping Distances Wrong The Highway Code's stopping distances for drivers are innacurate, according to road safety campaigners. The current distances underestimate the time it takes for a driver to think and should be re-examined, a study commissioned by the charity Brake concludes. The study found it takes an average of 1.5 seconds to spot a hazard and apply the brakes, more than double the 0.67 seconds used in the Department for Transport's book. This means the stopping distance for a car travelling at 20mph is 19 metres - seven metres more than that specified in the Highway Code. At 40mph, it is 51 metres - 15 metres more; and at 70mph, it is 121 metres, which is 25 metres more than in the code.

Such differences should prompt the Government to increase stopping distances "as a matter of urgency", Brake said. These figures suggest stopping distances taught to new drivers in the Highway Code fall woefully short. A true understanding of how long it takes to stop a car in an emergency is one of the most important lessons for new drivers. From time to time, new evidence will come to light that means it is necessary to update the Highway Code. While the ability for cars to be able to brake more quickly has improved, our reaction times clearly haven't. The Department for Transport said it would "carefully consider" the findings.

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Higher Childhood IQ Linked To Longer Life Children with higher intelligence have a lower risk of major causes of death, including heart disease, stroke and smoking related cancers, scientists say Children with higher intelligence have a lower risk of major causes of death, including heart disease, stroke, and smoking related cancers, scientists say. The findings from the largest study to date reporting causes of death in men and women across the life course suggest that lifestyle, especially tobacco smoking, is an important component in the effect of intelligence on differences in mortality. Previous studies have shown that, on average, individuals with higher IQs tend to live a little longer than those with lower IQs, but these are largely based on data from male conscripts followed up only to middle adulthood. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh in the UK set out to examine the association between intelligence test scores measured at age 11

and leading causes of death in men and women up to age 79. Cause of death included coronary heart disease, stroke, specific cancers, respiratory disease, digestive disease, external causes and dementia. After taking account of several factors that could have influenced the results, such as age, sex and socioeconomic status, the researchers found that higher childhood intelligence was associated with a lower risk of death until age 79. For example, a higher test score was associated with a 28 percent reduced risk of death from respiratory disease, a 25 percent reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease, and a 24 percent reduced risk of death from stroke. Other notable associations were seen for deaths from injury, smoking related cancers, digestive disease, and dementia.

Do You Use A ‘Phone Voice’ To Sound Smarter? Four out of 10 people switch to a special voice when they use the phone because they think it makes them sound smarter, according to research. Most of them even use an affected voice to speak to husbands, wives and family members. Phone voices – usually designed to disguise the speaker’s class background – are used by people at work on clients, suppliers and contacts and on their boss. They are often adopted by people discussing loans and overdrafts with their bank. Nearly a third of those who resort to a different tone on the phone also use it to try to impress restaurant staff when they call to reserve a table. The survey conducted for insurance company Privilege said that most phone voice users are women. Nearly half of women switch identity on the phone, against just over a third of men. The use of phone voices also undermines the notion that younger people are less class conscious than their elders. According to the report, six out of 10 under-35s put on a voice on the phone, against only just over a fifth of people over 55. The poll of more than 2,000 people, carried out for the company by Opinium, adopted the dictionary definition of a phone voice as ‘one that is intended to be particularly clear, engaging or businesslike, or one which is regarded as affectedly cultivated or pretentious.’ Psychotherapists say that people who use a phone

voice are uneasy when they cannot see the person they are speaking to. A phone voice makes us feel more secure in an environment that we experience as disconcerting. Many of us still make snap judgements about people on the basis of factors such as accent, social class, and race. Many of these judgements are not made on a conscious level at all, but result from a lifetime of exposure to the small and major biases that we encounter in our daily lives. High numbers of people who use a phone voice want to lose a regional accent, the survey indicated. Nearly six out of 10 Glaswegians have adopted a fake voice, it said, 45 percent of people from Belfast, and 36 percent of people from Newcastle, Liverpool and Edinburgh. In southern England, where received pronunciation is more common, the most pretentious phone users are in Brighton, where 45 percent put on a phone voice, ahead of 43 percent in London and 42 percent in Bristol. Overall, 40 percent of people are said to use a phone voice, and just over two thirds of them apply it when speaking to someone they know, including their closest partners and relatives. A quarter of phone voice users say they do not realise when they are doing it; and over a third fail to keep up the pretence for a whole conversation, with the mask tending to slip after a minute and a half of talking.

Top Global Threats People around the world identify Daesh and climate change as the leading threats to national security, according to a new Pew Research Centre survey. The survey asked people about eight possible threats. While the level and focus of concern vary by region and country, Daesh and climate change clearly emerge as the most frequently cited security risks among people in the 38 countries polled. Daesh is named as the top threat in 18 countries surveyed mostly concentrated in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and the United States. A substantial number of these countries have endured deadly terrorist attacks claimed by the militant group. In 13 countries, mostly in Latin America and Africa, people identify global climate change as the top threat. It is the secondranked concern in other countries polled. Cyber attacks from other countries and the condition of the global economy are named as major threats by global medians of 51 percent each. Cyber attacks are the top concern in Japan and the second-highest concern in places such as the US, Germany and the UK, where there have been a number of high-profile attacks of this type in recent months. People in Greece and Venezuela view the health of the international economy as the leading threat to their countries, perhaps reflecting these nations’ economic struggles in recent years. Many countries surveyed in the Middle East and Latin America name economic turmoil as their secondgreatest concern. The influx of refugees, which was of particular concern in Europe in 2016, is seen as a major threat by a median of 39 percent

across the 38 countries. It is the top threat in only one country Hungary. Globally, a median of about one-third views the power and influence of the US, Russia or China as a major threat. America’s influence is a top concern in Turkey. In South Korea and Vietnam, eight in 10 or more name China’s power and influence as a major threat. Meanwhile, among the countries surveyed, fears of Russia are most acute in Poland.

