Climate change and its implications for fisheries and aquaculture: developing adaptation in Bangladesh
Doris Soto Fisheries and Aquaculture Department FAO
CC impacts on fisheries and aquaculture Fisheries SES
Climate change Temperature GHGs
Extreme events Sea level rise Acidification
Di re ct
Ecosystems Ecosystem processes Aquatic Environment Fish stocks & production Ecological effects
ef fe ct
Politics, society and economy Markets Migration Socio economic effects Labour Consumption patterns Mitigation measures Fuel prices
Fishing/aquaculture Yield Effort Livelihoods Management
Daw et al, 2009
What is at stake regarding Fisheries and Aquaculture? • • •
• • •
Fish provides essential nutrition for 3 billion people Fish contributes at least 50% of animal protein to 400 million people from the poorest countries Over 200 million people in developing countries depend, directly or indirectly, on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production system Fish products are among the most widely traded foods Healthy oceans absorb more than 1/3 of the carbon emitted by humans each year
FAO-FI activities on climate change Expert workshop on “Climate Change Implications for Fisheries and Aquaculture” (April 2008) (HLC, COFI)
The FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department’s Climate Change Strategy
FAO FI&AQ climate change thematic areas Improving awareness of impacts pathways and vulnerabilities and supporting adaptation potentials Understanding GHG emissions from aquaculture and fisheries sectors as well as supporting mitigation efforts Communicating and advocating for the sectors in global, regional and national climate change discussions Making the bridge between science and policy Coordinating and collaborating (e.g. PaCFA, COP17, joint project development, information sharing)
Core of our assistance: adaptation to climate change through broader vulnerability reduction • Ecological, Economic and Social Resilience – implementation of an Ecosystem
Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture, adopting the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
– livelihood diversification, flexible access rights, public and private insurance
• Technological innovation • Planned adaptation –policy coherence across sectors (water, agriculture, forestry, CZM) • Disaster preparedness and response
Estimating local/national vulnerability for fisheries and aquaculture (from IPCC 2001) Exposure (E)
The nature and degree to which fisheries and aquaculture systems are exposed to climate change
Degree to which national/local economies are dependent on fisheries/Aq. and therefore sensitive to any change in the sector
Potential impacts (PI)
Adaptive capacity (AC)
All impacts that may occur without taking into account planned adaptation
Ability or capacity of a system to modify or change to cope with changes in actual or expected climate stress
Vulnerability V = f(PI, AC)
Assessing vulnerability at local level • Define the boundaries of the (eco) system under consideration. – Identify the biophysical changes expected to impact this system
• Review available data – estimated No of fishfarmers and fishermen; where are they located and where are their resources – Economic value of the fishery sector and contribution to food security – Current status of the resources (water, fish biomass fish health etc.) – Other sectors and users of the aquatic resources – Governance aspects » Who is responsible for fisheries management? » Who is responsible for DRM, general aquatic health, water management, coastal management?
• Identify adaptation strategies with an ecosystem approach (EAF/EAA)
Initiatives to enhance adaptation in the Fisheries and Aquaculture sector • Disaster risk management frameworks • Biosecurity frameworks covering not just one farm or the farms of a company but the whole aquaculture zone • Improve management of fisheries avoid overfishing!!! • Improve management in aquaculture (avoid stressing the fish!) • Improve and strategize the interactions between fisheries and aquaculture • Implement EAF/EAA, integration with other users of watersheds and coastal zones • Appropriate research, technological development and implementation • Proper extension!
DRM Framework Programme GOAL: To reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of agricultural livelihoods against threats and emergencies to protect and strengthen the food & nutrition security of farmers, fishers, herders and foresters.
Four FourIntegrated IntegratedThematic ThematicPillars Pillars 1
ENABLE THE ENVIRONMENT: Institutional strengthening & good governance for DRR in agricultural sectors.
WATCH: Information and early warning systems on food & nutrition security and trans-boundary threats.
PREPARE: Preparedness for effective response & recovery in agriculture, livestock, fisheries & forestry.
BUILD RESILIENCE: Good practices, processes & technologies for mitigation & prevention in farming, fisheries and forestry.
Three ThreeCross-cutting Cross-cuttingPriorities Priorities 1/1/Capacity Capacitydevelopment: development:technical technicalassistance, assistance,know-how, know-how,advocacy, advocacy,policy policyadvise, advise,extension, extension,training, training,tools, tools,services. services. 2/2/Knowledge Knowledgemanagement management&&communication: communication:knowledge knowledgeand andgood goodpractice practicegeneration, generation,documentation documentationand andsharing. sharing. 3/3/Strategic Strategicpartnerships: partnerships:local, local,national, national,regional regionaland andglobal globalpartnerships partnershipswithin withineach eachpillar. pillar.
Climate change impacts on fisheries and aquaculture: assessing vulnerability and adaptation potential
Roadmap for understanding vulnerabilities, adaptation potentials and getting to guidelines Bangladesh 2012
Synthesis and analysis (2012)
Expert Workshop on vulnerability modeling (2012) Global Workshop on guidance (2013)
Common findings to all case studies and regional approaches • In some places fishing and now fish farming constitutes the only protein source and main food security source • In other cases fishing and fish farming constitute a main source of income and livelihoods, often the only direct income to women in a household (in the processing sector) • Poor resource management in the F&A sector makes the sector very sensitive to CC. Often the root cause is poverty • Poor resource management in other sectors e.g. agriculture affects negatively F&A and increases sensitivity and exposure to CC • Fisheries and aquaculture often provide adaptation option to other sectors, specially fisheries as an open “ free access resource” • In most cases fisheries and aquaculture are not included in CC adaptation frameworks, studies, assessment, financing • Very often adaptation in other sectors can negatively impact F&A
Objectives of national case studies and development of projects for funding • Provide and initial assessment of vulnerability in F&A sector – Estimating Exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity – Assessing main information gaps
• Inform on current governance elements relevant to CC adaptation, DRM etc. • Provide policy recommendations to reduce vulnerability, increase adaptation capacity • Recommend priority actions
UNFCC climate change adaptation funding and opportunities for FI&A • The LDCF was established to address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) under the Climate Convention. • There is also the SCCF for developing countries • LDCF was tasked with financing the preparation and implementation of National Adaptation Programs of Action (NAPAs). • SCCF funds can be based on adaptation actions requested in the countries National Communications on Climate Change to the UNFCC
There are other funding sources • The UNFCC Adaptation funds • Funds potentially connected to the “ Greening Agriculture (aquaculture)”- Green Funds • Climate Smart Fisheries and Aquaculture
Developing a PIF for LDCF funding • Provide the base line situation; what is being done and what is needed additionally • Propose expected outcomes, outputs and activities (logical framework) • The project identification form (PIF) has to be endorsed by the national climate change focal point authority (in most countries this is within the ministry of environment) • Normally the Fisheries authority is main executing agency-there is national and local ownership
Objetives of this workshop â€˘ to create awareness about climate change -vulnerability of aquaculture and fisheries dependent livelihoods in Bangladesh â€˘ to discuss and agree on next steps and follow up actions including the development of a GEF project identification form (PIF) that can be submitted to LDCF funding in order to enable adaptation in the fisheries and aquaculture sector in line with national climate change priorities.