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DSIT B TECHNOLOGY REPORT

FUTURE HISTORY Malgorzata Persa Leeds Beckett University MArch 2 77174985

Tutor: Keith Andrews 22.01.2018


CONTENTS

- 02

Introduction Chapter 1

Site analysis

- 03

Chapter 2

Precedent studies

- 22

Chapter 3

Building description

- 27

Chapter 4

Environmental strategies

- 30

Chapter 5

Structural and material strategies

- 37

References

- 46


INTRODUCTION

Design Studio description

Project description

Cinematic Commons studio group lead by Sarah Mills is looking at notion of ‘archives’ and ‘copying’ in context of the ‘museum’.

At the beginning of the term I was looking at the text: ‘On the Museum’s Ruins’ by Douglas Crimp.

As a unit, we work on the sites in Kyoto, Japan or London, United Kingdom. Proposed projects are looking to provide with the new ‘commons’, which are results of the research and studies of the area we are interested in. We are aiming to create a new infrastructure to support local communities and environment.

The text (quotes to the right) talks about the museums in very negative way. It says, that the museum, together with the objects placed in it, will die. Also, misplacement of the original objects from its original context in place and time, makes the artifacts of less importance and significance to current generations.

The proposed projects are developed through series of set models in scale 1:10 or 1:20 and composite drawings that look at the specific aspects of the design, like circulation, production processes, natural light or ventilation.

This was applied to the context of London and museums in the city. I looked at different exhibitions and general situation of Londoners to find out what areas of life are endangered. What was obvious at that time was that London can not accommodate all its citizens. There is a housing crisis that influence everyday life of young professionals living on minimum wage, as well as young families and elderly people.

When filming the models and activities within them, we get to understand the project better. We are able to change it and accommodate all the needed spaces, features and habitants.

The storyboard and film essay has looked at the stories of three young professionals who work in London, but due to low income, they struggle to find affordable place to live close to their workplace. The project is also looking at the London as it is now and its possible future. City Now City Future is a year long exhibition within Museum of London, which explains current situation of big cities, problems that occur there and possible solutions. 25 London Projects are these projects that work with local communities to support London and well-being of Londoners. There is a plan to move Museum of London to the Smithfield Market site by 2021 and demolish existing building to provide with a new concert hall. In my project I am criticizing demolition of existing buildings and role of the museum in everyday life of ordinary citizens. I am looking to fuse both areas of housing and museum exhibition to create new ‘common’ for Londoners.

Film stills from film essay, that shows set model of Museum of London and current exhibitions.

Phase 1 of the project will accommodate growing of plants from 25 London Projects (GrowUp, OrganicLea, Growing Communities, Living Under One Sun) and house 50 individuals - young professionals. Phase 2 will focus on production processes (GoodGym, FoodCycle, Repowering London) and families and elderly residents in proposed design.

‘On the Museum’s Ruins’ by Crimp.

Douglas

‘The German word museal (museulike) has unpleasant overtone. It describes objects to which the observer no longer has a vital relationship and which are in the process of dying. They own their preservation more to historical respect than to the needs of the present.’ ‘The Museum, in fact, occupies a central position in the novel; it is connected to the characters’ interest in archaeology, geology, and history and it is thus through the Museum that questions of origin, causality, representation, and symbolization are most clearly stated. The Museum, as well as the questions it tries to answer, depends upon an archaeological epistemology. Its representational and historical pretensions are based upon a number of metaphysical assumptions about origins - archaeology intends, after all, to be a science of the arches. Archaeological origins are important in two ways: each archaeological artifact has to be an original artifact, and these original artifacts must in turn explain the ‘meaning’ of a subsequent larger history.’ ‘The set of objects the Museum displays is sustain only by the fiction that they somehow constitute a coherent representational universe. The fiction is that the repeated metonymic displacement for fragment of totality, object to label, series of objects to series of labels, can still produce a representation which is somehow adequate to nonlinguistic universe. Such a fiction is a result of uncritical belief in the notion of ordering and classifying, that is to say, the spatial juxtaposition of fragments, can produce representational understanding of the world. Should the fiction disappear , there is nothing left of the Museum but ‘bric-to-brac’, a heap of meaningless and valueless fragments of objects which are incapable of substituting themselves either metonymically for the original objects or metaphorically for their representations.’

Museum of London within Barbican. View across the street from pedestrian high-walk level.

Existing front elevation of Smithfield Market. [Available at: https://www.standard.co.uk/news/london/museum-of-londongoing-ahead-with-70m-move-to-smithfield-10138884.html, accessed 29 Dec 2017]

Competition entry by Lacaton & Vassal Architectes (FR) and Pernilla Ohrstedt Studio (UK) with Allies & Morrison and Alan Baxter Associates for the design of new Museum of London. [Available at: https://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/about-us/ our-organisation/international-design-comepetition, accessed 29 Dec 2017]

- 02 -


CHAPTER 1.

SITE ANALYSIS


London United Kingdom 51.5074° N 0.1278° W

- 04 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS - Location

The project is located in the capital of the United KingdomLondon. It lies on the Northern Hemisphere and Prime Meridian within Europe. It is located on the English island, with English Channel to the South, North Sea to the East, Norwegian Sea to the North and Atlantic Ocean to the West. Irish Sea separates English island with Ireland island.

Macro - United Kingdom in Europe

Macro - London in United Kingdom

Meso - City of London borough in London

Design notes Proposed site is located within City of London. There is no direct access to the sea or ocean, other than the Thames River. This prevents from floods and increased water level in any form directly on the site. There is no need for flood defence systems.

Macro | Meso | Micro

- 05 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS - Location

The site is located in City of London and it is a part of Barbican Estate development. The site propose to high-jack existing building and transform it to provide with necessary space for the new proposal.

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The proposed site is located in Central London, where the differences of heights are minimal. Within 50m radius from the site, the lowest point is on 9.7m above sea level and the highest 20.4m above sea level.

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105

80

70 75

65

65

65

80

75

65

40

15

10

10

20

20

65

50

60

60 55 50

40

80

9085

85

70

45

90

75

91

0

85

10

95

90

90

75

20

45

55

15 15

60

55

70

65

65 60

85

100

95

65

45 50

60

60 65

75

10 10 10

15 20

70

70

85 90 95

90

0

125 120 115115 110 0

85

100

90

60

45

45 50 51.4

40

5

110

105

95

0 12 5 11

5

55

60 65

65 70

80

85

95 100

110

12

10

90 91

90

10 95

105

100

105

80

65

65 65

60

50

London is located on the lowland, made of rich and fertile soil, perfect for farming and growing of plants. Central London lies around the Themes River with heights between 10 and 25 m above sea level. Further to the North and South from the Central London the terrain is more complex. There is many hills that effects architecture and infrastructure of the city. Here, heights can reach up to 245m above sea level.

95

60

45 45

35

During glaciation period, masses of glacier moved across the land, creating post-glacial landscape. It features upland and mountainous landscape to the North and lowland landscape to the South. The highest point in the UK is 1344m above sea level. It is a Scafell Pike in Scotland. The lowest is located 2.75m below sea level. It is a Holme Post in Cambridgeshire.