Instagram Culture The average age at which women have cosmetic surgery has gone under 40 for the first time, according to new research. Women are now going under the knife by 39 – down three years since 2012 when the previous average was 42. Obsession with looking good in photos blamed for shift towards surgery at a younger age. The so called ‘Instagram culture’ is being blamed for the shift with increasing numbers of women under 35 choosing to go under the knife for the first time. Men are also affected, too. The average age for male cosmetic surgery has gone down in the last five years – from 47 to 45, again due the pressure to look good on social media. The rise of ‘selfies’ and photo filtering is one

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of the reasons for the boom in surgery amongst young patients. They see how their appearances are improved by filters on their smart phones and deduce that surgery may be able to replicate this process in real-life. There is also a desire to look better on social media – particularly Facebook and Instagram where so many personal pictures are shared. Research shows that more than half of us want to change the way we look. And almost two-thirds of Britons would have cosmetic surgery to improve their appearance if cost was not a consideration. There were 30,750 cosmetic procedures carried out on men and women in the UK last year, according to British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons. Of these, 28,341 were carried out on women and 2,409 on men. The top surgical procedure for women was breast enlargement which accounted for 7,732 operations. Top for men was rhinoplasty, commonly known as a nose job.

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World’s Laziest Countries A new study has listed the world’s laziest countries. Researchers from Stanford University tracked the smartphones of 717,000 people in 111 countries, in what is being called the largest ever study on human movement. Scientists used people’s smartphones to gain 68 million days’ worth of data, and found that the average number of daily steps was 4,961. A built-in accelerometer in most smartphones can record the number of steps users take in a day. The results revealed that Indonesia was the laziest country in the world, with its citizens walking an average 3,513 steps a day. Hong Kong was found to be the most active country in the world with 6,880 steps, followed by China, Ukraine, Japan and Russia. Brits are fairly active compared to other countries, with an average of 5,444 steps a day, equivalent to less than three miles (5km). The team also uncovered findings to help tackle obesity, after establishing a link between cities where it is easier to walk and a drop in levels of obesity. However, there is not a strong link between the number of steps people take in a country and obesity levels. Interestingly, more important is the gap between a country’s fittest and laziest people – a term labelled ‘activity inequality’. If you think about some people in a country as ‘activity rich’ and others as ‘activity poor’, the size of the gap between them is a strong indicator of obesity levels in that society. For example, people in the USA walk an average of 4,774 steps a day, but with a large divide between the fittest and laziest. It also has high obesity levels – whereas Sweden, where there is low activity inequality, also has low obesity levels.

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Chickenpox Jab Offered On The High Street Vaccinations against chickenpox are to be offered on the High Street for the first time. Superdrug will be offering it at 58 of its specialist pharmacist stores at the cost of £130 for a two-dose course. The vaccine is only available on the NHS for people at high risk of spreading the virus to those with weakened immune systems. The NHS says a routine childhood chickenpox vaccine would raise the risk of more serious infections in adults. Ninety per cent of people catch the chickenpox virus by the age of 15 and in most cases it is uncomfortable but leaves no lasting effects. Symptoms include an itchy red rash of spots and blisters, and a fever, as well as tiredness, nausea, headache, muscle ache and loss of appetite. People who catch the virus as a child normally become immune for life, although one in three adults can develop shingles. Adults can still contract the virus but symptoms and possible complications are usually more serious, including the risk of pneumonia, hepatitis and encephalitis. The NHS said a chickenpox vaccine is not offered as part of routine immunisations as it would leave unvaccinated children more susceptible to contracting the virus as an adult. There could also be a significant increase in shingles cases as being exposed to infected children boosts immunity to this. People have for some years been able to pay to get the vaccine from a variety of sources outside of the NHS such as travel clinics. The vaccine will be available in 58 Superdrug stores, across the UK. The store recommends two injections, four to eight weeks apart. Chickenpox immunisation has been available in the US for children under 13 for 20 years and research by the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Society shows it has seen hospitalisations due to the disease fall by 93%.

