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The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, with a population of over 170 million, is the second largest Muslim state in the world, after Indonesia. Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries as it is the only country to have been established in the name of Islam. The birth of Pakistan was as a result of a dream seen by the visionary, philoso-

pher and poet Sir Dr Allamah Muhammad Iqbal, who on 29 December 1930, called for an autonomous “state in north-western India for Indian Muslims”. The charismatic leader, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, espoused the 'Two Nation Theory'. This theory held that there were two nations: Hindus and Muslims living in the territory of the Indian sub-continent. Hindus and Muslims were the two major nations on the basis of religion, way-of-life, customs, traditions, culture and historical conditions. Therefore, they should be able to implement the teachings of their respective faiths in their lives without fear or favour of the other. This theory did not mean that the two nations -Hindus and Muslims- had so much hatred for each other that they could not live together, rather it was about the freedom to practice one's religion and life-style freely. In order to achieve the independence of Pakistan, the Ulamas, scholars, shuykuh Mashaikh and Pirs acted as key influential individuals and were at the forefront of the struggle. They asked all their disciples, followers and 'mureeds' to join the movement to establish a new Islamic state. Muslim community saw Pakistan as an Islamic state that would reflect the religious and social values of Islam and its ideals of brotherhood, equality and social justice where dignity of life and rights of everyone will be protected. Demand for Pakistan Quaid-i-Azam (the Great Leader), as a leader of the Muslim League in 1940, demanded the formation of an independent Pakistan and after 7 years of peaceful struggle, on 14 August 1947, Pakistan was born. Independence resulted in communal riots across India and Pakistan and millions of Muslims were martyred, uprooted from their homes as they moved from India to Pakistan. Continued on page 8.....

SHEFFIELD COUNCIL FIXES SCHOOL EASTER HOLIDAYS Schools in Sheffield will have a fixed Easter break in the first two weeks of April next year in a move designed to end the annual confusion about when the holiday falls. The change in policy follows a consultation asking whether parents wanted to keep the traditional calendar or change to a fixed arrangement. More than 70 per cent of people said they wanted fixed holidays, which will mean the half-terms either side of the break will be more even in length. Sheffield Council said long terms could lead to children struggling with tiredness and concentration. "We want all our children and young people to achieve their full

potential by enabling them all to have the best opportunities to learn. We believe, by changing to a two week fixed Easter break , this will mean that they will have the best chance to do well in the Spring and Summer terms." "That’s why it’s great that this consultation has had a fantastic response from parents and carers, heads, governors, teachers and support staff and sends a clear message that most agree that a two week fixed Easter holiday would be better for them, parents, children and young people." – Councillor Jackie Drayton , Sheffield City Council

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Racism Poem

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VIOLENT THREATS FORCES SHEFFIELD MP TO CLOSE HER OFFICE The MP for Heeley Louise Haigh has closed her constituency office. Rather than being open for anyone to pop in, constituents now have to make an appointment. Louise Haigh says she received a violent threat herself a few days before the murder of West Yorkshire MP Jo Cox. Ms Haigh says she's received many more threats since the murder in June.

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The number of hate crimes reported to British police in the run up to and aftermath of the vote to leave the European Union has surged by 42%, police said today. There were 3,076 incidents reported to forces nationally in the two weeks from June 16, an increase of 915 offences compared with the same period last year. “We now have a clear indication of the increases in the reporting of hate crime nationally and can see that there has been a sharp rise in recent weeks,” said Mark Hamilton, the National Police Chiefs’ Council spokesman on hate crimes. “This is unacceptable and it undermines the diversity and tolerance we should instead be celebrating.” The vote to leave the EU on June 23 followed a bitter and deeply divisive campaigning in which immigration was a key issue with Muslims and Eastern European saying they had been targeted. The official number of reported crimes echoes the 500% rise in the number of incidents relayed through the police online portal in the barging. Police said the peak number of hate crimes occurred on wake of the Brexit vote. The most common offences were harass- June 25 when 289 incidents were reported across the United Kingment, assault and other violence such as verbal abuse, spitting or dom, but there had been a marked decline since then.

E. Coli Warning On Salad Leaves As 2 Die And 150 Fall Ill Two people are now known to have died and more than 150 people taken ill following an E.coli outbreak. Health experts have linked the outbreak of the chronic food poisoning bug to bags of shop-bought mixed salad leaves. Shoppers are being advised to wash the leaves thoroughly. Public Health England says it is still working to establish the exact cause. Many of those struck down by the E. coli O157 bug had eaten pre-packed salad, including rocket leaves possibly imported from the Mediterranean. “Currently, the source of the outbreak is not confirmed and remains under investigation; we are not ruling out other food items

1 Million Boys Aged 5 ‘Already Falling Behind Girls In Reading And Writing’ Boys are almost twice as likely as girls to have fallen behind by the time they begin school putting their chances of being successful in life at risk, a study shows. The Save the Children report says that in the last decade nearly a million boys in England were lagging behind in language and communication skills when they started school at age five. Overall, one in four boys were found to be struggling to follow simple instructions or speak a full sentence in 2014/15, compared to 14% of their female classmates. The report says girls are out-performing boys in every area of the country, with the biggest gender gap in St Helens, Merseyside, where boys start primary school 17.3% points behind their female classmates in language and communication. The difference in outcomes for boys and girls is having a devastating impact; nearly a million boys have fallen behind with their early language

skills since 2006. At the other end of the scale, in Richmond, south west London, the gap is 5.4% points. Unless action is taken to ensure all youngsters have access to good quality early education, almost a million more young boys could be left behind in the next 10 years, the children’s charity warns. The study says: “The gender gap is well-documented. It has hardly changed for five-year-olds over the past decade, despite a dramatic improvement in overall results.” It calls for the government to help develop a well-qualified workforce, with an early years teacher in every nursery. A Department for Education spokeswoman said: “We are making a significant investment in the early years sector and the number of qualified staff is rising with more trained graduates in the workforce and a record number of providers rated Good or Outstanding.”

as a potential source”, Dr Isobel Oliver from PHE. There have been 144 cases in England, six in Wales and one in Scotland. PHE did not identify where in the country the deaths occurred. E. coli O157 can cause a range of symptoms, including mild to bloody diarrhoea and severe abdominal pain. It can be passed on to other people through poor hand washing and poor toilet hygiene. PHE said people should remove any loose soil before storing vegetables. They should also thoroughly wash all vegetables and salads which will be eaten raw unless they have been preprepared and are labelled “ready to eat”.

Return Of Sheffield’s Hole In The Road Sheffield’s Hole in the Road is to be brought back to life - in virtual reality form. The underground pedestrian walkway, created beneath a roundabout in Castle Square, was concreted over in the mid-1990s when the trams came, but its memory has lived on among Sheffield residents as a unique place - albeit one with a somewhat mixed reputation. As part of Sheffield University’s Festival of the

Mind from September 17 to 25, Park Hill-based creative agency Human has been commissioned to design a virtual reality experience based on the landmark. Visitors to the Millennium Gallery will wear headsets and headphones, and use computer joysticks, to explore a ‘video game standard’ recreation of the city centre site, complete with its unusual glass fish tank.

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Decision To Halt Heart Surgery At 3 Hospitals Three of the 13 NHS hospitals across England which provide complex heart care have been ordered to stop doing so. The units in Leicester, Manchester and London will have to halt complex surgery on patients born with heart problems by April 2017. About 80% of the congenital heart defect work undertaken at these units involves children. However, the decision was attacked by the heart units – Leicester NHS Trust said the decision would “destroy our fabulous service”. “It is absolutely critical that children and adults with congenital heart disease and their families receive safe and effective care, wherever they live” British Heart Foundation. The announcement comes after attempts to reorganise services were abandoned three years ago following legal challenges by campaigners and the hospitals. NHS England says it wants to end the uncertainty surrounding the services. Apart

from the three told to cut the most complex surgery, the number of specialist cardiac centres will be cut from nine to four, affecting services in Manchester, Blackpool, Cambridge, Nottingham and London.

Bank Overdrafts ‘Cost Several Times More Than Payday Loans’ Some banks are charging customers several times the fees of payday lenders to borrow money, an investigation by Which? has found. Looking at unarranged overdraft charges, the consumer group found that consumers needing as little as £100 could be charged over 12 times more by major high street banks than the amount the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) allows payday lenders to charge. Which? compared the cost of borrowing £100 for 28 days and found that charges at some high street banks were as much as £90 - up to four times the maximum charge of £22.40 on a payday loan. It found that some RBS customers could face costs of £90, while customers at Lloyds, HSBC and

TSB could face £80 in costs. Unarranged overdrafts have already come under the spotlight recently as the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has proposed that banks should set their own monthly unauthorised overdraft charge cap, which they would have to show clearly. It is hoped that this would encourage banks to compete to drive down the costs, rather than having a single charge cap. But Which? has argued the proposals are unlikely to make much of a difference as many banks already put their own caps on charges. Which? said the FCA should review overdraft charges in the context of other forms of credit and crack down on “punitive” fees.

Children Who Abuse Should Be Treated As Victims Not Predators Children responsible for harmful sexual behaviour should be treated as children, not as “mini sex offenders”, a report says. A parliamentary inquiry, supported by charity Barnardo’s, says that children who sexually abuse other children are often victims of abuse or trauma themselves.

In other cases, children make mistakes as they “start to understand their sexuality and experiment with it”. The report said that, although protecting the public should always be the priority, those involved needed to be “treated as children first and offenders second”. “These children are unlikely to pose further risk to the public, given appropriate support” Charity Barnardo’s. Barnardo’s chief executive Javed Khan said: “Automatically treating them as mini sex offenders prevents them being rehabilitated and living positive lives.” Harmful sexual behaviour was defined as “engag(ing) in sexual discussions or activities that are inappropriate for their age or stage of development, often with other individuals who they have power over by virtue of age, emotional maturity, gender, physical strength or intellect”. There is little data on the subject but most recent figures showed that more than 4,200 children and young people were reported as perpetrators of sexual abuse in 2013/14. “In this smartphone age, parents must also play a vigilant role in protecting their children from harmful sexual behaviour and from harmful sexual images that cause damage they are too young to understand” Conservative MP Nusrat Ghani, who chaired the inquiry.

Mobile Phone Warnings As Children Play Games On Parents’ Phones One in three parents admits their children know the passwords to their mobile devices, a survey has found. Some 33% of parents said their offspring know their passwords - with 36% of mothers admitting to this compared with 31% of fathers. Parents in London, Northern Ireland and Scotland were the most likely to say their youngsters know the passwords to their mobile devices, with 45%, 43% and 40% admitting to this respectively. And underlining the huge success of the new Pokemon Go app, more than a quarter (27%) of those surveyed said they have already downloaded or intend to download the app - either for themselves or for their children. Pokemon Go encourages users to explore cities and towns, using their mobile phones to capture and train virtual creatures. Meanwhile, Candy Crush was named by the parents surveyed as the game they are the most obsessed with, followed by Angry Birds. Nearly a quarter (23%) of those surveyed download games on their mobile device, console or computer at least once a fortnight, with men (27%) more likely to do so than women (20%). The costs involved can mount up, as one in 10 (10%) people surveyed spends £11 or more per month - adding up to at least £132 per year - on games, covering both the purchase and other in-app purchases.