110

125

120 115 110

115 110

95

50

40

35

40

40

70

90

100

65

75

85

75

80

100

135

120

130

55

45

50

45

35

The British Island was shaped over thousands years ago. The tectonic plates were separated creating an British islands.

125

115

55

90

80

75

40

105

0

130

15

40

45 50 55

50

55

65

75

110 0

74

85 90 95

85

115

50 75

70

25

20

15

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

15

15 15

45

45

60

70

75

80

80

75 75

10 90

100

105

110

135

80

40

45

35

35

115

110

105 100 105

80 50

120

75

60

45

120

50

45

40

40 40

105

100

110 116

115 116 115 120 110

130 125 119

111

95

95 105

95

130

65

70

55

65 60 55 50

40 40

135

125

110

105 10 0

90 91

95

125

120

135

110

115

120 126

90

50

45 45

60

70 65

60

50

45

105

65

50

75

55

45

115

50

50

55

0 10

45

70

55

60 65

105

95

70

75

70

80

60

55

70

95

100

80

125

125 110

50

55

55

65

75

55 60 65

70 75

95 100

10

15

15 15

40

40 35

85

13

110 105

115 120

90

95

60

110

55

55

55 55

75

70

115

115

120

120

75 80

55

55

60

60

65 70

65

35

105

40

60

35

60

65

60

65 60

110

75

60

70

55

50

50

85

70

65

65

50 45

55

110 115

115

75

50

50

1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS - Terrain

100

70 85

120

110

15

15

15

20

45

51

45

50

55

85

105

50

40 40

45

95 110

115

105

65

85

90

55

45

45

50 55

45

45

90

75

70

45

50

50

40

45

35

90

65

75

70

65

45

45

45

40

105

95

20

35 40

35 45

35

60

100 105

5

10

95

100

90 100

90

30

30 35

55

70 65

75

95

95

95

90

80

85 95

65

55

35

45 50

45

85

80

55

55

45

50

40

50

75

80

60

45

35

85 90

80

75

80

60

50

45

90

100 100 95 85

100

70

70

60

55

50 45

50

45

75

70

60

45

50

85

75

70

65

50 55

40

40

65

75

45 45

35

95 100 102.5

95

90

80 75 70

90

90

90

96 95

75

65

80

65

50

50 50

60

45

50

40

10095 90

85

75

80 70 75

45

55

60

55

55

70

85

60

65

55

50

65

60

60

90

80

80

75

65

65

70

65

55 65

65

40

80

60

85 85

80

70

60

70

45

50

65

6565

90

85

75

70

60

65

70

55

40

75

60

60

65

45

70

85

70

70

65

40 40

45

65

50 55

55

60

45

50

55

50

50

80 75

55

65

45

50

1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

55

60

55

85

45

50 55

15

15

3.3

3.3 -2.2

5

3.3

5

5

-2.2

8

Terrain map of the site. Contour lines every 5 meters. 50km radius from the site to analyse section of it.

.28

10

-2

5

5

10

3. 3

3.23.28

5

5

5

5

5

-2.28

5

5

5 -2.235.3 8

-2.28

5

5

5

3.3

-2.28 3.3

5

5

5

5

8

3 3.

Macro | Meso | Micro

-2.28

53.3 -2.2

3.3

-2

Flat terrain within Central London area makes it easier to construct new buildings. It is due to less complicated geological built as well as improved access to the site. Site is located 12m above water level of Themes River, making it safe from possible floods and overflows of the river. No over-shading of the site by terrain and its heights.

5 3.3 -2.2 8

5

5

10

3.3

5

3.3

3.3

10

5

10

8 .2 5

5

-2.28 3.3

10

10

3.3 -2.28

10

3.3

Design notes

5 8

-2.28

-2.28

5

3 5

3.

Site - Museum of London

10m 0m -10m

Section A-A

10m 0m -10m

Section B-B

Site - Museum of London

Sections A-A and B-B illustrating terrain and heights around the site.

- 07 10m 0m


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS - Climate

The United Kingdom is located in Moderate Marine West Coast climate. It is characterised by mild wet winters and warm wet summers. As the United Kingdom lies on the islands its climate is highly influenced by the sea and air masses from the ocean and North Pole.

Design notes Warm and wet climate in the United Kingdom helps with growing vegetables for longer period during the year. It will reduce need for heat during winter period and excessive heat during the summer period. A high level of rainfall during the year can be harvested and used to water plants and used in residential are for services.

Macro | Meso | Micro

- 08 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS Temperature and Rain

Thanks to the Moderate climate in the UK, the weather is fairly mild without big temperature drops. There are two main seasons - spring / summer and autumn / winter. The temperatures on the North (Scotland) drops down much lower compared to the South of the country. The same goes with rain analysis - there is more rain to the North than to the South. It is all influenced by the air masses moved from the ocean and continent (as shown on previous page).

25

20

15 25

10 20

5 15

0 10

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

United Kingdom

5.7

4.3

6.3

7.5

10.9

14.9

16.7

16.9

15.8

10.9

5.8

Dec 6.5

London

5.1

7

9.3

11.4

14

16.2

19

19.1

17

13.2

10

7.4

5

Average temperatures in the UK and London in 2016 (in Celsius degrees). 0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

United Kingdom

5.7

4.3

6.3

7.5

10.9

14.9

16.7

16.9

15.8

10.9

5.8

6.5

London

5.1

7

9.3

11.4

14

16.2

19

19.1

17

13.2

10

7.4

90

To the left: Statistic date on average temperature in the UK in January 80 (left) and June (right) 2017 (images source: www.metoffice.gov.uk, ac70 cessed on 7 Jan 2018). 60 50 90 40 80 30 70 20 60 10 50 0 40 United Kingdom 30 London

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

78

50

62

55

56

58

46

57

68

72

77

79

52

39

35

43

50

43

41

48

49

71

63

53

Dec

20 10 0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

United Kingdom

78

50

62

55

56

58

46

57

68

72

77

79

London

52

39

35

43

50

43

41

48

49

71

63

53

Average rainfall in the UK and London in 2016 (in mm).

Design notes Warm and wet climate in the United Kingdom helps with growing vegetables for longer period during the year. It will reduce need for heat during winter period and excessive heat during the summer period. A high level of rainfall during the year can be harvested and used to water plants and used in residential are for services.

Macro | Meso | Micro

To the left: Statistic date on average rainfall amount in the UK in January (left) and June (right) 2017. (images source: www.metoffice.gov.uk, accessed on 7 Jan 2018).

- 09 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS - Networks

Old Street

Barbican

Farringdon

Moorgate

St. Paul's

Road network

High-walk network

Underground network

Site is located under 140 London Wall address. To the South there is London Wall, to the West is A1 - Aldersgate Street, to the North is a side road that leads to the underground car park to the museum and car park to the City of London School for Girls. To the East there is another access road to the underground car park. Another main road is located further to the South - B100 Beech Street, that goes past Barbican station.