Chickenpox Jab Offered On The High Street Vaccinations against chickenpox are to be offered on the High Street for the first time. Superdrug will be offering it at 58 of its specialist pharmacist stores at the cost of £130 for a two-dose course. The vaccine is only available on the NHS for people at high risk of spreading the virus to those with weakened immune systems. The NHS says a routine childhood chickenpox vaccine would raise the risk of more serious infections in adults. Ninety per cent of people catch the chickenpox virus by the age of 15 and in most cases it is uncomfortable but leaves no lasting effects. Symptoms include an itchy red rash of spots and blisters, and a fever, as well as tiredness, nausea, headache, muscle ache and loss of appetite. People who catch the virus as a child normally become immune for life, although one in three adults can develop shingles. Adults can still contract the virus but symptoms and

possible complications are usually more serious, including the risk of pneumonia, hepatitis and encephalitis. The NHS said a chickenpox vaccine is not offered as part of routine immunisations as it would leave unvaccinated children more susceptible to contracting the virus as an adult. There could also be a significant increase in shingles cases as being exposed to infected children boosts immunity to this. People have for some years been able to pay to get the vaccine from a variety of sources outside of the NHS such as travel clinics. The vaccine will be available in 58 Superdrug stores, across the UK. The store recommends two injections, four to eight weeks apart. Chickenpox immunisation has been available in the US for children under 13 for 20 years and research by the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Society shows it has seen hospitalisations due to the disease fall by 93%.

Poorer Areas See Rapid Rise In Fast Food Outlets Deprived areas have seen the largest rise in takeaway food outlets over the past 20 years, potentially worsening inequality. New data shows number of fast food outlets in England has increased by 4,000 since 2014, sparking fears that councils are losing battle to limit obesity levels Pressure has been raised on local authorities to limit the number and location of fast food

shops in poorer locations amid concerns that ‘unhealthy neighbourhoods’ were making it harder for communities to make beneficial life choices. The study found the highest increase in the density of outlets were in sites of highest deprivation, which climbed from 4.6 to 6.5 outlets per 10,000 residents over the same period.

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Healthy Food Choices Nobody’s perfect and neither are our eating habits – even those on a diet have their cheat days once in a while. That said, many people would agree that health food is devoid of taste and not exactly what someone would prefer to eat, especially when they can’t eat their favourite foods. But even if you eat healthy food and consciously make good food choices once in a while, it will help improve your longevity, a study has found. Improving diet quality over at least a dozen years is associated with lower total and cardiovascular mortality. As per the US study, choosing healthier foods now and then may significantly boost one’s chances of living longer. The report in the New England Journal of Medicine is the first to show that improving diet quality over at least a dozen years is associated with lower total and cardiovascular mortality. Researchers at Harvard University tracked dietary changes in a population of nearly 74,000 health professionals who logged their eating habits every four years.

Researchers used a system of diet-quality scores to assess how much diets had improved. For instance, a 20-percentile increase in scores could “be achieved by swapping out just one serving of red or processed meat for one daily serving of nuts or legumes,” said a summary of the research. Over the 12-year span, those who ate a little better than they did at the start – primarily by consuming more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and fatty fish – saw an eight to 17 percent lower risk of dying prematurely in the next 12 years. Those whose diets got worse over time saw a higher risk of dying in the next 12 years of followup, on the order of a six to 12 percent increase. The results highlight the long-term health benefits of improving diet quality with an emphasis on overall dietary patterns rather than on individual foods or nutrients. A healthy eating pattern can be adopted according to individuals’ food and cultural preferences and health conditions. There is no one-size-fits-all diet.

Silicone Heart Beats Like The Real Thing Silicone heart transplants are a step closer after Swiss scientists 3D-printed a soft, artificial heart prototype. The researchers ETH Zurich published their findings in the journal Artificial Organs say the silicone heart imitates a human heart “in form and function”. Heart disease remains the number one killer worldwide, causing 17.3 million deaths each year – a problem exacerbated by a global shortage of heart donors. A custom-made artificial heart would be an invaluable medical advancement that could save countless lives. The researchers behind the artificial heart, are working on further improving the performance of their new invention as the prototype currently lasts for only around 3,000 beats – or 30 to 45 minutes. The aim is to “develop an artificial heart that is roughly the same size as the patient’s own one and which imitates the human heart as closely as possible in form and function.” Weighing 90 grammes, the silicone heart is slightly heavier but around the same size as a hu-

man heart. It features left and right ventricles or chambers, just like a human heart, as well as an extra chamber that drives the external pump – replacing the muscle contraction of the human heart. Pressurised air inflates and deflates this third chamber, designed to pump blood through the ventricles – during testing, a liquid with the same viscosity of blood was used. Scientists hope the invention will one day replace mechanical pumps – used while people recover from heart failure or wait for a donated heart to become available – which are at risk of failure or causing complications in patients. To produce a viable artificial organ that can actually save lives, the life of this artificial heart would need to extend and the strength of its material significantly improved. But the development of a soft, 3D-printed heart beating like a human one is a promising development in the medical world. The invention has raised hopes it will one day replace mechanical pumps which can fail.

Moon water Areas of the Moon have an "unusually" large amount of trapped water that could support future lunar explorations, according to a new report. The Moon's surprisingly extensive subsurface water reserves could potentially be extracted and used "for future exploration". The sub-surface water reserves appear to be

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Ways To Maintain Good Eyesight Eat healthy, exercise regularly and more to take care of eyes, suggest experts Adequate sleep is essential for eye health and allows the eyes to repair and recover. Eight hours of sound sleep at night will go a long way in attaining better visual quality. Our eyes require multiple nutrients to function optimally. Vitamins and minerals along with green leafy vegetables and protein sources help to keep the eyes strong and sharp.

