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Gender equality Understanding how it can help solve food and nutrition challenges
Water conservation New strategic techniques are key to boosting agricultural productivity
Capacity building Smart, pre-emptive approaches for NGOs to deal with disaster more effectively
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Gender equality Understanding how it can help solve food and nutrition challenges
Water conservation New strategic techniques are key to boosting agricultural productivity
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Letter From the Editor
Capacity building Smart, pre-emptive approaches for NGOs to deal with disaster more effectively
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From the Editor
Time for change: 2015 is the year that the sustainable development sector must recognise and assert its professional identity, says James Hayes.
There is much for the sustainable development profession \WTMIZVNZWU\PM_Ia[QV_PQKP\PM=67ٻKMNWZ\PM +WWZLQVI\QWVWN 0]UIVQ\IZQIV)ٺIQZ[·7+0)·X]ZM[ its aims and objectives, explains James Hayes, Editor-inChief of SOURCE: Sustainable Development.
Foreword The rule of law is an inseparable part of sustainable development: it embodies the principles and institutions that render justice – legal and social – and as such, it is the foundation on which to build durable development, believes Irene Khan, Director-General of the International Development Law Organization (IDLO).
Interview Gerhard Putman-Cramer discusses on the nature of progress in humanitarian assistance, and explains the rationale behind this year’s DIHAD themes of opportunity, mobility, and sustainability.
Challenges associated with the new operating environment NWZOTWJITP]UIVQ\IZQIVQ[UKITTNWZIZMIٻZUI\QWVIVL strengthening of core principles, insists Angharad Laing, Executive Director of the International Association of Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection.
Best Practice Proﬁle: OCHA
Youth and education Helping young people to successfully make the transition between their education and their employment prospects is IKPQM^IJTM_PMVU]T\QXTMXIZ\QM[RWQVNWZKM[ÅVL[Sustainable Development Goals Fund Director Paloma Durán.
UN PHOTO/JEAN-MARC FERRÉ
Gender work gap cost ‘now surpassing GDPs’ says ActionAid; Global Ocean Commission wants an ‘ocean SDG’ to counter high-seas ‘anarchy’.
24 24 10
Interview HE Shaima Al Zarooni talks about her focus on extending awareness of the global humanitarian agenda into the many other spheres of public life that she is committed to.
UN PHOTO/MARK GARTEN
)\ÅZ[\[QOP\\PMNIK\WZ[\PI\UISMOMVLMZMY]ITQ\aIVL women’s empowerment a food and nutrition issue may not be obvious – but the issues are closely interdependent. By understanding how, we are better placed to promote equality, social equity, gender equality – and women’s MUXW_MZUMV\_ZQ\M[;WV[WTM[:]MLI[,QZMK\WZWN \PM /MVLMZ7ٻKMI\<PM?WZTL.WWL8ZWOZIUUM
-VIJTQVO\PMMٻKQMV\IVLMٺMK\Q^M[XMVLQVOWN X]JTQKIVL private funds for an array of development purposes has been an important facet of Crown Agents’ work for many years. Senior Fund Manager at Crown Agents Defrim Dedej looks at how challenge funds can help to strengthen the private sectors of developing countries, and the important considerations of their use
Impact, scalability, and sustainability Bringing water and sanitation to 220 of Haiti’s earthquake-struck schools has not only re-established their students’ educational prospects, but also made a Y]IV\QÅIJTMKWV\ZQJ]\ML\W_IZLKWUU]VQ\aPMIT\PIVL _MTTJMQVO<IZQY)T/]ZO+PQMN -`MK]\Q^M7ٻKMZI\ Dubai Cares, tells the inspiring story, and explains the factors behind Dubai Cares’ success.
Cities and sustainable innovation Smart city concepts can go beyond their original remit and help create incubatory environments that encourage and promote innovative sustainability at grass-roots levels, reports Professor Martin Charter, Director of the Centre for Sustainable Design®.
34 For anyone looking to invest in technology start-up projects that are emerging in Africa, the risk levels may seem daunting – but anyone with a passion for funding entrepreneurial innovators should not be deterred, argues Dr Loren Treisman, Executive, The Indigo Trust.
?PMVQ\KWUM[\WUISQVO\PMUW[\WN \PMWXXWZ\]VQ\QM[ tourism brings without jeopardising sustainability, islands ·M[XMKQITTa[UITTQ[TIVL[·KIVÅVLU]\]ITTaXXWZ\QVO [WT]\QWV[\PI\JITIVKM\PMVMML[WN \PMUJW\PÅVL[ ,Z:IKPMT,WLL[,QZMK\WZ7_VMZ;][\IQVQVO<W]ZQ[U
DIHAD Conference Guide
Interview Professor Mukesh Kapila shares his perspectives on the nature of humanitarian progress, and on why the mix of cultures between private and public sectors in the cause of better aid relief is not necessarily something to be concerned about.
Your at-a-glance guide to the Agenda Sessions and Speaker Details for the 2015 DIHAD Conference taking place on 24th, 25th and 26th March in Dubai.
Contributors Proﬁles SOURCE: Sustainable Development contributors represent a wide range of expertise and specialist knowledge. Find out more about them.
Events calendar Conferences, exhibitions, and seminars that sustainable development professionals will want to know about.
NGOs and capacity building Capacity building is a vital element in taking a pre-emptive approach to dealing with distress and disaster, explains 5IZ\QV5K+IVV+PQMN -`MK]\Q^M7ٻKMZ:ML:=3
Water management A changing climate will cause us to adapt our management of water to new techniques and practices - techniques and practices that can also contribute to greater productivity, explains Peter McCornick, Deputy Director General, :M[MIZKP1V\MZVI\QWVIT?I\MZ5IVIOMUMV\1V[\Q\]\M
Law must prevail: setting standards for the bedrock of development W
orld governments are working to pindown what has become known as the Post-2015 Agenda. A blueprint for our world over the next generation, this Agenda will set out a series of commitments known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets and indicators to measure progress. There is strong consensus on some OWIT[KPI[ÅOP\QVOP]VOMZIVLMZILQKI\ing poverty, and less so on some others, such as access to justice and the rule of law. The rule of law trails a baggage of controversy. Some governments see it as West-centric, prescriptive, and irrelevant to development; some others argue that it is too hard to measure, and unsuitable as a development target. From the perspective of my organisation, with both development and law embedded in its very name, the rule of law is an inseparable part of sustainable development. It embodies the principles and institutions that render justice – legal and social. As such, it is the essential foundation on which to build development, and to do so durably. When the rule of law does not function properly, inequality grows: when the law does not protect against discrimination; when opportunities are only open to a few based on wealth and privilege; when corruption and bribery thrive unchecked; when
\PMTI_Q[[MTMK\Q^MTaIXXTQMLNWZ\PMJMVMÅ\ of the powerful and against the poor; when X]JTQKOWWL[IZM[QXPWVMLWٺJaXZQ^I\M interests with total impunity. Equality, equal protection and fair treatment are fundamental principles of the rule of law. Take women and girls. In many countries, the law, whether formal or customary, continues to exclude and discriminate against them. This is not only morally reprehensible: it also deprives societies of wealth and skills; it endangers food security; and it has adverse MٺMK\[WV\PMPMIT\PWN VI\QWV[<PQ[Q[VW\ rule of law, but rule by law. Properly understood, the rule of law upholds the universal values of human rights, and far from hampering development, strengthens it. Or take business and economic growth. The rule of law ensures predictability and KMZ\IQV\aIVLJa[WLWQVOKZMI\M[KWVÅdence and promotes responsible investment. By contrast, its absence opens the way to corruption and predatory practices. Natural resources are unlawfully exploited. Environmental degradation follows. Climate resilQMVKMUIaٺMZ-V\QZMKWUU]VQ\QM[UIaJM uprooted or destroyed. By setting the standards and institutions for equitable development and providing avenues for redress when rules and regula-
tions are breached or rights are violated, the rule of law promotes transparency, accountability and inclusive participation. Legal empowerment strategies help the poor and the marginalised to access justice and claim their rights. Far from being impossible to measure, the justice sector – like any sector of governance – can be evaluated, and people’s ability to access justice can be measured. Far from importing ‘foreign’ norms, the principles of the rule of law can be applied in context-speKQÅK_Ia[\PI\MVKW]ZIOMTWKITW_VMZ[PQX Challenges vary from country to country, and so do legal systems. There is plenty of good practice to show that solutions can be tailored, while the basic principles of the rule of law remain the same: fair, predictable, equally applicable, and equally accountable. If sustainability is to become a principle of global governance, the rule of law must be the bedrock of development. The alternative Q[I_WZTLWN KWVÆQK\IVLXMZXM\]ITP]UIVQtarian crises. Irene Khan Director-General, International Development Law Organization (IDLO) For more information about the IDLO, visit www.idlo.int
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Syria Millions of Syrians are displaced inside Syria or in neighbouring countries. They face a 5th year away from home and their needs continue to grow. The World Food Programme is helping them by providing food or vouchers or e-cards to buy food.
Fighting Hunger Worldwide
If you would like to know how you too can help, please visit: www.wfp.org/Syria
Focus on the individual: responding effectively and responsibly to current and future crises G
lobal humanitarian need has increased [QOVQĂ…KIV\TaQVZMKMV\LMKILM[ÂˇQV \MZU[WN \PMNZMY]MVKa[M^MZQ\aIVL[KITMWN VI\]ZITLQ[I[\MZ[I[_MTTI[\PMV]UJMZWN XMWXTMIâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\MLJaIZUMLKWVĂ†QK\[IVLW\PMZ [Q\]I\QWV[WN ^QWTMVKM)T\PW]OP\PM[KITMWN the global humanitarian response has also JMMVQVKZMI[QVO_Q\PP]UIVQ\IZQIVIQLĂ†W_[ PI^QVOJMMVWVIV]X_IZL\ZMVLNWZW^MZI LMKILMQ\PI[JMMVQV\PMKWV\M`\WN IVQVKZMI[QVOTaKWUXTM`P]UIVQ\IZQIVTIVL[KIXM <PMKPITTMVOM[I[[WKQI\ML_Q\P\PQ[VM_ WXMZI\QVOMV^QZWVUMV\KITTNWZIZMIâ€ŤŮťâ€ŹZUItion and strengthening of core principles IVLIXXZWIKPM[\WOM\PMZ_Q\PKWVKMZ\MLMNforts to anticipate and address the questions and concerns that arise among humanitarQIVIK\WZ[ÂˇJW\PI\\PMWZOIVQ[I\QWVITIVL QVLQ^QL]ITTM^MT <PM1V\MZVI\QWVIT)[[WKQI\QWVWN 8ZWNM[[QWVIT[QV0]UIVQ\IZQIV)[[Q[\IVKMIVL8ZW\MK\QWV80)8_I[M[\IJTQ[PMLĂ…^MaMIZ[IOW QVIVMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹWZ\\WPMTXILLZM[[\PM[MKPITTMVOM[ )[IOTWJITIVL[MK\WZ_QLMXZWNM[[QWVIT I[[WKQI\QWVJZQVOQVO\WOM\PMZITTSQVL[WN P]UIVQ\IZQIVIK\WZ[I\\PMQVLQ^QL]ITTM^MTQ\ Q[\PMĂ…Z[\IVLWVTaWZOIVQ[I\QWVWN Q\[SQVL <PMUIQV[\ZMVO\P[WN 80)8ÂźVQY]M approach and structure are three-fold: it MVKWUXI[[M[LQ^MZ[Q\aQ\Q[KWUXTMUMV\IZa \WM`Q[\QVOWZOIVQ[I\QWVITQVQ\QI\Q^M[IVLQ\ Wâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZ[TWVO\MZU[\IQVIJTMXXWZ\\W\PM P]UIVQ\IZQIVKWUU]VQ\a
.QZ[\IVQVLQ^QL]ITJI[MLXZWNM[[QWVIT association is ideal for fostering cross-sector M`KPIVOMIVL]VLMZ[\IVLQVO<PMUMUJMZ[PQXITZMILa[XIV[ITT\PMUIRWZÂťLQ^QLM[Âź in the humanitarian landscape: members IZMIâ€ŤŮťâ€ŹTQI\ML_Q\PWZOIVQbI\QWV[\PI\IZM Âť6WZ\PMZVÂźIVLÂť;W]\PMZVÂź#TIZOMIVL [UITT#[MK]TIZIVLNIQ\PJI[ML#IVLTWKIT VI\QWVITIVLQV\MZVI\QWVIT<PMaQVKT]LM [\Iâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹIVL^WT]V\MMZ[WN 6/7[\PM=VQ\ML 6I\QWV[\PM:ML+ZW[[IVL:ML+ZM[KMV\ UW^MUMV\IKILMUQIIVLOW^MZVUMV\IT IOMVKQM[<PMaIZMJI[MLQVĂ…MTLIVLPMILY]IZ\MZ[TWKI\QWV[IZW]VL\PM_WZTL <PMaPI^MLQâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZMV\IZMI[WN M`XMZ\Q[M KPI[PMIT\PV]\ZQ\QWVTWOQ[\QK[KPQTLXZW\MK\QWVQV\MZVI\QWVITTI_KWUU]VQKI\QWV IVLUIVIOMUMV\80)8Wâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZ[UMUJMZ[ \PMWXXWZ\]VQ\a\W[PIZMM`XMZQMVKM[IVL TMIZVNZWUW\PMZ[JMaWVL\PMQZK]ZZMV\ WZOIVQ[I\QWVITIâ€ŤŮťâ€ŹTQI\QWV[_PQKPQUXZW^M[ ]VLMZ[\IVLQVOIUWVOLQâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZMV\IK\WZ[IVL MVPIVKM[P]UIVQ\IZQIVKIXIKQ\aI[I_PWTM ;MKWVL\PMW^MZIZKPQVOUQ[[QWVWN 80)8Q[[PIZMLJaUIVaQUXWZ\IV\QVQ\QI\Q^M[WXMZI\QVOI\\PMWZOIVQ[I\QWVITTM^MT _PQKP80)8\PZW]OPQ\[QVLQ^QL]ITJI[ML IXXZWIKPKIVXXWZ\IVL[\ZMVO\PMV 1VQ\QI\Q^M[IVLWZOIVQ[I\QWVITVM\_WZS[\PI\ 80)8PI[_WZSML_Q\PQV^IZQW][_Ia[ QVKT]LM)46)8\PMLM^MTWXMZ[WN \PM+WZM 0]UIVQ\IZQIV;\IVLIZL-4:0)1+>) 1V\MZ)K\QWV\PM1);+Âź[<ZIV[NWZUI\Q^M
)OMVLI\PM?WZTL0]UIVQ\IZQIV;]UUQ\ IVLW\PMZ[<PMUMUJMZ[PQXWN 80)8 has come together on multiple occasions \WXZW^QLM\PMQZ^QM_[IVLM`XMZ\Q[M\W PMTXKTIZQNaY]M[\QWV[IVLQ[M[\PI\IZQ[M IVL\WIUXTQNa\PMXW[Q\Q^MQUXIK\WN \PM[M WZOIVQ[I\QWVITVM\_WZS[IVLQVQ\QI\Q^M[ .QVITTa\PMQVLQ^QL]ITJI[ML[\Z]K\]ZM WN \PMI[[WKQI\QWVXZW^QLM[\PMJI[Q[NWZI U]KPVMMLMLTWVOMZ\MZUXMZ[XMK\Q^MQVI [MK\WZ\PI\WXMZI\M[ÂˇW]\WN VMKM[[Q\aÂˇITUW[\M`KT][Q^MTaQV\PM[PWZ\\MZU80)8Âź[ UWZM\PIVXZWNM[[QWVITUMUJMZ[IVL UWZM\PIVIK\Q^MKWV\IK\[QVQ\[TIZOMZXZIK\Q\QWVMZVM\_WZSIZMI\Z]TaOTWJIT KWUU]VQ\a_Q\PIUIRWZQ\aJI[MLQVÂˇIVL NZWUÂˇ\PM/TWJIT;W]\P *aRWQVQVOIVLXIZ\QKQXI\QVOI[UMUJMZ[ WN 80)8XMWXTMNZWUITTW^MZ\PM_WZTL LMUWV[\ZI\M\PMQZQVLQ^QL]ITKWUUQ\UMV\ \WMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\Q^MZM[XWV[QJTMIVLXZQVKQXTML P]UIVQ\IZQIVIK\QWV?Q\P\PQ[JZWILJI[M WN UMUJMZ[PQX80)8Q[IJTM\W[MZ^MI[ ITWVO\MZUZM[W]ZKM[\MILQTaMVPIVKQVO P]UIVQ\aÂź[KIXIKQ\a\WZM[XWVLMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\Q^MTa IVLZM[XWV[QJTa\WK]ZZMV\IVLN]\]ZMKZQ[M[ NWZaMIZ[IVLLMKILM[\WKWUM Angharad Laing -`MK]\Q^M,QZMK\WZ80)8 For more information about PHAP, visit https://phap.org
Gender inequality in work costs women in poor countries $9 trillion each year â€“ more than the combined gross domestic products of the UK, France, and Germany â€“ according to research report by international development agency, ActionAid. The inequality exists because women get paid less than men, and do not attain the same levels of employment. The report, â€˜Close the Gapâ€™, calls for exploitation of womenâ€™s work to receive more attention. Closing the gender pay gap and gender employment gap could, dramatically improve, womenâ€™s lives, and as well as help their wider communities, as women tend to spend increased income on food, health, and
Womenâ€™s care comes with a cost
education of their families. The report found two main causes of the huge inequality in the developing world. First, across the developing world, women do the most exploitative forms of work â€“ jobs such as garment makers, roadside hawkers, and domestic servants â€“ for the lowest wages. The second causes is that women do not get the same employment opportunities as men, because they spend so much of their time caring for children, the sick, and the elderly â€“ all work that is largely invisible and totally unpaid. In poor countries womenâ€™s burden is increased by having to spend time on collecting fuel and water, and taking-up the slack when governments cannot fund basic health and education services. Women living in poverty have a vast mine of untapped potential which could improve their own lives and those of their families, the report concludes: â€˜The costs of economic inequality to women are not only monetary, J]\IT[WIâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\\PMQZTQNMKPWQKM[TMI^QVO\PMU vulnerable to violence and other forms of discrimination and exploitationâ€™. ActionAid is calling for concerted action from governments, businesses and international institutions to value womenâ€™s work in its entirety â€“ from caring for families and communities, to toiling long hours on the NIK\WZaĂ†WWZ â€˜Food security and genderâ€™ â€“ page 56
Malta music star Losco made sustainable development ambassador Maltese singer and personality, Ira Losco has been appointed as the islandâ€™s goodwill ambassador for sustainable development, Malta Today has reported. The 33-year-old artist has had a succession of top-charting recordings, and competed for Malta in the 2002 Eurovision Song +WV\M[\Ă…VQ[PQVO[MKWVL â€œI am very honoured by this title, and I understand it is a great responsibility,â€? Losco told an conference audience of representatives of the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development (MCSD). â€œI will... use my position to promote sustainable development in my everyday life, and to bring this concept closer to members of society who might not be aware of how [they] can make a change themselves.â€? 8
Losco added: â€œSome concepts and terminology [around sustainable development] might seem complicated to some people, and... it will be my task to help society understand that they need not necessarily be so confusing.â€? Maltese Minister for Environment, Sustainable Development, and Climate Change, Leo Brincat, told conference delegates that it was important to have a guiding strategy to inspire and direct activities in sustainable development that can JMVMĂ…\ITT[\ISMPWTLMZ[IVLUMUJMZ[WN \PM public, both in Malta and the Mediterranean region, according to the report. More details at http://www.unepmap.org/index. php?module=content2&catid=001017002
RAIN project wins prestigious agriculture-for-nutrition award A project that aims to improve under-nutrition and mortality rates in children under two years old thatâ€™s been rolled out in Zambia has won an international World Bank award for its potential impact on nutrition in developing countries. The project, known as RAIN (Realigning Agriculture to Improve Nutrition) â€“ a joint imitative been humanitarian NGO Concern Worldwide and food processing Ă…ZU3MZZa/ZW]XÂˇ_I[I_QVVMZQV\PM Harvesting Nutrition Contest awards for bridging the gaps between nutrition, agriculture and food security. Launched in 2011 by Irelandâ€™s Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Simon Coveney, the RAIN project has seen Kerry Group contribute â‚Ź1.25m of the overITTĂ‚UJ]LOM\\W\PMĂ…^MaMIZQVQ\QI\Q^M The World Bank, in collaboration with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) and Save the Children UK, selected RAIN one of three winning projects of the SecureNutrition Knowledge Platformâ€™s 2013 Harvesting Nutrition Contest for bridging the gaps between nutrition and agriculture and/or food security. As the winner in the category entitled â€˜Potential Impact on Nutritionâ€™, the RAIN project will receive a boost of $5,000 (approximately â‚Ź4,465), and will also be documented by a multimedia portrait.
Under-nutrition results in stunting - and is the underlying cause of 3.5m deaths a year
Gender work gap cost â€˜now surpassing GDPsâ€™ â€“ report
SDG investment in youth ‘could help counter extremism’
Manchester City Council has selected Siemens as the technology partner to The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University, and IT Solutions provider, www.clicksandlinks.com, on the pioneering European-wide smart city project Triangulum, in a contract worth around ÂUQTTQWVW^MZÅ^MaMIZ[ The project will aim to transform the city’s ‘Manchester Corridor’ student district into a ‘smart quarter.’ Supported by European Commission’s ‘Smart Cities and Communities’ Horizon 2020 funding call, the Triangulum project will install a range of energy management technologies in a number of Manchester Corridor’s buildings, developing an autonomous energy grid that demonstrates how the entire district could be supplied with heat and electricity. The Corridor covers some 243 hectares and is home to The University of Manchester and Manchester Metropolitan University, and The Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust – making the Corridor the largest academic campus in the UK and also the largest clinical academic campus in Europe. Siemens will lead the energy-related aspects of the Triangulum project in Manchester, connecting-up a number of local energy generation assets, electrical storage devices and buildings, within the Corridor to a centralised control platform. The Triangulum project is led by Fraunhofer IAO with the support of the Steinbeis-Europa Zentrum, and involves 23 European partners.
GOC wants ‘ocean SDG’ to counter wave of high-seas ‘anarchy’ The Global Ocean Commission (GOC) has called for a stand-alone Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for the global ocean, in an MٺWZ\\WKI\ITa[M\PMLM^MTWXUMV\WN UWZM co-ordinated ocean management and the restoration of ocean health. It has warned that the high seas, the portion of the global ocean outside national jurisdiction that covers 45 per cent of the planet’s surface, and contains more than 50 XMZKMV\WN Q\[JQWLQ^MZ[Q\aIZMٺMZQVONZWU W^MZM`XTWQ\I\QWVIVLQVMٺMK\Q^MUIVIOMment. “The high seas are in a state of anarchy,” said GOC Co-chair David Miliband. “Regional stability, food security, climate ZM[QTQMVKMIVLIÆW]ZQ[PQVO»JT]MMKWVWUa¼ are all at risk. Fragmented and inadequate management has pushed ocean systems to the point of collapse – a stand-alone SDG for the ocean can deliver integrated and holistic management across the whole ocean system.” Miliband adds: “Healthy oceans must be at the centre of the global sustainable development agenda post-2015. SDGs present an opportunity to recognise ocean threats, and
“Moving on to the SDGs does not [now] mean that challenges aren’t there,” he told The Express Tribune last month. “You cannot have sustainable economic development unless you have well educated, well nourished, and healthy population. There is no shortcut to development.” “If I look at the trends from 2010, disasters have taught the country a lot,” he says. “There is a positive trajectory in the capacity of the country’s response.” Pakala added that the safe return of the 1.6m displaced population remains a major challenge for Pakistan, and the UN was working with the government of 8ISQ[\IV\WÅVLI[\IQVIJTM[WT]\QWV\W the displacement issue.
Miliband: high seas are in a state of ‘anarchy’
\WOIT^IVQ[MMٺWZ\[JaOW^MZVUMV\[IVLKQ^QT society – including the private sector and NGOs – to work together in pursuit of targets and indicators that are bold, ambitious, and pragmatic.” The GOC – an independent international body addressing ocean health and high seas governance – was created to propose solutions to address the principal threats facing \PMOTWJITWKMIVQVKT]LQVOIKQLQÅKI\QWV QTTMOITIVLLM[\Z]K\Q^MÅ[PQVOW^MZÅ[PQVO plastic pollution, and inadequate governance. It will publish proposals for reform in mid-2014. 9
UN PHOTO/ESKINDER DEBEBE
Siemens wins technology partnership for Triangulum project
Investment in social sectors as part of SDG programmes would help address extremist recruitment, outgoing United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator in Pakistan, Timo Pakala, has said. In a newspaper interview, Pakala said that a growing number of the country’s young people and out-of-school children were becoming major challenges for its security and economic development. )XXZMKQI\QVO\PMMٺWZ\[WN \PMNMLMZIT and provincial governments to come together to work on education under the Millennium Development Goals, Pakala was also quoted as saying that the Pakistan OW^MZVUMV\_I[VW_UISQVOMٺWZ\[\W overcome bottlenecks to send 6 million children to school.
BEST PRACTICE PROFILE
Dealing with a new world disorder
There’s much for the sustainable development profession to learn from the ways in which the UN Ofﬁce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – OCHA – pursues its aims and objectives, explains James Hayes, Editor-in-Chief, SOURCE: Sustainable Development
mplicit in the broader realisation of the Millennium Development Goals is the need for the many agencies and organisations in^WT^MLQVIKPQM^QVO\PMU\WJI[M\PMQZMٺWZ\[ on exemplary organisational techniques and strategy, and the application of the most upto-date methods of situation management.