Barbican estate is connected by series of pedestrian highwalks that link many areas of the development - Barbican centre, Barbican station, residential apartments. In many places, walks are hidden from public and not many people realise they are there. If known and explored, they can be of great help to pedestrians who do not have to wait for traffic light or worry about being hit by a car.

The main public access route to the MoL site if through tube. There are series of underground networks and many stations around it. The main one is Barbican station on Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. In a walking distance there is Farringdon, Moorhate and St. Paul’s stations. There is plenty buses routes that connects the site with rest of the city.

Macro | Meso | Micro GSEducationalVersion

- 10 GSEducationalVersion


Design notes

1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

Both noise and pollution levels are high around the site. Some sort of barrier will have to be considered in the design to reduce both levels. It will reduce in better work and live environment in the building. A green wall from main street could be a solution to act as a barrier for noise and clean the air by taking C)2 out of air and produce O2 in return.

1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS Noise and Pollution

60-66 dB 60-66 dB

55-60 dB 55-60 50-55dB dB 50-55 dB 63-80 dB 63-80 dB

70-78 dB 70-78 dB

66-80 dB 66-8063-77 dB dB 63-77 dB

High

High

Low

Low

Noise

Pollution

Museum of London site located directly by the roundabout and busy roads. Road traffic together with various construction work close to the site produce noise. The measurements above were taken at 2.30pm, which is off-pick hours. The scores were as high as 80 dB by busy roundabout. This level of noise is comparative to factory noise, miling machine or diesel train at 45 mph at 100gt. The lowest score was market as a 50 dB at the enclosed back of the building. It is compared to quite suburb or conversation at home noise level. Scale 1:2000

Direct location to busy road traffic provide with large amount of pollutions from vehicles. Also, large residential estates and offices produce significant amount of carbon dioxide. This is due to inappropriate ventilation, heating and cooling systems as well as not sufficient building insulation. Another matter is excessive use of lighting in office buildings. Lighting can use between 20 to 40% of energy. Very often we can notice that these light are not turned off and drain energy all day and night. Scale 1:5000

Macro | Meso | Micro

- 11 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS Sun analysis

The United Kingdom is located in Moderate Marine West Coast climate. It is characterised by mild wet winters and warm wet summers. As the United Kingdom lies on the islands its climate is highly influenced by the sea and air masses from the ocean and North Pole.

N 10o

330

20

KEY:

30

o

June solstice 30o 4.43am

21.21pm

Equinox (March and September)

40o

9pm 300

60

50o 60

December solstice

o

Annual variation

6am 70o

Sunrise

80o

Sunset W

E

6pm 9am

3pm

Design notes Warm and wet climate in the United Kingdom helps with growing vegetables for longer period during the year. It will reduce need for heat during winter period and excessive heat during the summer period. A high level of rainfall during the year can be harvested and used to water plants and used in residential are for services.

12pm 120

240 4.07pm

8.12am 9am

3pm 12pm 210

150 S

Information shown on the chart come from website: https://www.gaisma.com/en/location/london.html; accessed on 4th Jan 2018.

Job

#Project Name Address

#Site Full Address

Client

Shading of the site in Equinox (21st March and 23rd September), at 9am.

Macro | Meso | Micro

Shading of the site in Equinox (21st March and 23rd September), at 12pm.

#Client Full Name Shading of the site in Equinox (21st March and 23rd September), at 3pm. Drawing SBA Internal Cad File ref. - 2_01_Tech Diagrams.pln Scale

First Issue Date D/M/Y

Job No.

Dwg' Type or CI/Sfb Code

Sheet No.

- 12 -

Drawn

Checked

Revision

Sheet size


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS Sun analysis

Shading during June solstice, at 9am.

Shading during June solstice, at 12pm.

Shading during June solstice, at 3pm.

Shading during December solstice, at 9am.

Shading during December solstice, at 12pm.

Shading during December solstice, at 3pm.

Macro | Meso | Micro

- 13 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS Sun analysis

NN

W 5.000

W

E E

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

Road

Design notes

Road

Sun analysis of the existing building shows that there are areas within the building that stay dark all year. Small windows on only few selected floors do not provide with enough amount of daylight. Basement / underground car park is dark due to the small open spaces allowing daylight there. Also, buildings around the site put shadow on it. To be able to provide with enough daylight for growing plants and health environment for offices and accommodation, new type of daylight needs to be designed.

Road

KEY:

KEY: direct daylight entering building between 9am and 12pm on December solstice

direct daylight entering building between 9am and 12pm on June solstice

direct daylight entering building at 12pm on December solstice

direct daylight entering building at 12pm on June solstice

direct daylight entering building between 12pm and 6pm on December solstice

direct daylight entering building between 12pm and 6pm on June solstice

indirect daylight entering building on December solstice (up to 5m depth)

9am

KEY:

indirect daylight entering building on June solstice (up to 5m depth)

direct daylight entering building between 9am and 12pm on June solstice Sun analysis within the building. Section drawing shows direct and indirect light entering the building in December. Sun analysis within the building. Section drawing shows direct and indirect light entering the building in June. Scale 1:200 Scale 1:200

on

12pm

EW

E

Macro | Meso | Micro

direct daylight entering building at 12pm on June solstice

Rev

Date

Drawn / Chk'd Description

EM - Employer change to brief CL - Client change to brief ER - Correction BU - Buildability ST - Change required by Statutory Authority

Job:

#Project Name Address:

#Site Full Address

Client:

#Client Full Name Drawing:

direct daylight entering building between 12pm S+A Internal Cad File ref. - 2_01_Tech Diagrams.pln

- 14 -


9am

on

1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 1 SITE ANALYSIS Ventilation

Existing building was purpose build to accommodate the museum. As the artifacts exhibited there require special environmental conditions, like temperature and humidity, most of the building is ventilated using mechanical ventilation. Open spaces that accommodate car park and highwalks as well as offices and staff rooms are naturally ventilated. 5.000 However, there is a limited number of windows on specific floors allowing for this type of ventilation. It results in areas that do not provide with sufficient amount of fresh air. Air flow is adapted to provide with necessary airflow.

N

E

W

E 5.000

5.000

5.000

5.000

W

E Natural ventilation Area without sufficient air fow

Natural ventilation

Natural ventilation Area without sufficient air fow

Natural ventilation

Road Natural ventilation Area without sufficient air fow

Mechanical ventilation

Natural ventilation

Mechanical ventilation

Natural ventilation

Natural ventilation

Road

Area not ventilated

Area not ventilated

Design notes To create a health environment for residents, staff and visitors, the ventilation within the building will be improved. Where appropriate, a natural ventilation will be provided. As for areas that require specific environmental conditions, there will be installed mechanical ventilation.

KEY: directshowing daylight air entering building and between 9am in the building. Section of the existing building flow, natural ventilation and 12pm on June solstice

Macro | Meso | Micro

direct daylight entering building at 12pm on June solstice

Fans and ducting to mechanical ventilation installed in exhibition spaces to maintain temperature, air flow and humidity.