Regular exercise not only keeps your body fit but also makes your eyes healthy by pumping more blood and oxygen to your eyes. A majority of office jobs require constant and direct glaring at the computer screen, making it difficult for your eyes. Make sure to take a break, every 20 minutes for at least 20 seconds. Regular physical exam at least twice a year will keep you aware and helps to take necessary action in time.

Negative Effects Of Artificial Sweeteners A new research has linked artificial sweeteners to long-term weight gain and increased risk of obesity. The findings contradict the previous findings that claimed artificial sweeteners don’t cause extra weight gain and potential health harm. It showed that artificial sweeteners or non-nutritive sweeteners might have negative effects on metabolism, gut bacteria and appetite. Artificial sweeteners are substitutes for sugar that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy. According to the researchers at University of Manitoba in Canada, individuals consuming artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevia, may also be at risk of developing high blood pressure and heart disease. People are increasingly consuming artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, sucralose and stevia, which are widespread in food and drinks including diet soda, yoghurt and baked goods. They said the use of artificial sweeteners is linked with the current epidemic of obesity and related diseases. For the study, the team conducted a

randomised controlled trials involving 1,003 people followed for six months on average. The trials did not show a consistent effect of artificial sweeteners on weight loss, and the longer observational studies showed a link between consumption of artificial sweeteners and relatively higher risks of weight gain and obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and other health issues.

contained within volcanic deposits and are further proof the Moon is water-rich, researchers at Brown University say. They say the supply could potentially be extracted and used as "in situ resources for future exploration". The growing evidence for water inside the Moon suggests that water did somehow survive, or that it was brought in shortly after the impact by asteroids or comets before the Moon had completely solidified. Anything that helps save future lunar explorers from having to bring lots of water from home is a big step forward. Until a decade ago, scientists believed that the Moon's interior had been largely depleted of water. However, in 2008 water was found in pebble-like beads brought back to Earth by the Apollo 15 and 17 missions. Three years later, a further study of crystalline formations within the beads found that they contained similar amounts of water as some basalts on Earth. Brown University researchers found evidence of water in a number locations across the surface of the Moon, including near the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites.

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Time Magazine’s Most Influential People On The Internet Some of the names are familiar and some are surprises CHRISSY TEIGEN — Going from a model to a cookbook author and a TV host, Chrissy Teigen is also a social media superstar with nearly 20 million followers between Twitter and Instagram. After recently giving birth to daughter Luna, she’s using her reach to talk honestly about motherhood. DONALD TRUMP — The US president has become infamous for his late-night tweeting and has publicly admitted that social media helped him beat out rival Hillary Clinton. Trump continues to Tweet from both his own account and the @POTUS official account. JK ROWLING —

The author of Harry Potter may have left Hogwarts behind her, but she continues to have a huge impact on the Internet at large. She has used the platform to simultaneously spread the Potter love and take on the likes of Donald Trump and Nigel Farage. KATY PERRY — Perry became the first person to pass 100 million followers on Twitter after performing a 96-hour livestream on YouTube. It helps that she’s also got a new album ‘Witness’, out now. KIM KARDASHIAN — Kim K’s social media approach has changed following the robbery in Paris that badly affected her. But despite a muted return to social media she remains one of the biggest celebrities on the planet.

Two Pakistani Documentaries Nominated For Emmy Awards Two Pakistani documentaries have been nominated for Emmy Awards this year. A Girl in River: The Price of Forgiveness and Among the Believers are nominated documentaries. Sharmeen Obaid Chennoy’s A Girl in River is nominated in three categories including Outstanding Sound and Music, Outstanding Short Documentary and Best Documentary. While Muhammad Ali Naqvi’s Among the Believers is nominated in category of Outstanding Politics and Government Documentary. Sharmeen has already won Emmy for her documentary Saving Face and Children of Taliban.

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Natural Ingredients And Their Beauty Benefits! Looking for natural beauty solution that won’t be harsh on your skin? Here are five amazing ingredients that you may have in your kitchen and can work amazingly ALOE VERA — this natural plant is a genius solution for dark circles, as it is loaded with Vitamin E and C. Apply raw gel on the dark circles and the eyelid area overnight. Try to follow this ritual on a regular basis for best results. COCONUT OIL — this wonder oil is known for many beauty benefits. For a natural hair pack, you can always rely on coconut oil. All you need to do is massage your hair with coconut oil 15-20 minutes before washing your hair. This way your hair will get nourished and will have extra shine. Make sure you use less coconut oil, so your hair doesn’t get greasy! GARLIC — garlic is known as one of the best home remedies to treat pimples. It is known for its antiviral befits that can actually kill all the bacteria causing acne. All you need to do is cut the garlic clove from one side and then press it on the white head and leave it overnight. This trick will help to flatten a pimple. HONEY — a natural humectant, honey can do wonders to your skin if you’re dealing with dry skin. For this hack, you would need raw honey which is unfiltered. All you need to do is apply a thin layer of this sweet stuff on your face as a pack and leave it for 1015 minutes. TURMERIC — this wonder ingredient is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Many Indian women swear by this trick for face masks, as it helps to reduce pigmentation and get the glowing skin. Make a paste of turmeric, honey, and yoghurt in thick consistency. Apply this mask for 10-15 minutes and later wash it off with lukewarm water.