More than a quarter (26%) have a debit card linked to their app store account, with a further one in 10 (10%) using a credit card, the survey of 2,000 people found. One in 20 (5%) parents said their children had run up a bill through taking advantage of ingame purchases. Around one in seven (14%) have had a bill of £10 or more. One in 20 (5%) had also given in to "pester power" and caved in and purchased apps for their children. Asked when their child most often uses an electronic device unsupervised, more than a quarter (27%) of parents said straight after school. More than one in 10 (11%) admitted their children logged on as soon as they woke up, before going to school. Technology and gaming is part of everyday life for both adults and children and the launch of Pokemon Go, as well as the continued popularity of apps, such as Candy Crush, has certainly amplified that. With the rise of apps that offer in-game purchases, parents should be encouraged to discuss the financial risks with their children and outline what is safe and acceptable usage. This is particularly pertinent when children use their parent's devices, given the number of adults that have a debit or credit card linked to their app store account. With the risk of being hit by an unexpected bill, it also makes sense to keep a regular eye on card transactions through internet and mobile banking.

Britain Warned Of ‘Domino Effect’ Of Climate Change On Key Infrastructures Britain needs to do more to prepare for climate change as the severe heatwave of 2003 could become the norm by the 2040s, along with increased flooding and water shortages, the government's climate advisers said. The Climate Change Committee warned of a 'domino effect' that could see key infrastructures such as power supplies disrupted by flooding and poor farming techniques leaving swathes of land not fertile enough to grow sufficient crops by the middle of the century. Warmer and wetter weather could also allow bring risks from new and emerging pests and diseases which will affect people, plants and animals, the report said. Its report is a result of three years' work by hundreds of scientists and experts and could form the basis of government climate adaptation policy from 2018. The modelling suggests what we now think of an extremely hot summer (temperatures in the high 30s) likely to be a typical summer by the 2040s and could be a cool summer but he

2080s. Warmer temperatures could also mean the air will hold more moisture, leading to heavier rainfall and more frequent flooding. This will not only test the resilience of buildings but also energy, transport and communication systems. More severe and prolonged droughts will lead to shortages in public water supply and for agriculture, energy generation and industry, the report said. Around 85 percent of fertile peat top soil has already been lost in East Anglia and the remaining 15 percent could go within 30-60 years, which would represent "a major national food production challenge", committee chairman Lord Krebs said. UK agriculture might be able to increase production of some crops such as tomatoes, olives, grapes and soft fruits, due to warmer weather and longer growing seasons. However, this would depend on the availability of fertile soils and water for irrigation, the report added.

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UK Muslims Hailed By Charity Commission For ‘Sheer Scale’ Of Donations Donations from British Muslims went to causes around the world, from flood-affected areas in the UK to North America and Palestine. British Muslims have been praised by the Charity Commission for donating vast amounts of money to good causes. During the holy month of Ramadan, British Muslims as a whole have donated money at a rate of

£38 per second during Ramadan, or £371 per individual over the year, the Commission said, According to the Independent report. The Commission praised projects in the UK, Syria, Somaliland and elsewhere that had been supported during Ramadan. "The sheer scale of the work is immediately apparent. One Muslim-led charity – not one of the largest – estimates that its work last Ramadan had helped over one million people." “Charity may begin at home, but it certainly doesn't end there. Dozens of countries were named as areas of benefit, from Europe to North America, and right around the world." Other donations this year went to flood-affected areas in Carlisle and honey-bee farms in Palestine and Pakistan, while also funding hygiene kits and food in Haiti and "micro-dams" in Mali, which catch water from flash floods. Previously the Charity Commission has been criticised for labelling "Islamist abuse" one of three key threats to the charity sector. Critics said last year that William Shawcross,

chairman of the Commission, had focussed "disproportionately" on the "threats" posed by Islamic charities in a speech Mr Shawcross gave on the sector. Muslim leaders welcomed the recognition of their communities' efforts. Muhammad Abdulbari, former secretary-general of the Muslim Council of Britain, told The Independent: "On this month, because we are hungry, we can empathise with people who are hungry around the world. "Muslims are not supposed to be just helping themselves. The idea of neighbourhood and reaching out to other communities is important in Islam." Central to the Islamic concept of charity is zakah, a compulsory duty within the religion to contribute 2.5 per cent of their yearly income to those in need. Ramadan, which is regarded as a month of selflessness and spirituality, sees this duty paid particular attention. The Qu'ran also says the Prophet Muhammad answered the question "who is my neighbour?" with "forty houses to your right and forty hous-

Nearly 1,800 Foreign Criminals ‘Living In UK For More Than Five Years’ Nearly 1,800 foreign criminals eligible for deportation have been living in Britain for more than five years, according to new figures. Some 5,895 foreign offenders are still living in the community after being released from prison, with many of them living in the UK for many years. Of these, 1,792 foreign criminals have still not been deported more than five years after they were released from prison, according to Home Office figures. The figures, taken from March 2016, were revealed by the Home Office in a response to a Parliamentary Question asked by Labour MP Keith Vaz, chairman of the Home Affairs Select Committee. “These are extraordinary figures. To have failed to deport nearly 1,800 people after five years shows that there is something seriously wrong with the system,” said Keith Vaz.

Mr Vaz said the figures showed there was something “seriously wrong” with the system and demanded “urgent action”. He said: “It can’t be right that people who have been convicted of a criminal offence in this country have been allowed to stay for up to half-a-decade with apparently no prospect of removal. We need to take urgent action to ensure that when sentences have been completed people are returned to their countries of origin immediately.” A Home Office spokesman said: A spokesman said: “Any foreign national offender who poses a threat to the UK should be in no doubt of our determination to deport them.“ A home office spokesperson said those who are released by an Immigration Judge will be subject to stringent bail conditions, which can include tagging, while we continue to pursue their removal.

‘British Asians More Backward Than Their South Asian Cousins’ Native Indians, Bengalis and Pakistanis have spoken out against the ‘backward UK’. But are British Asians now more traditional in their beliefs than their South Asian counterparts? It was an almost common topic of discussion growing-up. Those backward Asians from our native lands were embarrassing us ‘more modern’

British Asians. But how the tables have turned. There is a growing number of Asians who think our traditional perceptions of South Asians is way out of date. So much so that living in predominantly Asian areas in the UK is like living amongst people who have what they describe 'small village mentalities'.

es to your left." The implied lesson was that neighbourliness has no limit, said Dr Abdulbari. Many British Muslims donated single gifts of up to £30,000 each, according to research carried out by ICM in 2013, the Charity Commission added.

More Than 500 Child Abuse Victims Are Identified In Online Crackdown More than 500 potential victims of child sex abuse have been identified by police during a major online operation. They were discovered by Police Scotland during Operation Lattise, which was carried out between 6 June and 15 July. Officers, who also recovered up to 30 million indecent images, have arrested 77 people. They have been charged with offences including rape, sexual extortion, grooming and sharing indecent images of children - some as young as three. Of the 523 potential victims, 122 have been referred to child protection services. “Online child sexual abuse is not a victimless crime: children, from toddlers to teenagers, are being sexually abused and exploited now in Scotland and when an image or video clip is shared or viewed, they are being re-victimised” Assistant Chief Constable Malcolm Graham. More than 100,000 chat logs were assessed, as well as the live streaming of sexual abuse, and

some 547 devices seized as part of the massive investigation which is still ongoing. Assistant Chief Constable Malcolm Graham said Operation Lattise was about “shining a light on the scale of this issue”. “Online child sexual abuse is a national threat. The reality is it is happening now, not only in Scotland but across the world, to children of all ages, from infants to teenagers,” he said. “Let me make it clear - child sexual abuse and exploitation, which can range from sharing images depicting the rape, sexual torture or assault of a child to grooming or sexually extorting a child takes place solely because of decisions made on the part of the abuser.” “Too many children are exposed to dangerous and harmful content through the internet or are subjected to online harassment, grooming and sexual exploitation” Joanna Barrett, from the NSPCC, welcomes the crackdown.

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THE CHANGING PROPERTY WORLD Mohammed Mahroof BSc (Hons) MRICS Consultant Mark Jenkinson & Son In this article I will talk about the property market in general and how many factors effect various sectors of the market, what was fashionable years ago has changed now. The Office Market & Modern Technology The office market has been transformed in the last decade to such an extent that it is unrecognisable, new fit outs now include as standard, major cabling for technological advances. It is interesting how these advances change so quickly making some offices obsolete in a very short time period. Developers are challenged with producing future proof offices but no one is sure how technology will develop hence the risk a developer has to take. Offices are becoming just bases for people as technology facilitates working remotely, more and more people are working from home and from further afield. In fact you don't even need to be in the same country, there are many examples of where work is being carried out in another country for British based businesses. Many offices operate a hot desking system where staff come in and occupy an empty workstation so the need for an individual desk for each member of staff is not needed. As more people work from home it raises another issue which effects your home. It is fast becom-

most processes are becoming much more mech- I have also seen parks and open spaces on the continent which have WIFI connections, it will anised. not be long before this is considered a norm in The other main demand for such units come from most parts of the world. online shopping where orders are delivered from vast warehouses almost within a few hours of re- Moving onto booking your holidays, more peoceipt, this will become even more prominent as ple are booking online, seeing a reduction in the number of shop fronts for travel agents. It may The average home will be transformed even fur- we move towards drone deliveries. extend to other services which are delivered onther in the future, we already have smart techline. nology which can control your heating, lighting Commercial Property and even turn on your oven. The home itself is designed in a way which utilises natural resources How many times is it that you order something Residential Property such as the sun, ground heat and many other re- online but pop into the local shop to check what sources, combined with modern technology it is your are buying. There are retail outlets who are As the world's population increases, the need for catering for this market thereby necessitating residential homes will follow suit. We are begintransforming the home. smaller units. I imagine this phenomenon will ning to see the return of extended family living, it is quite common in many parts of the world, but continue and accelerate in the future. Industrial Property went out of favour in Europe and the West. Gone are the days of a big shed with limited tech- One area you will see a growth in is the food nology. We are seeing so much manufacturing and drink industry, look at it from the 1970's to There are people who have decided to live in now being undertaken by high tech machines and now and you will see a tremendous increase in large properties moving out of their standard computerised processes. No longer are these such outlets. On the continent whole areas are semi or terraced property. Also there are famisheds dirty, in fact they are almost like operating dedicated to such uses with a whole new street lies who are building homes which are designed culture developing. Apart from having good food for extended living with two or three generations theatres. the key ingredient is having a good free WIFI con- of the family living in one property but designed in a way it gives privacy to all. The process of manufacturing has become even nection, a must in today's world. more globalised than before hence the need for It would be sensible to conclude the property Leisure Property good and well fitted out units. market will be effected by many interesting chalClearly this also raises a further issue from a hu- As people have more time to spare the need for lenges in the future with the main one being the man resources perspective, there is need for good leisure facilities is becoming an important soaring pace of technological advances. highly skilled workers but in limited numbers as part of life such as gyms, multi purpose use areas. ing one of the main considerations in buying a house or flat the broadband speed and mobile phone signals you receive. The main reason for this is people are working from home and some of their domestic affairs are also done through technology.