- 15 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 2. PROGRAM ANALYSIS Principles of design

The existing Museum of London will be moved to the new Smithfield Market site. I am proposing to use existing building to accommodate 25 London Projects which are part of the Museum of City Now City Future exhibition. The projects focus on improving city of London and life of Londoners. It works with volunteers who wish to contribute to the development of the city and improvement of situation of many people. Phase 1 of the project will look at establishing spaces for projects involved in growing and planting of vegetables, flowers as well as farming bees and fish. All the processes will be exhibited and accessible to public. Various workshops and sessions will take place to educate interested in art of growing vegetables and flowers. Together with 25 London Project exhibitions and growing plants, Museum will provide with accommodation for Londoners. Phase 1 will create 50 spaces for young professionals working in Central London who struggle with everyday life due to the housing problems. Phase 2 will provide with accommodation for families and elderly people. Phase1 will create 3 different types of accommodation that will reflect lifestyle of residents. The assumption of this project is to create a sustainable community and Museum that will help ‘normal people’ who create London. During the day (10am-5pm), Museum will be open to the public as well as to the residents. Access to the private accommodation will be kept hidden, but the ‘houses’ will be visible and viewed by public. Public areas will be accessible by both residents and visitors to Museum. At night, museum will be accessible only to the residents and Museum staff, but high-walks will remain and some exhibitions will be visible from road level (lower ground floor plants growing).

Design notes There is many different areas of the design, that deals with growing plants, living accommodation, exhibition space, offices and service rooms. Each of them will have different special and environmental requirements. However, some of them can be joined and serve many areas, like water harvesting, circulation, light, heating and cooling.

Macro | Meso | Micro

Exhibition

Housing

Exhibiting how to grow vegetables and flowers that later will be used by residents and cafe in Museum. There will be distribution centre and offices where volunteers will work and help to run each project.

12am

4am

Planting

Three types of housing: 1. All day long in hanging pots 2. Night only spaced between ex- hibitions 3. All day tagged between struc- ture of building.

8am

12pm

Various types of vegetables and flowers will be grown in different conditions, depending on each project. Green house on roof, low light required and glowing plants in lower ground floor.

4pm

8pm

12am

Museum

Housing

Farming Diagram illustrating use of the building during the 24 hours period by each section of the program.

- 16 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 2. PROGRAM ANALYSIS Connections between spaces

To create sustainable and friendly environment to residents, volunteers, visitors and museum staff, many spaces will cross with each other to provide with even better and integrated areas. The project will take advantage of opening hours of the museum and conditions required by each space.

Direct connection Exchangeable spaces Integrated spaces Security

Power

Waste

Humidity

Heating

Mechanical ventilation

Daylight

Lighting

Water

Private storage

Temperature

Cooling

Natural ventilation

Acoustics

- 17 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 2. PROGRAM ANALYSIS Museum

Room Exhibition spaces

Activities / Space

Issues

• • •

Organised and private visits to the museum Walks and talks around the museum Planting and farming of vegetables by volunteers and visitors

Different use of the space during the day (museum) and night (accommodation). There are different environmental requirements for each. Residential requirements researched on next page.

• • •

Seminars and lectures Workshops on planting and farming Used by school trips

The space will be used by large number of visitors in short period of time during the day. Ventilation, heating and cooling systems had to developed to provide with optimal healthy environment.

• • • •

Used by volunteers to run projects Distribution centre for nursery and market Call centre for projects Office for museum maintenance staff

The space will be used by different number of visitors and staff during the day.

• •

Storage of documents for museum Storage of equipment

Consider whether storage area is as a separate room or integrated with other spaces.

• • •

Food preparation for restaurant and cafe Keeping place tidy Used by visitors for short period of time but in large numbers

Space used all day long but mostly busy during meal times, breakfast, lunch and dinner time. As it is food production area it has to be ventilated all the time.

• •

Relaxing from work Visitors can use to take a break between watching exhibitions Open to public who wish to use space in exchange for hour volunteering in museum

Space used during the day by public and residents. During night is used only by residents. Change of number of users will raise issues of ventilation and heating.

Rest rooms Changing rooms Accessible toilets

Facilities used all day and night. Issue of security and circulation had to be resolved.

General considerations

Environmental considerations

Teaching / Workshop

Office

Storage

Dining area/ Restaurant

Relaxing area

Toilets • • •

- 18 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 2. PROGRAM ANALYSIS Housing

Room

Activities / Space

Issues

General considerations

Environmental considerations

Entrance • • •

Entrance to the flat Not every type of accommodation has one Require storage space for shoes and coats

Do they need to be as small and separate room or integrate with other space? Security and access to them need to be clear to see that it is accessible just to residents.

• • •

Sleeping Relaxing Dressing up

Space used only few hours a day by single occupant (2 person in some spaces). Heat and ventilation adjusted at that time. In Hidden type of accommodation, sleeping area is used during the day as exhibition space.

• •

Relaxing Socializing

Space used by different number of residents during the day and night. Issue of lighting and heating when space is not used. Considered use of special lighting to highlight area to visitors but still keep it private.

• • •

Cooking Having meals Relaxing

Collective space in hidden and hanging type accommodation. Single occupancy in inbetween type. Different environmental considerations during the day for each.

• • •

Toiletries Grooming Putting and removing make up

Collective space in hidden and hanging type accommodation. Single occupancy in inbetween type. Different environmental considerations during the day for each.

• • •

Storage of clothes Storage of personal items Storage of various equipment

More secure storage in hanging and inbetween type of accommodation. Hidden accommodation storage will be accessible only when museum is closed.

Bedroom

Living room

Kitchen

Bathroom

Storage

- 19 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 2. PROGRAM ANALYSIS Farming

Room

Activities / Space

Issues

General considerations

Environmental considerations

Growing space • • •

Planting vegetables, herbs and flowers Plant nursery Different type of plants grown in greenhouse, raised beds and shelves

Depending on plants grown there are different environmental conditions for them, like greenhouse, natural conditions and artificial conditions.

• •

Storage of hand tools Space for soil and fertilizers

No apparent issues with storage or environmental conditions.

• •

Storage of water in 1000l tanks Water collected as rainwater from roof

Water stored need to be kept safe from external pollutants and other objects effecting its quality.

• • •

Desk space for staff Call centre for each project Distribution centre for nursery and plants

Space used by many users at the same time, but only in specific period of time - opening hours of museum. Heating, lighting and ventilation need to be considered in these periods.

Market area for vegetables grown in museum Accessible by public Buyers can choose which item they want to purchase straight from planting pots

One of the busiest areas of the museum. Due to the limited amount of available plants, market will be open only once a week. For the remaining time it will accommodate exhibition / growing space.

Relaxing area for staff Secure storage for theirs belongings Sitting and sleeping area

Used by different number of staff during the day. Space will be shared with residents during night time.