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Shahid Khaqan Abbasi Is New Pakistan PM

Days after the Supreme Court disqualified Nawaz Sharif after months of proceedings in Panamagate case, the National Assembly elected Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) loyalist Shahid Khaqan Abbasi as new Leader of the House, who later took oath as 18th prime minister of the country, though for an interim period until Nawaz’s nominated successor, his younger brother Shahbaz Sharif, is elected to the 342-member House and eventually takes the top office. Abbasi secured 221 votes against Pakistan People’s Party-Parliamentarian’s Syed Naveed Qamar who got 47 votes. Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) and Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid (PML-Q)’s joint candidate Sheikh Rashid fetched 33 votes while Sahabzada Tariqullah of Jamaat-e-Islami bagged four votes. In his maiden speech to the assembly soon after being elected leader of the house, Abbasi expressed his loyalty with ousted prime minister Nawaz Sharif and declared that “he (Nawaz) is still present on the seat which I hold today.” “Insha Allah (God willing), one

day the real prime minister of this country will come back and sit on this chair,” he said. Abbasi said, “I am grateful to you all for following the democratic process, no matter you voted for or against me. I am grateful to the people of Pakistan and I am also grateful to the ‘people’s prime minister’ (Nawaz Sharif),” he said, and added, “I am also grateful to the opposition and Imran Khan as well, for remembering us in their daily slander.” Abbasi said there were no allegations of corruption against Nawaz Sharif. “His only fault is that he made Pakistan a nuclear power, stabilised economy, brought 60 billion dollar investment under CPEC, worked day and night to end load shedding, imported LNG to run industry and introduced politics of decency,” he maintained. Abbasi declared to continue the policies of deposed prime minister in all sectors including education, health, railway, agriculture and economy. Referring to ongoing power projects, he said there will be no load shedding after November since 10,000 megawatt of additional electricity was being added to the national grid. Referred to problems in Karachi, Abbasi said the package announced by former prime minister for the mega city would be implemented in true letter and spirit. He said development of FATA would be expedited. "Whether it's 45 days or 45 hours, I am the prime minister of Pakistan and I am here to work, not keep the seat warm," he said.

Government Urged To Fix ‘Broken Relationship’ With British Muslims The British Government is being urged to “reassess the way in which it engages” with its Muslim communities and to “play their role in ending the current stalemate” in what it calls a “broken relationship.” The Citizens Commission on Islam, Participation & Public Life, chaired by former Attorney General, Dominic Grieve, has also called on ministers to urgently review its controversial Prevent extremism programme that effectively demonises all Muslims. “There is a broken relationship that needs to be resolved, and both parties need to be proactive in addressing this,” it recommended in its report on ‘Missing Muslims: Unlocking British Muslim Potential for the Benefit of All’. The report, published in July, found a strong sense that Muslims and Islam are ‘unfairly targeted’ and suggested that wider engagement, “including the robust challenging of views with which it disagrees, rather than the apparent boycott of certain organisations, could best enable the Government to hear from the widest possible cross-section of the UK’s Muslim communities, including young people and women.” Muslim communities will also need to “devise ways of allowing for engagement that better reflect their pluralistic nature,” the Commission, set up by Citizen UK in 2015, also added. It further proposed it may be able to identify those who can support and facilitate these discussions, and create a forum with which the government can engage. During interviews with British Muslims, it reported that there was a fear of discrimination that was even putting young British Muslims off from engaging in politics and other aspects of public life. It was Prevent, set up in an attempt to stop extremism that was particularly strongly criticised – being raised as an issue in all 11 cities that the Commission visited to gather evidence. As a result, the Commission recommends that tackling extremism and radicalisation would be “better achieved with a programme that has greater trust, particularly from the

UK’s Muslim communities”. It also calls on ministers to come up with a definition of antiMuslim prejudice across Government, in the same way, Anti-Semitism was formally defined last year. It further suggests that press watchdog Ipso should consider issuing reporting guidance for the media when reporting on Muslim issues. The former Attorney General, who is still a senior Troy MP, said the shocking terrorist attacks in Westminster, Manchester, London Bridge and Finsbury Park demonstrate the “terrible impact extremism has on innocent citizens.” The response brought communities coming together in unity and defiance and demonstrates “why the recommendations in this report should be actioned as a matter of priority, so the UK can build on the positive work already happening.” ‘However, we cannot ignore the fact that polls also demonstrate significant scepticism across British society about the integration, and even the shared allegiance, of their British Muslim fellow citizens,” he warned. Commissioner Ifath Nawaz said they met individuals who were “passionate about promoting the benefits of being active within civil society and working together for the common good.” But that set against this was “a backdrop of the need for some state action, particularly around anti-Muslim prejudice, and a more robust stance against the accuracy of reporting around Muslim issues.” In response to the report, a Government spokeswoman was quoted saying that it was “clear there should be no conflict between being British and being Muslim and that active participation in public life should be open to all.” “We’ve invested over £70 million on the integration programme since 2010. The findings of this report will help us take forward our work in creating a society where everyone – of any faith, ethnicity or background – feels valued and can participate fully,” the spokeswoman said.