Governmental – and non-governmental organisations, humanitarian bodies, and charitable agencies, et alia, have in recent decades adopted many techniques from the worlds of business and commerce in order to bring improved performance (and help recruit personnel from the private sector), but
have also built upon this with their own direct experience and sense of professionalism. The term ‘best practice’ is overused in our public discourse, but is useful in denoting the way in which professionals working in any [MK\WZKIVJMVMÅ\NZWUISVW_TMLOMWN \PM working methods of the successful entities in
BEST PRACTICE PROFILE
OCHA chief Baroness Amos’s public proﬁle ensure that her organisation’s concerns are communicated to those it is working with - and seeking to help
emergencies that have claimed the highest WN XZQWZQ\QM[·\PW[MQV;aZQI;W]\P;]LIV IVL\PM+MV\ZIT)NZQKIV:MX]JTQK<PM[M and other humanitarian events unfolded ITWVO[QLMXZW\ZIK\MLKZQ[M[QVAMUMV;]LIV ;WUITQI\PM;IPMT\PM,MUWKZI\QK:MX]JTQK WN \PM+WVOWIVL)NOPIVQ[\IVIVLUIVa others. <PMKPITTMVOMNIKQVO\PM7+0)IVLQ\[ UIVaXIZ\VMZ[IVLIٻTQI\M[_WZSQVOQV PWUMKW]V\ZQM[IVL»QV\PMÅMTL¼QVZM[XWV[M to these emergencies) is not only of massive scale, but also of escalating and exasperatQVOKWUXTM`Q\a)[\PM7+0)¼[»;\ZI\MOQK 8TIV¼M`XTIQV[KPU]T\QNIKM\ML catastrophes – and again, these include both the forces of nature and the forces of arms – are causing even greater burdens NWZP]UIVQ\IZQIVWXMZI\WZ[¹<PMMٺMK\[WN climate change, environmental degradation, economic inequality, population growth, political unrest, and migration, have weakened community resilience in many countries,” the plan’s authors report. Protracted and
recurring emergencies, they add, are creating groups of people for whom crisis is ‘the new normal’, and this phenomenon is “making P]UIVQ\IZQIVKI[MTWIL[PIZLMZ\WLMÅVMº 1VILLQ\QWV\W\PMUISQVOILLQ\QWVITLMmands on aid organisations, these malevolent trends are making, in terms of funding and resources, co-ordination and delivery, there’s been an upsurge in threats aimed at front-line humanitarian personnel. The ferocious nature of much of civil warring – _PMZMIZUMLUQTQ\QI[IZMIK\WZ[QVKWVÆQK\[ that pay no heed to international law, national governance, or the basic tenets of human decency – mean that aid workers and their TWKITXIZ\VMZ[QVÅMTLWXMZI\QWV[IZMQVKZMI[ingly targets of attack. 1V\PMNIKMWN \PQ[M[KITI\QWVWN LQ[I[\ZW][ QVKQLMV\[\PMZWTMWN 7+0)PI[JMKWUM even more prominent, and the scope for it to demonstrate even greater leadership has beKWUMUWZMIK]\M<PM7+0)Q[\PMXIZ\WN \PM=VQ\ML6I\QWV[;MKZM\IZQI\ZM[XWV[QJTM for bringing together humanitarian actors V
\PMQZOQ^MVÅMTLWN M`XMZ\Q[M1V\PMP]UIVQ\IZQIVÅMTL\PM=67ٻKMNWZ\PM+WWZLQVI\QWVWN 0]UIVQ\IZQIV)ٺIQZ[·7+0)·Q[ a ‘market leader’, and there’s much to be learned from the methods and procedures by which it pursues its objectives. 7+0)PI[\ZMUMVLW][I[[M\QVJMQVO helmed by Baroness Valerie Amos. The opening months of 2015 proved exceptionalTaJ][aWVM[NWZ=6=VLMZ;MKZM\IZa/MVMZITNWZ0]UIVQ\IZQIV)ٺIQZ[IVL-UMZOMVKa :MTQMN +WWZLQVI\WZ\WOQ^M\PM7+0)KPQMN her full job title. The year opened with an unprecedented number of emergencies raging on the humanitarian aid global horizon, caused by a range of natural- and man-made disasters. The statistics for any one of these troubled regions continue to update their shocking news. At the beginning of January, by the 7+0)¼[M[\QUI\QWV\PMZM_MZM[WUM million people in 31 countries requiring humanitarian support just to survive on a daily basis. Last year was dominated by the three
Scared and exhausted Fleeing for their lives Learn more about their needs
BEST PRACTICE PROFILE
Aid workers and their local partners in ďŹ eld operations are increasingly the targets of violent attack. Baroness Amos and UNESCO Special Envoy Forest Whitaker called for peace while visiting South Sudan in February
â€“ be they charities, humanitarian assistants, or aid suppliers, say â€“ to ensure a coherent ZM[XWV[M\WMUMZOMVKQM[7+0)IT[WMVZM[ there is a framework, within which, each actor KIVKWV\ZQJ]\M\W\PMW^MZITTZM[XWV[MMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹWZ\ <WJMZM\PM7+0)Q[U]KPUWZM\PIV that in its many activities and programmes; and its structure and organisation, its principles and philosophy, provide a strategic blueprint for best practice that contains much that could be adopted by â€“ or prove inspirational to â€“ those professionals engaged in the delivery WN ;][\IQVIJTM,M^MTWXUMV\/WIT[;,/[ )[\PMĂ…O]ZMPMILWN 7+0)*IZWVM[[ Amosâ€™s position empowers her to cast the most authoritative perspective on many of the humanitarian challenges that the world faces in this pivotal year when progress toward ;,/[[\IZ\[\WOI\PMZXIKM<PM7+0)Âź[ mission now, she suggests, is nothing short of helping to set the agenda for future humanitarian action. Amosâ€™s declarations can serve as a focal point around which much of the sustainable development sector can take bearings for its future challenges.
Telling it as it is
Perils of mission creep
Humanitarian actors are increasingly being called on to deal with the consequences of crises that â€œessentially have their roots in a complex set of interrelated factorsâ€? Amos continued, citing poor governance, political paralysis, underdevelopment, rising levels of poverty, and inequality; and these negative dynamics are, in many countries, â€œoverlaid by the growth of terrorist and radical armed
Force for change
The nature of these remarks and others made since being appointed to her position in 2010, indicate how far Baroness Amos can be credited with having been a XZWNW]VLQVĂ†]MVKMW^MZPW_\PM7+0) has adapted to such changed circumstances, and to a shift in the core expectations being placed upon it and its partners. Amos has also used her role to voice widely-held frustration at the failure of governments, international organisations, and other XWTQ\QKITIOMVKQM[QVĂ…VLQVOM^MVXIZ\QITWZ temporary solutions to the tide of strife that globally confronts us on a daily basis â€“ if only in our newspapers and on our TV screens. 4I\MZQVPMZ;WZMV[WV4MK\]ZM[ILLZM[[ Amos described 2015 as set to become â€œa particularly critical time when the world is grappling with a series of challenges which are bringing us closer together and pushing us wider apartâ€?. Amos holds a position â€“ arguably a unique position â€“ to publicly raise questions over how, at a time when UIVaIZM[MMSQVO\WZMLMĂ…VM\PMZWTMWN \PM nation state, of governments, and of the =VQ\ML6I\QWV[Q\[MTNIVLOQ^MV\PMKWUplex set of challenges we are facing, we are also debating searching questions about the nature of terrorism, security, freedom of speech and religion; the limits (or otherwise) of press freedom; tolerance, racism, inequality; the impact of social media and the 1V\MZVM\#\PMTIKSWN KWVVMK\Q^Q\aJM\_MMV people and cultures, and â€“ most poignantly â€“ the quality of global leadership. That sounds like a lot to include in a single sentence; but an all-encompassing purview is essential if the nature of the complexity, and the inter-relatedness of its causes, is to be comprehended constructively. .]Z\PMZUWZMIKWUXZMPMV[Q^M]VLMZstanding of these â€˜back-storyâ€™ issues is essential, Amos maintains, if we are to stand a chance of moving away from the (essen\QITTaĂ…ZMĂ…OP\QVOUWLMTWN P]UIVQ\IZQIV aid and developmental assistance, and progress toward programmes that predictively and pre-emptively tackle root causes that, V
Amosâ€™s enhanced status is perhaps best illustrated by two speeches she made earlier this year, which evidenced her ability to encapsulate the many jarring aspects of the humanitarian world-view in a style that is lucid and hard-hitting.
1V\PMĂ…Z[\LMTQ^MZMLWV\P2IV]IZaI[ XIZ\WN WN \PM;WZMV[WV4MK\]ZM[MZQM[QV 6M_AWZS[PM\WTL\PM+W]VKQTWV.WZMQOV Relation that the world is seeing a â€œconvergence of global trends which is increasing the risk of major crises, as well as their scope IVLKWUXTM`Q\a+WVĂ†QK\IVLKWUXTM` MUMZOMVKQM[LZW^MW^MZXMZKMV\WN humanitarian response needs [in 2014], and UW[\WN \PMKWVĂ†QK\[_MIZMZM[XWVLQVO\W have implications far beyond their borders.â€? <PQ[SVWKSWVMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\XIZ\QK]TIZTa_PMVQ\ occurs in neighbouring nations in the same ZMOQWVKIVPI^M[QOVQĂ…KIV\LMTM\MZQW][QUpact on countries not directly involved with \PMQVQ\QITKWVĂ†QK\WZLQ[I[\MZÂš<PMKZQ[M[QV 1ZIYIVL;aZQIPI^MKWV[MY]MVKM[IKZW[[\PM _PWTMWN \PM5QLLTM-I[\IVLJMaWVLÂş[IQL )UW[Âš<PMNITTWN 5WIUUIZ/ILLIĂ…QV Libya led to major insecurity, and the spread WN _MIXWV[IKZW[[?M[\IVL+MV\ZIT)NZQKI the impact of which is still being felt.â€?
groups, and [other] challenges to democratisation, which create further instabilityâ€?.
BEST PRACTICE PROFILE
With an escalation of disastrous incidents, the role of OCHA has become even more prominent, and the scope for it to demonstrate even greater leadership has become more acute. left unchecked, will lead to future human tragedy, be it from societal disharmony or environmental imbalances. Baroness Amos’s concern over this issue was perhaps at its most pointed in the 3rd .MJZ]IZaILLZM[[[PMOI^MQV*]LIXM[\\W\PM ?WZTL0]UIVQ\IZQIV;]UUQ\,]ZQVO\PQ[ two-day event, representatives from national governments, regional bodies humanitarian and development organisations, academia, civil society groups, and the private sector
discussed how to reshape aid to improve the response to critical humanitarian events. “Year on year, humanitarian needs are outstripping our capacity and the resourcM[I^IQTIJTM\W][\WZM[XWVLMٺMK\Q^MTaº Amos warned. The situation is no longer one of providing aid to contained numbers of displaced civilian refugees or the victims WN KaKTQKIT[\WZU[IVLÆWWL[\PI\_QTTQV time, pass and hopefully return to something ZM[MUJTQVOVWZUITQ\a¹6W_VMIZTa XMZ
cent of our work is in countries and regions IٺMK\MLJaKWVÆQK\·KW]V\ZQM[_PMZMIK\Q^M bWVM[WN KWVÆQK\XZWTQNMZI\QWVWN IZUMLIVL terrorist groups, and [other] parties to the KWVÆQK\KWUJQVM[_Q\PW\PMZNIK\WZ[XZWL]King complex operating environments.” The scale of the challenges is immense, but Amos’s closing message was that many of them can be addressed with greater co-operation – and by informing our responses evaluations with an abiding and genuine sense of honestly.Q
SOURCE: Sustainable Development Best Practice ﬁle: UN Ofﬁce for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs
UN PHOTO/FARDIN WAEZI, UN PHOTO/ISAAC GIDEON, WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
OCHA OFFICIAL DECLARED MISSION OCHA is the part of the United Nations Secretariat responsible for bringing together humanitarian actors to ensure a coherent response to emergencies. OCHA also ensures there is a framework within which each actor can contribute to the overall response effort. Its mission is to mobilise and coordinate effective and principled humanitarian action in partnership with national and international actors in order to alleviate human suffering in disasters and emergencies; advocate the rights of people in need; promote preparedness and prevention; facilitate sustainable solutions. Open strategy, deﬁned aims, achievable objectives The OCHA is committed to ensuring that its guiding principles and aims are clearly articulated into the public domain, and it’s ‘Strategic Plan 2014-2017’, published last year, should be required reading for anyone tasked with directing programmes in the humanitarian or sustainable development professions. This 40-page document is both an action plan and an insightful study of key aspects of contemporary world history. Well-informed statements that are routinely updated The OCHA information management systems are consistent and effective; this is a core factor to its success. Organisations of all kinds in the sustainable development sector should be aware of the growing the growing importance of digital information and communications technologies – not as a means of disseminating key messages to the wider world, and ensuring that teams in the ﬁeld are kept informed about developments back at base and elsewhere, but also for communications between co-actors in the ﬁeld. ICT is having a demonstrable effect on humanitarian actions across a range of contexts, from supporting platforms that enable the
monitoring and delivery of improved healthcare, to tracking the movements of individuals acting in risky locations. Increasingly, it will provide key tools for validating and quantifying aid programmes, and enabling them to be quickly modiﬁed in response to changed circumstances, to deliver better outcomes. Lucid, cogent, well-informed key messages There are no shortage of assessments and top-level surveys of the crises that beset our societies around the world. In the same way that the humanitarian aid sector is being inﬂuenced by international media, in terms of a a connection between response and coverage, organisations such as international agencies, charities, and NGOs, who are aligned with the Post-2015 sDGs are learning how to deliver their key messages more effectively. Baroness Amos’s remarks are lucid and well-researched. Seek-out and beneﬁt from colleague/partner experience OCHA is part of a wider, well-established and very experienced organisation, and is well placed to take advantage of the expertise that this can put it in contact with. Many organisations – in public and private sector – could boost their efﬁciency and effectiveness by doing more to extract value from the data that already existing somewhere on the system, or by soliciting intelligence from co-workers, contacts, or other afﬁliates. Facing-up to political realities without adopting a political standpoint This issue is already a tough one for NGOs and agencies working on the ground. As Amos has noted, humanitarian workers must be impartial as they do their work, even though they may be acutely affected by politic considerations both locally, nationally and internationally. In this context it is constructive to place greater emphasis
on the importance of international law and justice as a benchmark that transcends political issues, and to call upon governments to do their utmost to ensure that the relevant laws are applied in a compelling manner. Technologically-informed speculation While fully engaged and committed to immediate priorities, the OHCA is not blinkered by them. If Baroness Amos and her teams are correct, there will be increasing convergence between the humanitarian assistance and sustainable development sectors going forward. Successful pre-emptive humanitarian programmes will reply on know-how in predictive analysis involving a multi-disciplinary approach to interpreting data from diverse sources – meteorological data is an obvious example for informing capacity building in areas vulnerable to extreme weather. The OHCA’s ideas remind us that open-data initiative, for instance, makes freely-available information that could usefully shape future strategies. Leadership that engages with policy making and agenda setting Baroness Amos’s status means that she has direct access to heads of state and other high-ranking civil leaders, as well as senior executives in the private sector. As a public ﬁgurehead for the OCHA and other groups she represents, her role is deﬁned and focused. It is, of course, essential that those ﬁgurehead roles stay focused, and that their roles and responsibilities are openly deﬁned in order to manage expectations that may arise during the course of interactions with partners and stakeholders, etc. The role of ﬁgurehead can easily become diffused by ‘over-exposure’. Although they may serve as the public-facing ‘face’ and ‘voice’ of the body and ideology which they represent, organisational ﬁgureheads must be cautious of accepting too many invitations to provide media comment or speak at events.
Reﬂections On CSR By Beatriz Bayo
f we look back ten years, we can say that much has changed in the world and also of course, in business, and in great measures thanks to corporate social responsibility (CSR). That does not mean that CSR has changed the world, is not even what it claims, but it has contributed to a new business perspective, and in my view, a more friendly one that goes beyond the purely economic. Today, it is hard to imagine a company that does not integrate into the business strategy aspects of CSR. In our organization we have always believed in this sustainability model. A global organization like ours that operates in over one hundred countries and with great inﬂuence worldwide through its supply chain has much to contribute and great responsibility for the impact it has on both people and the environment. But social demands and increasing international
initiatives on human rights and environment have worked for the commitment of companies to be increasingly more solid and credible. In today’s world everything is governed by measurable values, tools that allow us to quantify: balances, risk analysis, indicators, etc. To such an extent, that it seems that everything that can not be measured is worthless. But in reality the true CSR is not measurable but it is a behavior, internally within the company and externally towards the stakeholders. In the same way that companies seek ways to improve the competitiveness, there is the need to contribute to the positive development of the environment, make commitments that favor the impacts of our activities and that these provide a socialy beneﬁcial opportunity. It is essential to listen and meet their demands and give a response that satisﬁes them. We may not always succeed, but that should be a daily challenge and the engine that drives us to move forward. Brands have the duty and the need to contribute to social and environmental development through tangible, innovative and collaborative actions with shared value both for society, community, consumers and of course, for the brand itself because when companies took CSR efforts, consumers responded with enthusiasm and participation. For this reason, the communication of these aspects is also critical: if a company
discloses information about its relevant social and environmental issues, it provides a transparency which gives greater conﬁdence and credibility to consumers. Obviously doubts will arise, there are limitations and mistakes but also there is the willing to improve in this regard. Only then can a credible policy can be settled, through an open dialogue with groups of interest, focused on the people, very clear and with the main goal of improving progressively. It is time to be optimistic. There are still challenges ahead but progress is undeniable.
Gerhard Putman-Cramer Director of DISAB for DIHAD 2015 Gerhard Putman-Cramer talks about the nature of progress in humanitarian assistance, and explains the rationale behind this year’s DIHAD themes of opportunity, mobility, and sustainability.
SOURCE: Sustainable Development How, in your view, has DIHAD developed in \MZU[WN QVÆ]MVKMIVL[QOVQÅKIVKML]ZQVO \PM\QUM\PI\aW]PI^MJMMVI[[WKQI\ML_Q\P the event? Gerhard Putman-Cramer DIHAD is an M^MV\\PI\Q[VW_ZMKWOVQ[MLQV\PMZMOQWV IVL_MTTJMaWVLI[IVIVV]ITOM\\WOM\PMZ WN ITTXIZ\QM[KWVKMZVML_Q\PP]UIVQ\IZQIV I[[Q[\IVKMIVLLM^MTWXUMV\\WRWQV\Ta ZM^QM_JM[\XZIK\QKM[\WM`KPIVOM^QM_[IVL M`XMZQMVKM[WV\WXQK[WN KWUUWVQV\MZM[\ IVL\WM[\IJTQ[PMٺMK\Q^MXIZ\VMZ[PQX[QV\PQ[ KWV\M`\ SSD;WUMaMIZ[IOWQVIVILLZM[[\W 7ZOIVQbI\QWVWN \PM1[TIUQK+WVNMZMVKM 71+QVaW]ZZWTMI[,MX]\a,QZMK\WZ =67ٻKMNWZ\PM+WWZLQVI\QWVWN 0]UIVQ\IZQIV)ٺIQZ[aW][IQL\PI\U]KP OZMI\MZQV\MZVI\QWVITZMKWOVQ\QWV[PW]TLJM OQ^MV\W5][TQU6/7[NWZ\PMP]UIVQ\IZQIV I[[Q[\IVKM\PM[MWZOIVQbI\QWV[IVLKW]V\ZQM[ PI^MXZW^QLML,WaW]\PQVS\PI\\PQ[ ZMKWOVQ\QWVLMÅKQ\[W\W[XMISPI[JMMV KWZZMK\ML[QVKM\PMV' Gerhard Putman-CramerAM[TQU 6/7[PI^MQVKZMI[QVOTaOIQVMLZMKWOVQ\QWV NWZ\PMQZUW[\^IT]IJTMMٺWZ\[QV\PMZMITUWN P]UIVQ\IZQIVI[[Q[\IVKMIVLLM^MTWXUMV\ C<PQ[PI[KWUMIJW]\EWVIKKW]V\WN \PM QV\MV[QÅKI\QWVWN \PMQZQV\MZIK\QWV_Q\P QV\MZVI\QWVITWZOIVQ[I\QWV[IVLVWV5][TQU 6/7[IVLIT[WWVIKKW]V\WN \PM^Q[QJQTQ\a OIQVMLQVNWZIKPI[,10),
SSDAW]M`XTIQVQVaW]Z,10), UM[[IOM\PI\,1;)*,10),¼[;KQMV\QÅK )L^Q[WZa*WIZLLMKQLML\WILWX\,]JIQ¼[ -@87\PMUMIVL[XMKQÅKITTaQ\[ J\PMUM[»WXXWZ\]VQ\a¼»UWJQTQ\a¼IVL »[\IQVIJQTQ\a¼I[Q\[W_V\PMUM[+IVaW] MVTIZOMWV_Pa\PM[M\PMUM[PI^MKP ZM[WVIVKMNWZ,1;)*' Gerhard Putman-Cramer From a P]UIVQ\IZQIVIVLLM^MTWXUMV\I[[Q[\IVKM XMZ[XMK\Q^M\PQ[aMIZ¼[,10),_QTT MVLMI^W]Z\WMTIJWZI\MWV\PM[MJ\PMUM[ _Q\PIVMaM\WXZWIK\Q^MTa[MQbQVO\PM »WXXWZ\]VQ\a¼N]Z\PMZLM^MTWXQVO^IZQW][ I[XMK\[WN »UWJQTQ\a¼IVLKWV\ZQJ]\QVO\W\PM M[[MV\QIT»[\IQVIJQTQ\a¼WN IKPQM^MUMV\[ XI[\IVLXZM[MV\ SSD4M\¼[\ISM\PW[MJ\PMUM[WVMI\I \QUM.QZ[\»WXXWZ\]VQ\a¼·KIVaW]MTIJWZI\M WVQ\[ZM[WVIVKMQV\PQ[KWV\M`\' Gerhard Putman-Cramer Opportunity is to be found everywhere, every day; and yet _MPI^M\WQLMV\QNaIVLKIX\]ZMQ\7]ZM^MZ UWZMNZMY]MV\QVVW^I\QWV[QVITTÅMTL[PI^M \WKWV[\Q\]\MWXXWZ\]VQ\QM[NWZ\PMXZWL]K\QWV WN MVPIVKML[\Z]K\]ZM[VM_QV[\Z]UMV\[ IVLQUXZW^ML[a[\MU[IVLUMKPIVQ[U[ 1UXWZ\IV\Ta_MPI^M\W[MQbMWXXWZ\]VQ\QM[ to diminish the need for humanitarian I[[Q[\IVKM SSD)VL»UWJQTQ\a¼' Gerhard Putman-Cramer1VZMOIZL\W UWJQTQ\a_MVMMLNZMMÆW_[WN SVW_TMLOM
KWUXM\MVKM[LI\IQLMI[OWWL[IVL [MZ^QKM[?MVMMLMٻKQMV\TWOQ[\QK[IVL \ZIV[XWZ\I\QWV[a[\MU[1VP]UIVQ\IZQIV WXMZI\QWV[_MVMMLIKKM[[\W\PW[MQVVMML WN I[[Q[\IVKMIVL\PMUWJQTQ\a\WZMIKPITT WN \PMUY]QKSTaIVLMٺMK\Q^MTa<PI\[IQL KZQ[M[IT[WKI][M\PMNWZKMLUWJQTQ\aWN XMZ[WV[·_PW[MMS[PMT\MZZMN]OMI[aT]U WZ[QUXTaJM\\MZKWVLQ\QWV[MT[M_PMZM<PM ZMI[WV[NWZ\PQ[\aXMWN UWJQTQ\aV]UJMZQVO W^MZUQTTQWVQV\MZVITTaLQ[XTIKMLZMN]OMM[ IVLI[aT]U[MMSMZ[\WLIaIKKWZLQVO\W =60+:PI^M\WJM]ZOMV\TaILLZM[[ML SSD<PI\TMI^M[»[\IQVIJQTQ\a¼AW]PI^M said that “Sustainability is what we wish for W]ZKWTTMK\Q^MIKPQM^MUMV\[W]ZWJRMK\Q^M[ IVLW]ZOWIT[,M^MTWXUMV\PI[TQ\\TM^IT]M _Q\PW]\Q\º+IVaW]M`XTIQV\PQ[N]Z\PMZ' )ZMaW]OOM[\QVO\PI\QV\PMKWV\M`\WN sustainable development, there has been a \MVLMVKa\WXTIKM\WWU]KPMUXPI[Q[WV »LM^MTWXUMV\¼IVLVW\MVW]OPMUXPI[Q[WV \PM»[\IQVIJTM¼I[XMK\' Gerhard Putman-Cramer It is not so U]KP\PI\»[\IQVIJQTQ\a¼PI[VW\JMMVOQ^MV \PMZMY]QZMLMUXPI[Q[^Q[I^Q[LM^MTWXUMV\ J]\UWZM\PI\LM^MTWXUMV\IK\Q^Q\QM[PI^M not always been planned in the appropriately [\IQVIJTMUIVVMZ )K]T\]ZMWN [\IQVIJQTQ\aQ[KZ]KQIT·JMQ\ QVZMOIZL\WW]ZMV^QZWVUMV\WZ\WW]ZVI\ ]ZITZM[W]ZKM[QVKT]LQVO_I\MZIVLMVMZOa WN KW]Z[M5]KP_QTTJM[IQLIVL_ZQ\\MVQV QV^IZQW][NWZIWV\PM[\IQVIJQTQ\a 17
Opportunity is to be found everywhere, every day; and yet we have to identify and capture it. WN LM^MTWXUMV\WJRMK\Q^M[I[_MKWTTMK\Q^MTa KWV\QV]M\W»KZMI\M\PMN]\]ZM¼MVLMI^W]ZQVO \WXZWL]K\Q^MTa»KWVVMK\\PMUQVL[¼WN ITT KWVKMZVMLQV\PQ[ZMOIZL SSD0W__QTT\PM[MIQU[JMM`XTWZMLI\ ,10),' Gerhard Putman-Cramer ?M_QTT KIXQ\ITQ[MWVM`Q[\QVOXIZ\VMZ[PQX[IVL XI[\LQ[K][[QWV[QVW]ZI\\MUX\\WIZZQ^M I\IV]UJMZWN KWV[\Z]K\Q^MKWVKT][QWV[ 5WZMW^MZJaJZQVOQVO\WOM\PMZQV\MZVI\QWVIT IOMVKQM[OW^MZVUMV\ITIVLVWV OW^MZVUMV\ITWZOIVQ[I\QWV[NW]VLI\QWV[ IVLKPIZQ\QM[\PMUMLQIIVLIKILMUQI \PMKWZXWZI\M[MK\WZ:ML+ZW[[IVL:ML +ZM[KMV\;WKQM\QM[·I[_MTTI[QVLQ^QL]IT XZIK\Q\QWVMZ[IVLM`XMZ\[·_M_QTT\Za\W UISM^IT]IJTMKWV\ZQJ]\QWV[\W\PMWVOWQVO OTWJITLQ[K][[QWV[WVLM^MTWXUMV\OWIT[ KTQUI\MKPIVOMLQ[I[\MZZML]K\QWVIVL JM[\XZIK\QKM[QV\PMZMITUWN P]UIVQ\IZQIV I[[Q[\IVKM
SSD;W,10),Q[TWWSQVO\WQUXZW^M\PM delivery of humanitarian aid for this year, ·_PI\IZMQ\[SMa[\ZI\MOQM[' Gerhard Putman-Cramer*M[QLM[ JMQVOIVML]KI\QWVITXTI\NWZU,10), also provides an opportunity for a variety WN XIZ\VMZ[\WOM\\WOM\PMZIVLJMKWUM IKY]IQV\ML·WZJM\\MZIKY]IQV\ML·_Q\P MIKPW\PMZIVL\WMVPIVKMSVW_TMLOM WN MIKPW\PMZ¼[KIXIKQ\QM[<PQ[UMIV[ \PI\QV\MZVI\QWVITWZOIVQ[I\QWV[6/7[ NW]VLI\QWV[KPIZQ\QM[:ML+ZW[[IVL:ML +ZM[KMV\;WKQM\QM[M\ITQIIZMQVKZMI[QVOTa KWOVQ[IV\WN C\PMQZZM[XMK\Q^MEUIVLI\M[ KIXIKQ\QM[IVLZM[W]ZKM[ <PQ[QV\]ZVMVIJTM[ITTKWVKMZVML\WIK\ QVIU]KPUWZMKWTTIJWZI\Q^MIVLKWWZLQ VI\MLUIVVMZ·_PQKPUQVQUQ[M[JW\POIX[ IVLL]XTQKI\QWVIVLPMVKMMVPIVKM[\PM W^MZITTP]UIVQ\IZQIVI[[Q[\IVKMMٺWZ\IVL MٻKQMVKaWN IQLLMTQ^MZa SSD1V\PMKWV\M`\WN aW]ZW_VM[\QUIJTM KIZMMZIVLM`XMZQMVKMQV\PMP]UIVQ\IZQIV IQLIVL[\IQVIJTMLM^MTWXUMV\[MK\WZ[ _PI\PI^MJMMV\PMUW[\[QOVQÅKIV\ KPIVOM[\W\PMZWTMWN VWVOW^MZVUMV\IT WZOIVQ[I\QWV[IVLIQLKPIZQ\QM[' Gerhard Putman-Cramer/MVMZITTa 18
Besides being an educational platform, DIHAD also provides an opportunity for a variety of partners to get together and become acquainted – or better acquainted – with each-other.
