Issuu on Google+

1

Table of Contents #

Content 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Cover Letter Free Writing: What is an argument? First Writing Assignment: The Three Appeals Free Writing: Grading Narratives Free Writing: Of Mice and Men Class Discussion: James Berlin's social-epistemic rhetoric, ideology and English studies Class Notes: James Berlin's social-epistemic rhetoric, ideology and English studies Class Discussion: Gender Free Writing: What is College? Research About Gender Free Writing: What does it mean to be a college student from a prospective of gender? Major Writing Assignment 1: First Draft Major Writing Assignment 1: Second Draft Major Writing Assignment 1: Peer Review Major Writing Assignment 1: Final Draft Major Writing Assignment 1: Presentation Major Writing Assignment 1: PowerPoint Presentation Discussion: The Writer's Audience is Always a Fiction Discussion: Fallacies Discussion: Audience Addressed. Audience Invoked Weblog: Audience Addressed, Audience Invoked Summary: Audience Addresses, Audience Invoked Major Writing Assignment 2: Online Sources Major Writing Assignment 2: Outsider Source Major Writing Assignment 2: First Draft Major Writing Assignment 2: Second Draft Major Writing Assignment 2: Peer Review Major Writing Assignment 2: Comments by a Friend Major Writing Assignment 2: Final Draft Free Writing: Religion and Education Discussion: Education VS Religion Major Writing Assignment 3: Sources Major Writing Assignment 3: First Draft Major Writing Assignment 3: Second Draft Major Writing Assignment 3: Final Draft

From 2 3 5 8 10 11

To 2 4 7 9 10 14

15

16

17 19 21 24

18 20 23 24

25 31 38 39 47 53 57 59 63 64 66 69 73 82 87 94 95 96 105 106 107 110 115 122

30 37 38 46 52 56 58 62 63 65 68 72 81 86 93 94 95 104 105 106 109 114 121 128


2

Cover Letter This course made me understand the true meaning of an argument, an effective argument, and rhetoric. It introduced me to the Steinbeck Schema of Argument, which I used in my three major writing assignments. The course also introduced me to smaller topics that helped me a lot while writing, topics such as writing fallacies (ethical or logical) and the writer’s audience. Added to that, for the writing major writing assignments, I had to research certain topics that I had some knowledge about (gender, college, social class, economic class, socioeconomic class), and I also had to research other topics that I had very little knowledge about (politics). Moreover, I believe that I have achieved the main outcome of this course, production of a student subject, by gaining the ability to recognize signifying practices. I believe that the most beneficial lecture that I attended during this course was the one when Professor Mike read to us his former student’s essay. This essay made me think in a different manner. It made me realize how wide each topic is, and how one could write a “unique” paper. The professor always told us that you are not restricted to follow this structure, you could use anyone you like, when I first heard this sentence I felt that I had no idea how I could come up with my own structure. But everything became clear after learning from that student’s essay. I organized my portfolio according to the date I wrote the assignments. I did so, for two reasons; I wanted the person, who views my portfolio, to notices how I have improved throughout the course, and I also wanted him/her to see how I used the free writings, class discussions, summaries, sources, and comments as fragments to build up my major writing assignments. As by organizing my portfolio in such a manner, the viewer will go through these fragments first, and then he will see the major


3

writing assignment that was built using these fragments. Throughout this course, we discussed certain topics in class that (I did not feel) were related to each other. After discussing a number of topics, we were assigned a major writing assignment, which, in some way, relates these topics. This process was repeated each time there was a major writing assignment. In my portfolio, you will see several topics that we discussed, sources that I found, and books that we read. These small pieces cannot be related together, but the major writing assignment, that follows them, connects these pieces together. I don’t believe that any of my major writing assignments are perfect, or nearly perfect. However, I really worked hard on my assignments, and I received grades that were very satisfying, and so I do not feel that I need to revise any draft again. I placed my self in the Positive Side of the Grading Narrative at the beginning of the semester, and now I feel that I deserve to be placed in that side. As I mentioned in my free writing, I took RHET102 during the summer session, so I would concentrate more on the course and dedicate more time and effort to it, and that I will do what I can during the course so I truly deserve the “A.” After Professor Mike told me “You are a hard worker” I knew that I was on the right track.


4

Free Writing What is an argument? •

Argument is when a number of people have different opinions about a certain topic, and they try to convince each other with their opinion by telling them the reason why they believe that they are correct, and the other opinion is not as correct as theirs, as both cannot be proven to be 100% correct.

I believe an effective argument is when a group is convincing the other group (with the different opinion) with their way of thinking while maintaining a healthy argument.

I really don’t know what rhetoric means, but I think that it is a method of persuasion or expression like logical and emotional.


5

First Writing Assignment The Three Appeals “Of the modes of persuasion furnished by spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself. Persuasion is achieved by the speaker’s personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.” (Aristotle 1356a) Aristotle’s three rhetorical appeals: ethos, logos and pathos are techniques used by writers to convince the audience with their ideas. First of all, the ethical appeal. According to Aristotle, ethos means how credible the writer is, and how he uses his character to persuade the audience. An author who gives the audience an impression that he is in control of writing, or that he is someone who is likeable and worthy or respect, will definitely have a strong ethical appeal. So simply, ethos is a technique by which the writer proves to the audience that he is someone worth listening to so that he succeeds in persuading them. In addition, the logical appeal. Logos is Aristotle’s favorite appeal, and that indicates how important it is. Logos is persuading by means of reasoning, which is giving reasons that successfully support the author’s claims. It can be in the form of facts and statistics that support the claim and it is the most important appeal used in arguing. As for the pathos appeal, according to Aristotle it means persuading by appealing to the readers’ emotions. Many rhetoricians have considered pathos the strongest of the appeals, because of the power of emotion to sway the mind. The


6

language chosen by the author can subconsciously influence the audiences’ emotions, thus, enhancing an argument. The use of vivid language, emotional language and sensory details will without a doubt affect the audiences’ emotions. To sum up, in order to become an effective writer or to argue effectively, one should use Aristotle’s three appeals: ethos, logos and pathos.


7

Work Cited [1] Henning, Martha L. "Friendly Persuasion: Classical Rhetoric--Now! Draft Manuscript." N.p., August, 1998. Web. 27 Nov 2010. http://courses.durhamtech.edu/perkins/aris.html


8

Free Writing Grading Narratives I believe that I have always belonged to the Positive Side of the Grading Narrative. I graduated from my high school with an excellent GPA and I wanted to study at the AUC, but my parents refused to send me to Cairo alone (as I used to live in Alexandria), so I was forced to go to the Alexandria Faculty of Engineering. I studied at the Alexandria Faculty of Engineering for 2 years, I achieved the highest GPA in my class, and so my parents agreed to let me transfer to the AUC. During my first semester at the AUC, I had a problem with the course RHET101 as I had spent 5 years without taking a single English course (there weren’t any English courses in my previous university, and I finished all the English courses on my first high school year, so my language was a bit rusty) and most of the Engineering courses got transferred so I took RHET101 with other advanced 200 and 300 level courses. Added to that, I took the course with Dr. Sanaa El Khabar (who was considered to be a relatively tough grader), yet I didn’t give up. I worked hard on my essays, handed them before they were due, I let my friends proofread them and I even went to my previous high school teacher for help. After all that hard work I scored the grade that I was aiming for “A-”, which made me glad. I didn’t take the course RHET102 the following semester, as I had to take 7 mechanical courses so I would catch up with my class, and to be honest I was a bit worried about taking the course with other 300 level mechanical courses. Therefore, I decided to take RHET102 during the summer session so I would concentrate more on the course and dedicate more time to it. I’m aiming to get an “A”, for in the 13 courses that I took at the AUC I scored 12 “A”s and a single “A-” (in RHET101) and


9

I don’t intend to score another “A-”, and so I will do what it can during the course so I truly deserve the “A”.


10

Free Writing Of Mice and Men When I was watching the movie, I felt as if I knew what each character was going to say, what each character will wear in the upcoming scene and what was going inside their heads, and for that reason I noticed several differences between the movie and the book. One of those differences was a conversation in the movie between George and Curley’s wife. I felt that the director added this scene so he could show the viewers what the writer wanted them to feel. Another difference was when Lennie entered Crooks room. In the novel Candy also entered Crook’s room and there was a short conversation between them. This part was not in the movie, I feel that the director removed it from the movie because it didn’t have a significant effect on the movie or the characters. Another difference that I noticed was when Lennie sat at the end waiting for George, in the novel he imagined his aunt and talked to her but this part was also not included in the movie. I enjoyed reading the book more than I enjoyed watching the movie, I think it is because while I was reading the book I paused several times to visualize the situations and put myself in the characters position which effected me emotionally. However, while watching the movie I wasn’t affected at all, and for that reason I was surprised to see a girl cry at the end of the movie. I believe that George was preparing himself to kill Lennie, and he was waiting for the right time. I felt that when I read the part when George saw Curly’s wife’s dead body and told Candy that he will go outside with the others so no one will suspect that he is in on it, and he went to get Carlson’s gun. I felt that he didn’t have enough time to think about such a thing, so he must have been preparing himself for it.


11

Class Discussion James Berlin's social-epistemic rhetoric, ideology and English studies

Berlin starts by identifying social-epistemic rhetoric as: The study and analysis of indicating applications in their relation to subjects within the framework of economic, social and political conditions. ............................................................................................................ Then he talked about ideology in rhetoric: He suggested that we should examine the system of ideas that suffer from particular conditions while considering any rhetoric situation. He mentioned that by saying that there isn't a set of indicating practices that can lay a claim to a non-interesting pursuit of the truth; all are engaged in the play of power and politics regardless of their intentions. He states that ideology demands an explanation to subjects through debates that offer instructions to 3 important questions: What exists, what is good, and what is possible He also says that ideology always brings with it strong social and cultural reinforcement, so that we have value to the nature of things He ends his definition of ideology by saying that it is simply located in our daily debates where it emerges as conflicts do, and through out history, there were a wide variety of competing ideologies but their overall effect was to support the leadership of the dominant group. Such ideologies include debates about class, race, gender, ethnicity (belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural


12

tradition), sex , age and religion. He also states that a person should be an agent of change not simply a person who changes from an unlikable state to another without complaining or doing anything about it. ............................................................................................................ Social Constructionist Rhetoric: (a concept or practice that is the construct of a particular group.. has dependence other that inherent quality) Social Constructionist Rhetoric position verifies the influence of social forces in the formation of the individual. This rhetoric sees the critical examination of the difficult to describe effects of ideas as a key to decision making. It is flawed if viewed from the postmodern perspective. As it never abandons the notion of the individual as a free agent capable of change. In short the major flaw of this rhetoric is that it is incapable of examining its own ideological commitments, mistaking them for the accurate truth. ........................................................................................................... Social-Epistemic Rhetoric (a study of rhetoric) Social-Epistemic retains a lot from social rhetoric but its leavings are not less important. 1st It revived the rhetoric process (discovery and invention)


13

2nd thing it informs and is informed by poststructualism which is used in critical textual analysis It is self-reflexive, and contains a perfect moment, and is also aware of its historical contingency and incompleteness The subjects for this rhetoric is multiple and conflicted instead of being unified, coherent and transcendent such as other rhetoric. Language is the reason for conflict and disagreement so the assessment of the ideas is the main point in rhetoric. Its function is to study how people compose or interpret a debate, depending on different cultures of the audience ............................................................................................................. He talked about the subject: (us) Each of us has available a multiple of personalities that we might use, but not all are appropriate for every debate situation. However, each of us has a measure of uniqueness due to our personal experience with debates He talked about the audience: that they are of different race class gender sex age, so their responses are never predictable ............................................................................................................ Literacy/Rhetorical Binary:


14

He believes that there is not a disinterested use of language as all readings and writings are arranged in a certain way so that they overlap in a system of ideas in a particular way.


15

Class Notes James Berlin's social-epistemic rhetoric, ideology and English studies Social epistemic rhetoric: Using varied references Attempts defining rhetoric as related to politics, etc Ideology: ideas who you are People who resist change Support leadership of the dominant group(default) Rhetoric: preparing us for citizenship in a democratic society Epistemology: knowledge (study of) Composition course helps you as an agent explore your culture, an active member of ur community.. He talks about the concern of the speaker’s ethos Meta cognition: (beyond cognition) Means consciously thinking about the way you think and why you think that way. Ethos: is a custom or a habit, according to Greeks.. is about the spirit of ur habits (what is behind them): this creates yor ethos Language is owned by no one or no particular group.. always changing such as society.


16

…………. Modernism Vs post Modernism: Modernism is about living the spirit of your age.. regional.. technology Post Modernism is a reaction to modernism, has aspects of modernism.. politically correct, tolerant, against divisions.. rejects placing people in roles(giving an old man a chair), favors discovery and individualism. …………. Social epistemic rhetoric: Diff between English class and rhetoric class: rhetoric affects you, Heuristics: trial and error, Exigence: something that requires to be solved (kairos: when George saw the dead girl, he had to make a decision, DECISIVE MOMENT, aperture time) Rhetoric is applicable for life, makes you able to detect that u need a change, it is practical, it prepares you to live in a democratic society, makes you an active member. …………


17

Class Discussion Gender 2 types of gender: social and biological SEX: female, male, ferms (female with male aspects), herms, mermes ( males with high estrogen) feminine and masculine is created by society. What are the expectations of the society for the gender code? rules?? ........................................................................................... What is a gender code?:_ (letter of the code, spirit of the code) metacognition thinking of y u think that way.. u can fully follow or not but to be practical u need to reach an intermediate Male: marriage at young age (35), self supporting, independent financially, higher education (medicine, engineering) art is criticized.. should be financially practical Female: marriage at a young age (27) higher education for image, education for educating the young.. cultural code: female works with children while male supports the family …………………………………………………………………… steinbeck schema: Gender code Practical extreme (follow the rules and help ur frnds) VS know when to do both.. then act on it common ground, then signifying practices (conclusion= practical thing that you can do).. purpose


18

Emotional extreme (resist rules.. drugs sex girlwithproff) ……………………………………………………………………


19

Free Writing What is College?

A college basically is an educational institution where one provides himself or herself with a higher educational system in which he or she specializes to meet his or her profession’s needs. Becoming a college student is different from having been a school student. A college student must acquire certain qualities to succeed in his or her profession later in the future. One must have the ability and willingness even if the subjects are not interesting, be proficient in academic skills, has the ability to apply the results of his or her learning in to a creative way and achieve the goals, have a wide perspective, have discipline in managing his or her time on work distributions and understand the concepts rather than memorizing them. These qualifications complete the perfect picture for the leaders of the future of each generation and that’s basically why colleges were founded in first place. I believe that college is founded to get people on the course of higher levels of education to create good leaders in each field who will be able to excel in their professions and take their community, people, country or even the whole world to higher standards. And that was the case with “AlAzhar” college in Cairo, Egypt, a college that is considered to be the oldest and first in the world. It was founded roughly the same time as the city of Cairo, in 969 AD. Studies began at Al-Azhar in the month of Ramadan, 975 AD. According to Syed Farid Alatas, the college had faculties in Islamic law and jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomy, Islamic philosophy, and logic, which were needed at that time to spread Islam and create, better educated leaders. In fact that is the idea of college to broaden the horizon for each person and put them on the right track and provide guide and that’s why I go to college. Although some people may choose to


20

quit continuing education after High School, I reject the idea and think that these people do not have dreams and these people do not want a future. I know what I want, I’ve set a goal to become an engineer and I strive hard for it to make change in the future and that is why I attend college.