Europes Biggest Countries In 2100 Britain is poised to outpace Germany and have the largest population in Western Europe by the year 2100. It will topple its European neighbour from the top of the ranking and grow from 65 million to more than 80 million. These are the projections contained in the newly-published report by the United Nations on the world population. France will see its population jump by 10 million from 64 million to 74 million. Germany and Spain, in contrast, will each see their populations fall by 10 million. Germany’s will drop to 71 million from 81 million while Spain will see a fall from 46 million

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to 36 million. Italy will lose 12 million and dip from 59 million to 47 million people. The report says that there will be one billion more people on the planet by 2030. The population will go from the current 7.6 billion to 8.6 billion. It will continue to grow and push through the 11 billion mark by 2100. According to the study, the world population will continue to grow at an average of 83 million people a year, despite an expected fall in fertility. By 2024 India will surpass China and, with more than 1.5 billion inhabitants, become the most populous country in the world.

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Saudi Arabia Issues Vaccination Rules For Hajj Pilgrims The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has issued the vaccination and health requirements for pilgrims applying for Hajj visas, according to the Saudi health ministry. The requirements for this year focus on the likes of the Zika virus, dengue, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS), yellow fever, cholera, meningitis, polio and vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against meningitis is mandatory for all local and foreign pilgrims. The flu vaccine is not compulsory, but it is desirable to take it considering the climate and susceptibility of pilgrims, the IINA added. The Saudi authorities have advised high-risk pa-

tients – those with ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, and renal problems – to take the flu vaccine, which will help them perform their Hajj and Umrah rituals without problems. In accordance with the International Health Regulations from 2005, travellers arriving from countries at risk of yellow fever transmission must present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate. The life-long certificate is valid from 10 days after the vaccination date. Aircraft, ships, and other means of transportation coming from countries affected by yellow fever are requested to submit a certificate indicating that they applied disinfection in accordance with methods recommended by the World Health Or-

ganization (WHO). Regardless of age and vaccination status, proof of receipt of a dose of oral polio vaccine, or inactivated polio vaccine, within the previous 12 months and at least four weeks prior to departure, is required to apply for an entry visa to Saudi Arabia for travellers arriving from countries including Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. The polio vaccine is also required of pilgrims from states no longer affected by the infectious disease, but which remain vulnerable to re-infection. These include Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Guinea, Laos, Madagascar, Myanmar, Niger, Ukraine, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Kenya, Liberia,

Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has sent out circulars to all its missions abroad regarding the rules.

The Tragic Life & Death Of Shahnawaz Bhutto

Pakistan's former Prime Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (ZAB), had four children. Stories of three of them have been told from multiple angles, including that of a daughter, Sanam, who, unlike her siblings, never ventured into politics. However, the story of one of his sons, Shahnawaz, has never gone any deeper than the sad fact that he died in mysterious circumstances in 1985, aged just 26. ZAB's rise to power was dramatic. After getting degrees from the University of Berkley in the US and Oxford in the UK, he became a lecturer at Karachi's then prestigious SM Law College. In 1951 he had married Nusrat Ispahani, a head-strong woman. ZAB was just 29 when he became a member of the Pakistani delegation at the United Nations (UN). He then became a minister in President Iskander Mirza's cabinet. He was retained as minister when Mirza and military chief Ayub Khan imposed Pakistan's first martial law in 1958. When Ayub also ousted Mirza, ZAB became a favored protégé of the new President and Field Marshal. In 1965 ZAB clashed with Ayub and was eased out of the government. In 1967 he formed a populist and leftleaning party (the Pakistan People's Party [PPP]) with Marxist ideologue, JA Rahim. The PPP swept the 1970 election in West Pakistan's two largest provinces, the Punjab and Sindh. When a vicious civil war in the Bengali-majority East Pakistan saw the region become Bangladesh (December 1971), a group of disgruntled military officers forced General Yahya Khan (who had replaced Ayub in 1969) to resign. They then invited ZAB to take over the presidency. In 1973 ZAB was elected the country's prime minister when the national assembly dominated by PPP MNAs passed the 1973 Constitution. In March and April of 1977 ZAB faced a concentrated protest movement by an alliance of right-wing and centre-right parties. In July 1977 his regime was toppled in a reactionary military coup. In April 1979 he was hanged through a controversial trial (on charges of ordering a 1973 murder). He was 51. A new beginning: A 1968 pro-Bhutto rally held in Karachi by the left-wing student outfit, the National Students Federation (NSF). Bhutto's widow, Nusrat, and his eldest daughter, Bena-