[XMISQVO\PM[MWZOIVQ[I\QWV[PI^MJMKWUM JM[QLM[UWZMV]UMZW][IT[WTIZOMZUWZM M`XMZQMVKMLJM\\MZN]VLMLIVLWV\PI\ IKKW]V\UWZM]JQY]Q\W][
P]OMM`XIV[QWVW^MZ\PMaMIZ[WN \PMVMML NWZP]UIVQ\IZQIVI[[Q[\IVKM·\PQ[[XMKQÅKITTa QV\PMKWV\M`\WN ]VZM[WT^ML»KWUXTM` MUMZOMVKQM[¼[WUM[MMUQVOTaVM^MZMVLQVO
SSDAW]WVKMWJ[MZ^ML\PI\\PMQUXIK\WN VI\]ZITLQ[I[\MZ[Q[QVKZMI[QVOJMKI][MWN NIK\WZKPI[XWX]TI\QWVOZW_\PKTQUI\M KPIVOMIVLUWZMM`\MV[Q^M]ZJIVQ[I\QWV1[ \PMZMIVa\PQVO\PI\\MKPVWTWOaJI[ML\WWT[ KPI[KWUX]\MZJI[MLXZMLQK\Q^MIVITa[Q[ KIVLW\WPMTX][\ZaIVLTWKI\MXZMMUX\Q^M aid relief to areas most vulnerable to these SQVL[WN IL^MZ[MVI\]ZITM^MV\[' Gerhard Putman-Cramer5]KP KIVJMLWVM·IVLQ[JMQVOLWVM·_Q\P \MKPVWTWOaJI[MLQV[\Z]UMV\[QV\MZU[ WN LQ[I[\MZZML]K\QWVIVLXZMXIZMLVM[[ This is an issue that will be addressed in ;M[[QWVWV\PMÅZ[\LIaWN ,10), C[M[[QWVMV\Q\TML»,Q[I[\MZ:ML]K\QWVIVL 8ZMXIZMLVM[[·WXXWZ\]VQ\QM[¼\WJMKPIQZML Ja5[5IZOIZM\I?IPT[\ZWU;XMKQIT :MXZM[MV\I\Q^MWN \PM;MKZM\IZa·[MM ,10),+WVNMZMVKM8ZWOZIUUMO]QLMWV XIOMWN \PQ[Q[MWN SOURCE: Sustainable DevelopmentE
SSD)[\PMKWVNMZMVKMIOMVLINWZ,10), JMKWUM[KWVÅZUML_PQKPWN \PM[XMISMZ[ IZMaW]TWWSQVONWZ_IZL\WPMIZQVOIVLWZ UMM\QVOL]ZQVO\PMKW]Z[MWN \PMM^MV\' Gerhard Putman-Cramer All of them, VI\]ZITTa
SSD4WWSQVOJIKSWVaW]ZKIZMMZ_PI\ _W]TLaW][Ia_MZM\PMOMVMZITWZ[XMKQÅK developments in the history of humanitarian IQL\PI\_MZMXMZPIX[TMI[\_MTTIV\QKQXI\ML Ja\PM[MK\WZ' Gerhard Putman-Cramer Possibly, the
Gerhard Putman-Cramer: career brieﬁng LEADERSHIP ROLES: Ambassador, Permanent Observer of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean (PAM) to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva; and Director, DIHAD International Scientiﬁc Advisory Board (DISAB) of Dubai International Humanitarian Aid and Development Conference and Exhibition (DIHAD). He has previously held the ofﬁce of Deputy Director and Chief, Emergency Services Branch for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Geneva, Switzerland Mr. Putman-Cramer completed his Diplome Universitaire en Santé Humanitaire through the Centre européen de santé humanitaire, Université Claude-Bernard after completing his Postgraduate Diploma (Economics, International Relations, Political Science, International Law and Organizations, History), Diplomatic Academy of Vienna, Austria. You can read his DIHAD Message at http://dihad. org/about-dihad/message.
Natural resource trading opportunities drive positive change Conﬂict-free minerals delivered through the ITSCI Programme What are ‘conﬂict minerals’? any developing countries are rich in natural resources, a sector from which earning and development opportunities are frequently lost through poor management and corruption. The UN has also highlighted concerns over the role that mineral trade can play in funding armed conﬂict such as from cassiterite (tin), tantalite (tantalum), wolframite (tungsten) and gold production from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and surrounding areas; the so called 3T&G ‘conﬂict minerals’. Other organisations also aim to encourage responsible conﬂictfree supply chains with a key framework being the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for sourcing from high risk and conﬂict areas.
Co-operative action to facilitate responsible trade Since 2010 the ITSCI supply chain initiative has rapidly developed from a small pilot to become the foundation of conﬂict-free 3T mineral trade across the DRC, Rwanda and Burundi. ITSCI is a voluntary private sector initiative understanding the importance of global markets and open, business friendly trading opportunities, yet working hand in hand with Government services and international (Pact) and local NGO’s to deliver capacity building and improved governance. ITSCI is a practical mechanism developed to implement complex OECD due diligence expectations in an accessible and appropriate manner for the small businesses and artisanal miners of the African mining sector. This rule based trading environment instils conﬁdence and assures credibility thus allowing conﬂict-free African minerals to access international markets at fair prices.
Delivering results locally to access global markets ITSCI has demonstrated the power of market incentive to create change in the most challenging areas of the world. Even small miner co-operatives in the remotest areas of central DRC have come to understand the importance of responsible trading in order to maintain their market and earnings. They are playing their part in this global mechanism of information collection and exchange which also integrates technology into activities of local communities and authorities. The knowledge that wayward actions of police and security forces can create ‘conﬂict minerals’ unacceptable to the international market brings a new focus to local accountability and contributes to the objective of increasing stability and peace. Trade incentive as a driver to associated change Aside from delivering responsible mineral trade, and encouraging industry investment, ITSCI has indirectly created employment, improved earnings, created opportunities for learning, and increased professionalism. The programme is also reducing illicit trade and tax evasion, as well as discouraging corruption and increasing mineral revenue transparency. Stakeholders, including women and civil society groups, participate in resolution of local conﬂicts through a committee process producing effective results around the mining areas as a result of the highly valued market access incentive. ITSCI was developed and is managed by the global not-for-proﬁt tin and tantalum industry trade associations ITRI and T.I.C. http://itsci.org email: email@example.com
ITSCI is an inclusive, sustainable, multi-stakeholder programme with a track record of global co-operation and achievement contributing to better governance, human rights and stability. The programme currently supports more than 1,000 artisanal mine sites, providing a livelihood for around 75,000 miners, with a likely 400,000 dependents.
We welcome new donors and participants to help the programme expand and be part of this success
YOUTH AND EDUCATION
Prioritising Post â€“ 2015 youth opportunities 20
YOUTH AND EDUCATION
Helping young people to successfully make the transition between their education and their employment prospects is achievable when multiple parties join forces, ﬁnds Sustainable Development Goals Fund Director Paloma Durán
ing, and professional orientation services, incentives to stay in school, and thus quality employment opportunities are limited. To survive in their communities, youth ÅVL[Q\[MTN KPWW[QVOTW_XIaQVORWJ[W^MZMLucation. This has led to governments, United Nation agencies, development partners, J][QVM[[M[IVLKQ^QT[WKQM\a\WÅVLVM__Ia[ of providing education and livelihoods opportunities for youth: this is necessary if they are to be able to provide for their families while receiving an education and building thriving societies. The Sustainable Development Goals Fund (SDG-F) – an initiative which expands on the previous experience of the MDG (Millennium Development Goals) Achievement Fund (2007-2013) – has been working in creating livelihoods opportunities for young people. We count with an extensive experience of promising practices of what can be done to promote inclusive growth that creates livelihoods and education opportunities for youth, especially in the context of the new Post-2015 development agenda.
Capacity building for youth
Determining the skill-sets necessary for youth to thrive in its respective communities calls for a multi-sectorial approach. Engaging the communities, governments and
businesses creates windows of opportunity for youth to apply the skills it learns in school when they enter the job market. The importance of quality education (versus quantity), is essential to ensuring that we can target outputs and indicators to measure the results of youth programmes. In fact, the tentative list of sustainable development goals, targets and indicators, agreed by the Open Working Group on SDGs, has put youth at the very epicenter of sustainable development. Something that is clear from the SDG-F experience is that the approaches that try to JZQLOM\PMMٺWZ\[WN \PMLQٺMZMV\[\ISMPWTLers, with a clear understanding of the needs of the job market, community and private sector needs and opportunities, will help us to guarantee sustainable development for young women and men. The importance of integrating gender sensitivity guidelines in such programmes is also key to bridging education gaps between female and male youth. To address this, for example, the SDG-F has supported programmes in 15 countries to improve young people’s chances of securing decent work, self-employment, and entrepreneurial opportunities, as well as promoting socially-inclusive development and respect for youth’s fundamental rights. These initiatives have created community
ccording to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)’s State of World Population 2014, there are more than 1.8 billion young people in the world, UIVaWN _PWÅVL\PMU[MT^M[QV\PMLQ[ILvantageous situation of not having access to education, or of not being equipped with the proper skills to prosper in the employment market. Another report, this time by United 6I\QWV[-L]KI\QWVIT;KQMV\QÅKIVL+]T\]ZIT 7ZOIVQ[I\QWV=6-;+7-L]KI\QWV.WZ All Monitoring report, Youth and Skills: Putting Education to Work (2012), says that that many adolescents of lower secondary school age are out of school, and many others have limited access to primary and secondary education and employment opportunities. Poverty has a negative impact on youth (a term used here collectively), and creates obstacles in obtaining basic education and technical skills necessary to access decent jobs and acquire skills necessary to live productive, healthy, and enriching lives. Secondary schooling is considered to be one – if not the·UW[\MٺMK\Q^M_Ia\WLM^MTop the set of skills needed for work and for life. It is in the transitioning from schooling \WÅVLQVORWJWXXWZ\]VQ\QM[_PMZMaW]VO people face the most number of obstacles. This is where they encounter a lack of train-
YOUTH AND EDUCATION
Creating opportunities for youth through formal and non-formal education is required to achieve sustainable development. employment services, encouraged new job opportunities, promoted legal frameworks, and tackled the issues around migration, with new policies and awareness-raising campaigns.
Engaging community Post-2015
There has been a growing awareness among stakeholders of the potential role that youth plays in the development process. Engaging the community, governments, development partners, UN agencies and civil society WZOIVQ[I\QWV[Q[SMa\W_IZL[KZMI\QVOMٻKQMV\ IVLMٺMK\Q^M[\ZI\MOQM[QV\IKSTQVOPQOPaW]\P unemployment and dropout rates. Private sector co-operation sparks innovative exchanges of ideas, and promotes entrepreneurship among youth. Engagement with the inner-workings of commercial organisations, for instance, can provide inspiration for future drive. Education can also be used as a vehicle to convey ideas that improve communities, as youth acquires the understanding of their role in a community. It is for these reasons that empowering youth is a priority in the new development agenda, including the Open Working Group Proposals for Sustainable Development Goals[itals] outcome document, which outlined the importance of education as a vehicle towards achieving a global development
The importance of quality education is essential to ensuring that we can target outputs and indicators to measure the results of youth programmes
agenda. It also enforced the needs for a cross sectoral approach in achieving the SDGs. By engaging all actors in the discussion, we can create linkages between the education youth receives, the needs of the community and those who employ them. There is now a greater understanding that a great loss of potential can occur when youth unemployment rates are high, as this phe-
nomenon creates an obstacle to the overall development of a given region. So it is that all parties stand to gain from the contributions of an empowered youth. The Sustainable Development Goals Fund Q[\PMÅZ[\KWWXMZI\Q^MUMKPIVQ[UKZMI\ML \WIKPQM^QVO\PM;,/[+ZMI\ML]VLMZ\PM leadership of the United Nations Development Programme with an initial contribution
Success story: the Philippines With a long-standing tradition in youth employment, the SDG-F supported a joint programme in the Philippines that tackled high youth unemployment and also youth underemployment. Its priorities included improving policy coherence and implementation on youth, employment, and migration, through full stakeholder participation and increasing access to decent work for poor women and men though public private partnerships, more inclusive basic education and life skills, and career guidance, including guidance on safe migration, vocational training, and entrepreneurship. In order to combat the low retention rates of secondary students, the programme implemented an education subsidy system aimed at increasing youth participation and decreasing high education drop-out rates. School fees, and a monthly allowance, were paid, but the allowance was based on school attendance. It also provided
Proudly proﬁcient: graduates of a computer hardware servicing training course gender sensitivity guidelines in its curriculum for public secondary education, and it engaged the community and local stakeholders in the importance of gender mainstreaming. Four PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) Fora were carried-out,
with the aim of increasing access to livelihood opportunities for poor young women and men. The results included 115 partnership agreements, and 115 commitments made by public and private sectors to provide on-the-job training and post-training services for 2,000 youths. Opportunities for youth to develop a speciﬁc set of skills that aligned with the needs of the job market are often limited, and in the case of the SDG-F programme in the Philippines, this issue was targeted by providing support to the development of entrepreneurship training through Career Pathways and Livelihood Education (CPTLE) courses at the secondary education level. This training was also extended to teachers, and teacher trainers and supervisors, in four pilot provinces and 17 regions. The 2,000 youths who were reached underwent career proﬁling for technical vocational skills training, with 995 having received vocational training.
YOUTH AND EDUCATION
There has been a growing awareness among stakeholders of the potential role that youth plays in the development process.
The SDG-F is in the process of launching new programmes, and these will take stock of the lessons learned in previous and ongoing initiatives. Its programmes which are now underway in Bangladesh and in Sierra Leone, for example, are tackling high unemployment and drop-out rates, creating gender-sensitive curriculum and employment guidelines and engaging key community stakeholders to ensure sustainable results. The joint programme in Bangladesh incorporates non-formal education training through the use of informal apprenticeship to provide life skills to youth. It is a community-based training for rural economic empowerment, and is designed to be gender-mainstreamed. This entails designing training courses to promote the strategic interests of women, and in increasing gender responsiveness of training institutions, as well as guidance of instructors, and the use of women instructors. Youth employment forms one of the key challenges in Sierra Leone, and its Government has placed youth employment as a core area of their agenda, which allows for an alignment of guidelines for all stakeholders. <PMXZWOZIUUM_QTTXXWZ\LQ^MZ[QÅKI\QWVQV[MK\WZ[\PI\WٺMZXW\MV\QITNWZRWJKZMation and business opportunities. Strategic public/private partnerships will be established with regional and local businesses, and with local councils, for risk-sharing and resource-leveraging with focus on promot-
Success story: Bosnia and Herzegovina The multistakeholder partnership for youth employability in Bosnia and Herzegovina is an excellent example of multi sectoral collaboration. Within this programme Government, United Nations agencies, civil society organisations, and the private sector, worked closely to ensure disadvantaged youth would be provided with entry points to the labour market while strengthening primary and secondary education for youth. Two thousand students from 188 primary and secondary schools took part in the creation of 142 small- scale business projects. Employment opportunities were created as selected students were able to present the results of these
projects to local community stakeholders, such as businesses, with the aim of fundraising, and of securing support for similar activities in the future. The programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina took advantage of incorporating a gender-responsive policy and operational guidelines relating to facilitating school enrollment and retention, including disabled youth, Roma, and girls from rural areas. It also created teacher modules trainings packaging and competency-based education modules for primary and secondary schools. Students were taught the direct application of life skills to their employment and income-generating prospects.
ing job creation and income generation for youth and for women Unemployed young women and men QVKT]LQVOZ]ZITKWUU]VQ\QM[_QTTJMVMÅ\ from workshops, entrepreneurial training, post-training support, mentorship, coaching, business advisory services, seed funds (that will help them gain skills); they will also have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge IVL\PMKWVÅLMVKM\WPMTX\PMU\ZIV[NWZU their lives.
These examples show clearly that creating opportunities to youth through formal and non-formal education is required to achieve sustainable development. In order to make the most of the experience gained and lessons learned from the transition from the MDGs to the SDGs, it is important to keep youth as a priority in pushing forward the development agenda. All parties involved must continue to bring awareness to governments, donor agencies, and civil society – as well as the private sector – of the key role that youth can play in empowering communities and contributing to local economies. As the international community weighs-in on the Post-2015 agenda, it is imperative for all interested stakeholders to commit themselves to supporting education programmes that empower youth and the marginalised around the world. Let us always remember that the opportunities of 1.8 billion youth are at stake.Q
Engagement with the inner-workings of commercial entities can provide inspiration for future drive The Sustainable Development Goals Fund (SDG-F) is a new development co-operation mechanism created in 2014 by the government of Spain and UNDP, on behalf of the UN system, to support sustainable development activities through integrated and multidimensional joint programmes. It builds on the experience, knowledge, lessons learned and best practices of the previous MDG Achievement Fund, which supported 130 joint programmes in 50 countries, while expanding its activities towards sustainable development, a greater focus on public-private partnerships, and updating its operational framework to incorporate recent advancements in development. For more information about the Fund, go to http://proposals.sdgfund.org
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS FUND , WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
from the Government of Spain, the SDG-F understands the importance of having progammes with a focus on youth and gender. The SDG-F implements multi-sectorial approaches towards youth education and employment that, to date, has proved to be very successful. Two actual examples, in the Philippines, and in Bosnia and Herzegovina – highlighted in the panel box-outs elsewhere in this article – bear out two important lessons of this work. First, that it is necessary to create opportunities while young people transition from the school system to the job market; and second, that successful approaches should articulate the work of all stakeholders.
HE Shaima Al Zarooni CEO, International Humanitarian City HE Shaima Al Zarooni talks about her focus on extending awareness of the global humanitarian agenda into the many other spheres of public life that she is committed to.
SOURCE: Sustainable Development You are well known as being a member of, and involved in, quite a number of national and international institutions and bodies. Can you remind us of some of those? Shaima Al Zarooni I was privileged to be a member of various local and international QV[\Q\]\QWV[CKPEI[\PM-`MK]\Q^M7ٻKMWN UAE National Olympic Committee, Dubai .ZMMBWVM[+W]VKQT,10),;KQMV\QÅK Advisory Board, Humanitarian Partnership and Information Sharing Steering Committee, External Advisory Council of the University of Wollongong in Dubai, Prestigious Judge on the 2013 and 2014 Hult Prize Committee, Sphere Project Trainer: Humanitarian Charter & Min. Standards in Humanitarian Response, and I was a mentor of Hamdan Bin Mohammed Student Personal Development Programme.
SSD Another important point that you made in your closing remarks last year referred to \PMNIK\\PI\ILQ[IJTQVOW]\KWUMWN KWVÆQK\[ for women caught-up in them is that their access to education becomes blocked. Could you update us on any positive developments that have occurred that are relevant to this issue? Shaima Al Zarooni Education is the most
important element in the development of any nation, and women in particular are \PMÅZ[\\WJMIٺMK\MLJaIVaKWVÆQK\JMQVO less fortunate in underdeveloped countries. To overcome this challenge, we need to give more attention to the educational development projects and ensure that it is serving females equally. During my last visit to the Syrian refugee camps in Jordan, I had the chance to meet smart and intelligent young women who are keen to continue their education despite all the challenges and lack of resources. The UAE government is supporting several educational programmes around the world and we shall continue our work. According to UNICEF reports, while most of the Millennium Development Goals face a deadline of 2015, the gender parity target was set to be achieved a full ten years earlier – an acknowledgement that equal access to education is the foundation for all other development goals. Yet recent statistics show that for every 100 boys out of school, there are still 117 girls in the same situation. SSD What is the outcome of that statistic? Shaima Al Zarooni Until equal numbers of girls and boys are in school, it will be impossible to build the knowledge necessary to eradicate poverty and hunger, combat disease, and ensure environmental
SSD That’s quite a schedule – and the guiding principle between them is your humanitarian work? Shaima Al Zarooni,MÅVQ\MTaRWQVQVO\PW[M institutions is in line with my humanitarian work main objectives. And it maximizes the role of the International Humanitarian City (IHC) and its engagement in various sectors – which enhances partnership, collaborations, IVLP]UIVQ\IZQIVMٺWZ\[WVITWKITIVLIV international level.
SSD In your closing remarks to the 11th DIHAD in March 2014 you said that one of the key points that the event highlighted was how women can take the lead in solving major social and economic problems, especially in areas like agriculture, nutrition, and small-scale businesses. How do you think that aspiration has developed since a year ago? Shaima Al Zarooni I am inspired by the leadership of UAE, and especially HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, to ‘Vice-President, Prime Minister, and Ruler of Dubai. The UAE is keen to empower women, and encourages them to assume leadership positions in various sectors. We in the UAE are keen to ÅVLJM[\[WT]\QWV[IVLUM\PWL[\WXXWZ\ women, also to praise Emirati women’s achievements in the public sector, of which they now make up 66 per cent of the workforce.
Media plays an important and big role in shaping the future of nations and deﬁnitely, it has a great impact on forming the humanitarian work development and progress.