21

Research About Gender

Article 1: Impact of Environment upon Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation: A Lesson for Parents of Children with Intersex or Gender Confusion. Citation Information. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 625–6 http://www.reference-global.com/doi/abs/10.1515/JPEM.2005.18.7.62530, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: 10.1515/JPEM.2005.18.7.625

It was quite interesting to run through such an article. The idea of integrating paternal, environmental and sexual orientation ideas affects the individual who suffers persistent gender issues. The article gave two examples and each example had two males as a sub-example. First example focused on the paternal effect on gender issues. Two men were forced harshly to have behavioral modifications by their parents during their childhood in response to feminine behavior. As they grew old, their outcomes were different. One of them took female hormones and is convinced that he has internal female organs and monthly menstrual cycle and as result he was not socially accepted and has been abounded by his family and his social environment. On the other hand the other man lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife although he is visually attracted to men and male pornography. Surprisingly this man credits his mother for directing him towards a successful life. The other example focuses on the environmental effect on gender issues. The article speaks that it is almost impossible to disengage the effects of the environment from


22

the effects of genetics of developing a child. It is an issue that must be considered when trying to know how to manage and intersexed child. However, the article talks about two men who took part in an adult male development and fertility study research, however both men had normal adult genital and hit puberty at the normal time. Article 2 : Socialization to Gender Roles: Popularity among Elementary School Boys and Girls: Citation Information: Jstor : Patricia A. Adler, Steven J. Kless and Peter Adler Sociology of Education Vol. 65, No. 3 (Jul., 1992), pp. 169-187 http://www.jstor.org/pss/2112807

This article provides data based on a research that focused on preadolescent kids in and outside elementary schools to focus on the role of popularity in gender socialization. The research showed that boys and girls built the ideal images for masculinity and femininity on which they modeled their behavior. These images reflect the factors that would qualify a child to become popular. For instance boys who qualified for the position were those who had the best athletic ability, coolness, toughness, social skills and success in relationships with the other gender. On the other hand, girls were qualified for popularity based on their parents’ economical status, physical appearance and academic success. Furthermore, the article also discusses that although the boy’s image consists of more active and achieved features than girls, it consists of complex integrations resisting elements and causes them to have both female and male characteristics. However, the research illustrates changes in children specifically girls changes that carry on to gender role. The cause is thought to be resulting from historical changes in the society.


23

Article 3: Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis Citation Information: Joan W. Scott The American Historical Review Vol. 91, No. 5 (Dec., 1986), pp. 10531075 (article consists of 23 pages) Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Historical Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1864376

This article is about the definition of “Gender” Gender as a grammatical term only means to talk of persons or creatures of the masculine or feminine gender, meaning of the female and male sex, is either a joke or ignorance or confusion. The article talks about that not any of the dictionaries found would be able to capture fix meanings free of the editions of human inventions and imaginations. The author provides examples saying that through the ages people have made figurative allusions by creating grammatical terms to evoke traits for character and personality and how feminine society use “gender” as a way of referring to social organizations of the relationship between the two sex


24

Free Writing What does it mean to be a college student from a prospective of gender? If you look at the mechanical engineering department here at the AUC, the percentage of females in the department won’t exceed 10 percent. On the other hand, when considering majors such as media or art, in these majors females are clearly dominant. These ratios clearly indicate that gender affects your choice of major as a result of different causes. These causes include family reasons, in some families a son of a doctor should become a doctor, a son of an engineer should also become an engineer, so the college student has a small influence in selecting his major. However, in these families, females are not obligated to follow the family’s educational field, and so they choose their major depending on their abilities and what they want to do. For those reasons, most females are found in art and media as they selected this major, and a small number of males as most of males who wanted these majors were obligated to enter a different one.


25

Major Writing Assignment 1: First Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 22 June 2011 The Gender Behavior of a College Student The word gender has been used since the fourteenth century primarily as a grammatical term, referring to the classes of noun in Latin, Greek, German, and other languages designated as masculine, feminine, or neuter. It has also been used in the sense ‘the state of being male or female.’ Although the words gender and sex both have the sense ‘the state of being male or female,’ they are typically used in slightly different ways: sex tends to refer to biological differences, while gender tends to refer to cultural or social ones. (Oxford Dictionary) The fact that every person belongs to a certain gender group does not oblige him/her to behave according to a certain gender code; every person is free to act in his/her own choice of behavior regardless of his/her gender. A male or a female college student, for example, has the capability of choosing whether he or she wants to behave in a functional/practical masculine extreme, a human/personal feminine extreme, or even an intermediate between both extremes, as each of us has available a multiple of personalities that we might use. (A. Berlin 83-102) The purpose of this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? Or in other words, which gender code should I choose to follow? A college basically is an educational institution where one provides himself or herself with a higher educational system in which he or she specializes to meet his or


26

her profession’s needs. Becoming a college student is different from having been a school student. A college student must acquire certain qualities to succeed in his or her profession later in the future. One must have the ability and willingness to deal with different subjects even if the subjects are not interesting, be proficient in academic skills, have the ability to apply the results of his or her learning in a creative way, depend on himself or herself, have a wide perspective, have discipline in managing his or her time on work distributions, and understand different concepts rather than memorizing them. These qualifications complete the perfect picture for the leaders of the future and that is basically why colleges were founded in first place. These qualifications also resemble the functional/practical masculine behavior, as a male (in ideal situations) one has the ability to deal with different problems that might occur. For instance, he learns from his mistakes, he is financially self-dependent, he foresees future events, he manages his work and his family, and finally his decisions are based on deductive reasoning. However, these qualifications are also the social expectations of the male in the society, so the male’s experience through college helps in his development of mind and personality. Furthermore, these experiences depict his gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society’s expectations of him as a man. I find these qualifications meeting with logic. But logic at this age of development works as a resistant for the emotional thoughts and in this case emotional thoughts are “sex and drugs.” If one chooses to go emotionally, one will fail society’s expectations as a male. On the other hand, a different college student can also act in a different manner, the human/personal extreme. He/she tries to achieve his/her grades with minimum effort, he/she requests help from others and repays them by different methods, and most importantly he/she is more concerned about his/her popularity.


27

These characteristics resemble the feminine behavior, as a female tries to finish her house duties with minimum effort, she sometimes hires someone to accomplish them for her (maid/butler), and she is always concerned about her image in society. Likewise, college students who act in a human/personal manner are always concerned about their social image; they try to reach a certain ideal images in their society. These images reflect the factors that would qualify a person to become popular. For instance males who qualified for the position were those who had the best athletic ability, coolness, toughness, social skills and success in relationships with the other gender. On the other hand, females were qualified for popularity based on their physical appearance and academic success. (A. Adler, J. Kless, and Adler 169-187) When considering gender, the idea of integrating paternal, environmental and sexual orientation ideas affects the individual who suffers persistent gender issues. An experiment was conducted and focused on the paternal effect on gender issues. Two men were forced harshly to have behavioral modifications by their parents during their childhood in response to feminine behavior. As they grew old, their outcomes were different. One of them took female hormones and is convinced that he has internal female organs and monthly menstrual cycle and as result he was not socially accepted and has been abounded by his family and his social environment. On the other hand the other man lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife although he is visually attracted to men and male pornography. Surprisingly this man credits his mother for directing him towards a successful life. (Zadik 625-626) This experiment shows the results of being forced to behave in a manner that does not appeal to a person. The “feminine behavior” (Zadik 625-626) that appealed to both men was different than that they should act upon, and than that they were forced to act upon by their parents during their childhood. “As they grew old” (Zadik 625-626)


28

both men chose a different method to deal with their problem. The first man chose to follow the “feminine behavior” (Zadik 625-626) extreme, he took “female hormones” (Zadik 625-626) to approach that extreme that resulted in his “social rejection.” (Zadik 625-626) However, the second man chose to behave in a manner that did not appeal to him, he chose to live a “heterosexual life,” (Zadik 625-626) yet he “is still visually attracted to men and enjoys male pornography” (Zadik 625-626) so his choice was in someway balanced and resulted in him thanking “his mother for directing him towards a successful life.” (Zadik 625-626) Similarly, when in school, children are forced by their parents to act in a certain manner that (in most cases) does not appeal to them. When the child “grows” (Zadik 625-626) up and goes to college he/she has the freedom to behave in a manner that best suits him/her. If the student chooses to behave according to the feminine extreme that may still appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her rejection by his family, university and community. If the student chooses to behave according to the masculine extreme that may not appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her success in college but wont necessarily result in his/her success in life. On the other hand, if a student finds a balance between the masculine and feminine behavior extremes (as the second man did in the experiment), it will definitely “direct him towards a successful life.” (Zadik 625-626) This essay does not only argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? But also, it arouses the met cognition of college students, increases the awareness of college students of their own thought processes, (Oxford dictionary) helps them determine the manner in which they choose to behave whether it is a functional/practical masculine extreme, a human/personal feminine extreme, or even an intermediate between both extremes. I personally believe that the extreme of everything makes it worse its value


29

and as Schlegel said: “Combine the extremes, and you will have a true center.” Moreover, the essay promotes the awareness of exigency. It encourages college students that have been behaving in a certain manner to change before it’s too late and they end up saying we “oughtta of.” (Steinbeck 61)


30

Works Cited A. Adler, Patricia, Steven J. Kless, and Peter Adler. "Socialization to Gender Roles: Popularity among Elementary School Boys and Girls." Sociology of Education 65.3 (1992): 169187. Web. 21 Jun 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2112807>.

Zadik, Zvi. "A Lesson for Parents of Children with Intersex or Gender Confusion." Impact of Environment upon Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation. 18.7 625-626. Print.

A. Berlin, James. Rhetorics, poetics, and cultures: refiguring college English studies . III. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1996. 83-102. Print.

Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. Penguin Books, 1993. 61. Print.


31

Major Writing Assignment 1: Second Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 25 June 2011 Behavior of a College Student The word gender has been used since the fourteenth century primarily as a grammatical term, referring to the classes of noun in Latin, Greek, German, and other languages designated as masculine, feminine, or neuter. It has also been used in the sense ‘the state of being male or female.’ Although the words gender and sex both have the sense ‘the state of being male or female,’ they are typically used in slightly different ways: sex tends to refer to biological differences, while gender tends to refer to cultural or social ones. (Oxford Dictionary) The fact that every person belongs to a certain gender group does not oblige that person to behave according to the gender code; every person is free to act in his/her own choice of behavior regardless of his/her gender. Here in Egypt, for example, people belonging to the lower classes follow the gender code as if it were the “law,” (Steinbeck, 45) and this is considered an extreme functional/practical behavior. However, the minorities who belong to the top classes resist the code as they find it the human/personal thing to do. These two examples represent two extremes in the Egyptian society who behave in two distinctive manners according to their diverse mentalities. Similarly, a male or a female college student has the capability of choosing whether he or she wants to behave in a functional/practical extreme, a human/personal extreme, or even an intermediate between both extremes; as each of us has available a multiple of


32

personalities that we might use. (Berlin 83-102) The purpose of this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? Or in other words, which mentality should I choose to follow? A college basically is an educational institution where one provides himself or herself with a higher educational system in which he or she specializes to meet his or her professionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs. Becoming a college student is different from having been a school student. A college student must acquire certain qualities to succeed in his or her profession later in the future. One must have the ability and willingness to deal with different subjects even if the subjects are not interesting, be proficient in academic skills, have the ability to apply the results of his or her learning in a creative way, depend on himself or herself, have a wide perspective, have discipline in managing his or her time on work distributions, and understand different concepts. These qualifications complete the perfect picture for the leaders of the future and that is basically why colleges were founded in first place. Sadly some students misinterpret the meaning of college, they are more concerned about their grades than their outcomes. These students dedicate all their time for studying the material, they rely on memorizing all the concepts, they are of limited creativity, they depend on the ideas that were directly taught to them and they do not have the ability to deal with new problems. This mentality is somewhat a functional/practical extreme, as when these students achieve high grades they deduce that they are on the right track. However, that deduction lacks emotions; they do not feel that they are missing the main concept of college and that they are missing out on their life. This mentality also resembles the functional/practical behavior of the lower class Egyptians towards the gender code. These people misinterpret the gender code. They neglect the importance


33

of females in the society; they believe that a wife is â&#x20AC;&#x153;ownedâ&#x20AC;? (Steinbeck) by her husband, she is there to clean, cook, and educate the children, she should not have the right to leave their houses at night as males do and that there is no point in her being highly educated. This mentality is also a functional/practical extreme, as these people deduced from the difference in physical strength between a male and a female, that a female is incapable of protecting herself and that she should stay protected in her house by a male. In addition, their deduction also lacks emotions; these people do not feel that a female has equal rights as a male and that a female can be more important to the society than most males. On the other hand, a different college student can also act in a different extreme, the human/personal extreme. That student resists the code of his/her college simply because he/she feels that such code should not exist as one should not waste his/her time studying something that will be eventually forgotten, and that he/she is considered by the society to be better than those following the code. He/she tries to achieve his/her grades with minimum effort, he/she requests help from others and repays them by different methods, and most importantly he/she is more concerned about his/her popularity and image in the society. These characteristics represent the human/personal extreme behavior, as these students are only concerned about their emotional satisfaction by trying to reach certain ideal images in their society. These images reflect the factors that would qualify a person to become popular. For instance males who qualified for the position were those who had the best athletic ability, coolness, toughness, social skills and success in relationships with the other gender. On the other hand, females were qualified for popularity based on their physical appearance. (A. Adler, J. Kless, and Adler 169-187) In addition, the behavior of these college students towards their college resembles that of the top class Egyptians


34

towards the gender code. This minority resists the code as they find it the human/personal thing to do. They do that simply because they feel that such a code should not exist as there should not be a difference between genders, and that they should always be different than those belonging to the lower classes who follow the gender code. In these families both the males and females are highly educated, the female rarely has any house duties, a maid/butler is hired to do the house duties, sometimes the female is the source of the major income in the family and the female can go out all day while her husband stays at home watching he children and cooking dinner for her. When considering gender, the idea of integrating paternal, environmental and sexual orientation ideas affects the individual who suffers persistent gender issues. An experiment was conducted and focused on the paternal effect on gender issues. Two men were forced harshly to have behavioral modifications by their parents during their childhood in response to feminine behavior. As they grew old, their outcomes were different. One of them took female hormones and is convinced that he has internal female organs and monthly menstrual cycle and as result he was not socially accepted and has been abounded by his family and his social environment. On the other hand the other man lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife although he is visually attracted to men and male pornography. Surprisingly this man credits his mother for directing him towards a successful life. (Zadik 625-626) This experiment shows the results of being forced to behave in a manner that does not appeal to a person. The “feminine behavior” (Zadik 625-626) that appealed to both men was different than that they should act upon, and than that they were forced to act upon by their parents during their childhood. “As they grew old” (Zadik 625-626) both men chose a different method to deal with their problem. The first man chose to


35

follow the “feminine behavior” (Zadik 625-626) extreme, he took “female hormones” (Zadik 625-626) to approach that extreme that resulted in his “social rejection.” (Zadik 625-626) However, the second man chose to behave in a manner that did not appeal to him, he chose to live a “heterosexual life,” (Zadik 625-626) yet he “is still visually attracted to men and enjoys male pornography” (Zadik 625-626) so his choice was in someway balanced and resulted in him thanking “his mother for directing him towards a successful life.” (Zadik 625-626) Similarly, when in school, children are forced by their parents to act in a certain manner that (in most cases) does not appeal to them: the functional/practical extreme. When the child “grows” (Zadik 625-626) up and goes to college he/she has the freedom to behave in a manner that best suits him/her. If the student chooses to behave according to the human/personal extreme that may still appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her rejection by his family, university and community. If the student chooses to behave according to the functional/practical extreme that may not appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her success in college but wont necessarily result in his/her success in life. On the other hand, if a student finds a balance between both the extremes (as the second man did in the experiment), it will definitely “direct him towards a successful life.” (Zadik 625626) This essay does not only argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? But also, it arouses the metacognition of college students, increases the awareness of college students of their own thought processes, (Oxford dictionary) helps them determine the manner in which they choose to behave whether it is a functional/practical extreme, a human/personal extreme, or even an intermediate between both extremes. I personally believe that the extreme of everything makes it lose its value and as the German poet,


36

critic and scholar Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel said: “Combine the extremes, and you will have a true center.” Moreover, the essay promotes the awareness of exigency. It encourages college students that have been behaving in a certain manner to change before it’s too late and they end up saying we “oughtta of.” (Steinbeck 61)


37

Works Cited A. Adler, Patricia, Steven J. Kless, and Peter Adler. "Socialization to Gender Roles: Popularity among Elementary School Boys and Girls." Sociology of Education 65.3 (1992): 169187. Web. 21 Jun 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2112807>.