Islamophobic Hate Crime Soars By More Than 50% Islamophobic hate crime against London Muslims has soared by more than 50% in the last year, according to new police figures. Scotland Yard recorded 1,235 Islamophobic attacks in the last 12 months, compared with 811 in 2015, according to ITV News report. Almost 15,000 Londoners were the victims of racist or religous hate crime - including Islamophobic

crimes. The rise in hate crime has been linked to the EU referendum. Community leaders fear offenders have been emboldened by campaign messages demanding tighter controls on immigration. The shocking statistics were revealed as new Home Secretary Amber Rudd ordered a review of hate crime by an official police watchdog. She also pledged £2.4m for increased security, including CCTV cameras, at churches, mosques, synagogues and temples. Home Secretary Amber Rudd said: “This Government is determined to build a Britain that works for everyone. Those who practise hatred send out a message that it's okay to abuse and attack others because of their nationality, ethnicity or religous background - that it's okay to disregard our shared values and promote the intolerance that causes enormous harm to commnities and individuals. Well, I have a very clear message for them - we will not stand for it.”

Doctors Earn £1,000 For Four Hours’ Work As NHS Runs Up £168m Overtime Bill Doctors have been paid £1,000 for just four hours’ work as the NHS forks out a fortune in overtime to tackle medical staff shortages. Others are routinely earning £600 a shift – three or four times consultants’ normal rate of pay. One consultant from Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust made £375,000 on top of their salary from the shifts, research from the BBC showed. In total in 2015-16, £168 million was spent on premium overtime, up from £125 million in 2013-14.

Creation of Pakistan continued from page 1..... 14 August is a day of reflection; it is a day to remember millions of Muslims who lost their lives for the sake of Pakistan, a state in which equality and social justice could prevail. The word ‘Pakistan’ has been coined from the names of those regions that make up this nation – Punjab, Afgan Border States, Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan. In the words of the father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinah, one of the objectives of formation of Pakistan was to bring “Unity, Faith and Discipline” to its people. Quaid-e-Azam slogan of “Unity, Faith and Discipline” are the pillars on which the founder wanted to erect the edifice of Pakistan. History is a witness to the fact adherence to the objectives of independence, are the only way nations can consolidate the gains of their independence and stand proudly amongst other nations. It is high time for Pakistan's establishment, political and religious leadership and the people to reflect on its achievements and failures since August 1947. They need to put aside their petty differences and personal interests and think of the future of Pakistan and the future of coming generations and make a firm resolution to move in the direction of Unity, Faith and Discipline. Religious and geographical sectarianism has caused thousands of lives and it must end soon. Reality of state of Pakistan

Pakistan’s corruption problem remains serious and a major impediment to good governance. Corruption exists from bottom to the top. According to Reuters less than one per cent of Pakistani citizens file tax returns, giving the country a 9 percent tax-to-GDP ratio – one of the lowest in the world. Most of the key players in influential positions have been hounded by allegations of corruption. In 2014, The Express Tribune reported that the cost of corruption to Pakistan’s economy amounts to $133 million per day, $66 million of which is evaded taxes. Pakistan Independence Day is celebrated all over Pakistan and at Pakistani High Commission in the UK with flag raising ceremonies. However, for Pakistanis and those of Pakistani heritage, it is also a day to remind themselves of the purpose behind the formation of Pakistan and the sacrifices that millions of Muslims offered to establish a state based on justice and equality. It is a day of reflection to see whether those ideals of violence free and corruption free state have been achieved. The reasons for terrorism, political violence, corruption, instability and lack of rule of law in Pakistan are due to moving away from the basis on which Pakistan was founded. The religious and social values of Islam have to be acted upon if there is to be peace, justice and stability in Pakistan.

The figures are from 114 of the 186 trusts and health boards who responded to a Freedom of Information request. The British Medical Association said the payments were a sign of doctor shortages although NHS employers said it was not always the case and a more structured approach was required. The Department of Health said the NHS would have over 11,000 more doctors by 2020 and said it was working to change contracts to “make better use of operating theatres while reducing big overtime bills”.

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PAKISTAN INDEPENDENCE DAY - 14th August Independence Day of Pakistan is observed annually on 14th August. It is the day when the country achieved its independence and was declared as a sovereign nation at the end of the British rule in 1947. Pakistan Movement became the base of the creation of Pakistan. The Movement aimed for creating an independent Muslim state was led by All India Muslim League under the great leadership of Mohammad Ali Jinnah. It is a coincidence that the day of independence fell on 27th Ramadan in 1947, as the day that is regarded as most sacred for the Muslims. The main ceremony of Independence Day takes place in the capital city Islamabad where the national flag is hoisted at important buildings including Parliament and president house. The day is usually celebrated with flag raising ceremonies, parades, patriotic songs and cultural events etc. Several award ceremonies are also held on the occasion. Citizens too, hoist national flags on top roof of their houses as well as on their vehicles. Historically, the area constituting Pakistan had been a part of British Indian Empire. The entry of the East India Company was the first step of British establishment in the Subcontinent in the seventeenth century. In 1757 the company rule started with the Battle of Plassey. In 1857, after the Independence Movement, most of the Indian Subcontinent went under the direct rule of the British Crown. The period after the World War 1 was known as the period of British reforms. The widespread discontent of this period turned into non-cooperation and civil disobedience, non-violent movements and the circumstances led to self-ruled India. The Muslims India realized that they were not only ruled by the British but after British withdrawal, Indian Hindus would become the next ruler and master of their fate. So in 1930 Allama Iqbal presented his idea of a separate religion-based state for Muslims. Three years later, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali proposed the name “Pakistan” for new Muslim state in a declaration. In 1940’s the Indian Independence Movement intensified and so as the Muslim nationalism too. All the efforts were stimulated under the banner of All India Muslim League with Mohammad Ali Jinnah as the leader. Being the most reliable party in order to secure all the interests of Muslim diaspora, Muslim League played a strong and decisive role during 1940’s in the Indian Independence Movement as well as developing into a driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a solid Muslim state in the region of South Asia. From 22-24, March Muslim League presented a political statement named as Lahore Resolution, in a three day session of its party’s general session, which later called on for

the creation of a separate independent Muslim state. In 1946, the Britain’s Labour government realized that after World War II and several other riots, it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of the British Indian Army to continue the rule over the increasingly rebellious Indian Empire and decided to quit British rule over the Indian Subcontinent. The Indian National Congress being the biggest party in the subcontinent demanded for a single state but Muslim League did not agree on living together with Hindus as a suppressed community. This

Pakistan Independence Day or the 14th August is regarded as one of the six public holidays observed in Pakistan and is celebrated in the entire country. All government and non-government offices, educational institutions, organizations, major markets, post offices remain closed on the Day. In order to prepare and finalize the plans for the celebrations of Independence Day, meetings are usually held in provincial capitals and are attended by government officials, politicians and diplomats. With the beginning of the month August special shops and stalls are set up across the country selling national flags, banners, post-

situation resulted in a number of communal riots in South Asia. Ultimately, the British government had to announce that the principal of the division of British India into two independent states was accepted. Viceroy Lord Mountbatten chose the 2ndanniversary of the Japan’s surrender in World War II as the date of power transfer. August 14 was chosen as the date of ceremony of power transfer to the Muslim state, Pakistan. On 14thof August 1947 a new dominion of Pakistan became independent. Mohammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the 1st Governor General of Pakistan. The power transfer was performed on the midnight of 14 and 15 of August and the Indian Independence Act 1947 witnessed 15 August as the day of independence of both Pakistan and India. It was 15th of August when the nation observed its first birthday. But in subsequent years August 14 was celebrated as the Independence Day.

ers, buntings, pictures of national heroes and many other celebratory items. Homes, private buildings, vehicles as well as street and roads are decorated with buntings and flags. Several organizations, government departments and educational institutions organize sports competitions, seminars, social and cultural activities leading up to Independence Day. In Karachi, for celebration, drives are initiated in order to clean and prepare the Jinnah mausoleum (Mazar-e-Quaid). The day starts with special prayers of solidarity, integrity and development of Pakistan in different places including mosques across the country. There are some special festivities take place in the capital city, Islamabad, and commence with raising of national flag on the Presidency and Parliament as well following 31- gun salute in Islamabad and 21- gun salute in the provincial capitals. Both President and Prime Minister of Pakistan address the nation in their live telecast. During dif-

No Legal Ground To Return Kohinoor, Says British Minister The Indian government vowed to make 'all possible efforts' to retrieve a priceless diamond in the Queen Mother's Crown. In a blow to India's effort to bring back 'Kohinoor' diamond from the United Kingdom, Minister of Asia and Pacific affairs Alok Sharma said his government does not believe that "there is

any legal ground" for restitution of the diamond. "It is a longstanding position of the UK Government that we don't believe that there is any legal ground for restitution of diamond," said Sharma, the first British Minister to visit India since Brexit. After the subjugation of Punjab in 1849 by the British forces, the properties of the Sikh Empire were confiscated and the Kohinoor was also transferred to the treasury of the British East India Company in Lahore. Later, the diamond was shipped to Britain and was handed to Queen Victoria in July 1850. It was cut to improve its brilliance and was mounted into Queen Victoria's crown. The diamond now sits in the tower of London along with the Crown Jewels.

ferent rallies and events political leaders and government officials deliver speeches highlighting the Pakistani achievements and goals set for the future. They also recall and praise the untiring efforts and sacrifices of national heroes. In Lahore, Minar-e-Pakistan where Lahore resolution was passed in 1940 is also illuminated on this happy occasion in order to signify the importance of this place in the creation of Pakistan. A number of government buildings including the Supreme Court, Parliament House and President House are also decorated and illuminated with bright colours and lights. Houses and streets are decorated with oil lamps, candles and national flags. Fire work is also a part of this celebration. National anthem is sung at different places like schools, government places, monuments and residences as well. Homage is paid to people who have lost their lives in the migration and riots during the creation of Pakistan in 1947, recipients of Nishan-e- Haider, martyrs of Pakistan Army, scientists, political figures and famous artists. At certain national monuments ceremony of change of guard takes place. The Pakistani diaspora celebrates the Independence Day in numerous countries all around the world as well especially in the countries which have huge Pakistani communities. The events and riots during the creation of Pakistan are depicted in numerous literary and scholarly works like: • Train to Pakistan, a novel by Khushwant Singh • Toba Tek Singh, a short story by Saadat Hassan Manto • Freedom at Midnight, a book by Larry Collins and Dominique Lappierre • Ali Pur Ka Aeeli an autobiography by Mumtaz Mufti • Khaak aur Khoon by Naseem Hijazi • Bano, a novel by Razia Butt; Dastaan is the drama serial based on the same novel • Patriotic work by Faiz Ahmad Faiz There are many patriotic songs that have become the part of the celebration like Dil Dil Pakistan, Sohni Dharti, Ha jazba e Junoon and many others. All these works narrate true story of the Pakistan movement and Independence with different aspects. Pakistan Post has its own contribution in this context. In July 1948 it released 4 commemorative stamps for the country’s first anniversary. From these four, three stamps were depicting different sites of Pakistan while the fourth stamp was depicting a motif. All the four stamps were inscribed 15th August 1947 as the actual date of Independence was confused.