February 2014: Shaima Al Zarooni presents HE Ahmed Butti Ahmed, Executive Chairman of Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporation, and Director General of Dubai Customs, with the IHC Shield and a Letter of Appreciation, during an IHC delegation visit to Dubai Customs. The IHC Board of Directors expressed their gratitude to Dubai Customs for its support and co-operation with IHC through facilitating customs transactions for IHC members, such as UN organisations and international humanitarian organisations.
sustainability. And, furthermore, millions of children and women will continue to die needlessly, placing the rest of the development agenda at risk. SSD In January 2014 International Humanitarian City launched, in coordination with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Dubai, regional training workshops on the topic of ‘Emergency Management’. Could you tell us something more about how that initiative has structured itself, and how it has progressed? Shaima Al Zarooni The International Humanitarian City is proud to join hands with the UNHCR in augmenting the Gulf Co-operation Council region’s emergency capacity. With various humanitarian crisis 26
reaching an exceptional level, and crises elsewhere around the world, there is an increased urgency for comprehensive and MٺMK\Q^M\ZIQVQVOQVMUMZOMVKaZM[XWV[M management. Holding the training session QV,]JIQQ[IKZQ\QKIT[\MX\PI\ZMÆMK\[\PM Gulf Co-operation Council’s commitment towards the international humanitarian response. Upon completion of the training, the participants are able to respond to international emergencies with increased capacity, apply key emergency standards and indicators in emergency operations planning and implementation, manage personal and team security on disaster and humanitarian crisis sites and function successfully with other international humanitarian actors within humanitarian clusters and international
emergency response standards. SSD How is the workshop structured? Shaima Al Zarooni The workshop is structured based on the UNHCR’s longstanding training exercise held at regular intervals throughout the year in Germany, Norway, Sweden, and will be commencing later this year in Senegal. The UNHCR has ÅMTLML[XMKQITQ[\\ZIQVMZ[NZWUQ\[/TWJIT Learning Centre in Budapest to manage the exercise as well as experienced resources from Amman, Beirut, and Riyadh to support the training. SSD Is formal training in various skills for aid workers generally an area that may have been under-resourced in the past? Shaima Al Zarooni International
Until equal numbers of girls and boys are in school, it will be impossible to build the knowledge necessary to eradicate poverty and hunger, combat disease, and ensure environmental sustainability. Humanitarian City is keen to enhance the capabilities of the international and local humanitarian workers through utilising the exceptional platform provided by the International Humanitarian City community, where international and local experts exchange experiences, knowledge in emergency response implementations, and explore potential collaborations and partnerships. The International Humanitarian City’s strategy launched recently in January 2015 includes an important pillar, ‘Connect: Humanity’, with an aim to position the International Humanitarian City as a leading organiser, facilitator, and host of annual regional and world humanitarian events. Also, the International Humanitarian City launched the World Humanitarian Forum which will be held in September, every two years, in the UAE. SSD Digital technology is obviously a vital element in organising aid. Are you able to say something about its importance to the implementation of International Humanitarian City’s four strategy pillars? Shaima Al Zarooni Through ‘Innovate: Humanity’ pillar, the International Humanitarian City shall create a ‘think-tank’ for the humanitarian sector, develop global online humanitarian portal, and support start-ups focusing on innovations applicable to humanitarian aid, in order to position International Humanitarian City as a global centre of research, development and thought leadership in the humanitarian space. There will be a global online knowledge and experience sharing portal, innovation labs to drive entrepreneurship in line with Dubai plan 2021, and the smart city. SSD In February 2014 the International Humanitarian City’s board of directors expressed their gratitude to Dubai Customs for its support and co-operation with the International Humanitarian City through facilitating customs transactions for International Humanitarian City members and partners. Clearly, such bodies have a key role to play in ensuring that humanitarian aid is transported expediently, and that aid consignments comply with the necessary
regulations, so that delays are minimised – and that’s hard work. Stakeholder partnerships are clearly important in this respect. Shaima Al Zarooni There are several local partners who play big role in supporting the International Humanitarian City work and its valuable members’ operations – in particular, those run from UAE and Dubai. Those partners comprise a large number of federal and local government departments and institutions. The International Humanitarian City’s partnership with \PMLQٺMZMV\[\ISMPWTLMZ[UI`QUQ[M[\PM facilitations given to the International Humanitarian City members to deliver aid as fast as possible with less cost. I take this opportunity to extend the International Humanitarian City’s gratitude and appreciation to the leadership of the UAE who leads this inspirations and to all our partners who support the humanitarian work IVLQ\[MٺWZ\[ SSD In 2012 International Humanitarian City signed a memorandum of understanding with the Dubai press club as part of a partnership to support and enhance humanitarian journalism as a media genre. How is the impact that the mainstream media has on humanitarian and development programmes changing? Shaima Al Zarooni Media plays an important and big role in shaping the future WN VI\QWV[IVLLMÅVQ\MTaQ\PI[IOZMI\ impact on forming the humanitarian work development and progress. Whether we are in need to spread awareness about the humanitarian crises and appeals to overcome \PMKPITTMVOM[IVLVMML[WN JMVMÅKQIZQM[WZ \WMVKW]ZIOMUMLQIQV\MZ^MV\QWV\WZMÆMK\ the reality and ensure active engagement by the local community and public support. SSD Last November, the International 0]UIVQ\IZQIV+Q\aPW[\ML\PMÅZ[\ Humanitarian Action Rooted in Islam and International Humanitarian Law (IHL) Forum. Can you explain why you believe the outcomes of this gathering are important for the humanitarian aid sector, and also what, for you, were the most interesting aspects of the event?
Shaima Al Zarooni<PQ[NWZ]UQ[ÅZ[\WN its kind, it tackled the complementary rules of Islam and International Humanitarian Law (IHL). The forum also presented the opportunity to increase participants’ awareness on our neutral and independent humanitarian action in the region and _M_MZMXTMI[ML\WRWQV\PMMٺWZ\[_Q\P International Committee for Red Cross and the Norwegian Refugee Council to host such an informative Forum. Our unique platform at the International Humanitarian City enables our members and partners to utilise Dubai’s unique facilities for capacity building, information sharing and dialogue about various relevant \WXQK[QV\PMP]UIVQ\IZQIVÅMTLQ
HE Shaima Al Zarooni: career brieﬁng PRINCIPLE LEADERSHIP ROLE: Chief Executive Ofﬁcer, International Humanitarian City, Dubai. HE received her Bachelor Degree in Business Sciences from Zayed University and two Master Degrees – one in International Business from the University of Wollongong, and the other in Public Administration from the Dubai School of Government. She also graduated from the Mohammed Bin Rashid Centre for Leadership Development in June 2011. Prior to joining IHC in 2011, HE worked for the Ofﬁce of HRH Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein, Wife of HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of UAE, Ruler of Dubai. HE also worked in the Ofﬁce of HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai at the Ruler’s Court prior to joining the Executive Council of Dubai. HE is a member of various local and international institutions and bodies, among which are: • Member of the Executive Ofﬁce of UAE National Olympic Committee • Member of Dubai Free Zones Council • Member of DIHAD Scientiﬁc Advisory Board • Member of Humanitarian Partnership and Information Sharing Steering Committee • Member of External Advisory Council of the University of Wollongong in Dubai • Prestigious Judge on the 2013 and 2014 Hult Prize Committee • Sphere Project Trainer: Humanitarian Charter & Min. Standards in Humanitarian Response • Mentor of Hamdan Bin Mohammed Student Personal Development Programme
Accountability in Somalia
omalia, with an estimated population of 10 Million, is a country emaciated with war. Its terrain is known to be challenging and signiﬁcantly dangerous. This is largely owing to high levels of insecurity, poor infrastructure and a widely scattered population. After more than two decades,the international community recognized a new federal government in 2012. However, insecurity still remains a grave threat in most parts of country. This has thus, led to the country remaining under the control of militant groups. Oxford’s Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) reported from a 2006 survey that 65.6% of the population lives in severe poverty, lacking basic services, including access to education. Moreover, the Fund for Peace report in 2012 indicated that appalling as it was in the past, the situation is growing worse. Together with the rest of Horn of Africa, Somalia is now facing another food crisis, and the politicized aid system is unable to meet basic needs Massive deforestations, concomitant shortages in rainfall, and the long-neglected impacts of droughts are the main issues related to conﬂict and environment. Although the incidence of off-shore piracy has declined, it is generally recognized, including by the UN Security Council that patrolling the coast is not enough to ﬁght piracy without
addressing its underlying causes – social, economic and environmental. Illegal ﬁshing and waste dumping are now seen as a new form of piracy, including by the new pirates themselves. While security in Mogadishu has improved as armed confrontations moved to agricultural areas of Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle, as well as to the regions of Lower Jubba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool and Hiiran, the costs for these badly drought-affected areas will be huge The United Nations for years handed out tens of millions of dollars to non-government organizations involved in humanitarian work in strife-battered Somalia with “no assurance” that the money was used for the intended purposes. In 2012, Somalia received US$627 million in international humanitarian assistance, making it the fourth largest recipient. In 2014, the U.S. has contributed $207.6 million, or nearly 38 percent of the total donated so far. Overall, Somalia’s consolidated aid appeal for 2014 is calling for $933 million. The dozens of organizations assess the needs prior to their interventions, as a practical way to discover the needs of destitute people. However, the ﬁndings are seldom used to reﬁne objectives, develop new strategies or design new interventions that are tailored to the needs of the targeted people. It was reported that one rural villager,
addressing a United Nations team commissioned in 2012 to conduct assessments in that area, stated: ‘Every month, two or three assessment teams come to our village enquiring about our needs. We tell them the challenges we face. They disappear and do not come back. I wonder what kind of needs these people look for that they are not seeing in our communities.’ In view of this, large donors have recently begun auditing the millions of dollars pumped into Somalia. Baker Tilly Merali’s, Certiﬁed Public Accountants is an established ﬁrm of accountants having being formed in 1983. Its head ofﬁce is based in Nairobi and it has other ofﬁces in Uganda- Kampala, Rwanda- Kigali and recently opened an afﬁliate ofﬁce in Mogadishu - Somalia. It is an independent member ﬁrm of Baker Tilly International Ltd - the 8th largest accountancy and business advisory network in the world. Baker Tilly International is owned by its members, all of whom hold an equal interest in the legal entity. Client services are delivered regionally and nationally by the members of Baker Tilly International, each of which is a locally owned and managed as an independent ﬁrm. Baker Tilly Merali’s conducts its Somalia audits and other assessments keeping in mind the safety of its staff with low proﬁle, 24 hour armed security, coupled with local and international intelligence as they traverse the unfriendly region. Despite numerous challenges such as limited movement, threats on personal safety, presence of Al Shabab and lack of governance structures, the ﬁrm has created safeguard pillars within its structures to ensure top quality on all assignments. Baker Tilly Meralis partners and staff are aware that Somalia is an intimidating and fearsome country for auditors seeking to uncover the truth. Managing partner, Bhandari says a massive ‘bravo’ to his auditors who have done a great job in Somalia and continue to do so! He adds that accounting is not accountability and ultimately it is up to the citizens of Somalia and those in the diaspora to hold the government and the international community to account. Developing such a framework will take time.
Jimmy Merali Practice Development Manager
Madhav Bhandari Mahmud Merali Group Executive Managing Partner Partner EMEA region
Why it’s worth taking a risk… Around the world, some new business ideas succeed, and some don’t. For anyone looking to invest in technology start-up projects that are emerging in Africa, the risk levels may seem daunting – but those looking to fund grassroots innovation should not be deterred, argues Dr Loren Treisman, Executive, The Indigo Trust
accountability, and citizen empowerment, the Trust also supports the use of digital technologies in other social sectors. These include health, education, and agriculture. Although technology can prove a tremendous enabler when applied to social transformation, it is not a panacea for all social problems; but it certainly has the
ability to enable people to access, create and share information at a cost, scale, and speed which was never previously possible. This, in turn, empowers people to make the changes which they wish to see in their own lives and communities. When integrated into well-devised programmes, technology can also help to
s a grant-making foundation, The Indigo Trust provides small grants – usually in the region of £10,000-£15,000 – to organisations which are using Web and mobile communications-based technologies, in demonstrably innovative ways, to bring about social change in Africa. While it has a special interest in the areas of transparency,
Successful grassroots projects can have a tremendous impact at a scale and cost that was almost impossible before new digital technologies arrived on the African aid scene. amplify the voices of marginalised commuVQ\QM[IVL\W[\ZMVO\PMVWټQVMUWJQTQ[I\QWV campaigning and development programming. The Indigo Trust views itself as a ‘high-risk’ funder: providing small grants to grassroots organisations across the African continent allows social entrepreneurs, community-based organisations, and technologists, to pilot new ideas, with room for trial-and-error to occur. It is a risky business, and the Trust freely acknowledges the fact that many of the projects supported are unlikely to achieve scale WZÅVIVKQIT[\IQVIJQTQ\a#[WQ\Q[ZMI[WVIJTM to ask – why does it bother?
The risk-innovation equation
The answer is both simple and complex. A PQOPZQ[S[\ZI\MOaITTW_[I\PW][IVLÆW_MZ[ to bloom, in a manner of speaking. Encourage people to test-out many ideas from many sources, and while some will falter, those that do succeed can have a tremendous impact at a scale and cost that was almost impossible before new digital technologies arrived on the African aid scene. Furthermore, some have the potential to JMKWUMÅVIVKQITTa[\IQVIJTMZMUW^QVO\PM on-going reliance on aid that often results in given projects falling to the wayside at the end of their funding cycles. While the Indigo Trust is happy to award
Nigerian start-up Co-Creation Hub generates revenue through consultancy work and from corporates for training, managing community relations, business advice, and corporate membership.
high-risk grants, it takes a portfolio approach, so the risk is managed across lots of LQٺMZMV\OZIV\[<PQ[UQOP\XZWUX\IVW\PMZ question: why does the Trust fund projects that many would view as more appropriate for commercial investment from venture capitalists and ‘angel’ investors than a charitable foundation? This time the answer is simple. To begin with, few investors will come in at the critical early stages from ideation to prototype – and sometimes beyond. While they are willing to take some risks, they are seldom ready to take a leap of faith before \PMaIZMKWVÅLMV\QV\PMQZQV^M[\UMV\ For social entrepreneurships, this consideration can take time. So The Indigo Trust KWUM[QV\WÅTT\PMOIXOQ^QVOMV\ZMXZMVM]Z[ some crucial breathing space to innovate, experiment, and optimise their concepts so that they are then ready for commercial investors to scrutinise. Entrepreneurs may also seek funding from larger donors when they are ready to scale, or become sustainable via partnerships with the public/private sectors.
Challenges to innovation
App specialist Pledge 51 has developed a Nigerian Constitution App which has now been downloaded more than 1,000,000 times.
It is also worth mentioning that the pool of venture capitalists and angel investors willing to invest in African countries is very small. The ‘social tech sector’ is still at a relatively early stage in its development, and the conti-
nent of Africa is viewed as risky to investors for a variety of factors. First, in many countries on the continent, the policy environment, high costs, and poor infrastructure, minimise the likelihood of a project’s eventual success. Second, the tech for social change sector is in its infancy; and there are few examples of XZWÅ\IJTM[KITIJTM[WT]\QWV[NWZ\PMU\W draw upon. So investors entering this space need to adopt new investment models and shift their expectations in terms of returns on investment. Many just are not ready to take the plunge. This is a key consideration in how Indigo \Z][\LQٺMZ[QVQ\[IXXZWIKP1\Q[WN\MVM^MV willing to take a chance to support driven and talented individuals who have not even established an organisation yet. For example, three years ago the Trust awarded a grant of £5,000 to Bosun Tijani and Femi Longe to run a ‘Tech in Governance Hackathon’ in Lagos, Nigeria. It brought \WOM\PMZ\MKPQM[OW^MZVUMV\WٻKQIT[IVL activists, to explore the ways in which technology could improve governance in that country, and empower citizens to hold their leaders more to account. The event attracted much interest on the day, and it was clear that Bosun and Femi
Investors entering this space need to adopt new investment models and shift their expectations in terms of returns on investment. really understood how to build community and stimulate innovation. The concepts being developed were certainly impressive. They included iWatch Live, a platform that enables citizens to track the budgets of government projects, and to submit reports monitoring their progress. Another concept, called BudgIT, develops infographics which explain critical elements of Nigeria’s national and state budgets in a simple format, contributing towards more informed public debate. More on them later… Following the event, Bosun and Tunji expressed an interest in establishing a technology innovation hub in Lagos to support social tech entrepreneurs, and they were the right people to do it. Back in the UK, The Indigo Trust was able to stimulate interest from social investor Omidyar Network and together, the organisations funded them to set up Co-Creation Hub with $245,000. Investing in such an unknown entity might seem, on the face of it, rather crazy; but it was certainly worthwhile. Walking into the Co-Creation Hub space now brings \WUQVL;QTQKWV>ITTMa;M\WV\_WÆWWZ[ with a roof balcony and funky furniture, the space buzzes with activity. State-of-theart facilities, high-speed Internet access, and
a stimulatingly collaborative environment, have attracted young, tech-savvy talent. The team support social entrepreneurs from ideation through to incubation. Impressively, they generated 40 per cent WN \PMQZQVKWUMQVLMXMVLMV\TaQV\PMÅZ[\ year, and they are aiming for 55 per cent in the second. This has been achieved through consultancy work and from corporates for training, managing community relations, business advice, and corporate membership. The UK’s Department for International Development has paid them £30,000 for innovation mapping, and tech companies pay $3,650 each to pitch to the community they have created. They also managed to leverage free Internet access from African telecommunications services provider MainOne; and they have been so successful that industry is now leading an initiative to turn Lagos suburb Yaba, where the hub is located, into an ‘innovation city’ – a hotspot attracting a range of stakeholders with adequate resources and infrastructure where creative ventures can thrive and prosper. Fibre-optic cables are now being brought directly to the hub, which should help attract more tech players into the area.
Success leads to success
So what about the projects they’re supporting? BudgIT, mentioned previously here, has secured over $500,000 in grants, and is already generating some of its own income through providing infographics to banks, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, and other clients. Wecyclers, meanwhile, collect recyclable waste from households on bicycles in exchange for points which are managed through mobile phones, and can be exchanged for household products and other goods. Wecyclers then brings the waste to processing plants, which utilise it to make products and pay the team for the raw materials: a win-win situation for all involved. To date, around $3,000-worth of prizes have been collected, and it has generated $13,000 in revenue, and now generates $25-per-day QVXZWÅ\ -ÅSWIUWJQTMXTI\NWZUJI[MLWV)Vdroid) designed to enhance learning through fun-to-use social quizzes, already has over 10,000 users, and over 150,000 quizzes have been played. And Pledge 51 has developed a Nigerian Constitution App which has been downloaded more than 1,000,000 times. The Indigo Trust has invested in both enterprises, and is naturally delighted with the progress made so far: how often can a funder say that an investment of just £7,000 has gone on to reach this many people?
Hi-tech start-ups are enabling Nigerians to become more involved in how their country is run
1\Q[VW\MI[aNWZXZWRMK\[\WJMKWUMÅVIVcially sustainable in the social space, but models are emerging. Some are based on end-user charging. Take iCow, one of the best cases in point. It provides critical information to dairy farmers in Kenya through SMS. Farmers are willing to pay a premium rate for the services. This is because through using this service, their incomes have increased as a result of increased milk yields, and of decreased disease outbreaks. The iCow service is now scaling across the country with Safaricom, Kenya’s largest mobile network operator, and adopting a revenue share model. Organisations are also exploring ‘freemium’ models, where users are able to pay for additional services, generating income
Impressively, they generated 40 per cent of their income independently in the ﬁrst year, and they are aiming for 55 per cent in the second.
Grant proposal attributes
Given its somewhat unorthodox ethos in respect to the projects its supports, what does The Indigo Trust look for when reviewing a grant proposal? Crucially, a proposed solution must address a genuine need in society, and it needs to be convinced that technology is the right way to tackle the problem. The trust wants potential grantees to demonstrate a clear theory of change, that is, it wants them to be able to demonstrate how their solution will contribute towards social change, and to show how they will measure their potential impact. Whatever form it takes, digital technology on its own is rarely provides the total solution. Tech platforms need to be integrated into a well-devised programme. Techies
Wecyclers collect recyclable waste from households on bicycles in exchange for points which are managed through mobile phones
working in isolation often struggle to create societal change. This usually requires close connections to end-users, such as farmers groups or community health workers. Projects are also usually most successful when the tech solution is built into a broader campaign, and connected to an organisation which is able to respond to queries or reports through close connections to communities on the ground – and ideally, to government and other service providers. It is important that grantees utilise technology that is appropriate to their target users. If a project is targeting rural farmers or pregnant mothers, they are unlikely to have the latest smartphones or broadband-speed Internet access; so the use of SMS, USSD =V[\Z]K\]ZML;]XXTMUMV\IZa;MZ^QKM,I\I a protocol used by GSM phones to communicate with the service provider’s computers), or Interactive Voice Response services 1>:NZWUJI[QKNMI\]ZMXPWVM[IZMUW[\ appropriate. In some cases, information does not necessarily have to reach the whole popu-
lation to be impactful. For example, if the information in a parliamentary monitoring site – such as People’s Assembly in South Africa or Odekro in Ghana – is picked up by journalists, other media, or activists, who can amplify crucial messages, this can have \PMLM[QZMLMٺMK\WN PWTLQVOXWTQ\QKQIV[\W account. In these such cases, smartphone or Internet-based solutions may be appropriate. The Indigo Trust also requires grantees to be transparent and open about their work, just as the Trust itself is. Ideally, it looks for sustainable, replicable and/or scalable solutions, or solutions with low operating costs. And it admits to a soft-spot for local organisations with small budgets, open-source, and interoperable solutions, innovative approaches, and two-way interactivity. The Trust has often found that it is a passionate individual that really drives a project forward – someone who really understands the sector and local context, and who is truly dedicated to the cause.Q For more information about The Indigo Trust, visit http://indigotrust.org.uk.
THE INDIGO TRUST, CO-CREATION HUB, WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
through advertising, providing chargeable services like consulting and data mining/ analysis, and through seeking impact investors who pay for delivery against outcomes which save governments money in the longterm. Private-public-charity partnerships can also provide a route to sustainability. This is not to suggest that The Indigo Trust, as a charitable foundation, expects all \PMXZWRMK\[\PI\Q\XXWZ\[\WJMÅVIVKQITTa sustainable. Many of the projects which it supports fall into a category which economists refer to as ‘public goods and services’, an area which has experienced conspicuous market failure. Although some examples of projects focusing on transparency, accountability, and citizen empowerment, do generate income, these are certainly the exception rather than the norm. Models are being explored – such as the KWVT\IVKa[MZ^QKM[WٺMZMLJa*]LO1<IVL Ua;WKQM\a·_PQKPJ]QTL_MJ[Q\M[\WJMVMÅ\ the civic and community aspect of people’s lives. Others, like the Lungisa platform KZMI\MLJa+MTT4QNMMVIJTM[KQ\QbMV[QV Khayelitsha to report problems in local service delivery aim to outsource their service to other non-governmental organisations. Nonetheless, whether on the African continent, in the UK, or anywhere else around the world, it is likely that many transparency projects will require on-going funding; and in these cases, The Indigo Trust simply expects teams to keep their operating costs low.
CITIES AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION
CITIES AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION
Smarter Smart city concepts can go beyond their original remit and help create incubatory environments that encourage and promote innovative sustainability at grassroots levels, reports Professor Martin Charter, Director of the Centre for Sustainable Design
ities are major hotbeds of environmental, social and economic problems, as we well know; but they can also be catalysts for the development of new sustainable solutions. Cities are important, and are predicted to become even more important: 70 per cent of the global population will be located in cities by 2050, compared to 50 per cent at present (according to UN World Urbanisation Prospects); at present, 60 per cent of global /,8Q[NZWUKQ\QM[[Ia[KWVT\QVOÅZU McKinsey); and cities currently account for 70 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions (according to UN Habitat). The expanding city populations will mean growing environmental impacts and challenges, as well as, potential opportunities related to the development of more sustainable solutions for energy, water, and food production/storage/distribution, transportation, housing and waste (or resource) management. What, however, will the increase in urbanisation mean for regions, towns, villages and rural areas? What will be the N]\]ZMZWTMIVLQVÆ]MVKMWN ZMOQWVITIVL provincial governments (and other local stakeholders) as populations migrate to cities? And what will be the implications for more sustainable economic development?
Climate change returns
Cities face major climate change impacts and will increasingly need to implement climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that the evidence for global climate change is unequivocal, and there are likely to be an increased number of extreme and unpredictable weather events. Climate change is moving back into the spotlight. In September 2014, there were demonstrations in New York and London over the need for action over climate change in parallel to United Nations Climate Change Summit in New York. Coupled to this, the Hollywood movie
actor and environmental activist, Leonardo DiCaprio, was appointed the United Nations Messenger of Peace, and delivered a keynote speech on the climate change imperative as XIZ\WN I[\ZI\MOaWN ZIQ[QVO\PMUMLQIXZWÅTM in advance of the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris. November 2015 will be a pivotal date in the climate change agenda as UNFCCC will aim to decide on a legally-binding agreement on greenhouse gas emission targets linked to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. City leaders are likely to play a prominent role in discussions drawing on lessons from initiatives such as C40 and the Mayors Covenant that have developed city-based learning networks focused on reducing carbon emissions and developing low-carbon innovation.
Alongside climate change, cities need to tackle many other environmental challenges – such as access to water and food, and health issues associated with air and water pollution. For example, over the last 12 UWV\P[*MQRQVOPI[NIKML[QOVQÅKIV\IQZ XWTT]\QWVXZWJTMU[_PMZMWVI[QOVQÅKIV\ number of days, emissions have far-exceeded World Health Organisation (WHO) safety levels. While not achieving the public visibility of climate change, there is growing recognition among policy makers, business, civil society, and a number of innovative cities, of the need to move away from the linear ‘take-make-waste’ economy, to a Circular Economy model that aims to stimulate QUXZW^MLZM[W]ZKMMٻKQMVKaIVLQVVW^I\QWV through, for example, re-manufacturing, re-conditioning, refurbishment, and repair –
Post-2008, the concept of ‘green growth’ has gained international support among policy makers as a means of reconciling the ongoing need for economic growth set within environmental limits. Reports in the late 2000s from the World Economic Forum (WEF), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) helped to shape the development of the ‘green economy’ and ‘green growth’ policy agendas. This thinking has now ÅT\MZMLLW_VQV\WIZIVOMWN VI\QWVIT regional, and city government initiatives as illustrated in the recent report by the Global Green Growth Institute. To facilitate discussion, the Danish government have established and host the 3GF (Global Green Growth Forum), an annual gathering of policy makers, CEOs, and other key decision-makers that debates the evolving ‘green growth’ agenda while acting as a platform for the development of national and international public-private partnership projects. A number of cities are engaging in and taking leadership on the ‘green growth’ agenda and are embracing the associated change. For example, Copenhagen is the 2014 European Green capital, was voted number one in the European green city index, and hosts the 3GF.