Zadik, Zvi. "A Lesson for Parents of Children with Intersex or Gender Confusion." Impact of Environment upon Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation. 18.7 625-626. Print.

A. Berlin, James. Rhetorics, poetics, and cultures: refiguring college English studies . III. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1996. 83-102. Print.

Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. Penguin Books, 1993. Print.


38

Major Writing Assignment 1: Peer Review Rate this paper's overall readabilty 4 of 5 At which point did you feel most interested by this piece? When least? Explain. Does this paper sustain a coherent point of view? Why or why not? I feel it consists of too much information rather then perception of the writers view on the topic. Could the readability, clarity, or style of this paper be improved? How? Perhaps this papers readability could be improved by consisting more sharp sentences. Longer quotes illustrating and backing up the writers point of view. Enhance language and organize the paper by creating clear topic sentences for each paragraph. Rate the strength of this paper's thesis. 3 of 5 Can the conclusion of this paper be convincingly drawn from the thesis and the argument made in the body of the paper? Why or why not? Does each paragraph of this paper logically progress from the former ones? Why or why not? It logically progresses, however doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t relate to the thesis as it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really exist.


39

Major Writing Assignment 1: Final Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 28 June 2011 Behavior of a College Student The word gender has been used since the fourteenth century primarily as a grammatical term, referring to the classes of noun in Latin, Greek, German, and other languages designated as masculine, feminine, or neuter. It has also been used in the sense ‘the state of being male or female.’ Although the words gender and sex both have the sense ‘the state of being male or female,’ they are typically used in slightly different ways: sex tends to refer to biological differences, while gender tends to refer to cultural or social ones. (Mac Dictionary) The fact that every person belongs to a certain gender group does not oblige that person to behave according to the gender code; every person is free to act in his/her own choice of behavior regardless of his/her gender. Here in Egypt, for example, people belonging to the lower classes follow the gender code as if it were the “law” (Steinbeck 45), and this is considered an extreme functional/practical behavior. However, the minorities who belong to the top classes resist the code as they find it the human/personal thing to do. These two examples represent two extremes in the Egyptian society who behave in two distinctive manners according to their diverse mentalities. Similarly, a male or a female college student has the capability of choosing whether he or she wants to behave in a functional/practical extreme, a


40

human/personal extreme, or even in an intermediate between both extremes; as â&#x20AC;&#x153;each of us has available a multiplicity of selves we might call onâ&#x20AC;? (Berlin 88). The purpose of this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? Or in other words, which mentality should I choose to follow? A great number of college students act in a functional/practical extreme similar to the behavior of the Egyptians belonging to the lower classes towards the gender code. These students either act in that manner because they do not really understand the true meaning of college or misinterpret it. Basically a college is an educational institution where one provides himself or herself with a higher educational system in which he or she specializes to meet his or her professionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs. Becoming a college student is different from having been a school student. A college student must acquire certain qualities to succeed in his or her profession later in the future. One must have the ability and willingness to deal with different subjects even if the subjects are not interesting, be proficient in academic skills, have the ability to apply the results of his or her learning in a creative way, depend on himself or herself, have a wide perspective, have discipline in managing his or her time on work distributions, and understand different concepts. These qualifications complete the perfect picture for the leaders of the future and that is basically why colleges were founded in first place. Sadly some students misinterpret the meaning of college, they are more concerned about their grades than their outcomes. These students dedicate all their time for studying the material, they rely on memorizing all the concepts, they are of limited creativity, they depend on the ideas that were directly taught to them and they do not have the ability to deal with new problems. This mentality is somewhat a functional/practical extreme, as when these students achieve high grades


41

they deduce that they are on the right track. However, that deduction lacks emotions; they do not feel that they are missing the main concept of college and that they are missing out on their life. This mentality also resembles the functional/practical behavior of the lower class Egyptians towards the gender code. These people misinterpret the gender code. They neglect the importance of females in the society; they believe that a wife is owned by her husband (Steinbeck), she is there to clean, cook, and educate the children, she should not have the right to leave their houses at night as males do and that there is no point in her being highly educated. This mentality is also a functional/practical extreme, as these people deduced from the fact that women are approximately 52% and 66% as strong as the men in the upper and lower body respectively (Miller, MacDougall, Tarnopolsky, and Sale 254-262), that a female is incapable of protecting herself and that she should stay protected in her house by a male. In addition, their deduction also lacks emotions; these people do not feel that a female has equal rights as a male and that a female can be more important to the society than most males. On the other hand, a different college student can also act in a different extreme, the human/personal extreme. That student resists the code of his/her college simply because he/she feels that such code should not exist as one should not waste his/her time studying something that will be eventually forgotten, and that he/she is considered by the society to be better than those following the code. He/she tries to achieve his/her grades with minimum effort, he/she requests help from others and repays them by different methods, and most importantly he/she is more concerned about his/her popularity and image in the society. These characteristics represent the human/personal extreme behavior, as these students are only concerned about their emotional satisfaction by trying to reach certain ideal images in their society. These


42

images reflect the factors that would qualify a person to become popular. For instance males who qualified for the position were those who had the best athletic ability, coolness, toughness, social skills and success in relationships with the other gender. On the other hand, females were qualified for popularity based on their physical appearance (A. Adler, J. Kless, and P. Adler 169-187). In addition, the behavior of these college students towards their college resembles that of the top class Egyptians towards the gender code. This minority resists the code as they find it the human/personal thing to do. They do that simply because they feel that such a code should not exist as there should not be a difference between genders, and that they should always be different than those belonging to the lower classes who follow the gender code. In these families both the males and females are highly educated, the female rarely has any house duties, a maid/butler is hired to do the house duties, sometimes the female is the source of the major income in the family and the female can go out all day while her husband stays at home watching he children and cooking for the family. When considering gender, the idea of integrating paternal, environmental and sexual orientation ideas affects the individual who suffers persistent gender issues. An experiment was conducted and focused on the paternal effect on gender issues. Two men were forced harshly to have behavioral modifications by their parents during their childhood in response to feminine behavior. As they grew old, their outcomes were different. One of them took female hormones and is convinced that he has internal female organs and monthly menstrual cycle and as result he was not socially accepted and has been abounded by his family and his social environment. On the other hand the other man lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife although he is visually attracted to men and male pornography. Surprisingly this man credits


43

his mother for directing him towards a successful life (Zadik 625-30). This experiment shows the results of being forced to behave in a manner that does not appeal to a person. The “effeminate behavior” (Ibid 625-30) that appealed to both men was different than that they should act upon, and than that they were forced to act upon by their parents during their childhood. “As they grew old” (Ibid 625-30) both men chose a different method to deal with their problem. The first man chose to follow the “feminine behavior” (Ibid 625-30) extreme, he took “female hormones” (Ibid 625-30) to approach that extreme that resulted in his “social rejection” (Ibid 625-30). However, the second man chose to behave in a manner that did not appeal to him, he chose to live a “heterosexual life” (Ibid 625-30), yet he “is still visually attracted to men and enjoys male pornography” (Ibid 625-30) so his choice was in someway balanced and resulted in him thanking “his mother for directing him towards a successful life” (Ibid 625-30). Similarly, when in school, children are forced by their parents to act in a certain manner that (in most cases) does not appeal to them: the functional/practical extreme. When the child “grows” (Ibid 625-30) up and goes to college he/she has the freedom to behave in a manner that best suits him/her. If the student chooses to behave according to the human/personal extreme that may still appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her rejection by his family, university and community. If the student chooses to behave according to the functional/practical extreme that may not appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her success in college but wont necessarily result in his/her success in life. On the other hand, if a student finds a balance between both the extremes (as the second man did in the experiment), it will definitely “direct him towards a successful life” (Ibid 625-30). This essay does not only argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? But also, it


44

arouses the metacognition of college students, increases the awareness of college students of their own thought processes (Mac Dictionary), and helps them determine the manner in which they choose to behave whether it is a functional/practical extreme, a human/personal extreme or even an intermediate between both extremes. I personally believe that the extreme of everything makes it lose its value and as the German poet, critic and scholar Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel said: “Combine the extremes, and you will have a true center.” Moreover, the essay promotes the awareness of exigency. It encourages college students that have been behaving in a certain manner to change before it’s too late and they end up saying we “oughtta of” (Steinbeck 61).


45

Works Cited Adler, Patricia A., Steven J. Kless, and Peter Adler. "Socialization to G e n d e r R o l e s : P o p u l a r i t y a m o n g E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l B o ys a n d Girls." Sociology of Education 65.3 (1992): 169-187. Web. 21 Jun 2011. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2112807>.

Zadik, Zvi. "A Lesson for Parents of Children with Intersex or Gender Confusion." Impact of Environment upon Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation. 18.7 625-630. Print.

A. Berlin, James. Rhetorics, poetics, and cultures: refiguring college English studies. III. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1996. 83-102. Print.

Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. Penguin Books, 1993. Print.


46

Miller, A, J MacDougall, M Tarnopolsky, and D Sale. "Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics." European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 66.3 (1993): 254-262. Print.


47

Major Writing Assignment 1: Presentation (Note: The words underlined are taken from the Writing Assignment) Today I will be presenting my first major writing assignment titled “Behavior of a College Student” The purpose of this essay was to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean for me to be a college student from the perspective of gender? The essay discussed this topic without referring to the college student’s gender, but it argued relating everything to gender. The outline for the MWA is as shown on the slide show: The first paragraph is the introduction, followed by the functional/practical extreme paragraph, then the human/personal extreme paragraph, then comes the synthesis paragraph, and finally the conclusion. the introduction starts by defining the word gender Then a new topic is introduced, that is, you don’t have to follow the gender code as every person is free to act in his/her own choice of behavior regardless of his/her gender And this topic lead to the birth of the 2 extremes 1: the functional/practical extreme 2:the human/personal extreme the 2 extremes are then related to a college student’s life by indicating that:


48

on the third line after the definition Here in Egypt, for example, people belonging to the lower classes follow the gender code as if it were the “law” and this is considered an extreme functional/practical behavior. However, the minorities who belong to the top classes resist the code as they find it the human/personal thing to do. These two examples represent two extremes in the Egyptian society who behave in two distinctive manners according to their diverse mentalities. Similarly, a male or a female college student has the capability of choosing whether he or she wants to behave in a functional/practical extreme, a human/personal extreme, or even in an intermediate between both extremes; as “each of us has available a multiplicity of selves we might call on” So this essay guides the college student to select the best mentality that he or she should follow Moving to the second paragraph that is the Functional/practical extreme: The paragraph starts by indicating that some college students don’t really understand or misinterpret the meaning of college Then the meaning of college and its aims are discussed with the qualities each college student should have on the 4th line of the 2nd paragraph in the 2nd page: Then the essay discusses how some students behaving in the functional/practical extreme misinterpret the meaning of college on the 15th line of the same paragraph These students dedicate all their time for studying the material, they rely on memorizing all the concepts, they are of limited creativity, they depend on the ideas


49

that were directly taught to them and they do not have the ability to deal with new problems. This mentality is somewhat a functional/practical extreme, as when these students achieve high grades they deduce that they are on the right track. However, that deduction lacks emotions; they do not feel that they are missing the main concept of college and that they are missing out on their life. then their functional/practical behavior is related to that of the lower class Egyptians to the gender code: on the 6th line from the bottom This mentality also resembles the functional/practical behavior of the lower class Egyptians towards the gender code. These people misinterpret the gender code. They neglect the importance of females in the society; they believe that a wife is owned by her husband, she is there to clean, cook, and educate the children, she should not have the right to leave their houses at night as males do and that there is no point in her being highly educated. This mentality is also a functional/practical extreme, as these people deduced from the fact that women are approximately 52% and 66% as strong as the men in the upper and lower body respectively that a female is incapable of protecting herself and that she should stay protected in her house by a male. In addition, their deduction also lacks emotions; these people do not feel that a female has equal rights as a male and that a female can be more important to the society than most males. Moving to the third paragraph that is the Human/Personal extreme: The paragraph begins by indicating how and why some students behave in the functional/practical extreme and uses an experiment that was done to reinforce the discussion


50

That student resists the code of his/her college simply because he/she feels that such code should not exist as one should not waste his/her time studying something that will be eventually forgotten, and that he/she is considered by the society to be better than those following the code. He/she tries to achieve his/her grades with minimum effort, he/she requests help from others and repays them by different methods, and most importantly he/she is more concerned about his/her popularity and image in the society. These characteristics represent the human/personal extreme behavior, as these students are only concerned about their emotional satisfaction by trying to reach certain ideal images in their society. These images reflect the factors that would qualify a person to become popular. For instance males who qualified for the position were those who had the best athletic ability, coolness, toughness, social skills and success in relationships with the other gender. On the other hand, females were qualified for popularity based on their physical appearance The essay then relates behavior to that of the top class Egyptians to the gender code: on the third line from the bottom of the page In addition, the behavior of these college students towards their college resembles that of the top class Egyptians towards the gender code. This minority resists the code as they find it the human/personal thing to do. They do that simply because they feel that such a code should not exist as there should not be a difference between genders, and that they should always be different than those belonging to the lower classes who follow the gender code. In these families both the males and females are highly educated, the female rarely has any house duties, a maid/butler is hired to do the house duties, sometimes the female is the source of the major income in the family and the female can go out all day while her husband stays at home watching the children and cooking for the family.