Equipment storage

Water storage

Nursery distribution centre

Market • •

Staff room • • •

- 20 -


1. CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 1. 2. ERGONOMIC ISSUES

65-95cm

85-110cm

Precision work

Light work

3. Heavy work, like planting vegetables and moving soil require the lowest working station due to heavy equipment and materials that need to go on the worktop.

Eye level

Distance from screen

Distance from screen

Eye level

Distance from screen

Eye level

When working with a computer screen, whether it is a sitting or standing position, it is important to have a keyboard / elbow support at elbow level. Also, the screen should be at hour eye level to avoid straining the neck. The distance from the screen need to be appropriate to protect our eyes from too close staring at the screen.

Sitting type of work

Sitting elbow level Sitting elbow level

Eye level

Distance from screen

GSEducationalVersion

Heavy work

Standing elbow level

2. Light work, like cutting vegetables and herbs require a work station that is best at elbow height.

Standing elbow level

1. Precision work, like working with seeds, nursery plants and experimental product require highest working station.

65-95cm

Three main working stations are used to mirror the work that is done.

85-110cm

This ergonomic study will focus finding the best heights to work on urban farms when standing.

95-120cm

At this point, I can investigate further spaces around growing area. It takes a large part of the spaces and human activities. It is important then to provide with best work space for them.

95-120cm

Living, growing and exhibiting project have many spaces with specific activities but most of them have dual use and are adapted to more than one of them. Each of these spaces will be developed in more detail in design studio project.

Standing type of work

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CHAPTER 2.

PRECEDENT STUDIES


2. PRECEDENT ANALYSIS 2.1. ENVIRONMENTAL

Project: ReGen Village Architect: EFFECT Location: Worldwide Date completed: Ongoing Area of interest: Urban vertical farming and housing

Rendered image of ReGen Village, that compromises of housing and growing communities (image available at: http:// https://www.dezeen.com/2016/05/20/effekt-designs-regen-villages-produce-own-food-energy-danish-pavilion-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

Prefabricated and Prefabricated and demountable livingbox box demountable living

Openable Openable

Extended zone Extended living living zone

Inside outside Inside and and outside blends blends

Vertical aquaponic farming as a part of the development. It is available to all residents (image available at: http://https:// www.dezeen.com/2016/05/20/effekt-designs-regen-villages-produce-own-food-energy-danish-pavilion-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

Passive and Passive heat heat and heated space heated space

Preheated inwinter winter Preheated air air in

Natural Natural ventilation ventilation

Extended summer Extended summer season season

A model of a self sustain village that tackle global issues, like rise of carbon dioxide in atmosphere to food waste. The project is a sustainable, self-sufficient and off-grid development. Next to the individual residents the program provides with public spaces, like squares, parks. The development implies various environmental solutions to improve micro and meso scale surrounding. Water collection, photovoltaic solar panels, natural ventilation, waste system are only a few examples of it. The diagrams illustrate how residential and growing area work together as a greenhouse and what environmental benefits it has on each activity.

Built-in collection Built-in water water collection

Built-in energy Built-in solar solar energy

Private vegetable gardens adjacent to the building and accessible from kitchen (image available at: http://https://www. dezeen.com/2016/05/20/effekt-designs-regen-villages-produce-own-food-energy-danish-pavilion-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

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Design notes There is a direct relationship between each aspect of sustainable communities. The project takes a best advantage of what is waste in one place and transform it into raw product for new processes. My project will look into this type of design that allow to use all available sources to improve the system.

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KEY: Food supply Waste supply Water supply Power supply GSEducationalVersion

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2. PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Design notes The idea of ‘lungs’ allowing for light and air and create vocal points for socializing. This idea will be explored in my proposal, by designing a light well that will also become a central vertical circulation.

2.1. ENVIRONMENTAL

Project: Simmons

Hall Massachusetts Institute of Technology Architect: Steven Holl Location: Massachusetts, USA Date completed: 1999 Area of interest: use of daylight and natural ventila- tion in large structure to improve living conditions.

‘Lungs’ that supply air and light into the building (image available at: http://www.stevenholl.com/zh/ projects/mit-simmons-hall. Accessed 21 Jan 2018).

‘Lungs’ as a socialising area for student residents (image available at: http://www.stevenholl.com/zh/projects/mitsimmons-hall. Accessed 21 Jan 2018).

Initial sketch section drawing, illustrating the ‘lungs’ cutting through building.

The architects appointed for this project were asked to design a student dormitory where spaces within and around the building will help with student interaction. This was achieved thanks to use of perforated, monolithic box, referred as ‘sponge’, with voids and curved and unfolded spaces directed to natural light.

Section of student hall as built.

KEY: 'Lungs' allowing for daylight and natural ventilation into the centre of building Voids in the structure KEY:

The ‘lungs’ became the main centrepieces of the building. They provided not only with supply of daylight and ventilation, but they became a socialising area for students and visitors. The original sketch design had to be amended to comply with Building Regulations and large scale lungs and voids had to be reduced in size. The organic form of ‘lungs’ is made using concrete. Internally, it blends in with concrete walls, floors and staircases, creating integrated whole.

Concrete form of ‘lungs’ work together with other concrete structures (image available at: http://www.stevenholl.com/ zh/projects/mit-simmons-hall. Accessed 21 Jan 2018).

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2. PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Design notes Use of different properties of the materials to create special visual and spacial conditions will be developed in this proposal. It will be applied in the accommodation section where residential area is a part of the museum exhibition but also it is a private area where people do they daily tasks.

2.1. MATERIAL

Project: Laban Centre Architect: Harzog & de Meuron Location: London, UK Date completed: 2002 Area of interest: use of material - polycarbonate, to reveal / shield activities within the building

Laban Dance Centre is a respond to the context and activities that take place in new building. Colour, dance, art, movement and lightness are represented by the structure of the building. Architect wanted to keep building semi-private, semi-public. Clever use of materials allowed for this concept. Polycarbonate panels and double glazing create a double skin facade that accommodate thermal and acoustic insulation between them, with vents above and below.

Interrupted polycarbonate glass mirrors create a mirrorlike-wall that reflects all the views and make it impossible to see inside.

Also, internally it creates a vibrant and original space that is perfect for dancers and producers to work in.

4

4 4

5

Coloured polycarbonate sheets give different visual results at night and allows to ‘see inside’ (image available at: http:// https://www.e-architect.co.uk/london/laban-centre. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

Use of this different materials in one system created a bespoke piece that best reflex use of the building. It makes it visually attractive with coloured facade during the day and glowing one at night.