CITIES AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION
‘Places and spaces’ are emerging where people come together to make, modify and/or repair products – such as consumer goods. while at the same time creating jobs. Despite, \PMÅVIVKQITK]\JIKS[\PI\UIVaKQ\QM[QV western economies have faced post-2008, there is a sense that sustainability has moved back onto the agenda for many mayors.
‘Turning point’? ,M[XQ\M\PMÅVIVKQITKPITTMVOM[QUXW[ML by the ‘austerity age’, are we now moving toward a turning point in relation to the sustainability of our cities? Are we now in a time of major change driven by a range of environmental, social, and economic issues? )VLPW_[QOVQÅKIV\_QTT\PI\KPIVOMJM' Some cities may embrace the change and transform (e.g., Copenhagen); and some may react or rebel against it. Will responses to the change be driven ‘top down’ (by policy makers) or emerge ‘bottom up’ (by civil society and citizens)? If we are to achieve UWZMZM[QTQMV\ZM[W]ZKMMٻKQMV\TW_KIZJWV economies and societies, we will need to break away from the conventional ‘ways of doing things’ to the creation of new models of – for example – consumption and production. Managing that change will not be easy. Cities are large and complex ‘living organisms’, and include many subsystems and networks that are often unconnected. To enable change, those subsystems and networks will need to be connected-up more MٺMK\Q^MTa#IVL\PQ[UIaUMIVZMLM[QOVQVO city systems to bring together those groups in LQٺMZMV\_Ia[ For example, building new platforms to connect-up policy makers with inventors, \PQVSMZ[LM[QOVMZ[ÅVIVKQMZ[MV\ZMXZMVM]Z[ and researchers to accelerate the creation, development, and commercialisation of sustainable solutions through labs, incubators, clusters and new ‘places and spaces’.
Smart city motivators
urban regeneration? At present much of the smart city development is being driven by a few key information and communications technology (ICT) players – names such as IBM, Cisco Systems, Schneider Electric, and Siemens, in co-operation with a number of major cities. For example, Songdo in Korea, is a smart city that has been built from scratch in partnership with companies, including Cisco. To develop smarter, more sustainable cities will require partnerships between a range of stakeholders, including OW^MZVUMV\J][QVM[[ÅVIVKMIVLKQ^QT society. Smart cities, smart grid, and Big Data (of more later) discussions should dovetail and a key part of the focus should JMWVPW__MM[\IJTQ[P[MK]ZMIVLMٺMK\Q^M systems to collect, analyse, and present environmental, social and economic data to enable improved decision-making. The ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) – the network of physical objects accessed through the Internet – linking-up data from vehicles, buildings, smart meters, lighting systems, etc., will expand the available pool of Big ,I\I)[\IVLIZLLMÅVQ\QWVWN *QO,I\IQ[ as an all-encompassing term for data sets
so large or complex – in terms of volume or structure – that it becomes impractical, if not impossible, to process using traditional data processing applications. Main challenges posed by Big Data include analysis, capture, search, storage, transfer, and visualisation. In a number of cities – Barcelona is a good example – major networks of sensors have been installed throughout the city to monitor, for example, recycling rates and levels of air pollution. Smart cities are a techno-centric concept, and a key issue will be how we move beyond technological discussions to explore how civil society and citizens can engage and involve themselves in the process of making cities smarter, more sustainable, and importantly, liveable. How cities democratise smart city development to engender and motivate citizen feedback (in terms of ideas and information through online polls, observations and sharing pictures through social networks and mobile devices) will again be key to helping to develop new behavioural-, as well as, technological-, solutions to environmental, social, and economic problems.
Cities need to get ‘smarter’. There has been a growing discussion over smart cities, IVL[QOVQÅKIV\QV\MZM[\JMQVOM`XZM[[ML in the concept by some. However, are smart cities purely large-scale strategic experiments created by a small number of transitional corporations, rather than being real catalysts for smarter, more sustainable
Seen here with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, actor and environmental activist Leonardo DiCaprio was appointed the United Nations Messenger of Peace
CITIES AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION
City leaders are likely to play a prominent role in discussions drawing on lessons from initiatives that have developed city-based learning networks focused on developing low-carbon innovation. Innovation toward sustainability As part of the Big Data revolution, many companies are starting to explore the use of open innovation competitions to source ideas and funding from ‘the crowd’. A number of major companies have started to utilise crowd sourcing strategies related to the development of more sustainable solutions – they include big names like Unilever and GE. In parallel, a range of new initiatives are starting to emerge from city governments and civil society. These include ‘hackathons’ and ‘jams’ focused on environmental or broader sustainability issues. Hackathons bring together computer software coders, programmers and other creatives in intensive sessions. They have been established by some cities to hack Big Data datasets to produce apps to improve, for example, recycling. At the leading-edge of this initiative are New York and Singapore, for example. Such sustainability-focused hackathons and jams – intensive ‘open’ innovation collaborative workshops – have also been organised by civil society groups from the ‘bottom-up’. For example, last year the
Futuristic metropolitan developments, such as Chengdu in China, set the benchmark for the smart cities concept
Global Sustainability Jam documented around 80 simultaneous events worldwide in late November 2014. There are indications that traditional boundaries of innovation are starting to dissolve, with the potential means to innovate increasing from civil society and citizens. So are we moving into (or have already entered) a new age of industrialisation – ‘Industrialisation 4.0’ – that is based on information, collaboration, and decentralisation. The advent of this ‘new Industrial Age’ appears to be driven by a new spirit of doing and making, increased access to information through Internet, increased sharing of ideas and information through social networking technologies, increased access to Open Source designs, availability of new ‘making’ tools such as additive manufacturing (or 3D printing), and new ‘places and spaces’ to enable individuals \W»UISMUWLQNaIVLÅ`¼
New places and spaces
Sensors are monitoring air pollution levels in Barcelona - good news for the city’s cyclists
We may be starting to see the emergence of a new Industrial Renaissance. As indicated, these new ‘places and spaces’ are starting to emerge in many cities where individuals are coming together physically, face-to-face to discuss, collaborate, experiment, and share information and ideas to make, modify and/or repair products – products such as consumer goods. As indicated above, these
new ‘places and places’ are part of a process of democratising innovation by providing access to the knowledge and equipment for prototype development and job production outside of corporate research and development laboratories and factories.
Is this a threat or opportunity in relation to the established order? At present, this democratisation appears to be primarily in the spirit of experimentation but there some indications that some of these new ‘places and spaces’ may start to incubate the development of new products and businesses. Perhaps the most well-known example of these new ‘places and spaces’ are the ‘Fab Labs’ that emerged from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2001, by providing organised facilities to enable individuals to fabricate products from digital images utilising a portfolio of manufacturing equipment including 3D printers and laser cutters. As of 2013, there were 125 Fab Labs in 34 countries. Alongside Fab Labs, there has been the explosion of Makerspaces around the world, where organised facilities are being created or ‘opened up’ for individuals to network, design, and make products. For example, the RDM campus in Rotterdam in the Netherlands has established the RDM Makerspace where citizens can rent the use of equipment from the technical school
CITIES AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION Repair cafés are expanding in cities and towns worldwide, with over 400 starting in 2014. For example, after a series of test sessions, Farnham Repair Café (FRC) was launched in February 2015 as a unique collaboration between a university and civil society organisation (The Centre for Sustainable Design at University for the Creative Arts and Transition Town Farnham). FRC provides repair stations covering a range of product categories: electronics, electrical, mechanical; and bicycles; and has a ‘creative zone’ to create art and products from waste.
Futures and forecasts <PM_WZTLQ[I^MZaLQٺMZMV\XTIKMQVUIVa [MV[M[KWUXIZML\WM^MVÅ^M\W\MVaMIZ[ ago. Change is the constant, and predicting \PMN]\]ZMQ[IVQVKZMI[QVOTaLQٻK]T\M`MZKQ[M However, it is likely that cities will become [QOVQÅKIV\TaUWZMQUXWZ\IV\IVLXW_MZN]T# but will cities become smarter, more sustainable and liveable? As we see more urbanisation, what will this process mean outside of cities, in regions, in provinces, in towns and rural areas? The process is likely to mean that SVW_TMLOMÅVIVKMIVLW\PMZZM[W]ZKM[ may get more concentrated in major cities. Cities may increasingly be designed to be the ‘hubs of innovation’; however, we may increasingly see innovation arise bottom-up from civil society and citizens in a new age of experimentation driven by a new ‘do it’ mind-set of Generation Z (people born after the Millennial Generation or Generation Y), increased access and sharing of information and ideas, availability of new tools and new, decentralised ‘places and spaces’ that enable KWTTIJWZI\QWVUISQVOUWLQNaQVOIVLÅ`QVO That said, it is reasonable to ask: will these trends be truly transformative or
just be a peripheral grassroots innovation movement that does not enter the mainstream? Will cities become the nexus for new developments or will innovators QVKZMI[QVOTaNMMT\PI\KQ\QM[[\QÆMKZMI\Q^Q\a with ‘innovation hubs’ breaking out of cities? Will this new age of experimentation lead to a more sustainable path (environmentally, socially or economically)? Or not? There are many open questions – and the book is still, very much, open.Q Professor Martin Charter is Director of the Centre for Sustainable Design® - firstname.lastname@example.org / www.cfsd.org.uk.
References 1. Hackerspaces (2014), List if Active Hackerspaces [online]. Available from http://hackerspace.org/wiki/ List_of_Hacker_Spaces [accessed on 20th May 2014]. 2. Charter & Keiller (2014), Grassroots Innovation & Circular Economy: A Global Survey of Repair Cafés and Hackerspaces [online]. Available from www.cfsd.org. uk/news/circular-economy-innovation [accessed on 27th October 2014]. 3. Charter (2014), Makers & Fixers: Circular Economy & Grassroots Innovation: 10 Lessons Learnt [online]. Available from www.cfsd.org.uk/news/circular-economyinnovation [accessed on 27th October 2014]. 4. Repair Café Foundation (2014), Repair Café Locations [online]. Available from http://repaircafe.org/locations [accessed on 09/02/2015].
Editor’s background brieﬁng: smart cities investment and the smart money The promise of smart cities was already gathering pace when United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, opined that new ideas from smart cities will point the way to sustainable urbanisation, in a message issued to mark World Habitat Day 2009. In the intervening ﬁve years the smart city concept has evolved apace with developments in information and communications technology and the connected built environment. A general deﬁnition maintains that smart cities use a mix of digital technologies to enhance performance and well-being, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with its inhabitants. Key ‘smart’ sectors include transport, energy, healthcare, water and waste. A smart city should be able to respond faster to city and global challenges than one with a simple ‘transactional’ relationship with its citizens. “Smart cities are places where IT is wielded to address problems [both] old and new,” explains Anthony M. Townsend, author of the book Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the
Quest for a New Utopia. Since then the perception that the smart cities concept applies mainly to high-proﬁle future (and futuristic) builds – such as Songdo in South Korea, Dubai in United Arab Emirates, Chengdu in China, and Konza City in Kenya – has been overtaken by developments in the smart built environment sector. More recently there has also been growing interest in applying smart city principles and techniques to established metropolitan areas that might be anything but ‘smart’ – a trend that has been described as ‘retroﬁtting the future’. Interest in smart cities is motivated by major challenges, including climate change, economic restructuring, the transition to online retail and entertainment, ageing populations, and pressures on public ﬁnances. It has sponsorship at the highest levels: the European Union, for instance, has assigned constant efforts to devising a strategy for achieving ‘smart’ urban growth for its many city-regions.
The smartening of urban centres around the world shouldn’t be easily confused with more traditional concepts of urban regeneration and renewal, although there are many overlaps. The sustainability element to smart cities is, arguably, the deﬁning factor that takes urban renewal toward a more comparable level of achievement. Another compelling motive is that cities large and small, smart and non-smart, will continue to be both sources of environmental challenges, but also continue to be critical revenue generator and contributors to their respective gross national products well into the foreseeable future. Investment in smart cities and smart city projects is also good news for economic growth prospects. According to market analyst Frost & Sullivan, the global smart city market will be valued at $1.565 trillion in 2020, with over 26 global cities expected to be in a position to qualify as ‘Smart Cities’ in 2025. More than 50 per cent of these smart cities will be located in Europe and North America. James Hayes
UN PHOTO/MARK GARTEN, ANNA KOMMERS, NATSUMI ARAGAKI, IAKOV FILIMONOV/WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
for a fee during certain time periods. More informally, Hackerspaces have also seen [QOVQÅKIV\OZW_\PNZWUIZW]VLQV\W 1035 in 2014 (Hackerspaces, 20141). Other recent research (Charter & Keiller2) has indicated that individuals participating in Hackerspaces are not just making and/or hacking or modifying products, but are also Å`QVOWZZMXIQZQVOXZWL]K\[.WZM`IUXTM members of the Reading Hackspace in the UK reported that they repaired (and therefore extended the product life) of broken baby stroller by downloading an Open Source design and 3D printing a missing component (Charter, 20143). Repair Cafés – informal groups that get together to repair and modify products – have also seen [QOVQÅKIV\OZW_\P Since the inception of the Repair Café Foundation in 2010, numbers have grown to more than 700 Repair Cafés worldwide, with the Netherlands accounting for more than 200, and Amsterdam around 15 (Repair Café Foundation, 20144). A new group that may start to emerge are hybrid community businesses that combine facets of the above: cafés for networking with repair workshops for learning, incubators for making up-cycled products with in-house retail outlets to sell the products; a notable example of this is
Q&A Professor Mukesh Kapila CBE Professor of Global Health and Humanitarian Affairs / Executive Director, Ofﬁce for Global Health, University of Manchester, United Kingdom Professor Mukesh Kapila shares his perspectives on the nature of humanitarian progress, and on why the mix of cultures between private and public sectors in the cause of humanitarian aid provisioning can prove to be constructive
and capacities of both need to deployed in service of humanity, as the needs are so great. [My view is that] DIHAD and Dubai provide good models for doing that. SSD One of the principle objectives of DIHAD is the sharing of knowledge – through presentations, through debate, and via face-to-face dialogue. Are there more _Ia[QV_PQKP\PMÅZ[\PIVLM`XMZQMVKMWN professionals engaged in the humanitarian and sustainable development sectors, for instance, could be captured, and best practice made available to colleagues and
other agencies facing similar challenges? If so, what are they, in your view? Professor Mukesh Kapila DIHAD provides a great opportunity for mutual TMIZVQVOI[Q\JZQVO[\WOM\PMZM`XMZ\[ practitioners, and students from many walks... More could be done through organising more training and coaching sessions beyond the conferencing. Sponsors for that are welcome. SSD?PI\IZM\PMUW[\[QOVQÅKIV\ developments that you have been aware of over the seven years in the humanitarian
SOURCE: Sustainable Development You are speaking on Day 2 of the DIHAD 2015 conference sessions - a keynote address on the topic of ‘Sustainability’. One of the great advantages hosting the three-day event QV,]JIQQ[\PI\Q\IٺWZL[WXXWZ\]VQ\QM[ for contact with the city’s entrepreneurial atmosphere. In what ways do you think that the spirit of entrepreneurism, so to speak, IٺMK\[\PM_IaQV_PQKPP]UIVQ\IZQIVIQLQV general is organised and delivered? Professor Mukesh Kapila Good partnerships between the private and public sector are vital – because the best methods
Listening to their feedback is the best way to co-ordinate – rather than top-down bureaucratic co-ordination that can be remote from issues. programmes you have been involved with? Professor Mukesh Kapila A great deal of progress has been made – especially in making the cause of humanitarianism a global concern and improving co-operation. SSD How important are modern communications technologies in bringing about progress? Professor Mukesh Kapila Modern technologies being used now, especially for needs assessments, and for communications, I[_MTTI[OZMI\MZMUXPI[Q[WVJMVMÅKQIZa participation and accountability for results, PI^MCKMZ\IQVTaEQUXZW^MLMٺMK\Q^MVM[[ SSD You have spoken about the importance of partnerships between private and public
sector in support of the humanitarian cause. Do you think there is any risk of a clash of ‘cultures’ with the corporate world as gets more directly involved in supporting humanitarian aid and development XZWOZIUUM['?MUMIVI[Q\ÅVL[\PI\Q\[ IXXZWIKPM[LQٺMZNZWU\PW[MWN _PI\UQOP\ be called the ‘professional’ aid providers, such as NGOs, charities, and other agencies? Professor Mukesh Kapila Such a clash in organisational cultures [if it does occur] is not necessarily a bad thing if each side is ٻKQMV\TaWXMVUQVLML\WTMIZV\PMJM[\ practices from the other. SSD There are now many organisations and agencies active in the humanitarian aid initiatives around the world. What do
you see as the challenges in terms of coWZLQVI\QVO\PW[MMٺWZ\[IVLQVMVZQVO\PI\ MٺWZ\[IZMVW\L]XTQKI\MLVWZ\PI\\PMKW M`Q[\QVOJWLQM[IZMVW\QVIL^MZ\MV\TaKZMI\QVO problems for each-other? Professor Mukesh Kapila We should not over-emphasise the problem of co-ordination. It is good that many more groups are interested in contributing to addressing [the alleviation of] human misery. There is plenty for all to do. The best coordination is on the ground – addressing real problems, and providing necessary services. Those at the receiving end [WWVÅO]ZMW]\_PWQ[_WZSQVO_MTTIVL_PW is not. Listening to their feedback is the best way to co-ordinate – rather than top-down bureaucratic co-ordination that can be remote NZWUQ[M[IVLKMZ\IQVTaUWZMM`XMV[Q^M
Long-time allies: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (right) met with Mukesh Kapila, former UN staff member and currently Professor of Global Health and Humanitarian Affairs at the University of Manchester in November 2012.
ICT is transforming the humanitarian world, because knowledge and experience can be instantly shared, as well as skills and opportunities SSD In your opinion, is the world actually getting better at responding to crises or disasters as they happen? Professor Mukesh Kapila Yes, by and large, the world is getting better at disaster response – not least because of more and more practice.
Dubai is an event location that affords opportunities for entrepreneurial interaction
SSD It is a situation that varies from country to country. Professor Mukesh Kapila For many communities and countries, living with repeated disasters is a new norm, and they, and their governments, have a direct stake in investing for preparedness and protection. Of course, more can be done – but best returns are at local level. SSD The information and communications technology that has had a profound impact WV\PMLM^MTWXML_WZTLQ[QVKZMI[QVOÅVLQVO its way into the developing world. Could you comment on the impact this is having on humanitarian programmes, and on how you feel this will continue into the future?
Professor Mukesh Kapila This is transforming the humanitarian world because SVW_TMLOMIVLM`XMZQMVKMNZWUIVa_PMZM can be instantly shared, as well as skills and opportunities. And most importantly, people KIV_Q\VM[[\PMٺMZQVOWN W\PMZ[M^MVQN
they are far away. This builds empathy – the most important human and social capital necessary in humanitarianism.Q For full DIHAD 2015 Conference Programme details, see page 77 of this issue of SOURCE: Sustainable Development
PRINCIPLE LEADERSHIP ROLES: Professor of Global Health and Humanitarian Affairs / Executive Director, Ofﬁce for Global Health, University of Manchester; Special Representative of the Aegis Trust for the prevention of crimes against humanity; Vice Chair of the Board of Nonviolent Peaceforce; Associate Fellow of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy; and Adjunct Professor at the International Centre for Humanitarian Affairs, Nairobi. Professor Kapila has extensive experience in the policy and practice of international development, humanitarian affairs, human rights and diplomacy, with particular expertise in tackling crimes against humanity, disaster, and conﬂict management, and in global public health. He is an extensive public and media speaker. His published memoir Against a Tide of Evil was nominated for the ‘2013 Best Non Fiction Book award’. Previously in his career he was Under Secretary General at the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the world’s largest humanitarian and development network.
Earlier, he served the United Nations in different roles as Special Adviser to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva and then Special Adviser at the UN Mission in Afghanistan. Subsequently, he led the UN’s largest country mission at the time as the United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Co-ordinator for the Sudan, and then became a Director at the World Health Organisation. Prior to the UN, Professor Kapila was at the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Ofﬁce’s Overseas Development Administration (now Department for International Development), initially as senior health and population adviser, and latterly as the ﬁrst head of a new Conﬂict and Humanitarian Affairs Department that he set-up. He has also been Chief Executive of the PHG Foundation, a senior policy adviser to the World Bank, worked as part of the UN Disaster Assessment and Co-ordination system, and advised the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, International Labour Organisation, UNAIDS, and many other agencies. In 2014 he founded People4Sudan. His earliest career was in clinical medicine, primary health care, and public health in the British National Health Service in Oxford, Cambridge, and
London, where he helped set up the UK’s ﬁrst national HIV and AIDS programme at the Health Education Authority, becoming its deputy director. He has initiated several NGOs, and served on the Boards of many bodies, including the UN Institute for Training and Research, and the International Peace Academy in New York, and as Chair of Minority Rights Group International. He is also a Senior Member of Hughes Hall College at Cambridge University. Born in India, Professor Kapila is a citizen of the United Kingdom. He has qualiﬁcations in medicine, public health, and development from the Universities of Oxford and London. In 2003, he was honoured by Queen Elizabeth II, and named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire for his international service. In 2007, he received the Global Citizenship Award of the Institute for Global Leadership. In 2013, he received the ‘I Witness’ award for his work on human rights, and a special resolution of the California State Legislature for ‘lifetime achievements and meritorious service’. More information about Professor Kapila’s life and work can be found at www.mukeshkapila. org, and on his blog, ‘Flesh and Blood’, at www.e-ir.info/category/blogs/kapila/
UN/RICK BAJORNAS, WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
Professor Mukesh Kapila: career brieﬁng
Capacity at the core Capacity building is a vital element in taking a pre-emptive approach to dealing with distress and disaster, explains Martin McCann, CEO, RedR UK.
n July last year, Ian Birrell, an occasional columnist in the UK’s Guardian newspaper, and former speechwriter for UK Prime Minister David Cameron, highlighted what he felt were major shortfalls of the humanitarian sector. Citing a report by MSF, he claimed the sector was failing in its most basic duty: to help ensure the continuation and
improvement of people’s lives. He claimed aid organisations were instead choosing to undertake: ‘lucrative work on modish KWVKMX\[KPI[KWVÆQK\ZM[WT]\QWVKIXIKQ\a building and governance’. We should, of course, welcome criticism of our sector. Openness and transparency should be priorities in all our activities, and enabling people to understand what we do
– and why – helps us focus our attention on the most important elements of our work. But criticism can sometimes miss its target. Capacity building, for example, may be ‘modish’ (though it is not especially ‘lucrative’), but just because an idea is popular – particularly among experts in a sector – does not make it wrong. In fact, capacity building is central to what the
In response to the Syria crisis, for example, dedicated Syrians, Lebanese, Turkish, Jordanian and Iraqi people are committed to helping the millions of displaced - but the helpers also need help
\aXPWWVWZÆWWL[[\ZQSM\PM[\I\M·\PM guarantor of the welfare of the people – may be forced to call upon the UN, other nation states, and national and international NGOs. The work of each of these actors deserves – and receives – praise. But each also have their own limitations. The UN and international donors cannot possibly JMM`XMK\ML\WPI^MٻKQMV\UIVXW_MZ\W ZMIKPITTIZMI[IٺMK\MLJaLQ[I[\MZ[)VLQV the kind of life-and-death situations caused by disaster, speed is critical.
Speed of response
In the Asian tsunami of 2004, 80 per cent WN \PW[M_PWLQMLLQL[WQV\PMÅZ[\PW]Z1\ is a reminder that although an international
response and the expertise and help it brings, is vital, many lives will be lost if we only wait NWZXMWXTM\WÆaIKZW[[V]UMZW][\QUMbWVM[ to arrive where disaster strikes. People in regions where disaster strikes need the skills and abilities to respond when it happens; and local knowledge is also vital. In the ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, some communities resisted outside expert assistance because of unfamiliarity with Western medical practice, and because of a desire to continue local burial traditions – in some cases delaying aid being delivered. This is a timely reminder that all those operating on the ground must understand the cultural and legal norms in the location in which they are working; and
humanitarian sector is, to the role of NGOs, to the saving and improvement of lives around the world. There is a multiplicity of potential roles for NGOs in the modern world. Front-line delivery of services, policy discourse and suggestion, the facilitation and promotion of best practice. But in all cases, the aim of these organisations is to preserve and promote life. To keep people alive despite immense challenges, and to help them thrive and succeed. And capacity building is one of the surest ways to help that happen. RedR UK focuses on front-line agencies: their skills, and the future humanitarian agenda. In times of disaster, local capacity, M^MVQVKT]LQVO\PM[\I\MQ[JaLMÅVQ\QWV overwhelmed. When war, earthquake,
One positive shift in the last decade has been a move away from external players ﬂooding an area to assist ‘helpless victims’, or regarding local people as ‘consumers of assistance’. people actually within those communities understand those norms better than anyone else. Equally, the unfortunate truth is that regions where natural disaster strikes once are likely to experience other, similar, disasters in future.
So disaster response must go further than the on-the-spot, immediate saving of lives, and begin also to work on disaster mitigation: showing people how to build their homes stronger. How to restructure water supply systems, and what to do while a disaster
is taking place, as well as in its immediate aftermath. All of these things save lives. And all require a commitment to capacitybuilding, enabling people to prepare for and respond to disasters themselves, with outside assistance helping to support existing expertise. <PMP]UIVQ\IZQIV[MK\WZPI[[QOVQÅKIV\Ta altered its approach to aid and development. One positive shift in the last decade has been a move away from external players ÆWWLQVOIVIZMI\WI[[Q[\»PMTXTM[[^QK\QU[¼ or regarding local people as recipients,
consumers of assistance. And the professionalisation of the sector is another encouraging improvement. Initiatives such I[\PM670)0]UIVQ\IZQIVY]ITQÅKI\QWV[ and ELRHA’s adoption of a ‘humanitarian passport’ set the basis for recognisable industry-wide standards, and are important recognitions that it takes more than just abstract technical knowledge to make an MٺMK\Q^MP]UIVQ\IZQIV
Capacity building develops
RedR UK illustrates this trend of continuing improvement in the global humanitarian
Success story: building back stronger in the Philippines
The Build Back Safer scheme is helping up to 5,000 Filipino households affected by Typhoon Haiyan to construct more resilient dwellings “I carried my nephews through the surges the typhoon caused. I was a council worker, but I found myself up to my neck in water, with two boys raised above my head to keep them safe”: Kenneth Renera was one of the estimated 11 million people caught in and affected by Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines on 8th-9th November 2013. Across the state, the Typhoon’s 195mph winds caused more than 7,400 deaths, and more than 20,000 injuries. More than one million homes were destroyed or damaged, leaving more than four million people homeless.