51

The following paragraph, which I feel is the most interesting one, compares a strange experiment that was done to two men to guide the college student to the behavior that he or she should follow And now the experiment: Two men were forced harshly to have behavioral modifications by their parents during their childhood in response to feminine behavior. As they grew old, their outcomes were different. One of them took female hormones and is convinced that he has internal female organs and monthly menstrual cycle and as result he was not socially accepted and has been abounded by his family and his social environment. On the other hand the other man lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife although he is visually attracted to men and male pornography. Surprisingly this man credits his mother for directing him towards a successful life. This experiment shows the results of being forced to behave in a manner that does not appeal to a person. The “effeminate behavior” that appealed to both men was different than that they should act upon, and than that they were forced to act upon by their parents during their childhood. “As they grew old” both men chose a different method to deal with their problem. The first man chose to follow the “feminine behavior” extreme, he took “female hormones” to approach that extreme that resulted in his “social rejection” However, the second man chose to behave in a manner that did not appeal to him, he chose to live a “heterosexual life”. yet he “is still visually attracted to men and enjoys male pornography” so his choice was in someway balanced and resulted in him thanking “his mother for directing him towards a successful life”. The experiment is then related to the college student’s behavior guiding him or her


52

according to the results on the 2nd line of the 5th page children are forced by their parents to act in a certain manner that (in most cases) does not appeal to them: the functional/practical extreme. When the child “grows” (Ibid 625-30) up and goes to college he/she has the freedom to behave in a manner that best suits him/her. If the student chooses to behave according to the human/personal extreme that may still appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her rejection by the family, university and community. If the student chooses to behave according to the functional/practical extreme that may not appeal to him/her, it will result in his/her success in college but wont necessarily result in his/her success in life. On the other hand, if a student finds a balance between both the extremes (as the second man did in the experiment), it will definitely “direct him towards a successful life” (Ibid 625-30). Then comes the conclusion that summarizes the essay and encourages college students to think about the manner in which they choose to behave whether it is a functional/practical extreme, a human/personal extreme or even an intermediate between both extremes. It encourages college students that have been behaving in a certain manner to change before it’s too late and they end up saying we “oughtta of”


53

Major Writing Assignment 1: Powerpoint Presentation

BEHAVIOR OF A COLLEGE STUDENT By: Mohamed El Agroudy

OUTLINE •

Introduction

The Functional/Practical Extreme

The Human/Personal Extreme

The synthesis

Conclusion


54

INTRODUCTION •

Definition of Gender

The Two Extremes: • The Functional/Practical Extreme • The Human/Personal Extreme

Relating the two extremes to a college students life: • The Functional/Practical Extreme = The reaction of the people belonging to the lower classes to the gender code • The Human/Personal Extreme = The resistance of those who belong to the top classes to the gender code

The college students should choose between the two extremes or an intermediate

FUNCTIONAL/PRACTICAL EXTREME BEHAVIOR •

The Definition of College

How some students behaving in the functional/practical extreme misinterpret the meaning of college

Relation between their functional/practical behavior to that of the lower class Egyptians to the gender code


55

HUMAN/PERSONAL EXTREME BEHAVIOR •

How and why some students behave in the functional/practical extreme

Relation between the students behavior to that of the top class Egyptians towards the gender code

THE INTERMEDIATE BETWEEN BOTH BEHAVIORS •

The Experiment

Relation between the experiment and how should a college student behave


56

CONCLUSION

WORKS CITED PAGE


57

Discussion The Writer's Audience is Always a Fiction distinction between a speaker’s audience and a writer’s audience. He feels that there has been a lack of focus on the audience, and though some studies have noticed it, none has actually evaluated it in any great detail. The difference he states is,, “for the speaker, the audience is in front of him. For the writer, the audience is simply further away, in time or space or both.” The spoken word of the speaker’s audience can relay the message right away and also give a response immediately, for the writer however it can be a more complex process to receive this type of immediate correspondence. The difference between hearing and reading can be signified if the audience is imagining the speaker. succeeds at writing this means that the writer can fictionalize an audience that he has already dealt with and not to say has known from everyday life, but rather from prior writers who imagined their audience, who also used the same method. He then describes his meaning of the audience being fiction: “First that the writer must construct in his imagination, clearly or vaguely, an audience cast in some sort of role…Second,, we mean that the role in which the author has cast him, which seldom coincides with his role in the rest of actual life.” This is to say that the reader has to be a member of an audience that is fiction. These roles that are being played by the readers do not require any specific rules.


58

Hemingway writes as if we know what he is talking about.. Makes the reader feel that he was there.. u remember when we were on the mountain, => makes the reader feel connected instills self confidence A farewell to arms: he was a soldier and he became a pacifism (why he believes that we should not have wars) Writers style, voice thoughts, tone Ernest Hemingway. The passage is the opening of A Farewell to Arms. At the start of my comment on the passage, it will be clear that I am borrowing a good deal from Walker Gibson's highly discerning book on modern American prose styles, Tough, Sweet, and Stuffy. The Hemingway passage follows: Hemingwayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s style is often characterized as straightforward, unadorned, terse, lacking in qualifiers, close-lipped


59

Discussion Fallacies Ethical Fallacies (Ethical fallacies detract from the credibility of the speaker/writer) Ad hominem (“To the man) - The author directly attacks someone’s character rather than focusing on the issue at hand, suggesting that because something is “wrong” with this person, whatever he says must also be wrong. Sadam Hussein is evil; therefore, we should remove him from power. Guilt by Association - The author attacks someone’s credibility by linking that person with a person or activity the audience considers bad, suspicious, or untrustworthy. Because George W. Bush spoke at Bob Jones University, he obviously does not feel that interracial marriages are morally acceptable. That is why we should elect Gore. Straw Man Argument – The author misrepresents the opponent’s argument. Like all Democrats, Gore favors abortion, gay marriages, and significant increases in taxes. That is why we should vote for Bush. Logical Fallacies (Logical fallacies detract from the logical reasoning of the speaker/writer. If he/she is not careful, this could ultimately affect his/her credibility.) Non Sequitur (“It does not follow”) - The author attempts to tie together two or more logically unrelated ideas as if they were related.


60

If we can send a spacecraft to Mars, then we can discover a cure for prostate cancer among squirrels. Begging the Question - The author creates a circular argument that treats a question as if it had already been answered. That TV news provides accurate and reliable information was demonstrated conclusively on last week’s 60 minutes. Post Hoc (from post hoc, ergo proctor hoc) - Literally the phrase means “after this, therefore caused by this.” The author assumes that just because B happened after A, then it must have been caused by A. We should never invite Uncle Wally over for dinner because every time we do, some natural disaster occurs nearby. Either-or-Fallacy - The author asserts that a complex situation can have only two possible outcomes; one is necessary or preferable. If we do not build an addition to the gymnasium and spend more on equipment, then the basketball team will not have a winning season. Hasty Generalization - The author bases a conclusion on too little evidence or on misunderstood evidence. I could not understand the lecture today, so I am sure this course will be impossible. Oversimplification - The author waters down the relation between causes and effects. If we heavily tax cigarette sales, then we will stop smoking. Emotional Fallacies (Emotional fallacies play on the audience’s emotions through questionable methods.)


61

Bandwagon Appeal - The writer suggests that a great movement is under way; therefore, the reader will be a fool or a traitor if he/she does not join in. All the cool kids are watching Pro Wrestling. You should watch as well. Flattery - The author tries to persuade the reader by suggesting that he/she is thoughtful, intelligent, or perceptive enough to agree. I know that you are wise enough to enough to realize that Mr. Harbin was telling the truth when he claimed to catch a thirty pound small-mouth bass. In-Crowd Appeal - This is a special form of flattery. The author invites readers to identify with an admired and select group. Want to know a secret that more and more skilled fishermen are finding out about? Mr. Harbin is, by far, one of the best fishermen around. Veiled Threats - The author tries to frighten readers into agreement by hinting that they will suffer adverse consequences if they do not agree. If you do not make straight Aâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s this year, then the good colleges will not seriously consider your application. False Analogies - The author makes comparisons between two situations that are not alike in most or important respects. If the United States sends ground troops into Iraq, then we will be faced with another war like Vietnam. Fallacies Pertaining to the Courtroom Asked and Answered - The lawyer has already asked the question, and the witness has already responded sufficiently enough for the judge(s). In other words, the lawyer cannot ask the same question repeatedly.


62

Badgering the Witness – The lawyer verbally abuses the witness. Typically, the lawyer is insulting the witness in some way (“ad hominem” remarks). However, the lawyer may be accused of badgering if his/her tone is too harsh. False Evidence/Testimony – The evidence or testimony is grossly inaccurate. For instance, if a witness said that Gatsby was from New York, then he would be wrong. Whenever a lawyer claims that false evidence/testimony is presented, he/she needs to be able to support the claim. Hearsay – The evidence, testimony, and/or questions are not substantial. Rumors are perfect examples of hearsay. Irrelevance – The testimony, evidence, and/or questions do not pertain to the case. Lacking an Expert Opinion – Some judgments by the witnesses must be made by experts. For example, a witness must be a psychologist/psychiatrist in order to claim that the defendant is crazy. Leading the Witness – The lawyer controls the witness by using simple “yes” or “no” questions. In other words, the lawyer controls the testimony.


63

Discussion Audience Addressed. Audience Invoked Dialectic strategy: show the weakness of both sides

Their relationship between communicator and the communicated to.. of the goal of interaction

ong says that a writer should fictionalize an audience and the audience should take the role BUT he over simplifies it

Reader as a writer (invoked audience) Writer as a reader

Writing from Experience instead of fictionalizing

If you want to really reach the audience you should give a lot of things

You should activate peoples memory to attract them

Advertising is only concerned about the result

What is the difference between social class and economic class, or the socioeconomic class?


64

Weblog Audience Addressed, Audience Invoked "Audience Addressed/Audience Invoked," Ede and Lunsford attempt to determine the role of audience in composition theory and pedagogy. In today's academic discourse, scholars and writing teachers are having trouble defining "audience" and determining what it means to address an audience. Ede and Lundsford argue that there are two main theories for teachers to choose from when teaching composition students about audience. The first theory is “audience addressed,” which instructs students to write to a specific and realistic audience. Those who prefer this theory have been greatly influenced by speech communication practices. They identify most with “real-world” writing. “Audience addressed” theory is strongly supported by theorists Ruth Mitchell and Mary Taylor, who believe the first priority in teaching composition is determining strategies for structuring ideas. However, “audience addressed” theory fails to work for several reasons. Most notably, it does not recognize the role writers play as both creators and readers. It also places too much emphasis on the role of audience and not enough on the role of the writer. Ede and Lundsford’s second theory is “audience invoked,” which instructs students to write to an imaginative audience. Those who favor this theory argue that a real audience limits writers because it is impossible for them to understand audience as personally as a speaker can. “Audience invoked” theory works by providing cues for the reader which help to define the role the author wishes for the reader to take. “Audience invoked” theory corresponds with Ong’s argument that a writer's audience is always fictitious. Ong believed that writers are responsible for constructing an “audience” and that in response; the audience will play along accordingly. The


65

problem with Ong's theory is that it is too simple- there are far too many restrictions that hinder this theory from realistically working out. In conclusion, Ede and Lundsford determined that a fully elaborate view of audience must balance the creativity of the writer with the creativity of the reader. It is important that each of these components is given equal consideration. Ede and Lundsford believe that if an enriched conception of audience can be achieved, we can better understand the complexities of writing. Personally, I found this article to be incredibly confusing. I had to re-read it several times. I also spent time browsing my classmates’ responses to better understand what Ede and Lundsford were trying to articulate. In the end, I was able to see that the authors were basically saying audience involves a balance between the creativity of the writer and the creativity of the reader. I think that this article was more or less a waste of time because I don’t believe that the concept of “audience” is hard to define. Whenever a writer begins to work, he/she is writing with a goal in mind. In order to achieve this goal, he/she has an audience in mind. Thus, audience is defined subconsciously without much consideration. Granted, I can understand how better identifying an audience may help to achieve the writer’s goal, but I am not sure the information in this article is very helpful. I can see why there is a big difference between the audience of a writer and the audience of a speaker, but I do not see how there is much of a difference between a "realistic" audience and an "imaginative" audience. How do these two really change the writer's work? Overall, I am still very confused and I hope to make more sense of this article during classroom discussion.


66

Summary Audience Addresssed, Audience Invoked Audience Addressed •

Emphasizes the truth in a writer’s audience and asserts that knowledge of the

audience’s beliefs, expectations, and attitudes is not only possible, but essential to successful writing. •

Do not focus on how this audience differs from a speaker’s audience, but

refocus this question to discuss the audience’s powerfulness •

Many of the followers are influenced by the strong portion of audience

analysis in speech communication theory and research into cognitive theory. •

Instructors often teach “real world” writing

Ede and Lunsford analyze the content of Mitchell and Taylor’s “The Integrating Perspective: An Audience-Response Model for Writing” and use this as the guideline for establishing addressed audience because of the article’s theoretical base and practical specificity. •

Mitchell and Taylor argue that the writer model is limited because it only

considers self-expressive writing that results in pedagogical inconsistencies. However, they also argue that the written product model (that emphasizes specific aspects that create “good” writing) is also flawed because there is not set definition for these features. •

Their model does not pay attention to invention in the writing process because

their emphasis is on the structure writers must use to guide reader comprehension •

Fail to note that, as the writer model and the written product model are bad

models because they overemphasize one area of the four modes (writer, product, audience, response), so their own method overemphasizes a single area


67

They are right to recognize the audience’s role, but fail to recognize the

writer’s role as audience (during the revision and often the composing process) •

Another major flaw is their lack of concern for ethical language

Audience Invoked •

Audience is a “constructed fiction”

writers cannot know the reality of an audience in the same way speakers do.

Speakers have their audience before them and can recognize them immediately. Writers need to construct a similar audience. •

Many instructors who teach this style are likely misinterpreting Ong’s writing

on the audience for fiction to be a general audience for all writing. ◦

Ong argues that the writer must construct the audience and place that audience

into a specific role and that the audience must correspondingly fictionalize itself. ◦

Ong also discusses the potential for an oral audience to talk among themselves

and with the speaker, which is not possible with written text ▪

Ong fails to take into account that not all audiences are active participants

when a speech is delivered. •

Overemphasizes the connection between speech and writing

Undervalues the insights of discourse theorists who remind us that additional

factors (e.g. distance) play a role in the subject •

distorts the process of writing and reading by overemphasizing the role of the

writer and underemphasizing the role of a true reader Rhetoric and Its Situations This section is the recommended style that Ede and Lunsford wish to demonstrate as a harmonious blend of the Addressed/Invoked situation. •

Writers must adapt their discourse to meet the expectations of an addressed


68

audience. They do this by relying on past experience, creating a representative of the audience, etc. •

Writers may be asked to respond to intervention (peer comments, instructor

feedback, editor, supervisor, etc.). However, they still maintain the power to decide what changes need to be made and which can be left alone •

The addressed audiences exists outside the text in reality. However, the writer

must create a role for the reader during the writing process. Here, they invoke an audience to create the cues for the external audience to see the specific role they are to play when reading the text •

All of the roles the addressed audience plays can be used when invoking an

audience as well The most complete understanding of audience thus involves a synthesis of the perspectives we have termed audience addressed, with its focus on the reader, and audience invoked, with its focus on the writer Ede and Lunsford’s Two Assertions •

The reading writer–monitors the multiple process as a whole and is constantly

working as an audience for the text. •

The writing process is not complete unless another person reads the text.


69

Major Writing Assignment 2: Online Sources http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage? collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/josf53&div=47&id=&page=

http://www.jstor.org/pss/2295627

http://www.jstor.org/pss/2775558 Abstract In this study of a randomly selected cohort of 10,318 Wisconsin high school seniors, correlational, path, and cross-tabular analyses show that socioeconomic status, intelligence, and parental encouragement all have substantial independent relationships to college plans of males as well as of females and that neither intelligence nor parental encouragement-individually or jointly-can completely account for social class differences in college plans. It substantiates, however, the claim made by other investigators using less rigorous methods and less representative samples that parental encouragement is a powerful intervening variable between socioeconomic class background and intelligence of the child and his educational aspirations. Parental encouragement appears to have its strongest effect on the college plans of males and females who score relatively high on intelligence and come from families occupying relatively high socioeconomic position. Also, ability continues to accentuate the social class differences in aspirations of both males and females regardless of parental encouragement.