Space between double skin facade (image available at: http://www.flickriver.com/photos/evandagan/3797779948/. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

4 4

5 5

4

5 5

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Properties of coloured polycarbonate give new quolities to the space - light, shadow, colour (image available at: https:// www.dezeen.com/2016/12/11/herzog-de-meuron-labandance-centre-new-photographs-jim-stephenson/. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

6

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KEY: KEY: 5

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5 1 Double glazing

1 Double glazing 2 Polycarbonate panels 2

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23 Interrupted Polycarbonate panels polycarbonate

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glass

mirrors

3 Interrupted polycarbonate glass 4 Vent mirrors structure 45 Concrete Vent

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5 vents Concrete structure

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6 Thermal and acoustic insulation, with

1 5

2 5

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line and acoustic insulation, with 6 Vision Thermal Viewing vents inside the building is possible but not clear

Vision line Diagram illustrating views inside the buildUse of mirrored glass and coloured polycarbonate separate Viewing inside the building is possible ing, depending on different elevation mateprivate and public spaces (image available at: http://www. but not clear rials. swissmade-architecture.com/?seite=Picture&bid=75. [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

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CHAPTER 3.

BUILDING DESCRIPTION


3. BUILDING DESCRIPTION SITE STRATEGY - Year project

Phase 1 developments

Phase 2 developments

Central tower to be demolished to provide with more light and distinguish the 'lower' building among all tall towers.

Atrium to be reused to provide light and ventilation in the building. New structures within it.

North West wing to be adapted for new accommodation, farming and exhibition space. of existing structure and lower ground oor / car park.

Existing exhibition space wth double height rooms to be resued as exhibition, accommodation and production area for remaining 25 London Projects.

High walk and rooms around it adopted for exhibition and farming space . New entrance to the building from road level.

New entrance from East side, from both pedestrian and road levels.

Central area to be adapted for new accommodation, farming and exhibition space. Use of existing structure and lower ground oor / car park.

Rotunda to have more connection with the museum. New theatre and performance space with 'heart of the museum'.

Maintain high walks connecting Barbican centre and city.

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3. BUILDING DESCRIPTION SITE STRATEGY - Phase 1

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SITE STRATEGY

Roof to enclose central light well. Roof to collect rainwater and pass it down on light well wall surface to the lower ground floor. Higher level Green House that provide with space for bee hays and other small birds to create biodiversity.

Green House

Demolish top floor and use the space for Green House to 25 London Projects.

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Green House

Light well

Green House

Light well allowing light into the middle of the building and lower ground floor. New vertical circulation in centre.

Office

Staff room / Living area

KEY: Provide with new facade in front of the existing elevation to block pollutions and noice created by traffic.

Exhibition / Accommodation

Workshop / Kitchen

Walls and floors to be demolished Market / Exhibition

High walk

New window openings Hanging type accommodation, accessible from new walks. Theirs structure to be visible from main road, creating interesting views.

Green wall to improve noise and pollution figures Road

Maintain main building structure - concrete columns and concrete beams supporting floors.

Pavement

Light well to provide with daylight, ventilation and vertical circulation

New high walks to create viewing area for L -2 farming. Greenhouse Farming of plants that do not require large amount of natural light, like mushrooms, salads. Plants to be set in 'glowing' pots, interesting use of storage water tanks, that glimmer at night and invite visitors to stop by.

Roof over light well. Used for rainwater harvesting

New high walks

New accommodation

'Artificial' farming

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CHAPTER 4.

ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES


4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

The main concept of this project is to make a sustainable building with use of existing structure. The proposal considers following issues: 1. Reduce carbon footprint by using existing structure and minimising construction waste. 2. Reduce carbon footprint by improving heating and lighting. 3. Use of materials available on the site or in close area. 4. Improve environment in the building by providing with natural ventilation and daylight in office rooms, exhibition space and workshops.

During the day, both human and plant requirements are similar. They both need daylight, air, water. The by-products produced by each in the process can be re-used by other in some way, like organic waste from kitchen can be used as a compost fro plants, and oxygen produced by plants improve air quality in habitat spaces.

Used by residents and sold on market Improve air quality Preheat air delivered for heating

Create environment for plants to grow well

Moist

Moist

Heat

Plants

Human activity

CO2

The environmental requirements are different during the day, when the museum is open to public, and at night when is used by residents.

Food

Income

General waste

The environmental requirements at that time changes, depending on activities undertaken by residents and growth cycle of plants.

Although not all products can be re-used, there is a closed cycle which allows to improve the environment within the building.

O2

Reduce CO2

Organic waste Used as a compost Processed by plants

Support work of the museum and staff

Used by residents and sold on market Preheat air delivered for heating

Heat

Moist

Moist

CO2

Plants

Human activity

CO2

General waste

During the night, the activities in the museum change. Instead of visitors and museum staff, residents occupy the space. In this case human activity stays the same as during the day. On the other hand, plants change theirs performance due to the different growth cycle.

Create environment for plants to grow well

Food

Income Organic waste Used as a compost

The main difference is that during the night, plants absorb oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. That is due to the lack of natural light that allows for the process of photosynthesis. In this situation different type of ventilation should be considered to provide with adequate amount of oxygen for both human and plants. Also, it is impossible to receive any daylight due to Earth cycle. Artificial lighting need to be installed to provide with sufficient amount of light for residents. Plants do not require light at night time.

Support work of the museum and staff GSEducationalVersion

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4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES LIGHTING

During the day, most spaces require daylight, like growing area, office, relaxing space. Other, like artificial growing require LED lights during the day. At night, that requirements change. Plants do not require light at this time. Only habitat areas - accommodation, living area and kitchen require artificial light.

Left: diagram shows use of daylight and artificial light during the day. Right: diagram shows use of artificial light at night. Artificial light is installed in spaces that do not require light during sunny days but are used during cloudy times.

KEY: ArtiďŹ cial lighting used at night / cloudy days LED light used in artiďŹ cial growing / night presentation of level -2 and -1 Scale 1:200

During the day, the amount of daylight is maximised by providing with new light well cutting through structure. New window openings are provided on each floor. GSEducationalVersion

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Daylight entering the building

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4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES VENTILATION

Fresh air inlet

KEY:

During the day, most spaces require natural ventilation, like growing area, office, relaxing space. Cross ventilation is possible thanks to new open-able windows and central light well. Although, the requirements are the same at night, there is an issue of security. The light well will be accessed by specific group only but access to windows on each floor will be possible thanks to new high walks. In this situation, windows need to be locked. Small air gaps are GSEducationalVersion

not sufficient to provide with right amount of fresh air and oxygen. This will be overcome by use of mechanical ventilation. Where possible, heat recovery system will be installed. Heat will be extracted from kitchen and workshop area, then used to preheat cold air supplied to accommodation and exhibition space.

Cross ventilation - fresh, cool air entering the building Cross ventilation - used, hot air exiting the building Mechanical ventilation - fresh, cool air entering the building Mechanical ventilation - used, hot air exiting the building

Scale 1:200 0

Left: use of cross ventilation during the day. Right: use of natural cross and mechanical ventilation.

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Area not in use

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4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES HEATING AND COOLING

London is situated in moderate climate with different temperatures during the year. Also, various activities that take place in the museum, create heat and humid, like theatre, workshop. To provide with a comfortable temperature a heating / cooling system has to be applied. Considering previous issues, like ventilation, best solution for this project will be mechanical ventilation with heat recovery that will be used at night time. Another issue that has to be considered is how the system will supply the warm / cold air. It can be achieved by hiInside jacking existing systems and adapt them to provide with best service.