“More than 50 per cent of homes in some parts of this region were destroyed,” said Kenneth – who lives in Santo Nino, near the town of Palo on the eastern side of Leyte island. “My own house was swamped by ﬂood waters, and the oil reﬁnery close to my home spilled oil into the water I waded through while carrying my nephews.” In response, using training developed and delivered by RedR in Disaster Risk Reduction and Shelter, he is mobilising people in his and neighbouring communities, to beneﬁt from the Build
Back Safer scheme. The initiative, which RedR UK designed for Oxfam and its Philippines-based partner Green Mindanao, has trained Philippines nationals to build more resilient housing and community buildings – and to pass those skills on to others. It was attended by 16 people, who are training 3,000-5,000 households to reconstruct their homes to help them stand up better to future disasters. Kenneth added: “The training is excellent. It means I can help people not just to rebuild their homes, but to make them stronger.”
People in regions where disaster strikes need the skills and abilities to respond when it happens; and local knowledge is also vital. sector. It was set-up more than 30 years ago, as a register of engineers to provide technically-skilled people to international aid agencies responding to disasters. From there, it developed to take the lessons learned from those engineers’ experiences, and use them to train people to adapt these technical learned skills to other environments. For many years, its main activities were sending Western experts to \PMÅMTLIVL\ZIQVQVO?M[\MZVM`XMZ\[\W QUXZW^M\PMY]ITQ\aIVLMٺMK\Q^MVM[[WN \PMQZ work. But in the last decade, it has turned this model on its head. Now, it is taking the skills in which we specialise – water and sanitation, shelter, security, logistics, needs assessment, project management and humanitarian procedural training – to communities in disaster-prone regions of \PM_WZTL<W\PMÅZ[\ZM[XWVLMZ[_PWTQ^M where disasters strike. In the last year, RedR trained 8,600 people in more than 30 countries, including INGO and NGO workers, government employees and community members. Ninety per cent of those were nationals of disasterprone countries. In response to the Syria crisis, for example, dedicated Syrians, Lebanese, Turkish, Jordanian and Iraqi people are committed to helping the millions of people displaced by the nation’s grim, four-year war. But they are
RedR training in the Middle East is helping humanitarian aid workers develop the skills they need to operate in the ﬁeld.
new to the humanitarian sector. We are training them in humanitarian skills, including security, so they can stay safe and deliver life-saving food, water and shelter to the people who urgently need them. In Pakistan, we are training teachers and schoolchildren potentially lifesaving
skills. Communities in the South Asian [\I\MPI^MQVZMKMV\aMIZ[NIKMLÆWWL[ MIZ\PY]ISM[IVLKWVÆQK\QV^WT^QVOQTTMOIT militia groups. And shocking recent experience shows that schools, children and teachers are just as likely to be struck by the latter as the former. The skills we and our partners in Pakistan are delivering have the potential to save lives when disaster strikes.
The Syrian crisis has caused millions to ﬂee their homes, some leaving the state altogether. Al Za’atri refugee camp was, in 2013, ofﬁcially Jordan’s third largest ‘city’ by population.
These skills are not restricted to those _PW\ISM\PMÅZ[\\ZIQVQVO1V\PM4W_MZ Dir region, we have trained 16 teachers, who have in turn passed on the life-saving techniques to 551 pupils. Those pupils took their new knowledge home to their families, while the teachers themselves shared their skills with their families and with 46 more teachers. Training just 18 people has already spread skills to hundreds of people, and has the potential to deliver the ability to save lives to many thousands. This is capacity building in action. The same approach was used during
Capacity building is central to what the humanitarian sector is, to the role of NGOs, to the saving and improvement of lives around the world.
For more information about RedR and its work, see www.redr.org.uk.
Success story: school safety training in Pakistan
Pakistani schoolchildren learn ﬁrst aid as part of RedR’s Safer Schools initiative. “I have been taught that if I see a person unconscious I should remove anything dangerous and check if they are breathing, and clear the airway then check the circulation by checking their pulse. I will then put them in the recovery position and wait for help to arrive...” Sawera Saad* is eight-years-old. She attends school in a village in Lower Dir region, Pakistan, where natural and man-made disasters are a real risk. She has already experienced serious ﬂooding in her home town, and also faces risk simply because she attends school, as illegal militia organisations operating in the region oppose the education of girls, as well as the employment of female teachers. As a result, she and her classmates brave potential attack by going to school. RedR UK is training teachers who can show girls like Sawera, as well as boys, teachers and community members, how to reduce risk, perform ﬁrst aid and give them other potentially life-saving skills. Asma, an English teacher at another school, says: “First aid saves life. I have taught the children and other teachers how to stop bleeding, deal with burns and poisoning. We learned how to stop ﬁres, and what to do if the school comes under gunﬁre and attack. We have taught children to take cover under desks, or if they are outside to run inside into the classrooms.”
RedR UK, with local partner Khwendo Kor, trained 18 teachers in the Lower Dir region. In turn, they have trained 551 pupils, and another 46 teachers (who will in turn train their students). The skills they have learned will be taught to each new intake of pupils, meaning many thousands of young people will have the knowledge and ability to reduce risk, and save lives. And girls like Sawera are sharing the knowledge they have learned. She said: “My mother learned how to tie a bandage from me, and was very happy that she could do it all by herself.” *Names changed to protect those interviewed
First aid training taking place as part of RedR’s Safer Schools initiative in Pakistan.
DONNA BOZZI/REDR, WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
the response to Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines on 8th-9th November 2013. Haiyan killed more than 7,400 people, injured 20,000 and left four million PWUMTM[[1\QV[XQZMLI]VQÅMLZM[XWV[M as the public funded INGOs to deliver shelter, WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) materials, food, water and technical assistance, while the state’s government and national NGOs met the crises the Typhoon had caused (see panel box-out, p46). RedR UK trained 577 people, 98 per cent of them Philippine nationals, who were employed by large international and local NGOs, as well as government workers and community members. In one project, Build Back Stronger, we worked with Oxfam and Philippine organisation Green Mindanao to develop and deliver training to people in how to rebuild their homes and community structures to better withstand future disaster. And those skills are transferable. The 16 people we trained spread the knowledge they had gained to 4,000 households, and it can be shared further, building the capacity of communities to mitigate against future LQ[I[\MZ)[QUQTIZ»LWUQVWMٺMK\¼_I[ML to spread skills and expertise in Haiti, in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake in January 2010, which killed more than 200,000 people. One part of our skills-based training there took the form of a WASH week, in which local aid workers were given core water, sanitation and hygiene training in Port Au Prince, where more than one million people had been left homeless. In total, 1,439 people received WASH training, each training 30 more, meaning the skills reached more than 43,000 people. At RedR UK, we use the slogan We Train Lifesavers. There are many ways to save lives, but capacity building – spreading knowledge and delivering skills to help people respond to and mitigate against disaster – is a central component of that. If the humanitarian sector is dedicated to saving and improving lives, then building capacity is one of the most vital and appropriate roles NGOs can play.Q
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Managing canals both for multiple users and natural systems ensures that the water they carry can beneďŹ t as many people as possible
Protecting our liquid assets A changing climate will cause us to adapt our management of water to new techniques and practices – techniques and practices that can also contribute to greater productivity, explains Peter McCornick, Deputy Director General, Research, International Water Management Institute
_I\MZZM[W]ZKM[M`IKMZJI\QVO\PMMٺMK\[WN other drivers, such as urbanisation and the need for more food. Projected rises in average temperature, more extreme temperatures, and changes in precipitation patterns, are likely to alter the amounts and distribution of rainfall, [WQTUWQ[\]ZMZQ^MZÆW_[OZW]VL_I\MZ availability, and ice and snow melt. Now and in the future, agriculture and food
security depend on managing water, particularly the variability in time and space. Managing water to adapt to changes in climate emphasises the need to measure and improve understanding of variability, and improve understanding of the impacts of climate change on that variability. Options to improve the management of water includes rethinking water storage,
opulation growth may be slowing, but the world is projected to have around 9.6 billion inhabitants by 2050. Most of the population increase will be in developing countries where land and water are already under considerable pressure, and producing food is already stressing ecosystems. There remains great uncertainty in how climate KPIVOM_QTTIٺMK\OQ^MVTWKITQ\QM[#J]\Q\Q[ TQSMTa\PI\Q\_QTTPI^MIXZWNW]VLMٺMK\WV
Harnessing the Power of Earth Observations to Manage Disaster Risk and Water Resources U
nderstanding the Earth system is crucial to addressing the challenges of economic and social development and environmental sustainability. Comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth improves monitoring of the state of the planet, increases our understanding of Earth processes, and enhances the predictive capability of the behavior of the Earth system. Earth observations from space, airborne, land or marine-based systems, collected consistently over time, are critical to providing decision makers at all levels of society with the information and tools necessary to protect and improve the lives of citizens while, at the same time, encouraging sustainable growth. Established in 2005, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and organizations that envisions a future where decisions and actions for the beneﬁt of humankind are informed by coordinated, comprehensive and sustained Earth observations and information. GEO Member governments include 96 nations and the European Commission, and 88 Participating Organizations comprised of international bodies with a mandate in Earth observations. Together, the GEO community is creating a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) that will link Earth observation resources world-wide across multiple Societal Beneﬁt Areas - agriculture, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy, health, water and weather and make those resources available for informed decision-making. One of the key elements in preventing humanitarian crises caused by natural disasters is for countries to develop robust national disaster risk management (DRM) systems. Coordinated Earth observations, complemented by in situ measurements and properly linked to modeling, can provide reliable, accurate, consistent and continuous information, which is the foundation for the development and operation of national DRM systems. Natural and humaninduced extreme events require Earth observation capacities that almost never can be provided by one country alone; effective response requires regional/ international collaboration and coordination so that, when such events occur, the ﬂow of data from various countries, as well as international organizations, occurs seamlessly. GEO is committed to facilitating dialogue between science and civil society; encouraging the adoption and use of quantitative and qualitative tools to measure risk; and creating mechanisms and guidelines to communicate and understand risk and uncertainty.
Jeddah Flood-King Abdullah Street by Rami Awad (2009) - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons
In the area of water security, members of the GEO community have spent much of the past decade developing Earth observation-based tools to better manage and predict the ﬂoods and droughts of the natural water cycle. The everchanging climate poses ever-greater challenges to water management, as variation in components of the water cycle can wreak havoc on water and energy resources and food security, and cause both catastrophic droughts and ﬂoods, engendering tremendous human and economic damage. The Water Cycle Integrator (WCI), developed and reﬁned by GEO members through years of ﬁeld experience in Africa and Asia, can help national and regional governments around the world mitigate water-related disasters and promote the efﬁcient use of scarce water resources. GEO is prepared to work with governments, development and aid organizations, the private sector and civil society, in the Arab region and across the globe, to develop robust disaster risk management and water cycle management systems that will contribute to the national, regional and global resilience necessary to withstand the harsh forces that Changes in use of pivot-irrigation in nature displays. Saudi Arabia 1991-2012. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center www.earthobservations.org
Managing water to respond to climatic variability is not something that can be done in isolation. from small to large scale, and emphasising underground opportunities to improve water security. Fundamental to any such approaches is recognition of the vital role played by ecosystems, so we need to improve our understanding of the function of ecosystems in variability, and how human interventions QVÆ]MVKM^IZQIJQTQ\a7]ZOWIT[PW]TLJM\W develop and manage water resources fairly – share water, land, and food, in a co-operative manner, and in a way that also emphasises the needs of vulnerable groups and ensure that they as not disproportionately burdened by the impacts of variability. Managing water to respond to climatic variability is not something that can be done in isolation. Water underpins sustainable development. There is broad consensus that adapting to climate change is best addressed in the context of sustainable development. Depending on local contexts, needs, and interests there are opportunities for improving water management that simultaneously help adaptation to climatic and other changes, and simultaneously advance development. Improving our collection of data and developing comprehensive models will enable scientists to better advise policy makers how this can be achieved – and yet decisions will also need to be made in data scarce environments, especially in the developing world.
Change is nothing new – but the people, communities, and societies that cope best with change of any kind are resilient and able to adapt. The more resilient they are, the more they are able to manage climatic variability, diversify their livelihoods, and reduce risk. Given that globally agriculture accounts for 70 per cent–80 per cent of fresh water use, competition for water among agricultural and other water users will be an issue for years to come in many countries. Over the next 40 years, farmers will have \WÅVL_Ia[\WXZWL]KMXMZKMV\\W per cent more to feed the growing global population. They will have to do this while faced with growing competition for resources from other sectors, minimising –
A holistic approach to water management can support both agriculture and the ecosystems on which it depends.
Farmers have always lived with climate variability and have coping strategies that they can build on to adapt to climate change. or even reducing – the impact on already stressed ecosystems and while adapting to a progressively changing climate. This means making each unit of water produce more. Poverty and food insecurity are often highest where water productivity is lowest. 1VKZMI[QVO_I\MZXZWL]K\Q^Q\aQ[IVMٺMK\Q^M way to intensify agricultural production, improve community resilience, and reduce environmental degradation. In many areas this is already happening. In South-East Asia and Africa, farmers who have adopted the ‘system of rice QV\MV[QÅKI\QWV¼VW\WVTa][MTM[[_I\MZ· because they irrigate intermittently instead WN ÆWWLQVOXILLaÅMTL[KWV\QV]W][Ta·J]\ IT[WZIQ[MaQMTL[IVLJMVMÅ\\PMMV^QZWVUMV\ Nevertheless, adoption of such technologies WN\MVQV^WT^M[\ZILMW[ٺ1V\PQ[KI[M growing rice more intensively requires more labour, more weeding, and more attention to water management. There are very few completely win-win solutions.
Farmers have always lived with climate variability and have coping strategies that they can build on to adapt to climate change. They already deal with variations between seasons, and rains coming earlier or later than usual and lasting for shorter or longer periods. Following several years of low rainfall, farmers in the Upper Bhima River Basin in South-West India, for instance, are ITZMILa[PQN\QVONZWU»\PQZ[\a¼OIZKIVM\W less-thirsty soybean: an adaptation to water scarcity that also gives them a better return. In diversifying their cropping system by
Storing water at farm level is an effective insurance policy against periods of water scarcity
planting vegetables as well as rice to adapt to urbanisation and developing markets, rice farmers on the outskirts of towns and cities in South-East Asia are producing more food per unit of water. At the same time they are also becoming more resilient to climate change. Combining tactics such as growing a greater variety of crops, growing crops that are more drought-resistant or need less water at critical times, installing micro-irrigation, and constructing small ponds or tanks
Unequal access to adaptation funds in Nepal An International Water Management Institute review has shown that women in Nepal have less access to land, education, information, and social networks than men, so are less resilient than men and have fewer options for adapting to changes in climate. Indigenous and Dalit women in Nepal are more vulnerable still, as they face gender and caste discrimination. Although Nepal has a strategy for targeting adaptation programs to the vulnerable, such as Dalits, women, and disabled people, this is mainly through groups.
However, a study on ‘unequal citizens’ found that Dalit men and women have no time to be involved in group activities. Groups are dominated by men and women from higher castes. This means that although the national climate change adaptation policy endeavors to direct adaptation funds to women and marginalised groups, Dalit men and women, and indigenous communities are not accessing these funds because group members from higher castes control their distribution. Source: Sugden et al. Forthcoming
decrease the risk of crop failure, raise overall farm yields, sustainable use the resource, and build resilience to changing conditions. In Madhya Pradesh, incomes of farmers who constructed on-farm ponds to irrigate pulses and wheat have risen by over 70 per cent. In Tanzania, meanwhile, half of the dry-season cash incomes of smallholders come from growing irrigated vegetables. In Zambia, meanwhile, the 20 per cent of smallholders who cultivate vegetables in the dry season by irrigating on a small scale earn 35 per cent more than those who do not. While farmers can be helped to adapt to climate variability and change at local level, the authority to plan and approve basinwide projects, such as diverting saved water from irrigation to preserve the environment IVLJMVMÅ\NZWUMKW[a[\MU[MZ^QKM[UIaTQM in political or other spheres. Assessments – NWZM`IUXTM\PI\^IT]M\PMJMVMÅ\[NWZOWVM by reallocating water from canal irrigation \WMV^QZWVUMV\ITÆW_VLMZLQٺMZMV\ water allocation schemes and climate change scenarios – can help decision-makers ]VLMZ[\IVL\ZILMW[ٺIVLUIVIOMLMUIVL
Download the free book Tackling Change: Futureprooﬁng water, agriculture and food security in an era of climate uncertainty at www.iwmi.org
;Q`\aXMZKMV\WN \PM_WZTL¼[NWWL is produced on rain-fed crop-land. Supplemental irrigation – irrigation applied only at the critical stages of crop growth – combined with better management of soil, nutrients, and crops can more than double water productivity and yields in small-scale rain-fed agriculture. Major increases in production in the Mekong delta, for example, have been achieved by supplemental irrigation in the dry season. Simple water-lifting equipment – powered by fossil fuels, electricity, the sun, people, or animals – and micro-irrigation techniques, ranging from clay pots to drippers, can, when appropriately used, also dramatically boost the ability to cope with climatic ^IZQIJQTQ\aIVLKIVPI^MIXZWNW]VLMٺMK\ on agricultural productivity. Dry-season irrigation of rice could improve yields between 70 per cent and 300 per cent across sub-Saharan Africa. In the short-term, adaptation in many agro-economies is likely to involve the uptake of improved agricultural and water management technologies. In the long term, however, diversifying sources of income is likely to become the main Farmers will need to diversify their crops to cope with climate change
adaptation strategy. Trends in migration \W]ZJIVKMV\ZM[WٺNIZUMUXTWaUMV\ remittances from abroad, and new businesses that capitalise on advances in information technology and other infrastructure, signal that adaptation to changes in climate and
other circumstances is already underway. Governments could help men, women, and communities adapt to changing circumstances – including more variable and extreme climate – by delivering public services (such as sanitation, drinking water), and information about agriculture, livestock, IVLÅ[PMZQM[UWZMMٺMK\Q^MTa Taking a sustainable development approach to adaptation addresses vulnerability, rather than just climate change. Promoting broad-based agricultural development, appropriate to the respective ecosystems, to lift rural communities out of XW^MZ\aZMXZM[MV\[IVMٺMK\Q^MILIX\I\QWV strategy in rural areas. The sustainable development approach builds resilience in the production and ecosystems and the ability to cope with climatic variability and unforeseen circumstances both now and in the future. For many communities, adaptation and sustainable development will be one and the same. As incomes, livelihoods, and wellbeing improve, so will resilience.Q Peter McCornick is Deputy Director General, Research, at the International Water Management Institute, and co-author of Tackling change: Future-prooﬁng water, agriculture and food security in an era of climate uncertainty
DAVID BRAZIER, HAMISH APPLEBY, DAVID WILLIAMS, PETTERIK WIGGERS, FASEEH SHAMS/IWMI
How governments can help
Data collection is vital for sustainable water management
Feeding the need for food education At ﬁrst sight, the factors that make gender equality and women’s empowerment a food and nutrition issue may not be obvious – but the issues are closely interdependent. By understanding how, we are better placed to promote equality, social equity, gender equality – and women’s empowerment, argues Sonsoles Ruedas, Director of the Gender Ofﬁce at The World Food Programme.
he World Food Program (WFP)’s mandate is to end hunger. In recent years the organisation has moved from a food aid model to a food assistance one, that allows us to close the gap between its humanitarian work and its development work: this means that it increases impact and delivers more MٻKQMV\IVLMٺMK\Q^M[MZ^QKM[·IVLUWZM long-term results and impacts on the lives of the most vulnerable. We do not have a real chance of achieving the Zero Hunger goal unless we better ]VLMZ[\IVL_PWQ[P]VOZaWZUITVW]ZQ[PML· and why. It is for this reason that setting goals for gender equality in food assistance is a must-have. If we do not use a gender ‘lens’ to analyse vulnerabilities to food and nutritional insecurity, we will fail in our duty to the world’s hungry. As long as there is one hungry person in the world, we will need to continue to ask ‘why?’, and also who that person is (woman? man? girl? boy?). We will continue to ask their age, and try to understand what other factors (disability, race, ethnicity, etc.) keep them ]V[MMV·IVL]VPMIZL#IVLPW_ITT\PM[M factors together contribute to making that XMZ[WVUWZMTQSMTa\WٺMZNZWUP]VOMZ
The Zero Hunger Challenge
Eliminating hunger means investing in agriculture, rural development, decent work, social protection, and equality of opportunity, investments that will make a major contribution to peace and stability and the reduction of poverty and will contribute \WJM\\MZV]\ZQ\QWVNWZITT·M[XMKQITTaL]ZQVO \PMÅZ[\LIa[WN TQNMNWZIJIJaOQZTWZ boy: from conception to the age of two. During pregnancy, under-nutrition can have a devastating impact on the healthy growth and development of a child. Babies who are malnourished in the womb have a higher risk of dying in infancy, and are more likely to face life-long cognitive and XPa[QKITLMÅKQ\[IVLW\PMZKPZWVQKPMIT\P
problems. For children under the age of two, under nutrition can be life-threatening. It can weaken a child’s immune system and make him or her more susceptible to dying from common illnesses such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria. <PMZMIZMÅ^MKPITTMVOM[W]\TQVMLQV\PM Zero Hunger Challenge that will require contributions from the global community: 1. Zero stunted children less than two years Ensuring universal access to nutritious food QV\PMLIa_QVLW_WN WXXWZ\]VQ\a between the start of pregnancy and a child’s second birthday, supported by nutrition-sensitive health care, water, [IVQ\I\QWVML]KI\QWVIVL[XMKQÅKV]\ZQ\QWV interventions, coupled with initiatives that empower women. 2. 100 per cent access to adequate food all year-round Enabling all people to access the food they need at all times through decent and productive employment, a social protection ÆWWZ\IZOM\ML[INM\aVM\[IVLNWWLI[[Q[\IVKM 3. All food systems are sustainable. Encouraging and rewarding universal adoption of sustainable and climate-resilient IOZQK]T\]ZMXZIK\QKM[#X]ZQVOKZW[[[MK\WZIT policy coherence (encompassing energy, TIVL][M_I\MZIVLKTQUI\M#QUXTMUMV\QVO ZM[XWV[QJTMOW^MZVIVKMWN TIVLÅ[PMZQM[ and forests. 4. 100 per cent increase in smallholder productivity and income Supporting nutrition-sensitive agriculture IVLNWWL[a[\MU[IVLUIZSM\QVO#JWW[\QVO NWWLXXTaNZWUTWKITXZWL]KMZ[#\PZW]OP open, fair and well-functioning markets and trade policies at local, regional and international level, preventing excessive food price volatility. 5. Zero loss or waste of food Minimising food losses during storage and transport, and waste of food by retailers IVLKWVUMZ[#IKPQM^QVOXZWOZM[[\PZW]OP
During pregnancy, under-nutrition can have a devastating impact on the healthy growth and development of a child. Ă…VIVKQITQVKMV\Q^M[KWTTMK\Q^MXTMLOM[ locally-relevant technologies, and changed behaviour. *]\IKPQM^QVObMZW[\]V\QVOIVLXMZ cent access to adequate food (and, indeed, ITTĂ…^MOWIT[ZMY]QZM[[a[\MUI\QKOMVLMZ analysis: a profound understanding of _PI\IZM\PM[XMKQĂ…KJIZZQMZ[\PI\XZM^MV\ vulnerable women, men, girls and boys from having access to appropriate food no matter what context they live in. Breaking the cycle of poverty and hunger ZMY]QZM[UWZMMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹWZ\[QVRWQVQVO]X\PMLW\[ between peoplesâ€™ ability to produce food NZWU\PMQZW_VTIVL\PMQZWâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹNIZUWZ[MTN employment earnings so that they can meet their entire food and nutrition needs. One example of a programme designed to close some of the gaps described above and in ensuring access to food that has transformative potential for the lives of subsistence women and men farmers comes from WFPâ€™s Purchase for Progress (P4P) programme. This type of project can make I[QOVQĂ…KIV\KWV\ZQJ]\QWV\W\PMMKWVWUQK and social empowerment of both genders, _Q\P[XMKQĂ…K\IZOM\MLIK\QWV[\WQVKT]LM women and promote gender-equality at the grass-roots level. 88[\IZ\MLQV I[IXQTW\QVQ\QI\Q^M \WI[[Q[\[UITTPWTLMZNIZUMZ[ÂˇUW[\WN _PWUIZM_WUMVÂˇJaWâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZQVO\PMU opportunities to have better access to agricultural markets and become competitive players in the market place. P4P was designed to boost the skills and incomes of women farmers, as they often are not on the agenda when it comes to having access to training, inputs, and skillsbuilding. The vision of P4P is to promote opportunities for small-holder women and men farmers in supporting the development of agricultural markets so that a targeted number of low-income smallholder farmers (again, mostly women), are able to produce food surpluses and sell them at a competitive price. The result is improved incomes and capacity-building \ZIQVQVOWâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZML\WNIZUMZ[WN JW\P[M`M[ so as to increase their skill-sets, improve their production, and make their business models better suited for the market place. 58
8QTW\MLNZWU \WQVKW]V\ZQM[ WN _PQKP_MZMTWKI\MLQV)NZQKIQ\ MVIJTML_WUMVNIZUMZ[\W[MTT\PMQZ IOZQK]T\]ZITZXT][M[\W?.8IVL women farmers to participate in capacitybuilding training sessions. <PZW]OPW]\\PMĂ…^MaMIZXQTW\XZWRMK\ P4P has shifted from gender-conscious to OMVLMZ\ZIV[NWZUI\Q^M[XMKQĂ…KITTa\IZOM\QVO women farmers and testing models that JMVMĂ…\\PMU In collaboration with a wide range of partners, P4P has supported women producers to gain greater control over their lives, as well as enhanced voice at community and household levels. Womenâ€™s participation in P4P-supported farmersâ€™ organizations tripled during the pilot period. However, the experience demonstrated that numerical participation in a project, while necessary, does not directly translate into a positive impact on the lives of women farmers, nor provide them with the same Ă…VIVKQITOIQV[I[\PMQZUITMKW]V\MZXIZ\[ Instead, a range of interventions are needed to address underlying inequalities, empowering women farmers socially,
economically and through capacity development, and assisting them to access UIZSM\[IVLJMVMĂ…\Ă…VIVKQITTaNZWU\PMQZ work.