70

http://www.jstor.org/pss/2775010

Abstract From past research on the relationship of class origins and education, social scientists generally agree that, although class membership is a strong determinant of who goes to college, it does not determine who graduates. This study presents evidence to suggest that social class and college graduation are in fact, significantly related, especially among the college entrants who were only average students in high school. Rather than economic or intellective factors, the link between the independent and dependent variables appears to be the "psychocultural dimension" of class. Two major explanations are offered for the equivocal findings of earlier research: inattention to the diverse social composition of student bodies at different institutions and neglect of the prolonged academic careers of the college dropouts who came back.

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM196611242752107


71

CASUAL observation had suggested to us that obesity was less prevalent in highranking, so called "prestige" colleges than in public high schools. We therefore decided to investigate whether or not obesity affected college acceptance. If it did, it would have important implications for public-health programs directed at obesity.

http://her.hepg.org/content/1k0624l6102u2725/

Many studies have shown that academic achievement is highly correlated with social class. Few, however, have attempted to explain exactly how the school helps to reinforce the class structure of the society. In this article, Dr. Rist reports the results of an observational study of one class of ghetto children during their kindergarten, firstand second-grade years. He shows how the kindergarten teacher placed the children in reading groups which reflected the social class composition of the class, and how these groups persisted throughout the first several years of elementary school. The way in which the teacher behaved toward the different groups became an important influence on the children's achievement. Dr. Rist concludes by examining the relationship between the "caste" system of the classroom and the class system of the larger society.

http://aer.sagepub.com/content/22/1/35.short


72

A conceptual model of the factors affecting dropout syndrome (a combination of intent to leave, discussing leaving, and actual attrition) was developed emphasizing academic, social, and personal outcomes of the selection or socialization of students at an institution. The model was estimated using path analysis, and the intervening variables (college grades, institutional fit, and institutional commitment) were found to be important predictors of dropout syndrome. The variables in the model accounted for 27 to 47% of the variance in the criterion. Findings indicate that a studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s peers are more important agents of socialization than are informal faculty contacts that students may play a more active role in their socialization than previously thought, and that college grades seem more the product of selection than socialization.


73

Major Writing Assignment 2: Outsider Source

“OUTSIDERS”

Howard Becker (1963)

[…] DEFINITIONS OF DEVIANCE

The outsider – the deviant from group rules – has been the subject of much speculation, theorizing and scientific study.

What laymen want to know about

deviants is: why do they do it? How can we account for their rule-breaking? What is there about them that leads them to do forbidden things? Scientific research has tried to find answers to these questions. In doing so it has accepted the common-sense premise that there is something inherently deviant (qualitatively distinct) about acts that break (or seem to break) social rules. It has also accepted the common-sense assumption that the deviant act occurs because some characteristic of the person who commits it makes it necessary or inevitable that he should.

Scientists do not

ordinarily question the label ‘deviant’ when it is applied to particular acts or people but rather take it as given. In so doing, they accept the values of the group making the judgment.


74

It is easily observable that different groups judge different things to be deviant. This should alert us to the possibility that the person making the judgment of deviance, the process by which that judgment is arrived at, and the situation in which it is made may all be intimately involved in the phenomenon of deviance. To the degree that the common-sense view of deviance and the scientific theories that begin to take for granted the situations and processes of judgment, they may leave out an important variable.

If scientists ignore the variable character of the process of

judgment, they may by that omission limit the kinds of theories that can be developed and the kind of understanding that can be achieved. Our first problem, then, is to deconstruct a definition of deviance. Before doing this, let us consider some of the definitions scientists now use, seeing what is left out if we take them as a point of departure for the study of outsiders. The simplest view of deviance is essentially statistical, defining as deviant anything that varies too widely from the average. When a statistician analyzes the results of and agricultural experiment, he describes the stalk of corn that is exceptionally tall and the stalk that is exceptionally short as deviations from the mean or average. Similarly, one can define anything that differs from what is most common as a deviation. In this view, to be left-handed or red-headed is deviant, because most people are right-handed and brunette. So stated, the statistical view seems simple-minded, even trivial.

Yet it

simplifies the problem by doing away with many questions of value that ordinarily arise in discussions of the nature of deviance. In assessing any particular case, all one do is calculate the distance of the behaviour involved from the average. But it is too simple a solution. Hunting with such a definition, we return with a mixed-bag â&#x20AC;&#x201C;


75

people who are excessively fat or thin, murderers, redheads, homosexuals and traffic violators. The mixture contains some ordinarily thought of as deviants and others who have broken no rule at all. The statistical definition of deviance, in short, is too far removed from the concern with rule-breaking which prompts scientific study of outsiders. A less simple but much more common view of deviance identifies it as something essentially pathological, revealing the presence of a ‘disease’. This view rests, obviously, on a medical analogy. The human organism, when it is working efficiently and experiencing no discomfort, is said to be ‘healthy’. When it does not work efficiently, a disease is present.

The organ or function that has become

deranged is said to be pathological. Of course, there is little disagreement about what constitutes a healthy state of the organism. But there is much less agreement when one uses the notion of pathology analogically, to describe kinds of behaviour that are regarded as deviant. For people do not agree on what constitutes healthy behaviour. Is difficult to find a definition that will satisfy even such a select and limited group as psychiatrists; it is impossible to find one that people generally accept as they accept criteria of health for the organism. […] The medical metaphor limits what we can see much as the statistical view does. It accepts the lay-judgment of something as deviant and, by use of analogy, locates its source within the individual, thus preventing us from seeing the judgment itself as a crucial part of the phenomenon. Some sociologists also use a model of deviance based essentially on the medical notions of health and disease. They look at a society, or some part of a society, and ask whether there are any processes going on in it that tend to reduce its


76

stability, thus lessening its chance of survival. They label such processes deviant or identify them as symptoms of social disorganization. They discriminate between those features of society which promote stability (and thus are ‘functional’) and those which disrupt stability (and thus are ‘dysfunctional’). Such a view has the great virtue of pointing to areas of possible trouble in a society of which people may not be aware. But it is harder in practice than it appears to be in theory to specify what is functional and what dysfunctional for a society or social group. The question of what the purpose or goal (function) of a group is and, consequently, what things will help or hinder the achievement of that purpose, is very often a political question. Factions within the group disagree and maneuver to have their own definition of the group’s function accepted. The function of the group or organization, then, is decided on political conflict, not given in the nature of the organization. If this is true, then it is likewise true that the questions of what rules are to be enforced, what behaviour regarded as deviant, and which people labeled as outsiders must also be regarded as political. The functional view of deviance, by ignoring the political aspects of the phenomenon, limits our understanding. Another sociological view is more relativistic. It identifies deviance as the failure to obey group rules. Once we have described the rules a group enforces on its members, we can say with some precision whether or not a person has violated them, and is thus, on this view, deviant. This view is closest to my own, but it fails to give sufficient weight to the ambiguities that arise in deciding which rules are to be taken as the yardstick against which behaviour is measured and judged deviant. A society has many groups, each with its own set of rules, and people belong to many groups simultaneously. A person


77

may break the rules of one group by the very act of abiding by the rules of another group. Is he, then, deviant? Proponents of this definition may object that while ambiguity may arise with respect to the rules peculiar to one or another group in society, there are some rules that are very generally agreed to by everyone, in which case the difficulty does not arise. This, of course, is a question of fact, to be settled by empirical research. I doubt there are many such areas of consensus and think it wiser to use a definition that allows us to deal with both ambiguous and unambiguous situations.

DEVIANCE AND THE RESPONSE OF OTHERS

The sociological view I have just discussed defines deviance as the infraction of some agreed-upon rule. It then goes on to ask who breaks rules, and to search for the factors in their personalities and life situations that might account for the infractions. This assumes that those who have broken a rule constitute a homogeneous category, because they have committed the same deviant act. Such an assumption seems to me to ignore the central fact about deviance: it is created by society. I do not mean this in the way it is ordinarily understood, in which the causes of deviance are located in the social situation of the deviant or in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;social factorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which prompt his action. I mean, rather, that social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders. From this point of view,


78

deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an ‘offender’. The deviant is one to whom that label has been successfully applied; deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label. […] If we take as the attention behaviour which comes to be labelled as deviant, we must recognized that we cannot know whether a given act will be categorized as deviant until the response of others has occurred. Deviance is not a quality that lies in behaviour itself, but in the interaction between the person who commits an act and those who respond to it.

WHOSE RULES?

I have been using the term ‘outsiders’ to refer to those people who are judged by others to be deviant and thus to stand outside the circle of ‘normal’ members of the group. But the term contains a second meaning, whose analysis leads to another important set of sociological problems: ‘outsiders’, from the point of view of the person who is labeled deviant, may be the people who make the rules he had been found guilty of breaking. Social rules are the creation of specific social groups. Modern societies are not simple organizations in which everyone agrees on what the rules are and how they are to be applied in specific situations. They are, instead, highly differentiated along social class lines, ethnic lines, occupational lines, and cultural lines. These groups


79

need not and, in fact, often do not share the same rules. The problems they face in dealing with their environment. Social rules are the creation of specific social groups. Modern societies are not simple organizations in which everyone agrees on what the rules are and how they are to be applied in specific situations. They are, instead, highly differentiated along social class lines, ethnic lines, occupational lines, and cultural lines. These groups need not and, in fact, often do not share the same rules. The problems they face in dealing with their environment, the history and traditions they carry with them, all lead to the evolution of different sets of rules. In so far as the rules of various groups conflict and contradict each other, there will be disagreement about the kind of behaviour that is proper in any given situation. Italian immigrants who went on making wine for themselves and their friends during Prohibition were acting properly by Italian immigrant standards, but were breaking the law of their new country (as, of course, were many of their Old American neighbours). Medical patients who shop around for a doctor may, from the perspective of their own group, be making sure they do what is necessary to protect their health by making sure they get what seems to them the best possible doctor; but, from the perspective of the physician, what they do is wrong because it breaks down the trust the patient ought to put in his physician. The lower-class delinquent who fights for his â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;turfâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is only doing what he considers necessary and right, but teachers, social workers, and police see it differently. While it may be argued that many or most rules are generally agreed to by all members of a society, empirical research on a given rule generally reveals variations in peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attitudes. Formal rules, enforced by some specially constituted group,


80

may differ from those actually thought appropriate by most people. Factions in a group may disagree on what I have called actual operating rules. Most important for the study of behaviour ordinarily labelled deviant, the perspectives of the people who engage in the behaviour are likely to be quite different from those of the people who condemn it.

In this latter situation, a person may feel that he is being judged

according to rules he has had no hand in making and does not accept, rules forced on him by outsiders. To what extent and under what circumstances do people attempt to force their rules on others who do not subscribe to them? Let us distinguish two cases. In the first, only those who are actually members of the group have any interest in making and enforcing certain rules. If an orthodox Jew disobeys the laws of kashruth only other orthodox Jews will consider this as a transgression; Christians or non-orthodox Jews will not consider this deviance and would have no interest in interfering. In the second case, members of a group consider it important to their welfare that members of certain other groups obey certain rules.

Thus, people consider it extremely

important that those who practice the healing arts abide by certain rules; this is the reason the state licences physicians, nurses, and others, and forbids anyone who is not licenced to engage in healing activities. To the extent that a group tries to impose its rules on other groups in the society, we are presented with a second question: Who can, in fact, force others to accept their rules and what are the causes of their success? This is, of course, a question of political and economical power. […] [P]eople are in fact always forcing their rules on others, applying them more or less against the will and without the consent of those others. By and large, for example, rules are made for young people by their elders. Though the youth of this country exert a powerful influence culturally


81

â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the mass media of communication are tailored to their interests, for instance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; many important kinds of rules are made for our youth by adults. Rules regarding school attendance and sex behaviour are not drawn up with regard to the problems of adolescence. Rather, adolescents find themselves surrounded by rules about these matters which have been made by older and more settled people. It is considered legitimate to do this, for youngsters are considered neither wise enough nor responsible enough to make proper rules for themselves. [â&#x20AC;Ś]


82

Major Writing Assignment 2: First Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 4 July 2011 A College Alien A class is known as a set of things that can be differentiated from others by kind or type. Social class differentiates people according to their culture and behavior, while economic class differentiates them according to their income, salary and career. Both differentiations are closely related, thus the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;socioeconomic classâ&#x20AC;? is used to combine them. In addition, the Egyptian society is divided into three classes; upper, middle and lower. One is sometimes offered a chance to move to a higher class to which he/she is considered an alien. He or she could follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to move ignoring the consequences, or they could follow the human/personal extreme and refuse. On the other hand, another person could be put in a situation in which it would be better for him/her to move to a lower class and become an alien. He/she could follow the functional/practical extreme and do so, or he/she could follow the human/personal extreme and remain in his/her class. College students are often put in similar situations. A student might get an opportunity to attend a college that is higher than his socioeconomic class, or another student might be put in a situation in which it is better for him/her to attend a college that is lower than his/her socioeconomic class. Both students are free to choose whether they want to follow the functional/practical extreme, the human/personal extreme, or they could come up with a synthesized solution. The purpose for this essay is to argue an answer


83

to the premise question, what does it mean to be a college student from the socioeconomic class perspective? There are two different types of students who follow the functional/practical extreme; the first type decides (when given a chance) to attend a college that is higher than their socioeconomic class and the second type decides to attend a college that is lower than their socioeconomic class. The common thing between both types of students is that they agree to become aliens in a college that has a different socioeconomic class as they find it the logical thing to do. To begin with, a student can be offered a chance to attend a college that is higher than his/her socioeconomic class. His/her parents can provide such a chance by following a conservative financial plan that prohibits the family from spending on nonessential needs; this financial plan deprives the whole family from living a relatively luxurious life for years before the student even applies to college. The student could follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to attend such a college, he/she would interact with people that are higher than his/her socioeconomic class, he/she would have the chance to graduate from a high class college that would increase his/her credibility and lower class people would mistake him/her for someone who belongs to a high socioeconomic class. However, such a student will be considered and will always feel like an alien. He/she will not be able to cope with the spending of other students, he/she will have a different mentality than the other students and other students will treat him/her differently. The gap between their socioeconomic classes will make the student feel like an alien. This gap will also have a significant effect on the studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s college results, as it will affect him emotionally. Moreover, as the gap grows the studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s situation gets worse. For example, here at the American University in Cairo (which is considered as one of the highest class University in Egypt), there is a huge gap


84

between normal students and those who are in the LEAD program. The LEAD (Leadership for Education and Development) program offers full tuition scholarships to 58 students annually (one male and one female) from each of Egypt's governorates. However, applicants must have A Thanaweya Amma certificate from a public school (www.aucegypt.edu), and going to a public school in Egypt indicates that these students belong to the lower socioeconomic class. So in this case the AUC provides these students with the chance of attending a college that is higher than their socioeconomic class, should they follow the functional/practical extreme and take the chance to live among the high-class students as an alien or should they look for other solutions? Additionally, the second types of students who follow the functional/practical extreme decide to attend a college that is lower than their socioeconomic class. These students have been brought up in a high socioeconomic class, they live a luxurious life, friends that are of similar class surround them and they went to high-class private schools. When applying to college, these students are obligated (due to certain reasons) to choose between two types of colleges: one that is academically weak but has a high socioeconomic class and another that is academically strong but has a low socioeconomic class. By following the functional/practical extreme, these students decide to attend the strong but low class college, as they consider the strength of the college above anything. They decide to become aliens in a community that is different than theirs. Their functional/practical decision neglects the fact that they will become aliens that are continuously criticized and used by other students. They will not be able to trust other student and will always be considered as â&#x20AC;&#x153;outsiders.â&#x20AC;? On the other hand, these two types of students can follow an opposite extreme, the human/personal extreme. They choose to attend colleges that are of their same