Kashmiris Seek UK Govt’s Intervention For Peace Restoration British Kashmiris have demanded peace to be restored and swift action against those responsible for the bloodshed in the Indian held Kashmir. A delegation of Jammu & Kashmir Self-Determination Movement (JKSDM), UK recently met several British MPs and expressed their deep concerns over recent clashes that sprang up in the Indian held Kashmir. The delegation under the Chairman Raja Najabat Hussain’s leadership met various British MPs and demanded the British government to intervene in the issue.They also asked the world leaders in general and British and European leaders in particular to raise voice for the innocent and unarmed Kashmiri citizens. “Over a million British and European Kashmiris have been vocal about their concerns regarding barbarism back in their

native land.” MP Yasmin Qureshi who is a member of Foreign Affairs committee demanded the foreign secretary to raise the issue of brutal killings of unarmed and innocent Kashmiris to his Indian counterpart and also demand the culprits to be brought to book in addition to the lifting of social and political restrictions on Kashmiris. She said that the British Kashmiris are deeply stressed to see images of their relatives and acquaintances especially of youth and women, facing the atrocities and that the British Kashmiris demand their government through their MPS to represent them and pave ways for Pakistan and India to agree upon coming to negotiations’ table so that a just solution for the Kashmir issue can be worked upon.

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Iconic Humanitarian To Be Remembered On Annual ‘Edhi Day’ Over a hundred philanthropists from key academic and leadership gathered at the House of Lords to honour the life and work of the greatest humanitarian of today's time Abdul Sattar Edhi. Memorial tribute was hosted by Lord Ahmed of Rotherham and organised by the International Human Rights Association. Addressing the memorial as Chief Guest Syed Ibn e Abbas, High Commissioner of Pakistan, announced an Edhi annual day wherein one day every 365 days will be dedicated to celebrate the life and work of Edhi. The High Commissioner defined Edhi as a great example of someone who loved those who were socially vulnerable, impoverished, helpless and poor." In his opening remarks the Host peer Lord Ahmed said, "Edhi was not a name but an ideology to love endlessly and care selflessly regardless of race, religion or creed. This is the first memorial tribute for Edhi being held in the Houses of Parliament. It is an honour and privilege for me to be hosting it." Conference organiser and Chair of International Human Rights Association Rubab Mehdi said, "According to the Congressional Coalition of Adoption Institute, there are over 153 million children who are orphaned by the death of one primary parent, On a global basis, roughly 40,000 orphaned children die each year from a lack of protection, nutrition and basic human rights. As Edhi would have wanted we will take this as an opportunity to highlight the plight of orphans including refugee orphans entering UK without parents. The focus being on the need for communities throughout the UK to support these unfortunate

children through a whole hearted participation in fostering and even even adoption." Social activist and journalist Reham Khan paid tribute to Edhi expressed, "The best way to honour Edhi Saheb is not only to name airports and roads after this greatest humanitarian of our times, but also to emulate what he did for Pakistan. He truly was a man of substance. We can keep his memory alive by working towards what he stood for - he stood for humanity, peace and kindness, the cause of the orphans and street children of Pakistan, facilitating and providing emergency healthcare services whenever and wherever required, and providing shelter and hope for those who had none. We can lionize Edhi Saheb by committing ourselves towards proactively working for such grand undertakings not just once a year, but rather everyday of our lives.".

Netherlands And Latvia Lead World For People’s Height If you want to see a tall population of men, go to the Netherlands. Tall women? Latvia. And in the United States, which lags behind dozens of other countries in height, the average for adults stopped increasing about 20 years ago. That’s the word from researchers who analysed a century’s worth of height data from 200 countries. Results were released Monday in the journal eLife. The tallest men in the new analysis were Dutch, with an average height of about 6ft (182.5cm). Latvia topped the list for women, with an average height of 5ft 6in (170cm). Changes over time and variations across the world are largely environmental. National height averages are useful as an indicator of nutrition, health care, environment and general health that people have experienced from the womb through adolescence. Genes

also influence height. The researchers calculated average height for 18 year olds, roughly the age when people stop growing. They drew on more than 1,400 studies that covered more than 18.6 million adults who reached that age between 1914 and 2014. It finds Iranian men and South Korean women have had the biggest spurts, increasing their height by an average of more than 16cm (6in) and 20cm (8in). In the UK, the sexes have gone up virtually in parallel by about 11cm (4in). “Mr Average” in Britain is now 178cm (5ft 10in) tall; Ms Average stands at 164cm (5ft 5in). The world's tallest ever human was American Robert Wadlow, who had reached 8ft 11in (2.72m) when he died aged 22 in July 1940. Owing to an overactive pituitary gland, by the time he was 8-years-old he was already standing 6ft tall and never stopped growing.


Poet: Shaheryar A. Chishty

Racist comments Excruciating pain The mouth is spitting black vile saliva It’s a lethal weapon that explodes like a grenade Congealed red blood, drips from the victim’s heart A constant throbbing in your head People wishing you were dead You’re an isolated person stuck in a blizzard No one to rescue from this Icey storm Can we overcome it if we work alone? Or can we walk hand in hand and say no to racism we can be bricks for one another and together we can build a house of harmony now we should all be accepted as one Politely and patiently, we can sooth the pain For tomorrow the scars will all be gone.

Newly Elected Sindh CM Gives Up VIP Culture The newly elected Chief Minister for Sindh Murad Ali Shah had the barriers around the CM House removed, following up with his claim he does not want to give in to the VIP culture. His move on Saturday, the first day since he assumed office, was widely praised by citizens on social media. "Those who know me, know that I wake up at 8 a.m. and reach my office at 9 a.m. Today is Saturday, so (bureaucracy) is safe. From Monday, I will be in office by 9 and those who arrive late will see,” Shah said. "Alone I can go fast, together we can go far," he added, demanding support from his fellow lawmakers.

10 Downing Street has been home to British prime ministers since 1735. It takes its name from 17th century diplomat George Downing, described on the official government website as "miserly and at times brutal".

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16 Roads Across Sheffield Developed Potholes After £2Billion Resurfacing Roads across Sheffield are being repaired – just months after being resurfaced as part of a citywide £2 billion upgrade. Freedom of Information figures reveal 16 roads have had to be repaired after being resurfaced as part of the Streets Ahead project. Sheffield MP Nick Clegg branded the situation ‘unacceptable’. Roads which have required repairs after Amey have relaid them include a 300 metre stretch of Walkley Road, Walkley, a ‘structural failure’ on Abbeydale Road South, 200 metres of Prince of Wales Road and Blackstock Road and Jenkin Road. And potholes are appearing on other recently resurfaced roads, including Collegiate Crescent. Since work began in 2012, Amey has resurfaced almost exactly half of the city’s roads, with 2,143 roads left to be done. Hallam MP Mr Clegg said: “It is completely unacceptable that some of Sheffield’s roads are having to be fixed so soon after being repaired as part of the Streets Ahead project.” But Sheffield Council said the 16 roads make up less than a mile of city streets and insists the ‘very positive’ contract will be finished on time. The mammoth task of resurfacing every road in Sheffield will be completed on time despite repairs being carried out to some roads already resurfaced, the city council stressed today. A total of 2,201 roads have been relaid since Amey began its £2billion PFI contract for Sheffield

Council in 2012, or 50.6 per cent, with 2,143 left to go, The Star can reveal. In that time, 16 roads have required repairs including an 150 metre stretch of Wortley Road in High Green, 100 metres of Thompson Hill, also in High Green, 300 metres of Walkley Road, Walkley, and three patches on Manor Lane, Manor.

Sheffield Hallam MP Nick Clegg said: “It is completely unacceptable that some of Sheffield’s roads are having to be fixed so soon after being repaired as part of the Streets Ahead project. “Although the work is being carried out by Amey, it’s up to the Labour Council to make sure the


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work is being carried out up to standard and on time. “When that doesn’t happen, Amey need to be held to account and in some cases penalties should to be applied but I haven’t seen any evidence that is happening.” The £2bn project was bankrolled with £1.2bn of funding from central Government, with the remaining £800m being put in by Sheffield Council. The roads fixed since being resurfaced represent 0.7 per cent of the roads resurfaced so far. Sheffield South East MP Clive Betts said: “The roads progress is actually going very well. I have not had any complaints from residents about roads resurfacing. None at all. “I think people are very pleased that the roads are getting done. People can see it’s being done in their area, or going to be done soon. A Sheffield Council Streets Ahead spokesman said: “The 16 roads equate to less than a mile in length of road in the city. More than 450 miles has been resurfaced to date. “This does not indicate the resurfacing is not good enough and we are reassured if any of these

issues are found they will be rectified. Prior to the resurfacing of any road, investigations are carried out to determine what treatments are required. “However it is not always possible to determine where there are localised areas where the road foundation is soft. This is something that is expected considering the amount of work. “We are confident the works will be completed as scheduled and guaranteed to be on budget.” Coun Bryan Lodge, cabinet member for the environment, said: “At the end of 2017 we will have one of the best highway networks in the country.” ROADS NEEDING A FIX SINCE RESURFACING - THE FULL LIST Knowle Lane, bottom section – 100m length Wortley Road – 150m Thompson Hill – 100m CarterKnowle lane – 100m Walkley Road – 300m High Storrs Road – less than 50m Church Street Hagg Stones Road – 2 small patches Jenkin Road – 2 patches Ben Lane – small patch Manor Lane – 3 patches less than 50m Upper Albert Road, outside No. 47 – small patch Blackstock Road – small patch Abbeydale Road South – small structural failure Loxley Road – 2 small patches Prince of Wales Rd – 200m

Hajj And Umrah Pilgrims Advised To Check Health Advice Muslims are being advised to check the latest health advice before journeying to Saudi Arabia for Umrah and the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Due to concerns of Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), pilgrims are being urged to check the up to date advice from Public Health England (PHE) and National Travel Health Network Centre. Particularly, it is advised all travellers stay up to date with all their routine vaccinations. Doctors advise that if you’re undertaking Hajj or Umrah this year, be sure to visit your GP at least 4 to 6 weeks before your trip to check whether you need any vaccinations or other preventive measures. Pilgrims should also be prepared for the extremes of Saudi weather. It can be incredibly hot during the day, so remember to protect yourself from the sun and drink plenty of clean water (preferably bottled or boiled and cooled) to avoid dehydration. In contrast it can be very cold overnight, so you

will need blankets or sleeping bags. Travellers are also being advised to refrain from camel milk and camel meat and to avoid contact with camels altogether. MERS-CoV can cause a serious and sometimes deadly illness. There is no vaccine or specific treatment for MERS-CoV. However, by adopting certain precautions, you can protect yourself and others. There is strong evidence the dromedary camel is an important host species for transmitting MERSCoV to humans. PHE strongly advise travellers to not drink camel milk or eat camel meat, and to avoid contact with camels in the Middle East. It is also very important to practise good hand and respiratory hygiene to reduce the risk of respiratory illnesses. Pilgrims returning from Hajj and Umrah with flu-like symptoms including fever and cough, or shortness of breath within 14 days of leaving the Middle East, should contact their GP immediately by phone and mention their travel history.