Cash transfer schemes
Another of the WFPâ€™s interventions that PI[[QOVQĂ…KIV\TaKWV\ZQJ]\ML\WZML]KQVO\PM burden of poverty, especially for women, is the Cash Transfers, Voucher Programmes IVL+I[PNWZ?WZSQVQ\QI\Q^M[;QVKM Cash Transfer and Voucher Programmes and Cash-for-Work (CFW) programmes have been designed to ensure that women JMVMĂ…\MY]ITTa_Q\PUMV_Q\PW]\IVa PIZUN]TMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\[ For years labour-intensive programmes have targeted women with the well-meaning objective of increasing their income and XZWL]K\Q^Q\a#W\PMZQVKWUMOMVMZI\QVO schemes have demanded that women attend a slew of training courses and sit on project management bodies. The results of these endeavours have, however, often resulted in doing more harm than good. A large percentage (if not all) of the work that women do at the household level is
Involving men in food projects and learning betters the chances that a familyâ€™s nutrition will improve
Numerical participation in a project does not directly translate into a positive impact on the lives of women farmers, nor provide them with the same ﬁnancial gains as their male counterparts. unpaid and hence uncounted. The poorer the woman, the heavier the burden: she has \WNM\KPIVLKIZZaÅZM_WWLIVL_I\MZ#[PM PI[\WKWWSIVLKTMIV#[PMQ[UWZMWN\MV \PIVVW\ZM[XWV[QJTMNWZ\MVLQVO\PMÅMTL[ and the small animals. And here comes the development project heaping more activities on this already over-burdened woman… Through cash-transfer schemes the WFP ensures that: • The programmes take into account the needs of women and children, including food and nutrition security and links analysis of the potential for domestic violence with the issue of control over cash or vouchers distributed • A monitoring system is put in place to ascertain whether women are empowered by cash transfer and voucher programmes, through gender analysis of decision-making processes at the household level, improved livelihoods, and the introduction of laboursaving technologies. • The long-term goal of all of these projects and interventions is that there will come a time when all nations will move from social protection to full empowerment and food security as envisaged in the Zero Hunger Challenge.
Challenges: cultural barriers, stereotypes
UQTTQWVW]\WN P]VOMZQN _WUMVOM\ better access to improved agricultural to inputs, and so forth.) • Involving men in nutrition projects and TMIZVQVO·JMKI][MUMVIZMMV\Q\TML\WJM ML]KI\ML\WWIJW]\OWWLV]\ZQ\QWV#IVLQV many cultures, because they are responsible for buying food at the market, there is a better chance that their family’s nutrition will improve also • Keeping children out of school • Reaching women and children with lifesaving services, including nutrition interventions: in food-insecure contexts asks that we link health and food systems, IVLW]ZM`XMZQMVKMWN _WZSQVOQVLQٻK]T\ contexts and in close collaboration with governments. • Taboos on food consumption in pregnancy, _PQKPIٺMK\V]\ZQ\QWVIVL\PM_MTTJMQVO WN \PM]VJWZVKPQTL#SVW_QVO\PI\\PMZMQ[ a direct link between better nutrition and healthier children 7^MZ\PMTI[\aMIZ[?.8PI[LWVMITW\ to contribute to improving women’s access to food and better nutrition. Mother-and-child health and nutrition (MCHN) programmes can break gender barriers in childcare, and
as we have learnt by including men and boys in nutrition and health education activities, these improvements have greater impact and sustainability. While in the past WFP MCHN programs had a tendency to focus solely on mothers, and to ignore fathers and other household members who can potentially play a supportive role in improving mother and child nutrition. This situation is rapidly changing. Some WFP programs have taken steps to introduce gender sensitive approaches to MCHN by involving men. In Sri Lanka, for the MCHN program pregnant women IVL\PMQZP][JIVL[_MZMQV^Q\ML\W\PMÅZ[\ ante-natal check-up at the clinic to discuss issues related to pregnancy, such as nutrition, food taboos, hygiene, and domestic violence. This ensured that both partners were aware of basic health and nutrition issues during pregnancy. In Burkina Faso the evaluation of a WFP programme there for protracted relief IVLZMKW^MZaQVPQOPTQOP\ML\PI\ the gender-bias towards mothers reduced \PMXW[[QJQTQ\QM[WN QVÆ]MVKQVOKPIVOMQV maternal health and nutrition. Husbands
If Zero Hunger is to be achieved within in our lifetime we need to challenge harmful cultural barriers that render people invisible, unheard and, as a result, excluded. Together with stereotypes of women’s and men’s roles in society, in agriculture, in commercial business, and the public sector, these cultural practices can limit people’s ability to become empowered, accountable citizens who have the freedom to have a hand in their own future. While respecting cultural diversity, we do need to tackle harmful traditions that perpetuate gender inequality. These include: • Child marriage and female genital mutilation (FGM) • Empowering women to have better access and control over agricultural resources will also increase food security (see the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s ‘State of .WWLIVL)OZQK]T\]ZM¼ZMXWZ\·TQN\QVO
Recognition of unpaid work breaks down mistaken notions of women in the home as just being consumers
Eliminating hunger means investing in agriculture, rural development, decent work, social protection, and equality of opportunity.
WFP-AMJAD JAMAL, WFP-FRANCES KENNEDY, WFP-AHNNA GUDMUNDS, WFP-TERESA HA, WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
Breaking the cycle of poverty and hunger requires more understanding of the food-earnings relationship
were only involved erratically in clinic visits. The evaluation recommended that positive changes in MCHN could result, if husbands are involved and also other members of the household, such as mothers-in-law and I]V\[_PWWN\MVQVĂ†]MVKMaW]VOUW\PMZ[Âź nutritional and behavioural health choices during pregnancy and after.
Gender equality can make substantial contributions to a countryâ€™s economic growth, and is the single most important determinant of food security. According to an the recently-published report, â€˜Gender -Y]ITQ\aIVL.WWL;MK]ZQ\aÂˇ?WUMVÂź[ Empowerment as a Tool against Hungerâ€™ .)7),*IXIVVI\QWVIT[\]LaWN developing countries covering the period !Âˇ!!XMZKMV\WN \PMZML]K\QWVWN hunger that was achieved was attributable to progress in womenâ€™s education. The [\]LaOWM[WV\WOOM[\\PI\XMZKMV\WN the gains against hunger in said countries were due to the improvement of womenâ€™s situation in society, reinforcing recent global comparisons that show a strong correlation between hunger and gender inequalities. If the unpaid work of women and girls in LM^MTWXQVOKW]V\ZQM[_MZM\WJMĂ…VIVKMLJa \PMX]JTQKX]Z[MQ\_W]TLZMXZM[MV\!XMZ cent of the total tax revenue of the Republic 60
WN 3WZMIIVL XMZKMV\WN \PM\W\IT\I` revenue of India, according to the â€˜Gender Equality and Food Securityâ€™ report. The contribution made by care and carers to the MKWVWUaVMML[JM\\MZIKSVW_TMLOMUMV\Âˇ especially in developing countries, because research indicates that this is done, mostly, by women. Recognition of unpaid work in the care economy breaks down the common dichotomy that, while men (and women who join the labour market) produce, women I\PWUMKWVUM<PMLQâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMZMVKMQ[VW\ between production and consumption, it is between work that is recognised and compensated and work that is not. Improved representation of women at the TWKITTM^MTQ[I\TMI[\I[[QOVQĂ…KIV\I[KP improvement in national parliaments and executives. Decisions made at the local level are of great practical importance to what matters most to womenâ€™s ability to contribute to food security. Such decisions may concern allocation of land, choice of which crops to grow, or how available labour is shared between the plots of land. â€˜Gender Equality and Food Securityâ€™ documents how participation in local decision-making is where women can most readily challenge dominant representations concerning power and ^WQKM-â€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\Q^MOMVLMZ[MV[Q\Q[I\QWVMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹWZ\[
incorporate the needs of communities, responding to the opportunities, challenges, IVLZMKWUUMVLI\QWV[QLMV\QĂ…MLJaKW]V\Za IVLZMOQWV[XMKQĂ…KI[[M[[UMV\[*W\PUMV and women have been included during gender awareness training, providing a space to stress the economic gains gender equality can provide for households and communities. These methods can assist men to understand that womenâ€™s empowerment does not mean menâ€™s disempowerment. <PMaPI^MIT[WXZW^MVMâ€ŤŮşâ€ŹMK\Q^MI\IKY]QZQVO \PMJ]aQVWN QVĂ†]MV\QITUMUJMZ[WN communities, such as religious and customary leaders. In some cases, male authorities and community leaders have played leading roles in supporting women farmers to increase agricultural production and access markets, recognising the value of womenâ€™s equitable participation in agriculture. These are some of the considerations that motivate the WFP to ensure that womenâ€™s agency in projects such as RWEE, P4P, R4, etc., as they are based on the idea that economic and political empowerment are mutually supportive.Q The World Food Programme is the worldâ€™s largest humanitarian agency ďŹ ghting hunger worldwide â€“ more information at www.wfp.org.
We have a better chance of achieving Zero Hunger if we know whoâ€™s feeling hungry...
Challenging times for challenge funds Enabling the efﬁcient and effective spending of public and private funds for an array of development purposes has been an important facet of Crown Agents’ work for many years. Defrim Dedej, one of Crown Agents’ senior fund managers, looks at how challenge funds can help to strengthen the private sectors of developing countries, and the important considerations of their use
enthusiasm – one that is seen to yield real results – is the challenge fund. As a grant making mechanism, challenge funds are used in a variety of contexts and targeted at [XMKQÅKOZW]X[WN XMWXTMWZQ[M[ Managed carefully, they can achieve not only the desired outcomes, but also encourage innovation and foster genuine partnerships among various stakeholders, which can then lead to better learning and stronger
QUXIK\QV\PMN]\]ZM;WUMWN \PMJMVMÅ\[ arising from using a challenge fund mechanism include: )KW[\MٺMK\Q^MIVL\ZIV[XIZMV\N]VLQVO mechanism • A mechanism that encourages competition through triggering a search for smart and KW[\MٺMK\Q^M[WT]\QWV[ • The ability to generate and test new business ideas without distorting local markets V
n recent years, a number of donors have increasingly championed the importance of supporting economic growth to help bring about sustainable gains in developing countries. Large volumes of public capital from DFID, SIDA, and others, have been targeted at developing with the aim of private sector development (PSD). The approaches to facilitating this are varied but one mechanism utilised with
It is vital to have a mindset that acknowledges the risk and a clear acceptance of a challenge fund’s fundamental role in funding experiments and the smug purrings of the grinning Cheshire Cat, ‘Cheshire Puss,’ [Alice] began, rather timidly… ‘Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?’ ‘That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,’ said the Cat. ‘I don’t much care where —’ said Alice. ‘Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,’ said the Cat ‘—So long as I get somewhere,’ Alice added as an explanation. ‘Oh, you’re sure to do that,’ said the Cat, ‘if only you walk long enough.’
The focus factor
Challenge funds can encourage innovation and potentially transform how particular complex problems are tackled
• A mechanism that if managed well can encourage and achieve systemic change to JMVMÅ\\PMXWWZ However, bear in mind that no funding mechanism is without risks, and neither are there any funding mechanisms that cannot be improved upon. Based on Crown Agents’ wide experience in managing donors’ funds in this way, here, we look at some key ways QV_PQKP_M\Za\WQUXZW^M\PMMٻKQMVKaWN challenge funds, increasing the likelihood of UWZMMٻKQMV\][MWN XZQ^I\MIVLX]JTQKKIXQtal and enhancing developmental outcomes.
Better programme design
Strengthening the design of challenge funds can ensure that they are based on good research, a strong theory of change and carefully constructed logical framework. From Crown Agents perspective, active challenge funds that are rather unfocused and overly ambitious and fail to take particular local conditions into consideration, are numerous. The potential implication of this is damage or distortion of local economies – which goes against the key ‘do no harm’ principle of grant making. 64
1\Q[QUXWZ\IV\\W\PQVSIJW]\\PMLQٺMZMV\ components of a challenge fund, and how they work as a whole – recognising that there are numerous factors to be considered. These include: • The area of focus • The type of grant winner desired, and proposals that will lead to grants • …And, of course, the outcomes anticipated Each decision along the way makes an impact upon the others, and may limit a donor’s choice in other areas or even ruleout other choices completely. It is important, therefore, to consider how decisions relate to each other; no decision should be taken in isolation, since this could lead to a huge waste of money and resources. As part of the challenge fund design process, donors also need to specify the outcomes and impacts they are seeking to achieve and their plans to measure success. Without doing so – and without clear key performance indicators – attached, the end result can take on an ‘Alice in Wonderland’ sense of uncertainty, which naturally is to VWJWLa¼T\QUI\MJMVMÅ\<WZMKITT4M_Q[ Carroll’s classic’s exchange between Alice
One approach to focus this is, for M`IUXTM\WKWVKMV\ZI\MWVI[XMKQÅK country and/or particular sector (such as agriculture, education, health, or mobile communications technology), rather than a multi-country and more widely-focused approach. Such targeting can increase understanding of real dynamics and needs and improve the cascade of learning in the chosen sector, while enhancing opportunities for replication and improving end impacts. The resources available to manage the KPITTMVOMN]VLKIVJM][MLUWZMMٻKQMV\Ta
As the Cheshire Cat advised Alice, you’re bound to get somewhere if you walk for long enough...
Bear in mind that no funding mechanism is without risks, and neither are there any funding mechanisms that cannot be improved upon
A privately-funded challenge fund can have a greater appetite for risk, supporting unconventional problem solvers
– which can improve services to the grantees. For example, the challenge fund manager can deliver capacity building to grantees through a workshop instead of a one-to-one basis. )TTOZIV\MM[_QTTJMVMÅ\_PMV\PMa[XMIS the same language; and all are operating in \PM[IUMÅMTLIVLUQOP\JMNIKQVO[QUQTIZ challenges with, for example, the legal system. Undertaking monitoring and evaluation could also be easily facilitated, using meaningful standard indicators, and allowing a donor to report succinctly on the challenge fund’s overall outcomes and impact.
Balancing risk with returns
fail. Failure, in itself, is not necessarily a bad thing, so long as lessons can be learned, and they are not repeated.
Setting–up a Challenge Fund
Bearing in mind the above, when creating a private sector-focused challenge fund, donors could take several steps to manage the risk, while also seeking strong impact: • Collaborate more with private trusts or NW]VLI\QWV[_PW[MZQ[SXZWÅTM[UIaJMTM[[ constrained by use of private (rather than public) funds. Their aim could well be to ÅVL\PMQVVW^I\Q^M[WT]\QWV[\WKWUXTM` social problems, and to learn from the experience or to concentrate the challenge fund objective on supporting the scale up of innovative business venture ideas that have already proved successful. • Require the challenge fund manager to be more proactive at identifying and reaching beyond the ‘usual suspects’ in order to scout for promising new business ventures whose OZW_\P_QTT[QOVQÅKIV\TaI[[Q[\\PMXWWZ • Use a selection process that views positively engaging unconventional problem solvers and high-risk, high-reward business venture ideas.
Balancing risk with returns on successful innovation is a key consideration. By design, the key purpose of a challenge fund is to encourage innovation which, given the possibility of a lack of precedent or best practice on which to base business activity, implies risk. A high proportion of new businesses fail for a wide range of reasons even in apparently prosperous and opportune Western markets, so the risks of innovation must not be ignored at any point. It is vital to have a
mind-set that acknowledges the risk and a clear acceptance of a challenge fund’s fundamental role in funding experiments, and in ÅVLQVOVM_IXXZWIKPM[·IVLXW\MV\QITTa creating a breakthrough change, by transforming the way that we tackle a particular complex problem. While this might mean accepting a higher ZQ[SWN NIQT]ZM\PM\ZILMWٺPI[\PMXW\MV\QIT to be a truly game-changing investment if a venture succeeds. So, the key question when assessing challenge fund proposals aimed at supporting private sector development, is less ‘Is this going to work?’, and more about ‘What could the end impact be in terms of poverty reduction and wealth creation?’ Another consequence of funding only those business ventures that are deemed ‘sure bets’ is that a donor runs the risk of distorting local markets, as the sure bets may well be more likely to obtain commercial business loans without the need for donor grants. ;WZQ[SIVLZM_IZL\ZILMW[ٺPWTLOWWL for challenge funds – with the key aim of generating larger scale, positive social impact when successful, set against the potential LW_V[QLMWN ÅVIVKQITTW[[_PMVQVVW^I\QWV[
The resources available to manage the challenge fund can be used more efﬁciently – which can improve services to the grantees • As well as providing capital, provide targeted technical assistance to the new ventures as they develop. Take a hands-on approach in helping to shape and guide early-stage ideas as they move from concept to implementation – and use mentors, or others who have good experience of microbusiness and its growth path. • Closely monitor and evaluate all funded business ventures, and consider diverting funding from weaker performers to the more promising ideas, allowing enough time for ideas to percolate, iterate, and emerge. To conclude, the challenge for statutory donors as far as deploying the mechanism of challenge fund to support private sector development is to achieve a realistic and balanced approach. In practical terms, this means improving the challenge fund’s XZWOZIUUI\QKLM[QOVIVLÅVLQVOQVVW^I\Q^M means of management and perhaps acceptQVOIPQOPMZZQ[SXZWÅTM A key point worth remembering is that the JQOOM[\ZQ[S\WIVaLWVWZQ[VW\ÅVIVKQITTW[[ but inability to achieve the desired outcome/ impact for their funds because after all monMaOQ^MVI_IaNWZ[WKQITX]ZXW[M[Q[MٺMK\Q^Mly gone, regardless of outcomes.Q
CROWN AGENTS, NEFTALI/WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
Crown Agents is an international development company that partners with governments, aid agencies, NGOs, and companies in nearly 100 countries. Find out more at www.crownagents. com.
Challenge funds can generate and test new business ideas without distorting local economies
Background Brieﬁng: what are challenge funds?
Challenge funds sit among a wide range of funding mechanisms that exist on the development ﬁnance landscape, but its name is very speciﬁcally deﬁning. In a challenge fund, a donor provides grants or subsidies aimed at addressing a core ‘challenge’: the donor deﬁnes a goal and then invites service providers or agencies to achieve it through competitive bids for the money. The goal generally has an explicit public purpose and the grant recipients are given broad control over how the goal is achieved and they can share risks with the grant provider. They often invite innovation and risk-sharing – particularly when aimed at private sector development – opening-up opportunities for new development ideas to be put forward and tried, as mentioned in the main part of this article. Despite inviting this innovation, the allocation of funding is still strictly monitored through clearly deﬁned and advertised rules and procedures. So: what makes challenge funds different from, say, managed funds or prize funds? Unlike managed funds, challenge funds are more deﬁned in what they what to achieve but they also put more responsibility in the hands of those being challenged – the grant recipients. And prize funds are more reward-focused and often look at the past performance of the recipient. While bearing strong similarities to prize funds, challenge funds generally have higher expectations on the outcomes. Within the deﬁnition
of challenge funds there are further variants: enterprise challenge funds, for example, promote innovation and enterprise in developing markets and must pass the business test of being potentially viable without recurrent subsidy. And civil society – or social – funds largely contribute to social goals such as building people’s livelihoods, promoting human rights or improving public sector accountability. Crown Agents has managed numerous challenge funds over the years, including Department for International Development (DFID)’s Global Poverty Action Fund (GPAF), and its Civil Society Challenge Fund (CSCF). GPAF is a £120 million fund, running from 2010 to 2017 that supports projects focused on poverty reduction, service delivery and the most off-track Millennium Development Goals in countries including Afghanistan, Cambodia, the Central African Republic and Somalia. CSCF, meanwhile, is a fund that Crown Agents has managed since 2010, funding projects that are all scheduled to be completed by the end of 2015. It is aimed at UK-based civil society organisations (CSOs) to strengthen the role of civil society in reducing levels of poverty among poor and marginalised groups around the world. In both funds we have been integral in carrying out duties including technical appraisals of project proposals, performance assessments of project implementation and overseeing ﬁnancial management of the fund to ensure value for money.
IDRF (International Development & Relief Foundation) A Canadian, registered charitable organization, dedicated to empowering the disadvantaged people of the world. IDRF provides effective humanitarian aid and sustainable development programs, without discrimination, based on the Islamic principles of human dignity, self-reliance and social justice.
IDRF SAVE LIVES When disasters strike or conflicts disrupt communities leaving people in desperate need of shelter, food, medical attention and psychological support, IDRF swiftly partners with organizations on the ground saving lives, helping them recover and rebuild.
IDRF DEVELOPS COMMUNITIES For the past 30 years, IDRF has helped victims of war and disasters while working towards alleviating poverty. We have reached out to deprived communities in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and the Americas.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Nearly 75 million children in the world have no opportunity to attend primary school. IDRFâ€™s Enabling Education campaign provides quality education for poor girls and boys through several strategic initiatives. Access to safe water is linked to food security, health and hygiene. IDRF Water helps poor families and communities get clean water through wells and mobile distribution in several regions.
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IMPACT, SCALABILITY, AND SUSTAINABILITY
WASH and learn Bringing water and sanitation to 220 of Haiti’s earthquake-struck schools has not only re-established their students’ educational prospects, but also contributed toward community health and well-being. Tariq Al Gurg, Chief Executive Ofﬁcer at Dubai Cares, has the inspiring story.
aiti was already an impoverished and politically-unstable country when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck on January 12, 2010, reducing much of the Caribbean country to many mounds of rubble, and killing tens of thousands of its inhabitants. 1V\PMKW]V\ZaQ[[\QTTٺMZQVONZWU the aftermath of the earthquake which has caused poverty and widespread diseases, such as cholera. 68
Over one million people were displaced by the catastrophe, many of them forced to live in camps with limited access to clean water and sanitation. Some 5,000 schools were damaged or destroyed by the disas\MZ·I[\IOOMZQVOÅO]ZMJaIVaM[\QUI\QWV – but even before that, sanitation in Haiti’s schools was often very substandard, putting the children who attended them at risk of waterborne diseases.
More than 60 per cent of schools across the country (both public and private) had no access to water, hygiene, or sanitation. This KZMI\MLILQٻK]T\TMIZVQVOMV^QZWVUMV\NWZ children, to say the least. After the quake, a devastating cholera outbreak made proper sanitation more important than ever before. Hundreds of thousands of people have been sick with cholera since the outbreak began in October 2010, and there have been more than 7,000 fatalities. Dubai Cares, in close collaboration with UNICEF, worked primarily on schools which are a priority according to the Ministry of Education. A comprehensive list of 220
IMPACT, SCALABILITY, AND SUSTAINABILITY WASH and go on: pupils at the Institution Mixte de Beauvoir in Port-au-Prince have learnt how personal acts as simple as washing hands with soap, will ensure better productivity at school.
schools was developed and agreed upon with the Ministry of Education. Through this programme, from 2010 to 2011, Dubai Cares reached 132,000 children and 6,600 teachers and at least a further N]\]ZM[KPWWTKPQTLZMVJMVMÅ\QVO from the installation of child-friendly water, sanitation, and hand-washing facilities. The WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programme has also provided schools with chlorine tabs, posters about cholera prevention, and soap. Ms. Andrelita Beauvoir, headmistress of Institution Mixte de Beauvoir in Port-auPrince, explained that before the earthquake, \PM[KPWWT_I[QVILQٺMZMV\J]QTLQVO\PI\
Through Dubai Cares’ WASH programs in Haiti, the organisation is tackling the issue by changing student attitudes towards hygiene, and showcasing how a personal act as simple as washing hands with soap, will ensure better productivity at school. These positive results of the WASH program, achieved in the context of a life threatening cholera outbreak, and combined with higher level advocacy, inspired the Government of Haiti to declare WASH in schools one of its key priorities – and to establish a National Alliance for WASH in Schools. Launched on March 20, 2012 with the Ministry of Education, this national alliance unites a variety of actors that see children as key ‘agents of change’ in their communities and their nation. Dubai Cares helped improve the wellbeing of children through the integration of water and sanitation facilities and hygiene activities in primary schools. As part of the program, Dubai Cares supported the sustainable integration of WASH in primary schools by reinforcing the child as the ‘Agent of Change’ and the school as a ‘centre of excellence’ for sanitation and hygiene in the community. With the support of Dubai Cares, UNICEF has also provided WASH services in displacement camps in the aftermath of the disaster.
lacked proper facilities. Children used latrines; but due to lack of water, they were constantly dirty, posing a health risk for the [\]LMV\[<WÅVL_I\MZ\PMaPIL\WLQOI well, install a pump, and then carry water to the facilities. “It was really complicated,” recalls Ms. Beauvoir. “Now there are enough toilets for all the school children – and the air is breathable. Now children can go safely without worrying about soiling their clothes.” The change is not just limited to bricks and mortar. Now that good knowledge can actually be practiced, Ms. Beauvoir has instituted new hygiene promotion activities. “We are doing permanent outreach work with the students on hygiene,” she explains. ¹<PI\_Ia\PMaIT[WJMKWUM»PMIT\PWٻKMZ[¼ – passing on the information they learn here at school to their families at home, and [then into the] communities in which they live. These practices should now become part of their habits.” Year after year, millions of school-age children fall prey to diseases linked to poor water and sanitation which leave them weakened, and therefore unable to attend school on a regular basis or participate to their full potential. The tragedy of the situation is that this could be easily prevented by enforcing sound hygiene and sanitation practices.