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zir, took the reins of the party after Bhutto's demise. Both led various protest movements against the military regime of Gen Zia. In August 1988, Zia died in a plane crash. Sabotage was suspected. Benazir led the PPP to victory in the 1988 election and became PM. She would become PM again in 1993 before being assassinated in December 2007. She had shone the brightest among the Bhutto children, becoming a local and international political celebrity. The other well-known Bhutto child was Murtaza. In 1979 he had formed an urban guerrilla outfit to oust Zia. The outfit operated from the then communist Afghanistan. Benazir disapproved of Murtaza's tactics and both eventually had a falling out. Murtaza returned to Pakistan in 1993 to challenge Benazir's leadership of the PPP. He formed the PPP-Shaheed Bhutto (PPP-SB) faction. But it failed to gain any momentum and Murtaza was eventually killed in a controversial police raid on his convoy in Karachi in 1996. Sanam, who had remained away from politics, tried to mend fences between Benazir and Murtaza. She then came close to Murtaza's children after the latter's death and played a prominent role in comforting Benazir's three children after her assassination in December 2007. Today, out of the four ZAB children, only one survives (Sanam). The mother, Nusrat, passed away in 2011 after witnessing the tragic deaths of her husband and four of their children - even though, as a blessing in disguise, she was suffering from Alzheimer's when a suicide bomber murdered her husband's favorite, Benazir, in 2007, along with dozens of her supporters in Rawalpindi. But the first of the ZAB children to die was also the youngest. He was the last-born. Shahnawaz (aka Shah) expired under mysterious circumstances in Cannes, France in 1985. Over the years numerous accounts of his death have appeared in newspapers, yet everything else about his life before his demise has been weighed down by the hefty stories of his more prominent siblings. Shah was born in November 1958. He was a pampered child. Even though Benazir would become ZAB's favorite, ZAB and Nusrat doted on their youngest son and the rest of Shah's siblings were very protective of him. Shah idealized his elder brother, Murtaza who was four years older. Unlike Benazir and Murtaza, Shah as a child was described as 'emotionally fragile' and would remain that way till his untimely death. In 1972, the 18-year-old Murtaza spent most of his time in this tent, surrounded by books on Marxism and posters of revolutionary leaders such as Che Guevara, Lenin, Mao Tse Tung and Ho Chi Minnh. Shah who was 14 would often follow his elder brother into this tent and try to act like him. Murtaza had begun to get into trouble at school (The Karachi Grammar School) and also had some run-ins with the police in the early 1970s. ZAB was too glad to pack him off to Harvard University in 1973. Shahnawaz was heartbroken. Missing his elder brother, he too started to get into brawls at school. This irritated ZAB who used to work for long hours. After consulting Nusrat, ZAB sent Shahnawaz to the American School in Islamabad. But Shahnawaz continued to get into trouble, disappointing and even embarrassing his father who had by then become the PM of the country. At one point in the mid-1970s, Shah had a 'nervous breakdown.' Writers attributed this to Shah's 'emotionally fragile' disposition. His academic life was dwarfed by those of his elder siblings. And the fact that he was the son of a powerful and popular PM too weighed heavily

on his psyche. Worried by the troubled and agitated nature of Shah's personality, ZAB and Nusrat concluded that they had failed to instill in him the discipline which they had in their other children. So in 1976 they packed him off to a school in Switzerland known for imparting strict discipline in its students. In her autobiography, Daughter of the East, Benazir wrote that Shah was very close to his siblings (and vice versa), and when all of them went abroad to study, he used to miss them dearly and became depressed and disconcerted. ZAB was just too busy running the country and Nusrat did all she could to rein in her troubled son. During one summer break when Shah returned from Switzerland to Pakistan, he told his father that he wanted to do something for the expansion of tourism in the country. This delighted ZAB. ZAB's regime had already expanded the Tourism Ministry because tourism had been growing exponentially in Pakistan between the early 1960s (under Ayub) and the mid-1970s. He was described as someone who was more interested in music and romantic flings than he was in politics. But fate had something else in store for him. On July 5, 1977, the ZAB regime was toppled by Gen Zia in a reactionary military coup. ZAB was arrested and put under house arrest. Shah and Benazir were in Pakistan at the time. Nusrat took over the reins of the PPP and sent Benazir and Shah to Lahore 'to boost the morale of party workers'. This was the first time Shah delivered a political speech. At the time, Punjab in general and Lahore in particular were the epicenters of PPP's electoral prowess. Anwar wrote that Nusrat formed secret cells of young, passionate PPP activists to evade the spree of arrests and crackdown that the Zia dictatorship had launched against PPP workers. When a controversial court verdict in a murky murder case against ZAB threatened to send him to the gallows, some working-class supporters of the PPP set themselves on fire in the Punjab. Nusrat asked Murtaza and Shah to travel to the UK to drum up international support for ZAB's release. Both Nusrat and Benazir remained in Pakistan. Sanam too was in Pakistan and had gotten married in 1977. As Murtaza and Shah led anti-Zia rallies in the UK, Nusrat and Benazir were eventually arrested and put behind bars. ZAB was hanged in April, 1979. Despite pleas for clemency from a number of heads of state and governments from around the world, Zia went ahead with the execution. Zia told his aids that if he let ZAB go, he (ZAB) would return to put his (Zia's) neck around the noose. So to the dictator, it was either ZAB's neck or his. Murtaza flew into a rage after his father's hanging. With his mother and sister loitering in jail in Pakistan, he decided to topple the Zia regime through force. Disoriented by his father's demise, Shah followed his elder brother's lead. He accompanied Murtaza to Beirut where both were given a crash course in guerrilla warfare by a group of Palestinian militants. Beirut at the time was in grip of a civil war. After securing a deal (of acquiring arms) from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and funding from the radical Libyan leader, Col. Qaddafi, Murtaza sent Shahnawaz and a batch of young PPP activists to Libya. Qaddafi had allowed Murtaza to set up training camps in Tripoli where Murtaza's men were further trained in guerrilla warfare by the group of Palestinian militants who were being backed by Qaddafi. Murtaza named his outfit the People's Liberation Army (PLA). In a late 1979 communique, the PLA described itself as a Marxist organization 'dedicated to the over-