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Hillary Clinton Accepts Nomination Hillary Clinton has told the Democratic Convention that she accepts their nomination to become the first woman to run for president of the US. The former secretary of state took to the stage in Philadelphia to applause and cheers lasting several minutes before she began to speak. After thanking her family, she went on the attack against Republican nominee Donald Trump, saying he wanted Americans to “fear the future”. She told the party faithful: “If you dare, imagine him in the Oval Office facing a real crisis - a man you can bait with a tweet, is not a man you can trust with nuclear weapons.” “Donald Trump says he wants to make America great again. Well, he could start by actually making things in America” Hillary Clinton. Mrs Clinton promised to be a president for not just Democratic party supporters but also for

Republicans and independents, some of whom have lent their support to her on the podium. Referring to her nomination as the first woman running for president from a major US party, she said: “When all the ceilings are broken through, the sky’s the limit.” Earlier she was introduced by her daughter Chelsea, who spoke warmly of her mother as a woman “driven by compassion, by faith, by kindness, a fierce sense of justice, and a heart full of love.” Among those who also spoke in support was Marine General John R Allen, a former commander in Afghanistan, who said: “We must seize this moment to elect Hillary Clinton as president of the United States of America.” “Hillary’s refusal to mention Radical Islam, as she pushes a 550% increase in refugees, is more proof that she is unfit to lead the country” Donald Trump.

Being Overweight ‘Shaves Years Off Your Life’ Being overweight or obese increase the chances of dying early, especially in men, the largest study of its kind has shown. Those who were moderately obese died three years prematurely on average, the study of 3.9 million people found. Overweight people lost about one year of their expected life span. Overall, the association with premature death before the age of 70 was three times stronger for overweight and obese men than for women. It found that men who were obese were at much higher risk of premature death than obese women. This is consistent with previous observations that obese men have greater insulin resistance, liver fat levels, and diabetes risk than women. The latest research by a global team pulled together data from 189 studies, involving almost

four million people, from across the world. Weighing too much raised the risk of heart and lung disease, stroke, and cancer, said the researchers writing in The Lancet medical journal. It is second only to smoking as a cause of premature death in Europe and North America, they added. As an example, an obese but otherwise healthy man in North America carried the risk of death before the age of 70 to be about 29%, compared with 19% for a man of normal weight, the study showed. “The results show that being overweight does have a significant impact on your health and strengthen the arguments for public health measures to reduce obesity in our society” British Heart Foundation.

Firemen Sam Episode Pulled After Character Walks On Page From The Quran The makers of Fireman Sam have apologised after an episode of the hit children’s show appeared to show a character treading on a page from the Quran. In the episode, which last aired

on 28 June, a character is seen trampling on papers being sorted on the fire station floor. When the pages fly into the air, at least one appears to be a page from the Islamic holy book. Channel 5 has removed the episode - called Troubled Waters - from its streaming services after the gaffe was brought to its attention. HIT Entertainment, which produces the show, apologised unreservedly and said it would no longer be working with the animation studio responsible for the episode. We are taking immediate action to remove this episode from circulation and we are reviewing our content production procedures to ensure this never happens again HIT Entertainment HIT’s parent company insists the mistake was not intentional and there was no malice behind it. However, Miqdaad Versi, assistant secretary general of the Muslim Council of Britain, identified one of the pages and said he was “baffled” by its inclusion. He said the page was “Surah Mulk (67), verses 13-26,” which deals with aspects of creation and punishment of non-believers. One Twitter user posted: “Children’s program Fireman Sam stepping on the Quran. SHAME on this program for promoting hatred against Muslims!” In 2012 Fireman Sam creator David Jones was briefly detained at Gatwick Airport for making a remark about a woman wearing a veil passing through security unchallenged.

Housing Market Suffers Brexit Slump House prices are set to fall over the next three months, as fears over the impact of Brexit saw the number of properties on the UK market fall at its sharpest rate. Research by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) found interest from potential buyers has faded at the fastest rate since 2008. In the first significant housing study since the referendum, surveyors across the whole of the UK said they were generally expecting prices to dip in the coming three months, with 27% more surveyors expecting to see prices fall rather than rise in the near term.

RICS’ report found a net balance of 45% more surveyors saw a fall rather than an increase in new homes coming on the market during June. And a balance of 36% of surveyors reported new buyer enquiries falling rather than increasing. RICS said the “erosion” of buyer confidence had led to a significant slowdown in house price growth. Big events such as elections typically do unsettle markets so it is no surprise that the EU referendum has been associated with a downturn in activity.

Women Over-40s Have More Babies Than Under-20s More women aged 40 and over are having babies than those under-20s for the first time since 1947. There were 15.2 live births per 1,000 over40s last year compared with 14.5 for those aged under 20, according to the Office for National Statistics. “In most developed countries, women have been increasingly delaying childbearing to later in life, which has resulted in rising fertility rates among older women,” the ONS said. “This may be due to a number of factors such as increased female participation in higher education and the labour force, the increasing importance of a career, the rising costs of childbearing, labour market uncertainty and housing factors.” “The trend towards older motherhood is here to stay… rather than bemoaning this development,

we should seek to understand and support the decisions women make” British Pregnancy Advisory Service. It is an extraordinary turnaround since 1981, when the rate was 4.9 for women aged 40 and over compared with 28.1 for under-20s. In 2015, fertility rates decreased for women in all age groups under 25, and increased for all age groups 30 and over compared with 2014. The trend for women to have babies at older ages continued in 2015. Over the last 40 years, the percentage of live births to women aged 35 and over has increased considerably. Women aged 40 and over now have a higher fertility rate than women aged under 20 - this was last recorded in the 1940s.

Dirty Water Stunts Estimated 48 Million Indian Children India is home to the world’s largest number of stunted children due to a lack of toilets, dirty water and poor hygiene, according to a new study. Despite high economic growth in recent years, India has more stunted children than Nigeria, Pakistan, China and the Republic of Congo combined, with 48 million under the age of five – about 30% of the global total, a WaterAid report said. Stunting is a form of malnutrition in which children are shorter than normal for their age and is largely irreversible after the age of two. If they survive, they grow up physically and intellectually weaker than their better-fed peers. “India has the highest number of people in the world… practising open defecation, which spreads deadly diseases and makes children more susceptible to diarrhoea and other infections,” say WaterAid.

Open defecation has long been a major health and sanitation problem in India, where almost 594 million people – nearly half the population – defecate in the open, according to UNICEF. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has stressed the need to clean up India since storming to power in 2014 and has repeatedly urged every household to have a toilet within four years to end the spread of disease. Nigeria ranked second with 10.3 million stunted children while Pakistan stood third in WaterAid’s study with 9.9 million. Impoverished Bangladesh fared better than its bigger, wealthier neighbour India, recording 5.5 million cases in its 160 million-strong population. The country has almost eliminated open defecation in just over a decade through a concerted campaign to build toilets.

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Europeans Fear Refugee Influx Raises Terror Risk A majority of Europeans fear the recent refugee influx will heighten the risk of terrorist attacks and cost their countries jobs and social benefits, a new survey shows. The Pew Research Center study shows growing concern about the historic influx of more than one million asylum seekers last year and about the integration of minority groups, Muslims in particular. In eight of the 10 countries surveyed, representing 80 per cent of the European population, at least half of the public believe that “incoming refugees increase the likelihood of terrorism in their country”, the survey learned. The study also showed that majorities in seven of 10 countries saw the arrival of refugees as “a burden on our country because they take our jobs and social benefits”. “The recent surge of refugees into Europe has featured prominently in the anti-immigrant

rhetoric of right-wing parties across the continent and in the heated debate over the UK’s decision to exit the European Union.” Pew Research Center. The view was held most strongly, by 76 per cent of respondents, in Hungary and by 71 per cent in Poland – both countries which have received proportionately few migrants as their governments have adopted a tough stance toward refugees. In Germany – the largest EU economy, which last year took in the biggest number of migrants and refugees – 61 per cent shared this concern, while 60 per cent of Italians and 52 per cent of British voiced the same fears. Paradoxically, in France, a country hard hit by jihadist attacks in 2015, only 46 per cent thought the danger of an attack had increased.

Six Billion Fewer Bags Used After 5p Fee The introduction of a 5p charge will see six billion fewer single-use plastic bags taken home this year, new figures suggest. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said more than seven billion bags were handed out by major retailers in 2014. This figure fell to just over half a billion in the first six months after the 5p charge was introduced last October. Retailers have also donated more than £29m towards charities and community groups as a result of the charge. Environment Minister Therese Coffey said: "Taking six billion plastic bags out of circulation is fantastic news for all of us. "It will mean our precious marine life is safer, our communities are cleaner and future generations won't be saddled with mountains of plastic sat taking hundreds of years to break down in landfill sites. "The 5p charge has clearly been a huge success - not only for our environment but for good causes across the country that have benefited from an impressive £29m raised. "It shows small actions can make the biggest difference, but we must not be complacent as there is always more we can all do to reduce waste and recycle what we use." England was the last part of the UK to introduce the charge under a Government scheme to re-

duce litter and protect wildlife. Retailers with 250 or more full-time equivalent employees have to charge a minimum of 5p for the bags they provide for shopping in stores and for deliveries, but smaller shops and paper bags are not included. Some are calling on the Government to go fur-

ther by raising the price of bags. The National Federation of Retail Newsagents also wants to see smaller retailers bring in charges too. Every year around eight million tonnes of plastic is dumped in oceans around the world, which is a real problem for marine life. Animals get entangled in plastic and if we were to cut the amount we put in the sea overall that would have a huge benefit.