Outside Controls

Heating / cooling of the spaces will be done using air source heat pump and air supply system. Below: mechanical ventilation with heat recovery system applied in this project . Right: heat produced by activities in the building. Mechanical ventilation inlet and extracts.

Inside

Fresh air inlet

Casing

Heat exchanger core

Outside

Fresh air to building Circulation fan Controls Insulated duct Stale air from building

Fresh air inlet

Casing Hood

Heat exchanger core Screen Filter Drain Fresh air to building Circulation fan Insulated duct Stale air from building

Hood KEY:

Screen

Mechanical ventilation - fresh, cool air entering the building

Filter

Mechanical ventilation - used, hot air exiting the building

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4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES WATER HARVESTING AND STORAGE

The project is working mainly with farming and growing plants. That requires a large amount of water that will supply not only them but also residential activities. London is located in moderate climate that is characterised by large amount of rainfall during the year. That gives an opportunity to harvest rainwater and sue it a supply source for the above activities. Large roof area allows for a water collection that is later passed down in structure of the light well and then stored in water tanks.

Design notes Further environmental issues will be tackled in next phase of the design. That will include for solar energy, wind energy, power produced in various new processes.

KEY: Water storage tanks

Scale 1:200

Rainwater collected on roof and passed down to storage tanks

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4. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES URBAN FARMING

Urban farming and vertical farming are big part of the project. Urban farming becoming more and more popular in the cities. GrowUp London is a one of 25 Projects that are hosted in the proposed museum.

Constant supply of:

GrowUp project is using aquaponic system in their vertical farming (see detailed diagrams on the right). Aquaculture of fish produce waste that is later used as a fertilizer for plants. Salads grow on vertical shelves in small pots. Each pod is constantly supplied with water, nutritions and LED light. This system allows for all year planting and harvesting. The system is fully sustainable and do not create unnecessary waste. In proposed project this system is used on level -2 to grow salads, broccoli, radish, spinach and other vegetables.

Supply of water from tank

Heat

Closed Controlled Environment

Light

Nutrient rich water

Filtered water

LED light

At the same space different type of vertical farming is introduced - oyster mushrooms grown in tubes filled with waste coffee grounds.

PVC pipe filled with coffee grounds

Fish Food

Humidity

Aquaculture Growing beds for salads and herbs

Power supply to regulate temperature and humidity

Supply of water from tank Flood tank LED light

The tank supplies nutrient-rich water into grow beds, feeding the plants. The grow medium and the plants help to filter the water.

Water, mixed with waste from fish tanks, fills flood tank.

PVC pipe filled with coffee grounds

Grow beds Bacteria is cultured in the grow beds and fish tank to break ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates.

Plastic tube to regulate environmental conditions Power supply to regulate temperature and humidity

Aerated and clean water returns to the fish tank.

Water and fish waste are pumped from fish tank back to the flood tank. The cycle repeats.

Left: vertical farming of oyster mushrooms in plastic tubes. Right: aquaponic system used in GrowUp London project.

Fish tank Fish produce ammonia rich waste. Too much waste is toxic for fish.

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CHAPTER 5.

STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL STRATEGIES


5. STRUCTURE STRATEGIES EXISTING FOUNDATIONS Building on stilts

Museum of London building, as a part of the Barbican development, was designed by architectural firm Chamberlin, Powell and Bon. The construction work started in 1968 and it was completed in 8 years. The historic site prior to Barbican development was destroyed in 1940 Blitz bombing. The site was cleared and prepared for a new development. A huge area was excavated for ground works. The MoL provides with open underground space. It was created using bored piling system, with steel reinforcement bars and concrete. To create a stable foundations, vertical holes where drilled, reinforced bars installed and filled with concrete in-situ Concrete was mixed on site as well. Then, vibrating drill was inserted inside the concrete to remove any air bubbles and gaps in structure. Piles went as deep as 18 meters where structure exceeded 5 storeys and 12 meters otherwise. To stabilize the base 3 meters of ballast were topped and finished with floor slab. Once concrete set, the soil was excavated to create retaining walls to underground space (today car park and storage area).

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 4

Phase 5

C a s i n g ins t a lla t io n

D r illing

R e inf o r c e me nt ins t a lla t io n

P o u r c o nc r e t e

Ex t r ac t c a s ing

Design notes Solid foundation of the building makes the work with them and the building easier. Existing the structure is intact and proposed works do not require any additional foundations. New green wall and light well structure will be supported on standard size footings. They do not require new piles or deep foundations.

Barbican estate site after bombing, just before construction begun (Image sources: https://www.dezeen. com/2014/09/13/brutalist-buildings-barbican-estate-chamberlin-powell-bon/ [Accessed on 16 Jan 2018]).

Barbican under construction (Image sources: https://www.dezeen.com/2014/09/13/brutalist-buildings-barbican-estate-chamberlin-powell-bon/ [Accessed on 16 Jan 2018]).

Barbican under construction (Image sources: https://www. dezeen.com/2016/02/29/building-the-brutal-barbican-estate-london-construction-photographs-peter-bloomfield/ [Accessed on 16 Jan 2018]).

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5. STRUCTURE STRATEGIES EXISTING STRUCTURE

To support large and heavy structure of the building, new piles were drilled on the grid 10 x 10 meters. Equally spaced structural columns can take the same load and do not reshape under different loads acting on the structure (refer to load page).

DW

Lake

Mount

joy

Close

16.5m

12.5m

FB

Where tower grows above the museum building, there are extra foundation columns. They area placed in 4 main corners of the tower. It allowed to build over 30 storey tower that today accommodate various businesses.

Ward

Bdy

Shaftesbury

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Ironmongers Hall

Place TCB

DW

Cycle Hire Station

Car

Park

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LONDON WALL

(below)

Car Park

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Design notes It is important to create a structurally sound building. As the proposal is using existing structure it is important to understand the building to be able best use it or demolish it.

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5. STRUCTURE STRATEGIES EXISTING STRUCTURE

Barbican centre was inspired by Le Corbusier design principles. All 5 points of design were used by Architects. Pilotis to lift and lighten the structure, free open plan, free facade, ribbon windows and roof garden created a magnificent structure that corresponds to residential buildings as well as art gallery and other Barbican buildings. Structure of the building best represents these principles. The building was constructed in concrete frame. Columns sits on deep footings, concrete beams sits on top of them, with concrete floor joist running in opposite direction. Concrete floor slab is then applied on top. In the main exhibition space the beams and joints are organised differently. Here (see images below), floor joists goes above the concrete beam, supporting heave floors above.

Structural concrete column, in-situ, diameter 800mm, on 10m x 10m grid. Concrete mix of 28-day cube strengths of 34 N/mm2 or 42 N/mm2.

Structural concrete beam, in-situ, size 300mm x 800mm. Concrete mix of 28-day cube strengths of 34 N/mm2 or 42 N/mm2.