85

socioeconomic class. They follow their emotions and neglect the benefits of attending a college that has a different socioeconomic class for the sake of not becoming an alien. The lower class student throws away the opportunity to interact with people that are higher than his/her socioeconomic class, to graduate from a high class college that would increase his/her credibility and to have a better image in his society. The higher-class student chooses to graduate from an academically weak college, which will possibly make him incapable of living to his familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name and reputation. These two students neglect the significant logical benefits for the emotional ones. They prefer not to be treated as aliens. The lower class student prefers to interact with student who have the same mentality as he/she does, who spend similar amounts of money and who treat him/her as one of them. The higher-class student prefers to interact with students who will not criticize, use, or judge him/her and with those he/she could trust. These emotional benefits cannot be neglected, but are they worth the sacrifice? A college student is not obligated to become an alien and he/she should not be frightened from becoming one. A lower class student can choose to attend a high socioeconomic class college, he/she might find students that are in his/her situation and he/she might even become close friends with other students. That student could also choose to attend an average class college, in which he/she will be emotionally satisfied and could lead to his/her great success, as the Nobel Prize winner Ahmed Zweil did. In addition, the higher-class student can also choose to attend a low socioeconomic class college, he/she might also find student in his/her situation and he/she will gain experience from dealing with people of different mentalities. If that student chooses to attend a weak but high socioeconomic class college, it will not necessarily result in his/her failure in the future, but he/she would have to work hard


86

to gain experience that will compensate for his/her weaknesses. All in all, one should not deal with situations or take critical decisions such as deciding which college he/she should attend based on extremes; one should consider all the factors while taking such a decision. Moreover, the college itself should help the person in taking such a crucial decision, as Ein-Shams, Cairo and Alexandria Universities have lately done. These universities have opened new special programs that are taught in English and French, and have a tuition fee that is relatively high compared to that of the normal programs, but are still not expensive. The AUC should also open an optional separate section for the LEAD program that has the same academic quality as the rest of the university, but creates a â&#x20AC;&#x153;saferâ&#x20AC;? environment for these students.


87

Major Writing Assignment 2: Second Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 7 July 2011 A College Alien A class is known as a set of things that can be differentiated from others by kind or type. Social class differentiates people according to their culture and behavior, while economic class differentiates them according to their income, salary and career. Both differentiations are closely related, thus the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;socioeconomic classâ&#x20AC;? is used to combine them. In addition, the Egyptian society is divided into three classes; upper, middle and lower. One is sometimes offered a chance to move to a higher class to which he/she is considered an alien. He or she could follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to move, ignoring the consequences of becoming an alien, or they could follow the human/personal extreme and refuse for the sake of not becoming one. On the other hand, another person could be put in a situation in which it would be better for him/her to move to a lower class and become an alien. They could follow the functional/practical extreme and do so, or follow the human/personal extreme and remain in their class. College students are often put in similar situations. A student might get an opportunity to attend a college that is higher than his/her socioeconomic class, or another student might be put in a situation in which it is better for him/her to attend a college that is lower than his/her socioeconomic class. Both students are free to choose whether they want to follow the functional/practical extreme, the human/personal extreme, or they could come up with a synthesized solution. The


88

purpose for this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean to be a college student from the socioeconomic class perspective? A person who moves from one socioeconomic class to another is considered as an alien. An alien is something that is “unfamiliar, unknown, strange, … {or} foreign” (Mac Dictionary). An alien is a person who acts in different ways than others; he/she fails to behave like the majority and so is considered to be different. Howard Becker wrote a book titled “Outsiders” in which he discusses how different groups judge different things to be deviant. He says that “society has many groups, each with its own set of rules, and people belong to many groups simultaneously. A person may break the rules of one group by the very act of abiding by the rules of another group” (8), he also mentions that these rules are created by “society” (8) and those who break these rules are labeled as “outsiders” (8). “The deviant {who he is mentioning} is one to whom that label has been successfully applied; deviant behavior is behavior that people so label” (9). He also states that “deviance is not a quality that lies in behavior itself, but in the interaction between the person who commits an act and those who respond to it” (14). Becker used the term ‘outsiders’ to refer to those people who are judged by others to be deviant and “those who stand outside the circle of ‘normal’ members of the group” (15). Becker’s “outsiders” are exactly the same as the aliens who move from one socioeconomic class to another. These aliens abide by the rules of their previous socioeconomic class and so they “deviate form the group rules” (10) that are created by their new socioeconomic group and become “outsiders”. Students sometimes follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to become aliens in a college that has a different socioeconomic class than their own. These students are divided into two different types; the first type decides (when given


89

a chance) to attend a college that is higher than their socioeconomic class and the second type decides to attend a college that is lower than their socioeconomic class. The common thing between both types is that they agree to become college aliens. To begin with, a student can be offered a chance to attend a college that is higher than his/her socioeconomic class. His/her parents can provide such a chance by following a conservative financial plan that prohibits the family from spending on nonessential needs; this financial plan deprives the whole family from living a relatively luxurious life for years before the student even applies to college. The student could follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to attend such a college, he/she would interact with people that are higher than his/her socioeconomic class, he/she would have the chance to graduate from a high class college that would increase his/her credibility and lower class people would mistake him/her for someone who belongs to a high socioeconomic class. However, such a student will be considered and will always feel like an alien. He/she will not be able to cope with the spending of other students, he/she will have a different mentality than the other students and other students will treat him/her differently. The gap between their socioeconomic classes will make the student feel like an alien. This gap will also have a significant effect on the student’s college results, as it will affect him emotionally. Moreover, as the gap grows the student’s situation gets worse. For example, here at the American University in Cairo (which is considered as one of the highest class University in Egypt), there is a huge gap between regular students and those who are in the LEAD program. The LEAD (Leadership for Education and Development) program “offers full tuition scholarships to 58 students annually (one male and one female) from each of Egypt's governorates” ("American University in Cairo"). However, applicants must have “a Thanaweya Amma certificate from a public school” (Ibid) and going to a public school in Egypt


90

indicates that these students belong to the lower socioeconomic class. So in this case the AUC provides these students with a chance of attending a college that is higher than their socioeconomic class. Samir Hasaballah who is aComputer Science Freshman joined the lead program and says "I hope to leave here with a network of good friends and professors and end up with a good career, as well as pursue graduate studies" (Ibid) but he also describes himself as being a combination of "ambitious and worriedâ&#x20AC;? (Ibid). Should others follow his functional/practical extreme and take the opportunity to live among the high-class students as an alien or should they look for other solutions? The second types of students who follow the functional/practical extreme decide to attend a college that is lower than their socioeconomic class. These students have been brought up in a high socioeconomic class, they live a luxurious life, friends that are of similar class surround them and they went to high-class private schools. When applying to college, these students are obligated (due to certain reasons) to choose between two types of colleges: one that is academically weak but has a high socioeconomic class and another that is academically strong but has a low socioeconomic class. By following the functional/practical extreme, these students decide to attend the strong but low class college, as they consider the strength of the college above anything. They decide to become aliens in a community that is different than theirs. Their functional/practical decision neglects the fact that they will become aliens that are continuously criticized and used by other students. They will not be able to trust other student and will always be considered as â&#x20AC;&#x153;outsidersâ&#x20AC;?(Becker). On the other hand, these two types of students can follow an opposite extreme, the human/personal extreme. They choose to attend colleges that are of their same socioeconomic class. They follow their emotions and neglect the benefits of attending


91

a college that has a different socioeconomic class for the sake of not becoming an alien. The lower class student throws away the opportunity to interact with people that are higher than his/her socioeconomic class, to graduate from a high class college that would increase his/her credibility and to have a better image in his society. The higher-class student chooses to graduate from an academically weak college, which will possibly make him incapable of living to his familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name and reputation. These two students neglect the significant logical benefits for the emotional ones. They prefer not to be treated as aliens. The lower-class student prefers to interact with student who have the same mentality as he/she does, who spend similar amounts of money and who treat him/her as one of them. The higher-class student prefers to interact with students who will not criticize, use, or judge him/her and with those he/she could trust. These emotional benefits cannot be neglected, but are they worth the sacrifice? A college student is not obligated to become an alien and he/she should not be frightened from becoming one. A lower class student can choose to attend a high socioeconomic class college, he/she might find students that are in his/her situation and he/she might even become close friends with other normal students. Some LEAD students here at the AUC encourage other students to join the program. In fact, some of them have adapted to their new high socioeconomic class college, Mark Anis, for example, says: When I first came here, everything seemed different. The educational system was different, people were different and the atmosphere was very different. I felt I would never be able to adjust to my new environment. But as the days went by, I felt more and more acquainted with AUC and its activities.


92

Actually, it became a second home to me. ("American University in Cairo") The lower-class student could also choose to attend an average class college, in which he/she will be emotionally satisfied and could lead to his/her great success, as the Nobel Prize winner Ahmed Zweil did. In addition, the higher-class student can also choose to attend a low socioeconomic class college, he/she might also find student in his/her situation and he/she will gain experience from dealing with people of different mentalities. If that student chooses to attend a weak but high socioeconomic class college, it will not necessarily result in his/her failure in the future, but he/she would have to work hard to gain experience that will compensate for his/her weaknesses. All in all, one should not deal with situations or take critical decisions such as deciding which college he/she should attend based on extremes; one should consider all the factors while taking such a crucial decision. Moreover, the college itself should help the person in taking such a decision, as Ein-Shams, Cairo and Alexandria Universities have lately done. These universities have opened new special programs that are taught in English and French, and have a tuition fee that is relatively high compared to that of the normal programs. The difference in tuition fees is not high enough to create a socioeconomic gap between students in the special programs and the regular ones, but it provides students with a superior environment. The AUC should also open an optional separate section for the LEAD program that has the same academic quality as the rest of the university, but creates a â&#x20AC;&#x153;saferâ&#x20AC;? environment for these students.


93

Works Cited

Becker, Howard S. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: The Free Press, 1966. 218. Print. " LEAD Students Say...." The American University in Cairo. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jul 2011. <http://www.aucegypt.edu/students/lead/Pages/LEADStudentsSay.aspx>. " Leadership for Education and Development Program:Admission." The American University in Cairo. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jul 2011. <http://www.aucegypt.edu/STUDENTS/LEAD/Pages/Admis sion.aspx>. " More LEAD Students Say...." The American University in Cairo. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jul 2011. <http://www.aucegypt.edu/students/lead/Pages/MoreLEADStudentsSay.aspx>.


94

Major Writing Assignment 2: Peer Review

1. Rate this paper's overall readabilty4 of 5 2. At which point did you feel most interested by this piece? When least? Explain.Starting from the second paragraph the essay started t be really interesting. but the introduction wasn't that attracting. 3. Does this paper sustain a coherent point of view? Why or why not?yes he eased very well into his main idea of clas and education. 4. Could the readability, clarity, or style of this paper be improved? How? the first paragraph was a bit tricky. 5. Rate the strength of this paper's thesis.4 of 5 6. Can the conclusion of this paper be convincingly drawn from the thesis and the argument made in the body of the paper? Why or why not? 7. Does each paragraph of this paper logically progress from the former ones? Why or why not?yes, his paragraphs are really coherent, and they attach really good 8. Does the logic of this paper's argument ever fall flat? Where? What might be done to correct this?no Do you feel this paper relies on evidence, or on opinion or intuition? If the latter, cite examples of where this paper relies on opinion and intuition and give suggestions as to how the writer can write more objectively.The paper is really well developed from the research part


95

Major Writing Assignment 2: Comments by a Friend The essay is very well written but I think you need to work more on your introduction paragraph and try to lure in your reader. I hope I was able to help!

Best regards and good luck,

Mohamed Eldib


96

Major Writing Assignment 2: Final Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 9 July 2011 A College Alien A class is known as a set of things that can be differentiated from others by kind or type. For example, social classes differentiate people according to their culture and behavior, while an economic class differentiates them according to their income, salary, and career. Both variations are closely related to one another, thus the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;socioeconomic classâ&#x20AC;?. Moreover, the Egyptian society has always been divided into three classes; upper, middle and lower (Amin 32). One is sometimes fortunate enough to come across an opportunity to move to a higher class to which he/she is considered an alien. He or she could follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to move, ignoring the consequences of becoming an alien, or they could follow the human/personal extreme and refuse for the sake of not becoming one. On the other hand, another person could be put in a situation in which it would be better for him/her to move to a lower class and become an alien. They could follow the functional/practical extreme and do so, or follow the human/personal extreme and remain in their class. College students are often put in similar situations. A student might get an opportunity to attend a college that is higher than his/her socioeconomic class, or another student might be put in a situation in which it is better for him/her to attend a college that is lower than his/her socioeconomic class. Both students are free to choose whether they want to follow the functional/practical extreme, the


97

human/personal extreme, or they could come up with a synthesized solution. The purpose for this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean to be a college student from the socioeconomic class perspective? A person who moves from one socioeconomic class to another is considered as an alien. An alien is something that is “unfamiliar, unknown, strange, … {or} foreign” (Mac Dictionary). An alien is a person who acts differently than others; he/she fails to behave like the majority and so is considered to be unusual. Howard Becker wrote a book titled “Outsiders” in which he discusses how different groups judge different things to be deviant. He says that “society has many groups, each with its own set of rules, and people belong to many groups simultaneously. A person may break the rules of one group by the very act of abiding by the rules of another group” (8), he also mentions that these rules are created by “society” (8) and those who break these rules are labeled as “outsiders” (8). “The deviant {who he is mentioning} is one to whom that label has been successfully applied; deviant behavior is behavior that people so label” (9). He also states that “deviance is not a quality that lies in behavior itself, but in the interaction between the person who commits an act and those who respond to it” (14). Becker used the term ‘outsiders’ to refer to those people who are judged by others to be deviant and “those who stand outside the circle of ‘normal’ members of the group” (15). Becker’s “outsiders” are exactly the same as the aliens who move from one socioeconomic class to another. These aliens abide by the rules of their previous socioeconomic class and so they “deviate form the group rules” (10) that are created by their new socioeconomic group and become “outsiders”. Students sometimes follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to become aliens in a college that has a different socioeconomic class than their own. These students are divided into two different types; the first type decides (when given


98

a chance) to attend a college that is higher than their socioeconomic class and the second type decides to attend a college that is lower than their socioeconomic class. The common thing between both types is that they agree to become college aliens. To begin with, a student can be offered a chance to attend a college that is higher than his/her socioeconomic class. His/her parents can provide such a chance by following a conservative financial plan that prohibits the family from spending on nonessential needs; this financial plan deprives the whole family from living a relatively luxurious life for years before the student even applies to college. The student could follow the functional/practical extreme and agree to attend such a college. By agreeing he/she would interact with people that are higher than his/her socioeconomic class, he/she would have the chance to graduate from a high-class college that would increase his/her credibility and lower class people would mistake him/her for someone who belongs to a high socioeconomic class. However, such a student will be considered and will ultimately feel like an alien. He/she will not be able to cope with the spending of their peers; he/she will have a different mentality than the other students and other students will treat him/her differently. This gap between socioeconomic classes will also have a significant effect on the student’s “attitude, behavior, and development” (Berndt 156), as some theorists believe that the “interactions with friends improve adolescents’ social skills and ability to cope with stressful events” (Ibid). Moreover, as the gap grows the student’s situation worsens. For example, here at the American University in Cairo (which is considered as one of the most reputable universities in Egypt), there is a huge gap between regular students and those who are in the LEAD program. The LEAD (Leadership for Education and Development) program “offers full tuition scholarships to 58 students annually (one male and one female) from each of Egypt's governorates” ("American University in Cairo").