The Turkey Coup

What happened? Late at night on July 15, a group of Turkish soldiers took over several institutions in Istanbul and Ankara, in what appears to have been an ill-planned attempted coup. Police forces—aided by a huge show of support from ordinary Turkish citizens— managed to foil the overthrow. Responding to a call by Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan, huge groups of Turkish men took to the streets to prevent army units from entering government buildings. The coup was declared over early on the morning of July 16. So the Turkish people stand with President Erdogan? Thanks to a long history of coups, Turkish people hate military intervention far more than they dislike their autocratic leader. Turks across the political spectrum share the feeling that a terrible democracy is better than military rule. Why did the military try to take power? The explanation changes according who you choose to believe. A statement reportedly made by the military claimed its purpose was “to reinstall the constitutional order, democracy, human rights and freedoms.” But president Erdogan and his network of pro-government media have bombarded the Turkish people with claims that this was the doing of a clandestine group that infiltrated all

state institutions, organized by a Muslim cleric named Fethullah Gulen, now retired and living in Pennsylvania. Little solid evidence of that conspiracy has been offered yet. Gulen has denied any involvement. In fact, he and other opposition groups allege that the coup was actually orchestrated by Erdogan as an excuse to subjugate political opponents, and to ultimately shift Turkey’s system of governance into an executive presidency (which would effectively turn Erdogan into a modern sultan). This explanation is also not entirely convincing. The claim that Erdogan plotted a fake coup against his own government to cleanse opposition in the army and the appellate judiciary is too big to take at face value. What do the Turkish people think? Turkey is extremely polarized. Half of the population believes whatever the president tells them, while the other half tends to believe the opposite. Positions for and against the Erdogan regime have become so entrenched that there is no way to convince either side with evidence and logic. Erdogan is like okra: Some people love him dearly, and for some he is disgusting. No one in Turkey is neutral when it comes to the president. Where did this split in public opinion come from? Traditional social divides in Turkey include religious against secular, Turkish against Kurdish, and poor-periphery against rich-urban-center. Together with the Arab Spring and the 2013 graft investigation, a new split emerged: pro-Erdoganism and anti-Erdoganism. These divisions came to a head in May 2013. Erdogan wanted to demolish a Republican-era park in the Taksim Square of Istanbul and rebuild an Ottoman-era barrack, which also included a mosque. Though Taksim Square is a symbol of

secular, left-wing Kemalism, many religious people joined what later became known as the Gezi Park Revolt to preserve the park as it is. There, secular, Kemalist, Kurdish, Alevite, and religious groups—including the Gulen movement—crystallized their coalition against Erdogan. Unfortunately, this sector of Turkish society is only able to agree on its opposition to Erdogan, and little else. Thus, these groups haven’t been able to create a political alliance that could shake his firm grip on power. What’s the history here? Until the Arab Spring, Erdogan was a remarkably democratic leader. But after the Arab Spring began in 2011, he started to accuse Europe, America, and Israel for their involvement in the Muslim world. He appealed to the unhappy crowds in the Arab streets and started to behave as an unelected leader of the Muslim world—he was almost an undeclared caliph. Turkey’s axis started to move away from the West and towards Middle Eastern dictatorships. In December 2013, a group of prosecutors and police officers started a huge corruption investigation related to the laundering of Iranian money and the bypassing of international sanctions against Iran. Reza Zarrab, a Turkish-Iranian who is currently detained in the US on charges of conspiring to violate Iran sanctions, was allegedly involved. Erdogan claimed that this was a conspiracy against him orchestrated by “foreign powers” and a religious movement led by Muslim cleric Fethullah Gulen, and launched a witch hunt for traitors among the police and judiciary. In the three years that followed, new courts with just one judge (Turkish) were created to simplify prosecution of critical and dissenting figures, newspapers and TV channels were seized, and about 3,000 journalists lost their jobs. What’s up with all these coups and conspiracy theories? After a series of real military coups in the past, Turkish people now react to any sign of military

intervention with the immediate alarm of a postcancer patient discovering any slight bump or lump. Their allergy to military movements on government has been exploited by Erdogan—he tends to frame any public unrest as an attempted coup. In 2001, Erdogan was jailed by the secular regime for a poem he recited, which made him a hero in the streets. But many claim that this arrest was a show designed to lionize him in the eyes of the people. In 2007, the military tried to interfere with presidential elections through an e-memorandum, and Erdogan won. He is a man whose reputation has grown with every apparent adversity. In 2013, he accused the Gezi Park Revolts of being a coup attempt. He said the same thing about that year’s graft allegation. He even said it in February this year, when villagers in the remote city of Artvin protestedgold mines being opened in their village. This time, Erdogan is playing on the same sentiments to demonize his arch-enemy, Fethullah Gulen. What happens now? With the government apparently back on its feet, Erdogan has already won. Efforts are undoubtedly being made to silence all opposition groups in the name of national security, including any local and national media that are not openly progovernment. From now on, there won’t be any meaningful opposition to his witchhunt of opposition groups. On July 16, the Minister of Interior declared that 2,839 military officers who are allegedly members of the Gulen movement, including dozens of generals, had been arrested. The Higher Board of Judges and Prosecutors sacked 2,745 judges and prosecutors, including ten of its own members. The Chief of General Staff who resisted earlier calls from Erdogan to cleanse the army has now given in. Rumors about other detentions abound. One thing is for sure: The overall number of detained people will reach into the tens of thousands.

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Taking Pregnancy Multivitamins A ‘Waste Of Money’ Pregnancy multivitamins are a waste of money, researchers have concluded. A review found no evidence that multivitamins result in better health for a mother or her baby and were an unnecessary expense. Instead, experts said women should focus on taking the single vitamins – which are available for a few pence per day – recommended by the NHS. These are folic acid in the first three months of pregnancy, and vitamin D. They should also follow a healthy diet. On, Pregnacare tablets plus Omega 3 cost £15.29 for a 28-day supply. Pregnacare Max – described as the ultimate formula in the range – costs £19.69 for a 28day supply of tablets. Regular Pregnacare costs £4.45 for a 30-day supply, while Boots’ own brand Pregnancy Support Plus with fish oil costs £12.99 for a 30-day supply. Boots Pregnancy Support vitamins cost £3.49 for 30 tablets and Seven Seas Pregnancy tablets cost £5.25 for 28 tablets. Seven Seas Pregnancy Plus with Omega 3 tablets cost £14.99 for a 28-day supply. The vitamins come with various marketing literature, including saying they provide all the “nutrients vital for both mother and baby”, and “all the essential nutrients for

pregnancy”. In the new research, published in the Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, a large panel of experts in the field reviewed available evidence on folic acid, vitamin D, iron, vitamins C, E, A, and multivitamins in pregnancy. The found good evidence for the use of folic acid to reduce the risk of neural tube defects such as spina bifida, and some evidence – although “less clear cut” – for the use of vitamin D, which is important for bone and tooth formation and the ability to absorb calcium. But the experts found “no evidence” that women should take multivitamins, which often contain 20 or more vitamins and minerals. They added: “For most women who are planning to become pregnant or who are pregnant, complex multivitamin and mineral preparations promoted for use during pregnancy are unlikely to be needed and are an unnecessary expense. “Pregnant women may be vulnerable to messages about giving their baby the best start in life, regardless of cost, and be unaware that the only supplements recommended for all women during pregnancy are folic acid and vitamin D, which are available at relatively low cost.”

New Antibiotic Strain In Human Nose That Could Fight MRSA A new class of antibiotics has been discovered - and it was right under our noses all along. The discovery led to the development of a drug known as lugdunin, which could be used to treat superbug infections. Most antibiotics were first discovered in soil bacteria, and the last new class of drugs was discovered in the 1980s. But the latest breakthrough comes from inside the human body, and could be useful for treating superbugs such as MRSA. Scientists found that a bug called Staphylococcus aureus invades the noses of about 30% of people. This (research) is showing that same competition that happens in the soil - where bugs are trying to kill each other to gain space and access to niches and habitats - is happening in the body. Curious to find out why the remaining 70% were bug free, they found that many of these people have a rival bug in their nostrils called Staphylococcus lugdunensis. This bug produces an antibiotic that protects the carrier against the rival Staphylococ-

cus aureus bug - which can include strains of MRSA. The discovery comes at a crucial time - several medical authorities have warned that overuse of current antibiotics is allowing deadly bacteria such as E.coli and Salmonella to mutate into drug-resistant strains. One recent study into new species estimated there are another 6.8 million animals, 567,000 fungi and 90,000 plants waiting to be discovered. New species are being found at a rate of 15,000 to 20,000 per year.

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Farewell, Edhi Sahib! The death of Abdul Sattar Edhi after an extraordinarily productive and unreal life stirred emotion in every Pakistani. United in grief, the country mourned, rising above the racial, ethnic and other faultlines that divide Pakistan. Edhi’s humanitarianism defined the best and the worst of Pakistan and its fractured society. Six decades of Edhi’s tireless public service were familiar to everyone. The credibility of the Edhi Foundation as a place to contribute was matchless and perhaps no other institution inspires such confidence. Yet Edhi’s dedicated public role – as an incredible individual and leader of a huge network – was a reflection of the gap that the state had left in terms of meeting its basic functions of delivering dignity, reliable and affordable services and fulfilling its constitutional mandates. Pakistan’s story of ‘growth without development’ has been written about in detail. Billions of local and external resources are pumped into a broken system that does not yield results. Half of our children are out of school. A small fraction get basic health services and even a smaller fraction have access to tertiary care in hospitals. Before the Musharraf regime reorganised the emergency rescue services, an Edhi ambulance was the source of rescue and relief. It still beats the

taking care of abandoned dead bodies to setting up shelters for women, children, elderly and drug-addicts, Edhi continued with his multiple missions. Overtime the charitable work expanded beyond Pakistan as Edhi organised relief and aid during many emergency situations across the world. By the time, Edhi died, his foundation was raising billions of rupees each year without government support, without the crutches of international development assistance that is often designed with much fanfare. More than 1800 ambulances worked 24×7 to reach those in need of help. Dozens of Edhi homes took care of thousands of children in a country where public sector facilities of such kind are absent. The groundbreaking nature of Edhi’s as a quiet revolution has yet to be fully appreciated. Pakistan has no adoption law since adoption is not preferred by the tenets of Islamic jurisprudence, Edhi’s work opened up possibilities for many children to find homes. Children born out of wedlock and sometimes the unwanted ‘girl child’ could face abandonment at a trash heap or plain murder. This is where Edhi’s challenge to the social norms was the most meaningful. Such children