Information technology can play a key part in knowledge-sharing when it comes to hygiene
IMPACT, SCALABILITY, AND SUSTAINABILITY
With the right support, leadership, and opportunities – individuals can ﬂourish, and in turn, initiate real change in their communities.
*M[\XZIK\QKMÅTM",]JIQ+IZM[ The United Arab Emirates is a relatively young country, having only recently celebrated its 43rd National Day. Despite its youth, or perhaps because of it, it has fostered a legacy of change, and has created a setting where anything may be possible. Yet just 42 years ago, the UAE was a radQKITTaLQЄMZMV\XTIKM_Q\PIXXZW`QUI\MTa 500,000 residents, many of whom lived in Bedouin communities; in 2015, the UAE is home to nearly 10 million people, representing over 200 nationalities. The UAE has transformed into a vibrant knowledge-based community – a hub of culture and commerce where change is celebrated, and its leaders have the capacity \WKWV\ZQJ]\MIVLUISMIZMITLQЄMZMVKM -`XMZQMVKMPI[\I]OP\Q\[KQ\QbMV[\PI\ within the right setting – with the right support, leadership, and opportunities – inLQ^QL]IT[KIVÆW]ZQ[PIVLQV\]ZVQVQ\QI\M real change in their communities. The UAE has become a substantial contributor to development aid worldwide, owing to the vision and hard work of the UAE’s forefather, His Highness Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan – who instilled the virtues of giving, and
this is also due to the leadership of our President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan and His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai – who have committed themselves to continue in the same footsteps. In addition to contributing to international humanitarian activities, the UAE has also constantly taken full advantage of its geographical location and global standing in procuring aid for the Middle East. Much of the UAE’s humanitarian work that has been contributed locally, regionally and internationally is spearheaded by government institutions or philanthropic and charity organisations, such as the Abu Dhabi Development Fund, Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Foundation, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan Charitable and Humanitarian Foundation, UAE Red Crescent Society, Mohammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum Humanitarian and Charity Establishment, Sharjah Charity Association, Noor Dubai Foundation, and Dubai Cares, as well as many others, alongside contributions by the private sector and individual donors. The January 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti’s educational infrastructure: this site used to be a university
Dubai Cares was established in 2007 by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, as a philanthropic organisation with the aim of improving childrens’ access to quality primary education in developing countries. Dubai Cares is headquartered in Dubai, a strategic location which gives the organisation a vantage point to access one-third of the world’s population within INW]Z̆PW]ZÆQOP\WN=)-IQZXWZ\[IVL\_W̆ \PQZL[_Q\PQVIVMQOP\̆PW]ZÆQOP\ This enables Dubai Cares to reach out to developing countries, both regionally and globally, and be active participants in the world-wide conversation surrounding the importance of education. As an organisation, Dubai Cares’ work stems from His Highness Sheikh Mohammed’s vision, guidance and directive. It works towards eliminating the underlying obstacles that prevent children from going to school and learning, and relies on a holistic approach that motivates children to attend school, study and move onto the VM`\TM^MTWNML]KI\QWV There are 58 million primary-age children today who do not have access to education, and a further 250 million primary school-age children globally are still not able to read, write, or count adequately. Dubai Cares’ basic mandate is to provide primary-age children in developing countries with the provisions to gain a good education while eliminating factors that lead to drop-outs and absenteeism. Dubai Cares designs and funds integrated programmes along with its international and local implementing partners, which are aligned with the strategies of the ML]KI\QWVITUQVQ[\ZQM[QVJMVMÅKQIZaKW]Vtries. Programmes comprise building and renovating schools and classrooms, improving water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools; providing school feeding, deworming activities; early childhood education,
IMPACT, SCALABILITY, AND SUSTAINABILITY
Dubai Caresâ€™ basic mandate is to provide primary-age children in developing countries with the provisions to gain a good education
as well as teacher training, curriculum development, literacy and numeracy. Gender equality is a cross-cutting theme in Dubai Cares programs, with an approach that aims to secure equality of access for boys and girls to safe learning environments with adequate facilities, materials, and IKILMUQKXXWZ\NZWUY]ITQĂ…ML\MIKPMZ[ and engaged communities. In 2012, Dubai Cares was selected by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon to join I[IXIZ\VMZQVPQ[Ă…^MĚ†aMIZ/TWJIT-L]KItion First Initiative, launched during the week of the UN General Assembly in New York in September 2012. This initiative is designed to ensure high-quality, relevant, and transformative, education for all children around the world. Moreover, in 2014, and as part of the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), Dubai Cares joined a global alliance led by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, with 13 leading pharmaceutical companies, global health organisations, private foundations and donors, and governments pledging support to reduce the global burden of NTDs. One of Dubai Caresâ€™ strategic approachBoys and girls need equality of access to safe learning environments with adequate facilities, materials, and academic support
es to improving student en enrolment, and learning ou outcomes, is through an in integrated school health an and nutrition model that is made-up of NTD control, sc c school feeding and WASH (w (water, sanitation and hy y hygiene) in schools. Dubai C Cares was also a member oof the Learning Metrics TTask Force (LMTF) bbetween 2012 and 2014, which was convened by the Brookings Institution and UNESCO in order to ensure that learning becomes a central component of the global development agenda, in line with the Global Education First Initiative. Dubai Cares is currently working directly with developing countries to support the implementation of the LMTF recommendations, assisting governments to evaluate and improve their national assessment systems. Dubai Cares is reaching more than 13 UQTTQWVJMVMĂ…KQIZQM[QV LM^MTWXQVOKW]Vtries. In 2014 alone, Dubai cares launched seven programs in India, Kenya, Namibia, Pakistan, Palestine, Uganda, and Vietnam; IVLL]ZQVO\PMĂ…Z[\Y]IZ\MZWNQ\ oversaw two successful events in the UAE â€“ the â€˜Rebuild Palestine. Start with Edu-
cationâ€™ campaign, and â€˜Walk for Education 2015â€™ to engage a total of 11,500 supportive UAE community members. Monitoring and evaluation of programs, as well as targeted research, are integral, as is the importance of evidence-based programming. Dubai Cares policy is that its programmes must be based on, or contribute to, the evidence base, if they IZM\WPI^MY]IV\QĂ…IJTMQUXIK\;Q`\aĚ†Ă…^M per cent of its programme designs are JI[MLWVM`Q[\QVOM^QLMVKMIVLXZW^MV models; the remaining 35 per cent of its programs contribute to the evidence base by including a research component into the interventions in order to test and document the impact. ;PIZQVOM`XMZQMVKM[IVLTMIZVQVOIZM essential when it comes to tackling the huge humanitarian aid challenges that confront us. Dubai Cares has convened four workshops (in Dubai) on topics as diverse as â€˜Building Evidence in Educationâ€™, â€˜Home Grown School Feeding programsâ€™, â€˜Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools programsâ€™, and â€˜Girls Education programsâ€™. In February 2012, Dubai Cares also supported and hosted the second Learning Metrics Task Force (LMTF) meeting in Dubai to identify common learning goals necessary to improve learning opportunities for children and youth around the w world. These workshops bbring together high-level re representatives and techV VQKITM`XMZ\[NZWU=6 ag agencies, international ai i organisations and govaid er ernment representatives to discuss projects and M` M`KPIVOMJM[\XZIK\QKM[ as well as disseminate key lea le a learnings. Q For F o more information about Dubai D u Cares and its work, go g o to www.dubaicares.ae.
DUBAI CARES, ARINDAMBANERJEE/WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
Dubai Cares is headquartered in Dubai, a location which gives the organisation a vantage point to access the worldâ€™s population
Islands of knowledge When it comes to making the most of the opportunities tourism brings without jeopardising sustainability, islands – especially small islands – can ﬁnd mutually-supporting solutions that balance the needs of them both, ﬁnds Dr Rachel Dodds, Director/ Owner, Sustaining Tourism
however, be properly recognised that tourism is also dependent on the very resources that attract tourism and the impacts on islands are perhaps far greater.
Islands are particularly susceptible to [QOVQÅKIV\MV^QZWVUMV\ITQUXIK\[\PI\ may result from the overuse of resources or uncontrolled tourism development, for instance. They are also at risk due to their limited species diversity, often lack of fresh water, land mass and increasing development for tourist arrivals. The sustained beauty of natural and social environments and hospitality of the communities where the tourism industry operates are the core assets of most islands; yet increased tourism exerts disproportional QVÆ]MVKMWV\PMTWKITKWUU]VQ\a#IVL cultural homogeneity is ever-increasing. As the tourism experience is inevitably linked to many natural and cultural V
The Maldives is one of the few countries to establish a tourism policy that focuses on setting guidelines for environmental construction
slands are unique not necessarily by size, but by the physical separation from a mainland. Being surrounded by water requires humans to navigate this space by either air or boat. In a sense, being remote from other landmasses also gives rise to heightened challenges for sustainability. Furthermore, islands – small island developing states (SIDS) in particular – face increasingly growing concerns over resource depletion, climate change, biodiversity loss and socio-economic inequalities1. The challenge for sustainable development of these islands involves considering social, economic and environmental considerations more urgently than many other destinations in the world as their predicament is much more tenuous. Tourism is very often put forward as a way to achieve sustainable development, as it can provide employment, increased foreign exchange, improved communications, and access and develop much-needed infrastructure. It should,
Sustainably-developed tourism can showcase positive initiatives that other countries could duplicate.
The Galapaogos Islands are a sustainability success story, with a higher GNP than Ecuador
resources that are provided by and shared with the local community, the need to address sustainability challenges is vital. More than 10 per cent of the world’s population can be designated as islanders, and recognising and addressing their vulnerabilities is vital to ensure more sustainable livelihoods.
Islands of various sizes attract tourism not only for their natural beauty and beaches (e.g., the Maldives, Mauritius, Caymans, Seychelles, etc.), unique environmental attributes (the Galapagos islands are a pereminent example), but also their history and culture (e.g. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Guam, and Malta). Looking at global tourism growth, the number of islands that are focusing on tourism is increasing rapidly. Seven of the 15 fastest-growing countries between 1985 and 1995 were tourism economies and most of them were island tourism economies with more than 30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) coming from tourism2. Indeed, of the most prosperous countries in the world in 20143, nine of the top 30 are islands. As mentioned earlier, tourism also acts as a multiplier for employment. The countries 74
\PI\PI^M\PMPQOPM[\U]T\QXTQMZMٺMK\NZWU tourism are all islands – Jamaica, Mauritius, Bermuda, Solomon Islands, Malta, Western Samoa, and Fiji4.
Tourism as an enabler
Tourism, when developed sustainably, can provide a useful tool for sustainable development and islands, as well as island states, now showcase positive initiatives that other countries could duplicate. Islands
JMVMÅ\NZWU[\ZWVOSQV[PQXVM\_WZS[·\PI\¼[ to say, strong family ties leading to high VFR tourism (visiting friends and relatives) – and many of the challenges they face have given islanders the ability to adapt. When examining sustainability, islands have showcased many positive initiatives: • From a management perspective Chumbe 1[TIVLTWKI\MLW\ٺPMKWI[\WN <IVbIVQI LM^MTWXML)NZQKI¼[ÅZ[\UIZQVMXIZSIVL established alternative sources of livelihood NWZÅ[PMZUMV5. • In Fiji, villagers are using their traditional practices and an iterative approach to safeguard their interests in their island environment. Lacking the resources to make new drainage systems and seawalls, local residents are restoring mangroves and coral ZMMN[\WPMTXXZM^MV\ÆWWLQVOIVLMZW[QWV6. • The island of Dominica has focused on [UITTMZ[KITM\W]ZQ[U\PI\PI[JMVMÅ\ML\PM local indigenous community through greater recognition, revival and maintenance of their culture, as they are less dependent on imports to satisfy the mass markets. • The Maldives is one of the few countries worldwide to establish a tourism policy that focused on setting guidelines for environmental construction7. They are also \PMÅZ[\KW]V\Za\WIQU\WJMKIZJWVVM]\ZIT by 20208. • Bonaire is famous for its marine strategy _PMZMQ\_I[\PMÅZ[\WN Q\[SQVL\WIK\Q^MTa manage marine resources9. Barbadian farmers are also turning their hand to selling local handicrafts
Of the most prosperous countries in the world in 2014, nine of the top 30 are islands…
Island sustainability exemplars
Economically, islands also showcase positives. The Galapagos, through protection of wildlife, went from being a largely unpopulated volcanic outcrop, to become the richest department in Ecuador – and now has a higher gross national product
References 1. Graci, S.R. and Dodds, R. Sustainable Tourism in Islands. Earthscan Press, ISBN 9781844077809 (2010). 2. Giannoni, S. & Maupertuis, M.A. ‘Environmental quality and optimal investment in tourism infrastructures: A small island perspective. Tourism Economies, 13(4) (2007). 3. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-30-mostprosperous-countries-in-the-world-2014-11 499-513 4.P\\X"___]VMXWZOZM[W]ZKMMٻKQMVKa Portals/24147/scp/business/tourism/greeneconomy_ tourism.pdf . P423
The island of St. Barthélemy’s airport’s size limitations have helped curb mass tourism
(GNP) than mainland Ecuador12. In St. Barthélemy, in the Eastern Caribbean, meanwhile, a small airport has prevented the growth of mass tourism, and has also helped to develop an up-market destination for French cuisine13. Islands are also supporting livelihoods by supporting local handicrafts and sourcing. 1V*IZJILW[)V\QO]IIVL<WJIOWMٺWZ\[ to use local farmers for food production for tourism as well as selling local handicrafts PI^M[PW_VUIVaXW[Q\Q^MJMVMÅ\[14. In the light of these and many other
success stories, it is evident that islands, because of their isolation and size and marginalization and resource limitations NIKM[QOVQÅKIV\KPITTMVOM[NWZ\PM[\IQVIJTM development of tourism and other industries. These same traits however, also WٺMZOWWLM`IUXTM[WN PW_Q[TIVL[KIV utilise innovative strategies to become more sustainable.Q
5. Dodds, R. Ecotourism education and marine conservation: The Case of Coral Park Chumbe Island, Zanzibar. Teoros. Vol 1 (2012) . 6. http://www.unep.org/wed/SIDS/about/#. VNjLY1XF_K0. 7. http://www.unesco.org/culture/natlaws/media/pdf/ maldives/maldives_act_11_08_1998_engl_orof.pdf. 8. http://www.pri.org/stories/2012-01-28/maldivesworking-be-carbon-neutral-2020. 9. http://www.dcnanature.org/bonaire-national-marinepark/. 10. http://www.gseii.org.
11. Graci & Dodds, 2010 ibid. 12. Kerr, S. A. (2005) ‘What is small island sustainable development about?’ Ocean and Coastal Management, 48: 503-524. 13. McElroy, J. & Dodds, R. ‘What does sustainable tourism mean for islands’. ID21 Island Insights. P 3 (2007). Special issue invited contribution. 14. PPT (Pro Poor Partnership) & CTO (Caribbean Tourism Organization). ‘Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean: Guidelines for Good Practice’. UK Travel Foundation, London (2006).
Dr Rachel Dodds is Director/Owner, Sustaining Tourism (www.sustainabletourism.net), and Associate Professor, Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University.
DR RACHEL DODDS, STYVE REINECK, MARISA ESTIVILL/WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
• When looking at energy and waste, Tokelau, one of New Zealand’s territories recently began producing 100 per cent of its energy from solar sources. • St Kitts and Nevis are working towards converting biomass to local electricity and the Bahamas is aiming to be 99 per cent fossil fuel free by 203010. Many islands have put in place waste water treatment plants to reduce water pollution, and work towards re-nourishment and land reclamation (for example, he Caribbean and Thai islands). In Bonaire, a small-scale desalination facility powered by solar energy was established. The facility was relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain and is used to provide communities with safe drinking water in an environmentally friendly manner, thus reducing ecological footprint in remote areas. In Roatan, Honduras micro-enterprise solutions have been put in place to emphasize how to use local knowledge to manage waste on the island. Now when islands use traditional wrapping such as banana leaves, or other plant materials, for food, it is considered authentic and interesting to tourists; and these materials naturally decompose, thereby eliminating the need for imported plastic bags that may end-up as unsightly litter11.
DIHAD was launched in 2004 as the Middle East’s ﬁrst ever humanitarian aid and development event, with a vision of creating a platform for exchanging humanitarian ideas and values between the East and West. Over the years, DIHAD has grown into one of the world’s largest humanitarian events that brings together various humanitarian actors and key decision makers from leading International, Regional & Local NGOs, UN Agencies, Governmental Departments, Charities, Relief Suppliers, Donors and Funding Agencies.
DIHAD 2015 FEATURED LIST OF SPEAKERS UN Messenger of Peace and Chairperson of International Humanitarian City HRH Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein Wife of HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and Ruler of Dubai HE Mr. Christos Stylianides European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crises Management
Mr. Alfredo Zamudio
Mr. Dominique Burgeon
Director Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Norwegian Refugee Council – Geneva
Coordinator, Resilience Strategic Objective & Director, Emergency & Rehabilitation Division, Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO), Rome
Mr. Amin Awad Director, Middle East & North Africa Bureau & Regional Refugee Coordinator (Syria Situation), United Nations High - Commissioner For Refugees (UNHCR)
HRH Prince Hassan Bin Talal
Research Fellow, Climate & Environment Programme, Overseas Development Institute (ODI) London
H.E. Amb. Atta El Manan Bakheet El- Haj Adviser to the Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Khartoum, Sudan
Mr. Claus Sorensen
HE Mr. Ibrahim Bumelha Humanitarian Advisor of H.H Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Chairman , DIHAD Higher Committee and President, DISAB HE Sheikha Lubna Bint Khalid Al Qasimi Minister of International Cooperation and Development, UAE HE Mr. Pierre Kraehenbul Commissioner General, United Nations Relief & Works Agency Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
HE Mr. William Lacy Swing Director General, International Organisation for Migration (IOM)
Minister For Water & Environment, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen
Ms. Florika Fink Hooijer Mr. Andrew Scott
HE Mr. Elhadj As Sy Secretary General, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
H.E. Professor Eizi Hibat Allah Ali Shuraim
Director General, European Commission Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection (ECHO)
Ms. Daryl Grisgraber Senior Advocate For the Middle East, Refugees International, Washington DC
Director Strategy Policy & International Cooperation, European Commission Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection (ECHO)
Mr. Francois Grunewald Executive Director , Groupe Urgence, Rehabilitation, Development (URD) France
H.E. Amb. Gerhard PutmanCramer Director , DIHAD International Scientiﬁc Advisory Board
Dr. Ghaith Fariz Director & Coordinator, Arab Knowledge Report & (UNDP’s) Arab Water Governance Report
H.E. Dr. Hamdan Musallam Al Mazrouie
Ms. Degan Ali
Speaking on Behalf of H.H Sheikh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Representative of the Ruler of Abu Dhabi in the Western Region and President, UAE Red Crescent Authority
Executive Director, African Development Solutions (ADESO), Nairobi
H.H Sheikh Abdul Aziz Bin Ali Al Nuaimi, Ph.D.
Mr. Didier Le Bret
Environmental Advisor to the Ajman Government, UAE
Mr. David Kaatrud Director, Regional Ofﬁce for Asia & The Paciﬁc , WFP Bangkok
Director, Crisis Center, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Development, Paris
Mr. Henry Gray Emergency Operations Manager, Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
AGENDA SESSIONS Day 1: Tuesday, 24 March 2015 10:00
14:00 – 15:30 SESSION 1 Disaster Reduction and Preparedness – opportunities
H.E Mr. Hesham Youssef
Dr. Rami Ghandour
Assistant Secretary- General for Humanitarian Affairs, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Managing Director, Metito Utilities Ltd., Dubai UAE
Ms. Margareta Wahlstrom Special Representative of the Secretary - General for Disaster Reduction
Mr. Mario Stephan Gulf Ofﬁce Director, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Dubai
Mr. Ramiro Lopes Da Silva Deputy Executive Director , World Food Programme
Mr. Rashid Khalikov Director, Ofﬁce of The Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Geneva
Mr. Robert Turner Mr. Matthew McKinnon Specialist, Climate Vulnerable Forum Support, Environment & Energy Group, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Mr. Michael Talmahi Regional Water & Habitat Advisor, ICRC Amman
Mr. Mohamed Beavogui Director Partnerships & Resource Mobilisation Ofﬁce, Senior Advisor to The President, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Rome
Director, United Nations Relief & Works Agency Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
Mr. Ross Mountain Deputy Special Representative of The Secretary General, Resident Humanitarian Coordinator - Lebanon
Ms. Salam Kanaan Care Country Director, Amman Mr. Sean Lowrie Director, Start Network, London
Dr. Mohamed Ateeq Al Falahi
H.E. Dr. Sergio Piazzi
Secretary General, UAE Red Crescent Authority
Secretary General, Parliamentary Assembly of The Mediterranean- St. Julians, Malta
Dr. Mukesh Kapila Professor of Global Health & Humanitarian Affairs, Humanitarian & Conﬂict Response Institute, University of Manchester, UK
Dr. Shadi Hamadeh Director, Environment & Sustainable Development Unit, American University of Beirut
Mr. Olaf Janssen Project Director, Humanitarian Logistics , KUHNE Foundation Swtizerland
HE Ms. Shaima Al Zarooni CEO, International Humanitarian City (IHC), Dubai
16:00 – 17:30 SESSION 2 Environmental Protection and Climate Change – opportunities
Day 2: Wednesday, 25 March 2015 09:00 – 10:30 SESSION 3 Moving relief items, where/ when required efﬁciently 10:30 – 10:45 KEYNOTE ADDRESS – “MOBILITY” 11:15 – 12:45 SESSION 4 The forced displacement of persons, causes and consequences 14:00 – 15:30 SESSION 5 Sustainable development, what happens after 2015? 15:30 – 15:45 KEYNOTE ADDRESS – “SUSTAINABILITY” 16:15 – 17:45 SESSION 6 Water and Energy: will we have enough tomorrow?
Day 3: Thursday, 26 March 2015 09:00 – 10:30 SPECIAL SESSION (Part 1) The role of NGOs in the provision of humanitarian assistance in today’s crisis environments SPECIAL SESSION (Part 2) The role of NGOs, also as partners in development assistance 14:00 – 15:30 SPECIAL PRESENTATIONS The World Humanitarian Summit (Istanbul, May 2016)
Writing for this issue SOURCE: Sustainable Development contributors represent a wide range of expertise and specialist knowledge...
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Events calendar 2015 A selection of conferences, exhibitions, and seminars of interest to sustainable development professionals. For more detailed information about featured events, please visit the event website via the URL provided. Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB-15 Conference 1st July-3rd July, 2015 / Lisbon, Portugal
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Sustainable Development Conference July 5th-July 7th 2015 / Bangkok, Thailand
ICTTB 2015 International Conference Sustainable in Tourism Technology Logistic & Innovation Business Paris
7th International Conference on Sustainable Development and Planning
April 12th to 15th April, 2015 / Paris, France
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»<PMÅZ[\WJRMK\Q^MWN \PQ[XZWOZIUQ[\W OQ^MIKILMUQK[IVWXXWZ\]VQ\a\WXZM[MV\ \PMQZIKILMUQK_WZS[KWVKMX\[IVLVM_ LQ[KW^MZQM[#UWZMW^MZXIZ\QKQXIV\[_QTTPI^M IKPIVKM\WM`KPIVOM\PMQZQLMI[IVLLM^MTWX \PMQZ_WZS[#IT[W\PMa_QTTUMM\IKILMUQK[ NZWU]VQ^MZ[Q\QM[IZW]VL\PM_WZTLIVL KZMI\MITTQIVKM[\WQUXZW^M\PMQZ_WZS[¼ Website: http://www.icbtstoronto. com/14850598/paris-call-for-paper
The Third Conference on Sustainable Tourism and Hospitality in Asia (COSTA 2015) Conference April 26th to April 28th 2015 / Hiroshima, Japan
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Joint International Conference Managing Sustainable Growth (MIC 2015) May 28th to May 30th, 2015 / Portorož, Slovenia
»<PMIQUWN \PMKWVNMZMVKM5IVIOQVO ;][\IQVIJTM/ZW_\PQ[\WIVITa[M^IZQW][ I[XMK\[WN [\IQVIJTMMKWVWUQKOZW_\P IVLLM^MTWXUMV\IVL\WWٺMZZM[MIZKPMZ[ IVLXZWNM[[QWVIT[\PMWXXWZ\]VQ\a\W LQ[K][[\PMUW[\LMUIVLQVOW\PMZQ[M[WN [\IQVIJQTQ\a¼ Website: http://www.mic15.fm-kp.si
Modelling Innovation Sustainability and Technologies Conference June 8th-June 9th, 2015 / Lisbon, Portugal
Humanitarian Innovation Conference 2015: Facilitating Innovation July 17th-July 18th, 2015 / Oxford, United Kingdom
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International Conference on Education for Sustainable Development (ICESD 2015) October 6th-October 7th, 2015 / Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Humanitarian Technology: Science, Systems and Global Impact WWW.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM
May 19th-May 21th 2015 / Istanbul, Turkey
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12th May–14th May 2015 / Cambridge, United States
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