99

However, applicants must have “a Thanaweya Amma certificate from a public school” (Ibid) and going to a public school in Egypt indicates that these students belong to the lower socioeconomic class. So in this case the AUC provides these students with an opportunity to attend a university that is higher than their socioeconomic class. Samir Hasaballah who is aComputer Science Freshman joined the LEAD program and says "I hope to leave here with a network of good friends and professors, and end up with a good career, as well as pursue graduate studies" (Ibid) but he also describes himself as being a combination of "ambitious and worried” (Ibid). Should others follow his functional/practical extreme and take the opportunity to live among the high-class students as an alien or should they look for other solutions? The second types of students who follow the functional/practical extreme decide to attend a college that is lower than their socioeconomic class. These students have been brought up in a high socioeconomic class, they live a luxurious life, have friends that are of similar class surround them, and attended high-class private schools. When applying to college, these students are obligated to choose between two types of colleges: one that is academically weak but has a high socioeconomic class and another that is academically strong but has a low socioeconomic class. By following the functional/practical extreme, these students decide to attend the strong but low class college, as they consider the strength of the education they will be receiving above other factors. They decide to become aliens in a community that is different than their own. Their functional/practical decision neglects the fact that they will become aliens that are continuously criticized and taken advantage of by their fellow students. They will not be able to trust other student and will always be considered as “outsiders”(Becker).


100

On the other hand, these two types of students can follow an opposite extreme, the human/personal extreme. They choose to attend colleges that are of their same socioeconomic class. They follow their emotions and overlook the benefits of attending a college that has a different socioeconomic class for the sake of not becoming an alien. The lower class student leaves behind the opportunity to interact with people that are higher than his/her socioeconomic class, to graduate from a highclass college that would increase his/her credibility and to have a better image in his society. The higher-class student chooses to graduate from an academically weak college, which will possibly make him incapable of living up to his familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name and reputation. These two students neglect the significant logical benefits for the emotional ones. They tend to prefer not to be treated as aliens that are not â&#x20AC;&#x153;wantedâ&#x20AC;? (Steinbeck 68). The lower-class student prefers to interact with students who have the same mentality as he/she does, who spend similar amounts of money, and who treat him/her as one of them. The higher-class student prefers to interact with students who will not criticize, take advantage of, or judge him/her and with those he/she could trust. These emotional benefits cannot be neglected, but are they worth the sacrifice? A college student is not obligated to become an alien and he/she should not be frightened about becoming one. A lower class student can choose to attend a high socioeconomic class college, he/she might find students that are in his/her situation and he/she might even become close friends with other regular students. Some LEAD students here at the AUC encourage other students to join the program. In fact, some of them have adapted to their new high socioeconomic class college, Mark Anis, for example, says: When I first came here, everything seemed different. The educational system


101

was different, people were different and the atmosphere was very different. I felt I would never be able to adjust to my new environment. But as the days went by, I felt more and more acquainted with AUC and its activities. Actually, it became a second home to me. ("American University in Cairo") The lower-class student could also choose to attend an average class college, in which he/she will be emotionally satisfied and could lead to his/her great success, as the Nobel Prize winner Ahmed Zweil did. In addition, the higher-class student can also choose to attend a low socioeconomic class college, he/she might also find student in his/her situation and he/she will gain experience from dealing with people of different mentalities and backgrounds. If that student chooses to attend a weak but high socioeconomic class college, it will not necessarily result in his/her failure in the future, but he/she would have to work hard to gain experience that will compensate for his/her weaknesses. All in all, one should not deal with situations or take critical decisions, such as deciding which college he/she should attend based on extremes; instead one should consider all the factors while taking such a crucial decision. Moreover, the college itself should help the person in taking such a decision, as Ein-Shams, Cairo and Alexandria Universities have lately done. These universities have opened new special programs that are taught in English and French, and have a tuition fee that is relatively high compared to that of the normal programs. The difference in tuition fees is not high enough to create a socioeconomic gap between students in the special programs and the regular ones, but it provides students with a superior environment. The AUC should also open an optional separate section for the LEAD program that has the same academic quality as the rest of the university, but creates a â&#x20AC;&#x153;saferâ&#x20AC;? environment for


102

these students.


103

Works Cited Amin, Galal. Whatever happened to the Egyptians?: changes in Egyptian society from 1950 to the Present. Ninth Printing. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press, 2006. 179. Print. Becker, Howard S. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: The Free Press, 1966. 218. Print. Berndt, Thomas. "Friendship and Friends' Influence in Adolescence." Current Directions in Psychological Science Oct 1992, Vol 1, No. 5: 156-159. Print. " LEAD Students Say...." The American University in Cairo. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jul 2011. <http://www.aucegypt.edu/students/lead/Pages/LEADStudentsSay.aspx>. " Leadership for Education and Development Program:Admission." The American University in Cairo. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jul 2011.


104

<http://www.aucegypt.edu/STUDENTS/LEAD/Pages/Admis sion.aspx>. " More LEAD Students Say...." The American University in Cairo. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jul 2011. <http://www.aucegypt.edu/students/lead/Pages/MoreLEADStudentsSay.aspx>. Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. Penguin Books, 1993. Print.


105

Free Writing Religion and Education

Religion is something a person believes in, it is not connected to the personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s class. A lower class person could be very poor but still religious, and a high-class person could be very rich and busy yet still religious. Education is one of the factors that affect oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s religious beliefs, as it affects how one thinks and reasons. A person thinking process is built on deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning.

Beginning of quaran: ekra2

High class taught inductive reasoning While average class taught deductive reasoning So High-class people challenge what they believe in, rather than just blindly follow it


106

Discussion Education VS Religion Consider Fact VS Belief.. science vs religion.. how do theses ideas affect judgement to conclude a verdict (comes from the truth) FREE WRITING:: observations and experiments ;;; or rules and laws ==> in conclusion BIBILE BELT==fundamental Christianity .. don't consider the old situation,, SAME AS,, uneducated Egypt terry jones== extreme== burns<>Salafeyeen 70% illiterate, miracles, motives Educated people are willing to challenge things and question them,, interpretations that we create Other extreme: DEDUCTIVE(RULE LAW) AND INDUCTIVE(OBS EXPERIENCE) circular reasoning, bible is true as it says that it is true emotional extreme: feel that the elites do so, so they imitate, feel that they want to be different than the rest of their class, so they do so without thinking science should be inductive, thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why educated people are so some people argue that there shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be religion in school Amin Makram Ebid:: Towards a culture of progress


107

Major Writing Assignment 3: Sources DEFINITON

Political power is generally a type of power held by a group in a society which allows administration of some or all of public resources, including labour, and wealth. There are many ways to obtain possession of such power however, “The power to rule is a necessary evil, and by this same token, alas, it can be called a good.” Émile Chartier. Similar to that would be the Parental Control, A form of control (usually firm or restrictive) where parents control their child's activities to help provide better manners or on the other hand where parents intrude into the child's activities without regard to the child's feelings or needs, Intrusive control. That type of control tends to be motivated more by the parent's own personal needs or wishes than by a realistic need to monitor or control the child's actions. Intrusive or interfering parents impose their will on the child with little regard for the child's own emotional state or current activity. Is it positive or negative for children? How does it affect children’s life? What triggers it? The purpose of this essay is to argue an answer to the question, How does parental control affect a college student’s life?

According to Political Power, it is divided into three types of powers. First, Separation of powers: Charles De Secondat, baron de Montesquieu claimed that without following a principle of containing and balancing power, the world is constantly at risk. Separation of power must be in such grade, that any of the branches can operate without excessive limitations from the others; but interdependency


108

between them must also be in such grade, that one single branch cannot rule out the other's decisions. This is the separation of powers principle.

Division of power A similar concept, termed "division of power", also consists of differentiated legislative, executive, and judicial powers. However, while separation of powers prohibits one branch from interfering with another, division of power permits such interference. For example, in Indonesia, the President (who wields executive power) can introduce a new bill, but the People's Consultative Assembly (holding legislative power) chooses to either legalize or reject the bill. The model here is the Checks and balances system introduced in the United States Constitution. [edit]

Power projection Main article: Power projection This ability is a crucial element of a state's power in international relations. Any state able to direct its military forces outside the limited bounds of its territory might be said to have some level of power projection capability, but the term itself is used most frequently in reference to militaries with a worldwide reach (or at least significantly broader than a state's immediate area). Even states with sizable hard power assets


109

(such as a large standing army) may only be able to exert limited regional influence so long as they lack the means of effectively projecting their power on a global scale. Generally, only a select few states are able to overcome the logistical difficulties inherent in the deployment and direction of a modern, mechanized military force.

[J]udicial power, that sure criterion of the goodness of a Government...is, in a word, a necessary evil. — Jean-Louis de Lolme[3] The power to rule is a necessary evil, and by this same token, alas, it can be called a good. — Émile Chartier[4] Constituted power is concentrated power. — Giorgio Agamben[5] [Constituted power] is the product of a grey, incessant alchemy in which good and evil and, along with them, all the metals of traditional ethics reach their point of fusion. It thus becomes a question of irresponsibility and “impotentia judicandi” [the inability to judge]...though one that is situated not beyond good and evil, but rather before. — Giorgio Agamben[6]

Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a group in a society which allows administration of some or all of public resources, including labour, and wealth. There are many ways to obtain possession of such power


110

Major Writing Assignment 3: First Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 12 July 2011 Power Distribution in a Family Power is a concept on which there is a lack of agreement about its specific definition. However, there is a primary complex of its meaning, having to do with the ability of persons to “get things done,” in specific when their goals are blocked by any human resistance or opposition (Parsons 232). In a family, parents are granted power over their children. That power differs depending on the family’s situation. In Egypt, when a child is applying to college, his/her parents posses the power to choose that college for him/her. The parents usually regard their child’s choice, but at the end, they are the ones who are authorized to take such a decision. However, in my cousin’s situation, which differs from a normal family’s situation, his parents are divorced and he wants to attend a college in Switzerland, at which he got accepted. His mother is operating from a functional/practical extreme and wants him to attend that college in Switzerland, while his father is operating from a human/personal extreme does not want him to. As power is “separated” between both of his parents, they must reach a synthesized viewpoint. The purpose for this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean to be a college student from the political perspective? The term "trias politica" or "separation of powers" was created by the French social and political philosopher; Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu. In his book, he mentioned that Separation of powers refers to the


111

division of government responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another ("National Conference of State Legislatures"). Separation of power among people is in such a manner, that any of the people who posses power, is authorized to take decisions without limitations from the others, but that person cannot rule out the other's decisions. Separation of powers differs from dividing power. The main difference between the separation of power concept and the division of power, is that the division of power allows interference between those who posses the power. Moreover, in a “normal” family, the separation of power principal is not followed. Power is balanced between both parents, and any parent can operate without excessive limitations from the other and can rule out the other's decisions. On the other hand, in my cousin’s situation, when the parents are divorced, the separation of powers principal is followed; a parent cannot interfere in the other’s decision, and that is why they should always reach a synthesis that satisfies both parents. Operating at a functional/practical extreme, my aunt wants him to attend a college in Switzerland. My cousin was born in Switzerland, but doesn’t posses a Swiss nationality (as he stayed in Switzerland for less than five consecutive years). For that reason, my aunt also wants him to stay in Switzerland for five years without returning to Egypt. She is following a functional/practical extreme; she considers the logical importance of her son graduating from a Swiss college with a Swiss nationality above all other emotional factors. She wants her son to gain experience by interacting with other people of different nationalities, and to gain experience from living alone in a foreign country, this experience will help him if he decides to immigrate one day. In addition, she wants him to graduate from a highly ranked Swiss college with a Swiss nationality that would increase his credibility. Her decision


112

would help him in continuing his career in Switzerland if he requests, and if he decides to come back to Egypt, he will be considered as a “foreign professional,” which will cover for his limited educational abilities. Her extreme decision will definitely have a significant effect on her son’s future, but can he bare the emotional problems that he might encounter? Operating at a human/personal extreme, my cousin’s father does not want his son to attend a college in Switzerland. He follows his emotions and overlooks the benefits of his son attending a highly ranked college in Switzerland, as he believes that his son is not emotionally prepared to live alone to a foreign country for five years. He feels that his son is not prepared to interact with foreigners that are of different mentalities and who speak a language that he barely knows. He feels that he is still young, unstable, and could easily be affected by their foreign behavior, which he despises. He also believes that he is not prepared to live alone in a country without any of his family members or friends, and as he did not travel before for such a long period so there is no way to determine how he might react to it. Above all, he also believes that his son might not succeed in such a highly ranked college, because of his limited educational abilities, and because of the emotional factors that he will encounter. The father’s extreme decision is based on his emotions, which cannot be proven unless he tries, but still the father refuses for him to take such a risk. The power in my cousin’s family is separated, and for that reason they tried to reach a synthesized solution. His mother suggested that she could move to Switzerland with him for the whole five years, but his father refused by arguing that he is still young, unstable, and that he could easily fail there and waste years of his life. His father, on the other hand, suggested that he should wait until he graduates from an Egyptian college, and then continue his education and career in Switzerland


113

when he is old enough. His mother also rejected his father’s suggestion, arguing that it will be difficult for him to perform graduate studies after graduating from an average Egyptian college, and that he should not waste such an opportunity. Because of their complicated relationship, my cousin’s parents find difficulty in coming up with a synthesized solution, as both parents wont settle for the other’s viewpoint. Moreover, after talking with my cousin, we came up with our own synthesized viewpoint that we still did not introduce to his parents. Having transferred from one college to the other, I encouraged my cousin to attend a college in Egypt for a couple of years, and then when he is old enough and has proven that he could achieve high grades, he could transfer to Switzerland. Such a decision would satisfy both of his parents. His father will be emotionally satisfied as he would be old enough, and his mother will be satisfied by his college degree and nationality. All in all, parents normally argue about certain issues. If power is separated between both parents, they could come up with a synthesized solution to solve the issue, or they could stick to their viewpoint and refer to a higher power for a solution. However, if power is divided between both parents, they try to come up with a synthesized solution by simply convincing each other, or by sacrificing one’s viewpoint for the other’s sake. I believe that the main reason why parents decide to separate the power between them is because of their numerous arguments; both parents get tired of always finding synthesized solutions and sacrificing their viewpoints, and thus they decide to separate both their power, and themselves.


114

Works Cited Parsons, Talcott. Proceedings of the American Philosophical society. 3rd. 107. Boston: American Philosophical Society, 1963. 232-262. Print. "Separation of Powers -- An Overview." National Conference of State Legislatures. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jul 2011. <http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=13543>.