state service in many parts of the country. Worse, were not only rescued but also given a real life. the state’s social care has remained abysmal. The famed jhoola or cradle became a larger metaFrom orphanages to morgues, and from rural phor for a charity turning into something larger clinics to children’s facilities, state services spell – a life support system. In welfare-oriented socienegligence, corruption and in most cases plain ties, this role is assumed by the state. absence. In this unimaginable morass, Edhi was Edhi disregarded the clerics who raised objections a beacon, personifying an endless struggle to fill to adoption and the provision of full rights (such as inheritance) to the adopted. His subtle rejecin a black hole. Edhi was a rebel from the very start. He com- tion of orthodoxy was essential to maintain the menced the charity work within his Memon com- humanitarian scope of his work. The untiring man munity and when he realised that most of the could do it because he had people’s support; he internalised the strength humanitarian work was confined to that par- The groundbreaking nature of of those who recovered ticular community, he Edhi’s as a quiet revolution has under his care and those who backed him. Above moved away and set up yet to be fully appreciated all, he believed in himhis own clinic. Overtime, self in the unpretentious the work expanded and consolidated and so did Edhi’s selfless reputa- manner, which is rare. tion. His wonderful biographer Tehmina Durrani But Edhi’s work was also possible because milrecords in her book A Mirror to the Blind as to lions of Pakistanis were willing to reach out. Pakihow Edhi picked up dead bodies from “rivers, stanis are philanthropic by nature. Partly inspired from inside wells, from road sides, accident sites by the faith where annual charity is mandatory, and hospitals, when families forsook them, and there are strong non-Islamic cultural traditions at authorities threw them away. He bathed them, work. The best-known public institutions such as gave a decent burial and never bothered about hospitals, schools among others, in Lahore and whom he was tending to.” Such was the extent Karachi were built by generous patrons in the of state failure and the vision of unassuming Edhi early part of twentieth century. In recent times, that he step by step expanded his services. From the annual giving is estimated to be more than

Rs. 240 billion (or 2.4 billion dollars). And these are conservative estimates. Edhi got a little chunk of that but consistently; and this was central to an enduring relationship between concerned citizens and a private humanitarian foundation. The state remained indifferent, sometimes obstructionist, but it did not think of replicating this great model. Driven by authoritarian models of governance, winning public confidence has hardly been a goal of successive civil and military regimes with some exceptions. Under the Bhuttos, father and daughter, some attention was given to a redistributive or social agenda. But that was not significant to alter the structural gaps. Benazir Bhutto’s Lady Health Workers’ Programme perhaps is the best of these efforts, which has grown into cadres of more than a hundred thousand female primary health workers. Another state intervention that comes close to being pro-poor is the Benazir Income Support Programme that helps women in nearly seven million households. But these drops in the wasteful ocean of Pakistani state simply cannot bridge the disconnect between the citizens and the state especially when half the population of the country is disadvantaged in one way or the other. A recent study on multidimensional poverty by United Nations Development Programme holds that nearly half of Pakistan’s population is ‘poor.’ If one adds the lack of citizenship rights to populations of tribal areas, parts of Balochistan and other ‘ungoverned’ spaces, the cruel reality becomes even more unpalatable. It is in this context that Edhi lived a remarkable life of attempting to fix a broken ‘system’. He made enemies as he relentlessly pursued his dream. The Mullah shunned him for giving equal treatment to non-Muslims, for being who he was – a humanist. Edhi’s repeated references to humanism above the problematic of institutionalized faith angered the cleric even more. Even in his death some of those toxic voices made their presence felt. But the people of Pakistan once again

rejected these state-fed, pampered proxies for state legitimacy. A religious political party offered his funeral prayers in absentia along with a young Kashmiri mujahid probably to equate the two or to moderate where Edhi stood in their eyes. Among all the other charges leveled against Nobel laureate Malala, the most pronounced one was that she robbed Edhi of that accolade and the West preferred her to the humanitarian giant. Edhi was certainly above these titles and those who knew him or had the chance to work with him understand his mission in life. He did not seek honours but he sought a more benign, functional and humane society. While the state of Pakistan did the right thing to organize a state funeral to the great man, it would remain token-

ism until the institutions of state turn themselves into people-friendly entities and reorient their misplaced, disastrous priorities. It would not be out of place to mention elite opportunism at Edhi’s funeral. The saint who could care less about pomp and glory was bid farewell, in a disturbingly stratified manner, by the same civil-military elites whose greed and failures Edhi had been trying to rectify. Perhaps there was unstated gratitude. Or the age-old, desperately obvious appropriation of legitimacy. In his life and in his death, Edhi showed them the mirror. The sad part is that emperors seldom realize that they are wearing no clothes. Long Live Edhi Sahib…

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Bioelectric Medicine Comes In To hand

Mr Shumile J. Chishty

Today we use antibiotics and antiviral medicine to cure diseases, but how would you like it if you had an implantable device inserted inside you, rather than a pill or an injection? Bioelectronic medicine is still a long way from being used. The company GSK(GlaxoSmithKline) believe that one day, tiny devices, smaller than a pea, could be used to restore health. The purpose of this device is to be programmed to read and modify electrical signals that pass along nerves of the body, including irregular or altered impulses that can occur in association with a broad range of diseases. Overall, the aim is that through these devices, disorders like inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, asthma, hypertension and diabetes could be treated. GSK are sure that bioelectronic medicines could allow us to treat these with greater precision and fewer side effects than with ordinary medicines. Many times in the past the use of electrical impulses has been used in medical treatments – from cardiac pacemakers to deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s. GSK have mentioned that recent scientific developments have made it possible to control specific sets of neurons, which create the potential to develop more precise bioelectronic medicines. GSK have recently decided this is an area now worth investing time in, they don’t believe they can succeed in this field alone. They also recognise that experts across a range of disciplines need to work together. Unlike more traditional areas of science, bioelectronics requires the combined skills of world-leading physiologists, engineers, neuroscientists and informatics experts. That is why GSK are seeking to grow and integrate a research network that will become a new bioelectronics community. GSK describe the research they’re doing in bioelectronics as ‘like learning a new language.’ Through learning to read and write the electrical signals that travel between the brain and the body’s organs, they can increase the limit in treating disease. It may sound like science fiction, but GSK believe they are getting closer to a future where precision electronic therapies sit alongside the medicines and vaccines we use today.

Taylor Swift Tops Forbes’ List Of Highest-Paid Celebs

There’s no “Blank Space” in Taylor Swift’s bank account. The singer-songwriter tops Forbes’ annual list of the 100 highest-paid celebrities with $170 million. One Direction came second after earning $110m which should tide them over while they enjoy a hiatus from making music. Swift is ahead of fellow chart-topping pop stars Adele at No. 9 with $80.5 million, Madonna at No. 12 with $76.5 million, Rihanna at No. 13 with

$75 million and Katy Perry at No. 63 with $41 million. Kim Kardashian is featured on the magazine’s cover. She’s No. 42 on the list with $51 million. Forbes says 40 percent of her paycheck this year came from her mobile game “Kim Kardashian: Hollywood”. The game’s maker, Glu Mobile, is scheduled to release an app starring Swift later this year.

South Yorkshire In Tap Water Alert Over High Bacteria Levels Thousands of people in a South Yorkshire town have been warned not to use tap water for drinking or cooking after high levels of bacteria were detected. The former Labour leader Ed Miliband said he was concerned over the situation affecting 3,600 properties in parts of Thorne, near Doncaster, and the neighbouring village of Moorends, which is in his constituency. Yorkshire Water said on its website: “Customers in 3,600 properties in the village of Thorne, near Doncaster, have been told not to use their tap water for drinking or cooking. “High levels of bacteria have been detected in the local water supply, prompting us to issue the precautionary do not drink advice, which customers must follow until further notice.” The firm said it was distributing bottled water for residents at two locations in Thorne and Moorends. The company said customers should also not clean their teeth with tap water or let their pets drink it. In March, thousands of people in Derbyshire

and Leicestershire were advised not to use their tap water after the discovery of high chlorine levels at a nearby reservoir. According to the Drinking Water Inspectorate, water in the network that supplies areas in Derbyshire had more than eight times the normal level of chlorine – which is 0.5 micrograms per litre or less. At the time, several shops in the region reported that they had sold out of bottled water as a result of people panic-buying supplies.

Millennials ‘Earned £8,000 Less In Their 20s’ Than Generation X Millennials could become the first generation to earn less than their predecessors, analysis by a think-tank has shown. The Research Foundation found that under-35s have been hit hardest by the recent pay squeeze and earned £8,000 less during their 20s than a typical person in the previous generation – known as generation X. The finding comes just days after new Prime Minister Theresa May warned of a “growing divide between a more prosperous older generation and a struggling younger generation”. The report, which comes as the thank-tank launches its Intergenera-

tional Commission, warns that a post-Brexit downturn could depress millennials’ wages further. This is about taking seriously the social contract between the generations that underpins our society and state, and recognising that everyone is worried about the future of younger generations. If the future pay of millennials follows the path of generation X, it would reduce their lifetime earnings to around £825,000 – making them the first ever generation to earn less than their predecessors over the course of their working lives. Even if their wages followed

a more optimistic path and improved rapidly like their baby boomer parents, their lifetime earnings would be around £890,000. This would be just 7% more than generation X and a third of the size of the pay progress that generation X are set to enjoy over the baby boomers. We’ve taken it for granted that each generation will do much better than the last – earning more and enjoying a higher standard of living. But that approach risks looking complacent given the realities of recent years and prospects for the future.