throw of the usurper Zia (sic).' Murtaza soon moved the PLA to Kabul in the then Soviet-occupied Afghanistan. Shah moved to Kabul as well. Here Murtaza changed the name of the outfit to Al-Zulfikar (AZO). AZO's first batch was almost entirely lost to arrests when it returned to Pakistan to pull off bank robberies and assassinate one of the judges who had sent ZAB to his death. Shah often asked Murtaza to send him to Pakistan with the other AZO militants, but Murtaza always refused. He was convinced that Shah would most definitely be arrested or killed. Shah had no clue what was transpiring. He was more interested in the romantic affair he was having with an Afghan girl in Kabul. He married the girl whose sister then married Murtaza. Murtaza and Shah moved to France where they were accommodated by a French minister who had been a good friend of ZAB's. The brothers left behind a dozen or so AZO operatives in Kabul. By 1984 Shah had begun to pull out of AZO activities. He wanted to start a business in France but for that he needed money. In her book, Benazir wrote that when she was exiled from Pakistan and met Shah in France, he seemed troubled. This young man who had just wanted to expand tourism in Pakistan and loved music and romantic flings, had been dragged into a tense, violent and paranoid realm of urban guerilla warfare by his father's execution and his elder brother's wayward, angry impulses. Shah's marriage with his Afghan wife was also falling apart. Benazir wrote that Murtaza told her that he was worried about Shah. Qaddafi and a UAE prince who was close to the Bhutto family had gifted money to the brothers to help them make ends meet in France. Murtaza wanted to invest the money in AZO whereas Shah insisted that he be given his share so he could start a business. Murtaza disagreed, suggesting that at least Qaddafi's money was for the AZO alone. Benazir tried to convince Murtaza to wrap up AZO and return to Pakistan to politically challenge Zia. During an argument between the brothers, Shah stormed out of a restaurant. Murtaza went after him and both had another argument at Shah's apartment. Murtaza also admonished Shah's wife for 'her cold behavior' towards Shah. She shouted back, asking for a divorce. The same day Shah collapsed on his kitchen floor. Doctors could not revive him and he died the same day. Murtaza and Benazir claimed he was poisoned, most probably by his wife who they believed had been 'compromised by Zia's agencies.' The French police arrested her, but soon released her for lack of evidence. The Zia regime told the press that Shah had died due to drugs and alcohol, but some said that Shah had taken a lethal dose of anti-depressants and overdosed. Shah's body was flown back to Pakistan to be buried in the Bhuttos' ancestral graveyard in Larkana. His funeral took place in Karachi's large working-class area, Lyari, which was a PPP's stronghold in the city. The funeral turned violent when mourners started to chant anti-Zia slogans and attacked the police who began to fire tear gas shells at the swelling crowds. The police then began to fire bullets. A group of men began to retaliate with pistol fire from the narrow lanes of the area. The young man who had wanted nothing but a stressfree life failed to get it even in death. He was finally laid to rest in Larkana. Nadeem F. Paracha The writer is a columnist, author and a cultural critic

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ALHABIB WELFARE FOUNDATION

(Reg Charity No: 1139948) Molana M Aslam Zahid donating sawing machines during his recent visit to Bagh, Azad Kashmir...

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                    RAMADAN                           

6 APPEAL 2014

Join with us and become closer to Allah in this blessed month to increase your blessings ÂŁ250 supports an orphan and brings you closer to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) in Jannah ÂŁ600 supports a family with no income and is equivalent to increased blessings from prayers ÂŁ50 buys a sewing machine - an essential source of income for a widow or young orphan girl ÂŁ700 helps a derelict mosque prosper again and reinforces your iman for the here and after ÂŁ2000 helps finance the marriage of an orphan girl and you gain blessings for yourself and our family By making provision for Sehri and Iftar for the needy in the Holy month of Ramadan you can gain forgiveness and sawaab from those fasts and work towards a place in

Yorkshire Bank, Account Number: 19842710 Sort Code: 05 08 58 Alhabib Welfare Foundation is a UK registered international relief and development charity. It was founded by Molana Aslam Zahid who is the imam of Usmania Education Centre and the Vice Chairm an of Jamiat Ulma-e-Bri tain. With your support Alhabib Welfare Foundation aims to help poor families, orphans, and widows across Pakistan and other countries around the world. We ensure 100% of your donation reaches the poor. Please donate generously on the above account number or online by visiting our website...

Molana M Aslam Zahid visited local Madressa during his recent visit to Bagh, Azad Kashmir...

Alhabib Welfare Foundation is relying on your support this Ramadan to help survivors of the Pakistan floods. Donate your Zakat and Sadaqa to us this Ramadan and we will use it to help orphans, widows and those who are in need.

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Molana M Aslam Zahid donated computers during his recent visit to Bagh, Azad Kashmir...

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ILM News August Edition 2017  

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ILM News August Edition 2017  

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