115

Major Writing Assignment 3: Second Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 14 July 2011 Power in a Family Authority is known as “the power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience” (Mac Dictionary). With authority comes power (“Integrated Publishing”). Power is a concept on which there is a lack of agreement about its specific definition. However, there is a primary complex of its meaning, having to do with the ability of persons to “get things done” (Parsons 232), in specific when their goals are blocked by any human resistance or opposition. However, there is always a limit to one’s power and authority (“Integrated Publishing”). In addition, according to family politics, parents are granted authority over their children. Their powers differ depending on the family’s situation. In an intimate Egyptian family, powers are divided between both the child’s parents; each parent possesses the same powers as the other, and he/she can interfere with the other’s decision. However, that is not the case in my cousin’s situation. My cousin’s family differs from a nuclear family’s situation, as his parents are divorced. Divorce gives parents the same authority over their child, but separates the powers among them; each parent possesses the same powers as the other, but he/she cannot interfere with the other’s decision. Furthermore, in Egypt, when a child is applying to college, his/her parents are authorized to select that college for him/her. The parents usually regard their child’s


116

choice, but at the end, they are the ones who are authorized to take such a decision. Moreover, my cousin wants to attend a highly ranked college in Switzerland (at which he got accepted). His mother, operating from a functional/practical extreme, wants him to attend that college in Switzerland. While his father, who is operating from a human/personal extreme, does not want him to. As powers are separated between both of his parents, they are trying to reach a synthesized viewpoint that satisfies them both. The purpose for this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean to be a college student from the political perspective? The term "trias politica" or "separation of powers" was created by the French social and political philosopher; Charles-Louis de Secondat, best known as the Baron de Montesquieu. His book, Spirit of the Laws, is considered one of the great works in the history of political theory and jurisprudence, and it inspired the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Constitution of the United States” ("National Conference of State Legislatures"). Charles-Louis de Secondat stated that the political authority of the state is divided into legislative, executive and judicial powers. He emphasized that, “to most effectively promote liberty, these three powers must be separate and acting independently” (Ibid). He mentioned that “Separation of powers” refers to the division of government responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another (Ibid). His intent was to prevent the concentration of powers and provide for checks and balances. Similar to CharlesLouis de Secondat’s theory, political authority of the family is divided between both parents. In families where powers are “separated” (because of the parents’ divorce), each parent is authorized to take decisions without excessive limitations from the other, but that parent cannot rule out the other's decisions, thus powers are balanced between both parents. On the other hand, in families where powers are not separated,


117

the division of powers allows for interference between both parents, so a parent can rule out the other’s decision. In most Egyptian families, the separation of powers principal is not followed. However, in my cousin’s situation, when the parents are divorced, the separation of powers principal is followed; a parent cannot rule out the other's decisions. For that reason, if arguing, his parents should always reach a synthesis that satisfies them both. Operating at a functional/practical extreme, my aunt wants her son to attend a college in Switzerland. My cousin was born in Switzerland, but doesn’t posses a Swiss nationality (as he stayed in Switzerland for less than five consecutive years). For that reason, my aunt also wants him to stay in Switzerland for five years without returning to Egypt. She is following a functional/practical extreme; she considers the logical importance of her son graduating from a Swiss college with a Swiss nationality above all other emotional factors. She wants her son to gain experience by interacting with other people of different nationalities, and to gain experience from living alone in a foreign country, this experience will help him if he decides to immigrate one day. Added to that, she wants him to graduate from a highly ranked Swiss college with a Swiss nationality that would increase his credibility. Her decision would help him in continuing his career in Switzerland if he requests, and if he decides to return back to Egypt, he will be considered as a “foreign professional,” thus becoming “unique” (Berlin 74) would cover for his limited educational abilities. Her extreme decision will definitely have a significant effect on her son’s future, but can he bare the emotional problems that he might encounter? Operating at a human/personal extreme, my cousin’s father does not want him to attend a college in Switzerland. He follows his emotions and overlooks the benefits of his son attending a highly ranked college in Switzerland, as he believes that his son


118

is not emotionally prepared to live alone to a foreign country for five years. He feels that his son is not prepared to interact with foreigners that are of different mentalities and who speak a language that he barely knows (French). He feels that he is still young, unstable, and could easily be affected by their foreign behavior, which he despises. He also believes that he is not prepared to live alone in a country, without any of his family members or friends, and as he did not travel before for such a long period, he believes that there is no way to determine how he might react to it. Above all, because of his limited educational abilities, and because of the emotional factors that he will encounter, his father believes that he might not succeed in such a highly ranked college. His father built his extreme decision based on his emotions; emotions that cannot be proven unless his son tries, but still, he refuses for him to take that risk. Because of their divorce, both my cousinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents have the same authority over him, but powers are separated between them. Each of his parents cannot rule out the other's decisions, and for that reason they should always reach a synthesis that satisfies them both. Looking for a synthesized solution, his mother suggested that she could move to Switzerland with him, she would leave her job, her home, and her friends, and start a new life in Switzerland. However, his father refused by arguing that he is still young, unstable, and unprepared to move to a foreign country, and so he could easily fail and waste significant years of his and her life. His father, on the other hand, suggested that he should wait until he graduates from an Egyptian college, and then continue his education and career in Switzerland, when he is old enough. His mother also rejected his fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suggestion, arguing that it would be difficult for him to perform graduate studies after graduating from an average Egyptian college, and that he should not waste such an opportunity. Because of their complicated relationship, my cousinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents find difficulty in coming up with a synthesized


119

solution, as both parents wont settle for the otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s viewpoint. Moreover, after talking with my cousin, we came up with our own synthesized viewpoint. Having transferred from one college to the other, I encouraged my cousin to attend a college in Egypt for a couple of years, and then when he has proven to be responsible and could achieve high grades, he could transfer to Switzerland. Such a decision would satisfy both of his parents. His father will be emotionally satisfied, as he would attend a college in Egypt until he is mature enough to transfer, and his mother will be satisfied by his college degree and nationality, if he proves to be worthy of transferring. The only problem was to introduce this viewpoint to his parents. Because of the complicated relationship between both parents, we decided that we should not introduce it ourselves to one of them, and expect that parent to convince the other. We decided that the best way for each parent to accept the viewpoint was if it came from someone whom they believe and respect, so we decided to talk to his grandparents. After convincing both of his grandparents with our viewpoint, the whole family sat together in our living room. His grandparents introduced the viewpoint, and after hours of arguing, they both agreed to that synthesized solution with the conditions that we had put, and so we succeeded in convincing his parents by properly introducing our viewpoint. All in all, parents normally argue about certain issues. If powers are separated between both parents, they could come up with a synthesized solution to solve the issue, or they could stick to their viewpoint and refer to a higher power for a solution. However, if powers are divided between both parents, they try to come up with a synthesized solution by simply convincing each other, or by sacrificing oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s viewpoint for the otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sake. I believe that the main reason why parents decide to separate the power between them is because of their numerous arguments; both


120

parents get tired of always finding synthesized solutions and sacrificing their viewpoints, and thus they decide to separate both their powers, and themselves.


121

Works Cited â&#x20AC;&#x153;Authority and Power.â&#x20AC;? Integrated Publishing. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 July 2011. <http://www.tpub.com/content/advancement/14144/css/14144_67.htm>. Berlin, James. Rhetorics, poetics, and cultures: refiguring college English studies. III. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1996. 83-102. Print. Parsons, Talcott. Proceedings of the American Philosophical society. 3rd. 107. Boston: American Philosophical Society, 1963. 232-262. Print. "Separation of Powers -- An Overview." National Conference of State Legislatures. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jul 2011. <http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=13543>.


122

Major Writing Assignment 3: Final Draft Professor Mike Gibson RHET102/02 16 July 2011 Power in a Family Authority is known as “the power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience” (Mac Dictionary). With authority comes power (“Integrated Publishing”). Power is a concept on which there is a lack of agreement about its specific definition. However, there is a primary complex of its meaning, having to do with the ability of persons to “get things done” (Parsons 232), in specific when their goals are blocked by any human resistance or opposition. However, there is always a limit to one’s power and authority (“Integrated Publishing”). In addition, according to family politics, parents are granted authority over their children. Their powers differ depending on the family’s situation. In an intimate Egyptian family, powers are divided between both the child’s parents; each parent possesses the same powers as the other, and he/she can interfere with the other’s decision. However, that is not the case in my cousin’s situation. My cousin’s family differs from a nuclear family’s situation, as his parents are divorced. Divorce gives parents the same authority over their child, but separates the powers among them; each parent possesses the same powers as the other, but he/she cannot interfere with the other’s decision. Furthermore, in Egypt, when a child is applying to college, his/her parents are authorized to select that college for him/her. The parents usually regard their child’s


123

choice, but at the end, they are the ones who are authorized to take such a decision. Moreover, my cousin wants to attend a highly ranked college in Switzerland (at which he got accepted). His mother, operating from a functional/practical extreme, wants him to attend that college in Switzerland. While his father, who is operating from a human/personal extreme, does not want him to. As powers are separated between both of his parents, they are trying to reach a synthesized viewpoint that satisfies them both. The purpose for this essay is to argue an answer to the premise question, what does it mean to be a college student from the political perspective? The term "trias politica" or "separation of powers" was created by the French social and political philosopher; Charles-Louis de Secondat, best known as the Baron de Montesquieu. His book, Spirit of the Laws, is considered one of the great works in the history of political theory and jurisprudence, and it inspired the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Constitution of the United States” ("National Conference of State Legislatures"). Charles-Louis de Secondat stated that the political authority of the state is divided into legislative, executive and judicial powers. He emphasized that, “to most effectively promote liberty, these three powers must be separate and acting independently” (Ibid). He mentioned that “Separation of powers” refers to the division of government responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another (Ibid). His intent was to prevent the concentration of powers and provide for checks and balances. Similar to CharlesLouis de Secondat’s theory, political authority of the family is divided between both parents. In families where powers are “separated,” because of the parents’ divorce, each parent is authorized to take decisions without excessive limitations from the other, but that parent cannot rule out the other's decisions, thus powers are balanced between both parents. On the other hand, in families where powers are not separated,


124

the division of powers allows for interference between both parents, so a parent can rule out the other’s decision. In most Egyptian families, the separation of powers principal is not followed. However, in my cousin’s situation, when the parents are divorced, the separation of powers principal is followed; a parent cannot rule out the other's decisions. For that reason, if arguing, his parents should always reach a synthesis that satisfies them both. Operating at a functional/practical extreme, my aunt wants her son to attend a college in Switzerland. My cousin was born in Switzerland, but doesn’t posses a Swiss nationality, as he stayed in Switzerland for less than five consecutive years. For that reason, my aunt also wants him to stay in Switzerland for five years without returning to Egypt. She is following a functional/practical extreme; she considers the logical importance of her son graduating from a Swiss college with a Swiss nationality above all other emotional factors. She wants her son to gain experience by interacting with other people of different nationalities, and to gain experience from living alone in a foreign country, this experience will help him if he decides to immigrate one day. Added to that, she wants him to graduate from a highly ranked Swiss college with a Swiss nationality that would increase his credibility. Her decision would help him in continuing his career in Switzerland if he requests, and if he decides to return back to Egypt, he will be considered as a “foreign professional,” thus becoming “unique” (Berlin 74) would cover for his limited educational abilities. Her extreme decision will definitely have a significant effect on her son’s future, but can he bare the emotional problems that he might encounter? Operating at a human/personal extreme, my cousin’s father does not want him to attend a college in Switzerland. He follows his emotions and overlooks the benefits of his son attending a highly ranked college in Switzerland, as he believes that his son


125

is not emotionally prepared to live alone in a foreign country for five years. He feels that his son is not prepared to interact with foreigners that are of different mentalities and who speak a language that he barely knows (French). He feels that his 16-yearold son is still young, unstable, and could easily be affected by their foreign behavior, which he despises. He also believes that he is not prepared to live alone in a country, without any of his family members or friends, and as he did not travel before for such a long period, he believes that there is no way to determine how he might react to it. Above all, because of his limited educational abilities, and because of the emotional factors that he might encounter, his father believes that he might not succeed in such a highly ranked college. His father built his extreme decision based on his emotions; emotions that cannot be proven unless his son tries, but still, he refuses for him to take that risk. Because of their divorce, both my cousinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents have the same authority over him, but powers are separated between them. Each of his parents cannot rule out the other's decisions, and for that reason they should always reach a synthesis that satisfies them both. Looking for a synthesized solution, his mother suggested that she could move to Switzerland with him; she would leave her job, her home, and her friends, and start a new life in Switzerland. However, his father refused by arguing that he is still young, unstable, and unprepared to move to a foreign country, and so he could easily fail and waste significant years of his and her life. His father, on the other hand, suggested that he should wait until he graduates from an Egyptian college, and then continue his education and career in Switzerland when he is old enough. His mother also rejected his fatherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suggestion, arguing that it would be difficult for him to perform graduate studies after graduating from an average Egyptian college, and that he should not waste such an opportunity. Because of their complicated


126

relationship, my cousin’s parents find difficulty in coming up with a synthesized solution, as both parents wont settle for the other’s viewpoint. Moreover, after talking with my cousin, we came up with our own synthesized viewpoint. Having transferred from one college to the other, I encouraged my cousin to attend a college in Egypt for a couple of years, and then when he has proven to be responsible and could achieve high grades, he could transfer to Switzerland. Such a decision would satisfy both of his parents. His father will be emotionally satisfied, as he would attend a college in Egypt until he is mature enough to transfer, and his mother will be satisfied by his college degree and nationality, if he proves to be worthy of transferring. The only problem we faced was to introduce this viewpoint to his parents. Because of their complicated relationship, we decided not to introduce it ourselves to one of them, and expect that parent to convince the other. We decided that the best way for each parent to accept the viewpoint was if it came from someone they believe and respect, so we decided to talk to his grandparents. After convincing both of his grandparents with our viewpoint, the whole family sat together in our living room. His grandparents introduced the viewpoint, and after hours of arguing, they both agreed to that synthesized solution with the conditions that we had put, and so we succeeded in convincing his parents by properly introducing our viewpoint. In conclusion, “family values” are more than two simple words. “Family values must be the act of giving sacred value to the family and working to make and keep it whole” (“Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service”). Parents, who worship the concept of family values, refrain from separating the powers between them. When arguing, they try to come up with a synthesized solution by simply convincing each other with their viewpoint, or by sacrificing one’s viewpoint for their family’s sake. However, those who have forgotten the concept of family values, decide to separate


127

the powers between them. When arguing, they could come up with a synthesized solution to solve the issue, or they could stubbornly stick to their viewpoint and refer to a higher power for a solution. I believe that the main reason why parents decide to separate the powers between them is because of their numerous arguments. Both parents get tired of always finding synthesized solutions and sacrificing their viewpoints, and thus they decide to separate both their powers, and themselves. Sadly these parents have forgotten the true meaning of â&#x20AC;&#x153;family values.â&#x20AC;?


128

Works Cited â&#x20AC;&#x153;Authority and Power.â&#x20AC;? Integrated Publishing. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 July 2011. <http://www.tpub.com/content/advancement/14144/css/14144_67.htm>. Berlin, James. Rhetorics, poetics, and cultures: refiguring college English studies. III. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1996. 83-102. Print. Parsons, Talcott. Proceedings of the American Philosophical society. 3rd. 107. Boston: American Philosophical Society, 1963. 232-262. Print. "Separation of Powers -- An Overview." National Conference of State Legislatures. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Jul 2011. <http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=13543>. "The Contradictions of Family Separation." Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service. Welcome Spoken Here, 25 4 2011. Web. 16 Jul 2011. <http://www.lirsblog.org/2011/04/25/the-contradictions-of-familyseparation/>.


Portfolio