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Sweets, Garlands and the Noose The recent attempt by army renegades to topple the elected and popular government in Turkey was crushed by the police and the public of Turkey. Many of us were shocked to read Imran Khan’s statement (a clear incitement) saying that, should a coup take place in Pakistan, the people would welcome the soldiers and distribute sweets. Imran should look back and see what happened to the people who collaborated with those who took power previously. It would have been much more appropriate to say that the rulers should adopt people-friendly and country-friendly policies so that any adventurists would think a dozen times before attempting anything. The problem in our country is that all and sundry want to be PM – by hook or by crook. The Turks are a brave and proud nation. They did not come to the rescue of those rulers who were stooges of the West. Just recently, the European Union had asked Turkey to bring its anti-terrorist laws in parity (ie soften them drastically) with those of the Union in return for visa-free movement of Turks within the EU. President Recep Tayyep Erdogan flatly refused as it would have jeopardised their national security. One wonders what the reaction would have been had such an offer been made to our leaders. I guess they would have accepted immediately (just like Musharraf accepted the American one) and would then have sent their family members to settle there. In our country it has become a nasty tradition that the sole aim of the opposition parties from day one is simply to topple the government. They start inciting the army chief to take action and they then join hands with any usurper to loot

the country. Past history is witness to this. If our rulers would install honest people and pursue country-friendly policies, nobody would dare to undertake any misadventure against an elected government. But our rulers are deaf, dumb and blind to the needs of the people. Loadshedding, unemployment, inflation, absence of law and order – you name it, we have it. It is under such circumstances that the ordinary people welcome usurpers, hoping against hope for a miracle. Miracles they don’t get – it is all just a mirage. Imran and Bilawal are shouting themselves hoarse against the corruption of those in power. Imran Khan we will have to test, if he ever gets a chance, but Bilawal! How can he ignore the $60 billion in Swiss Banks, the Surrey Palace, the chalet in France, properties in Dubai, London, New York and, of course, Pakistan? One never hears any Western ruler playing the blame game and accusing predecessors. President Obama or Clinton never talked about the deeds committed by the senior and junior Bushes. Tony Blair’s successor never accused him of an illegal war in Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan causing the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people. There are hundreds of rape cases every day in the US, but you never hear about them on CNN, etc. But here, anything mischievous, immoral or nasty is repeated over and over again all day long. Thank God the judiciary saved us from Altaf Hussain’s daily lengthy speeches, but now we have Imran Khan and Dr Tahirul Qadri’s diatribes to listen to. Pemra should introduce a code of conduct whereby TV stations are not allowed to relay fulllength live speeches. Short clips are more than enough. The air time thus gained should be used on useful, productive programmes on education, Islamic history, general history, our culture and that of other Muslim countries, medical information, etc.

During WWI, British, French, Australian, New Zealand, Canadian and Indian (under British command) troops attacked Turkey with a force of about 150,000. They wanted to occupy the Bosporus and Istanbul and join with Russian forces in the Black Sea. The brave Turks, under their great leader, Kamal Pasha, defeated them at Gallipoli, killing more than 75,000 invaders, while combined Turkish/Arab losses were more than 150,000 – but they won. Had they lost that war, Turkey would have been no different from Iraq today. The Turks were a force to be reckoned with until the 17th century, but lazy and corrupt rulers let that advantage slip by ignoring the industrial revolution. Now, under President Recep Tayyep Erdogan, Turkey is on its way to progress, prosperity and self-respect. It is fast catching up with developed countries of Europe. We have been most unfortunate that all the dictators we had left the country in a worse state than it was before. But then successive civilian governments have been no better, and all that is left is for the people to hope for the best when someone usurps power. A word of caution for those in power: never think that the Almighty is oblivious to your misdeeds and wrongdoings. He has again and again warned that wrongdoers (including rulers and the public) will have to account for their deeds and there is a severe, painful punishment for them. Nobody

Dr A Q Khan

can, or will, escape it. Rulers! Sooner or later you will have to appear before the Almighty and face the consequences of your deeds. The person said to be behind the coup attempt is a Turk living in the US – Shaikh Fethullah Gulen – a pseudo-religious scholar. That the Americans (CIA, FBI, etc) had no knowledge of this activity is inconceivable. No phone call, message or email can bypass the American surveillance system. A coup of this kind involved hundreds of top armed forces officers, police officers and civilians. It was pathetic to see so many generals and naval and air force officers handcuffed and identifying themselves.

One wonders what made them undertake such treachery. They were holding some of the most coveted posts in the country and living luxurious lifestyles. Even had the coup been successful, only a few big ones would have had the lion’s share of positions and privileges for a few years while the rest would have only the remaining crumbs. That is always the case. We have seen enough of it in our own country. Email:

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Zayn Malik Launches Clothing Line Featuring Urdu Script Former One Directioner and music sensation Zayn Malik has launched 23-piece clothing line comprising of t-shirts, hoodies and sweatshirts that features artwork in Urdu, paying homage to the artist’s South Asian roots.

The fashion line has been inspired by Zayn’s debut solo album “Mind of Mine”. It’s interesting to note that pop icon Zayn also amazed his audience with an Urdu song in the same album earlier this year. Pillowtalk -fame singer said that he has tapped into fashion to showcase his admirers another aspect of himself as an artist. “Everything was created with the idea that this is something I would want to wear. I wanted to approach this as an opportunity to extend my ideas as an artist, and to give fans another facet of who I am,” he said. He stated that the idea behind the use of Urdu script on the clothes was to give his fans and insight into a different facet of his life. “My family is from Pakistan, so having artwork in Urdu has huge significance to me,” said the 23 year old singer.

Thumb Suckers, Nail Biters Less Likely To Develop Allergies Children who suck their thumbs or bite their nails are less likely than others to have allergies later in life, according to a new study. Lending support to the “hygiene hypothesis,” which holds that early life exposure to microbes may decrease the risk of developing allergies, the study may explain why kids with oral habits have fewer allergies as adults, the authors write. However, researchers were clear that the results do not suggest that kids should take up these habits. The study followed more than 1,000 children whose parents reported their nail biting and thumb-sucking tendencies at ages 5, 7, 9 and 11. The same kids were tested for allergies with pin-prick tests at ages 13 and 32. Researchers that found 49 percent of 13-year-olds who did not suck their thumb or bite their nails tested positive to at least one allergy, compared to 38 percent who practiced one of the habits. The allergy level fell to 31 percent for children who did

both. The results remained the same when participants were 32-years-old, regardless of factors such as parental history of allergies, pet ownership or being breast fed. However, researchers cautioned that the findings need to be supported by more studies in different geographical regions around the globe.

Bollywood Bad Boy Salman Khan Rules Box Office

He's been accused of killing a homeless man, shooting dead an endangered animal and assaulting a former Miss World but it seems nothing can stop the box office appeal of Bollywood bad boy Salman Khan. The Indian superstar's latest blockbuster smashed records last month, just over a fortnight after he sparked fresh controversy by saying his heavy training schedule for the film left him feeling "like a raped woman". "Sultan", in which Khan plays an ageing wrestler, enjoyed the highest-grossing opening weekend in Hindi cinema history, proving that for his legions of fans the body-building actor can do no wrong. "I watch every Salman film. I love him. He is the reason I am in this profession," Abhishek, a buff Mumbai fitness trainer. The actor known as "bhai", meaning "brother" in Hindi, enjoys a cult-like status in star-obsessed India, with the majority of his devotees young men who envy Khan for being unmarried at 50. They are largely from Mumbai's mass of migrant workers who eke out a hardscrabble living in the sprawling financial capital but dream of a more glamorous life. Invariably, they emulate his hairstyle and fashion, wearing pirated t-shirts emblazoned with Khan's charity "Being Human". At weekends they gather outside his home where Khan waves at fans from his balcony. "He has always been the poster boy of a large section of the youth population," filmmaker Nikkhil Advani, who directed Khan in 2007 romantic drama "Salaam E Ishq". The majority are not on Twitter and are immune to social media outcries such as the one Khan sparked last month when his rape analogy made to a local news site went viral. Khan has not apologised for the comments, as demanded by India's National Commission for

Women, but his father Bollywood screenwriter Salim Khan made an apology of sorts on his son's behalf. - Hit-and-run case Khan has starred in more than 100 films and television shows since his first hit "Maine Pyar Kiya" (I Fell in Love) in the 1980s. But his personal life has long been dogged by controversy. Although he was cleared last year of killing a homeless man in a late-night hit-and-run crash in 2002, that decision is now being challenged in the Su-

preme Court. Khan is also battling allegations he used unlicensed arms to shoot an endangered Indian antelope for which he spent a week behind bars in 1998. His image also took a hit when former Miss World and Bollywood actress Aishwarya Rai accused Khan of assaulting her during a relationship which ended more than a decade ago. Khan has denied ever hitting any women. The controversies haven't stopped him becoming one of Bollywood's most bankable stars with "Sultan" making over two billion rupees ($31 million) in the week since its July 6 release, according to industry estimates. Khan earned more than $33 million in 2015 alone. His earnings have been boosted in recent years by regularly playing the lead in India's annual Eid blockbuster, capitalising on one of the year's major holidays. Filmmakers say Khan's popularity is sky-high as he's now also winning over wealthier cinemagoers who previously tended to prefer the cleaner-cut images of Aamir Khan and Shah Rukh Khan. Khan describes himself as a "humanitarian" on his Twitter profile and filmmaker Advani believes his "image makeover" has helped him persuade fans "to feel that he was always misunderstood and somewhat scapegoated". Khan's following has been enhanced by his hosting of the Indian version of reality TV show "Big Brother". He's also won praise for taking on difficult roles, such as "Sultan", where his weight fluctuates wildly. He isn't just playing safe and holding on to the success, unlike some of his peers. Audiences are responding to that effort and he's attracting audiences outside of the cult followers, including women and children. His fans are growing.

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Cambridge Tops The Chart As The UK’s Best Place To Work Cambridge is the best place in the country to work, according to a new study. The university city came top of a list based on how easy it is to get a job, affordability of housing and employee satisfaction. Cambridge, said Glassdoor, has embraced the tech boom and workers can expect to make an average of £35,000 a year. Its overall employee satisfaction is 3.5 out of five, where five means “very satisfied”. Milton Keynes and Nottingham were next in a league table compiled by jobs site Glassdoor. London, owing to its high cost of living, does not make the top 20. Andrew Chamberlain, Glassdoor chief economist said: “These results are a reminder that although there are more jobs in London and employees are generally satisfied, it is a competitive place to work and an expensive place to live. Towns and cities such as Nottingham, Leeds and Reading offer decent salaries and job prospects combined with a lower cost of living which means your money will go further, you can save, and still have a good quality of life.”

Can The World Sustain 9 Billion People By 2050? India’s population is expected to surpass China’s by 2022. As far as life expectancy, it is expected to increase in both developed and developing nations. Globally, life expectancy will likely be 76 years on average in the 2045-2050 period. It will reach 82 years of age in 2095-2100, if nothing changes. Nearing the end of the century, those in developing nations could expect to live to 81, while in developed nations, 89 will be the norm. Yet, there are concerns that the developing world will suffer even more than today due to this phenomenon. “The concentration of population growth in the poorest countries presents its own set of challenges, making it more difficult to eradicate poverty and inequality, to combat hunger and malnutrition, and to expand educational enrollment and health systems,” according to the Population Division of the UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Another worry is resource depletion. Minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and water may become scarce in several regions of the world. Since wars are often fought over resources, and water use is expected to increase 70-90% by mid-century, without improved farming methods and smarter use, water may become the next oil, in terms of driving nations into violent conflict. The world’s water in certain regions is already strained. India and China for instance have already fought two wars over water claims. Climate change is also likely to eat up more arable land, contributing to fears of food scarcity, as well as the loss of biodiversity, which is likely to occur at a faster rate. To help tamp down the world population, UN researchers suggest investing in reproductive health and family planning, particularly in developing nations. This report was made possible by 233 countries providing demographic data, as well as 2010 population censuses.


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Ramzan Mubarak

august 2016 Addition  
august 2016 Addition