Despite the best intentions to create light and open spaces, the scale of the building and concrete structure give the impression of heavy and dark spaces. The exhibitions and artifacts can not be exposed to direct sunlight so most of the windows got blocked creating gloomy and unnatural environment. GL

Structural concrete bored piling, 1200mm diameter, up to 18m deep when supporting over 5 floors, otherwise 12m deep. Concrete mix of 28-day cube strengths of 34 N/mm2 or 42 N/mm2.

Design notes Existing concrete structure need to be penetrated and cut through to improve the environment - natural light, air quality and ventilation. Techniques of cutting through concrete need to be researched.

High walk by West wing. Wide concrete beams GSEducationalVersion and floor joists.

Structural concrete floor joists (size 125mm x 250mm) and floor slab (150mm thick), in-situ. @ 550mm centres. Concrete mix of 28-day cube strengths of 34 N/mm2 or 42 N/mm2.

3m ballast to stabilise and support the floor.

High walk suspended on additional concrete beam taking load from column.

Internally, floor joists sits on top of concrete beams to support heavy roof.

Detail of concrete frame / junction.

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5. STRUCTURE STRATEGIES DEMOLITION TECHNIQUES

As described in previous chapters, this project is looking to reuse existing Museum of London building. The structure of the building is a concrete frame with concrete piling up to 18m deep. The floor slabs are also reinforced concrete structures. Proposed scheme provides with a new light well in centre of the North West wing, that penetrates it from top floor all the way to the lower ground floor. To achieve it, a concrete demolition technique need to be applied. To the right, there are three different methods to do it, depending on the scale of the demolition. As the site is located in busy area of London, in direct neighbourhood to historic objects, schools and underground railway, there are few things that need to be considered when choosing the right technique. And that is:

1. Noise

2. Vibrations

3. Dust

5. Labour

6. Power supply required

7. Scale of demolition

4. Time involved

Large scale demolition techniques are achieved using heavy equipment like wrecking ball or excavators, or even explosives. Very practical on large scale demolition of the whole structure. Advantages: • quick demolition on large structures, • low demand on labour and time. Disadvantages: • produce lots of noise, vibrations and dust in the process, • remaining are difficult to recycle, • need to secure other works and neighbouring areas, • require stable and secure access to the site where work will be carried on.

More precise techniques like use of diamond saw cutter or pneumatic hammer allow for more controlled and pointed work. It is used on different size of projects and can go through different thickness. Advantages: • work on smaller scale projects, • precise and controlled areas that are cut, • possibility to cut through existing structures without need to stop other works. Disadvantages: • some techniques produce noise and vibrations, like hammer, • some techniques produce a lot of unusable waste, that comes in a form rubble of single blocks full of different materials.

Very delicate techniques using robotics, like laser or water jet. They work on both small and large scale projects and are able to cut through various thickness of concrete. Advantages: • very precise method, • requires single operator, • equipment is fairly small and can be used in most places.

Design notes The proposed demolition technique need to consider all above factors to be able to provide with the best solution. It is important to choose responsibly to avoid potential problems during the construction process, like Health and Safety issues, size of used equipment and delivery it to the site.

Disadvantages: • very advanced technique that requires specialist handling and large supply of power, • some techniques, like water jet, produce a lot of mess in the process and do not cut through reinforced bars.

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5. STRUCTURE STRATEGIES DEMOLITION TECHNIQUES

Construction decision - Diamond saw cutter Best for this project, taking into account neighbourhood and activities that take place there, the best solution would be to use diamond saw cutter. It allows for precise cuts through different thickness of concrete floors and walls. It is vibration and dust free, with reduced noise. It is operated by a single person. Also, to achieve curved cuts a special type of blade is used. A disadvantage at this point is produced waste. It contains both concrete and reinforced bars, what need to be later separated and broken down to smaller pieces. This can be achieved by use of different techniques. Control handle to lower blade.

Demolition sequence As the secondary structural elements of the building will be removed, there are certain steps to undertake to provide right Health and Safety measures. The contractor will have to make sure that the structure stay safe and stable all the time during the construction phase. Phase 1. Secure structure around demolition area by adding steel beams running opposite direction to the joists direction. Use temporary support to prevent collapse of the building.

Power supply to run the equipment.

Water supply to reduce friction and dust.

Phase 2. Process with cutting through the concrete. Start with small area then extended it to the full area of demolition. This way smaller pieces of structure can be removed and allow for their safe removal from the site.

Diamond blade. Can be changed to one that allow to cut curves.

Phase 3. Removal of waste from the site. To make it sustainable, disposed pieces are broken down to smaller aggregates and steel bars which can be reused in other projects.

Reinforced concrete slabs.

Diagram of Diamond saw cutter used to cut reinforced concrete slab.

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5. STRUCTURE STRATEGIES LOADS APPLIED ON THE STRUCTURE

Dead Load Dead load is applied by the structure of the building. Floor slabs are supported by concrete beams. They rest on concrete columns that later transfer the load onto foundation piles. Life Load Life load is applied on the structure by people, furniture and activities that take place in the museum, like jumping, putting away heavy items. Weather Wind Load

Negative wind load

Positive wind load

The museum building is well shielded by building in direct neighbourhood to it. Tall buildings are significantly reducing wind force on the walls and roof. Compression Opposite forces acting on structure can result in deforming building columns.

Dead load

Live load

Wind load

Bending Load Opposite forces acting on floor can result in bending it. KEY: Shear Load Distortion of structure

Opposite forces acting on structure canHydraulic result and in soil load deforming building frame by tilting it to one side. GSEducationalVersion

Dead load

Live load Wind load Structural force

KEY:

Distortion of structure Hydraulic and soil load Dead load Live load Wind load Structural force

Compression

Bend

Shear

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5. MATERIAL STRATEGIES FRAMING

Framing

Steel structure

This project is looking to provide with new sustainable way of living, planting and using space as integral whole.

Steel is widely available. It comes in various sizes and lengths. There are different grades of steel. Each of them defines how strong the structure is. Increasing thickness of steel beam makes it also stronger and it is possible to use longer spans without a need for vertical support.

Advantages:

Steel frame structures are used in many tall buildings surrounding the site. The frame is easy to install and it easy quite quick process to bold or weld beams and columns together.

Disadvantages:

This is also applied to materials choices. Where possible, re-used materials will be applied, like glass for roof reused from glass exhibition cabins. A new frame will be installed for a single structure that will support green wall, green house, light well and new high walks. Proposed frame has to be weather resistant, structurally strong, fireproof. It also will go against heavy concrete structure. The idea is to give proposed works light and contemporary look. Steel or timber frames are researched as they are best choice at this point.

There are different types of steel elements that are used for different purposes, like eco-joist can fit all the services and cables in domestic architecture, or cut plates beams with holes in the middle of vertical element of steel beam.

• easy and quick installation process • widely available • can create curved elements

• not sustainably sourced material • production process produce large amount of carbon dioxide • gives robust and heavy filling to it

Steel frame structure (image source: https://theconstructor. org/structures/construction-steel-structure-foundations-columns-beams-floors/18648/[Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

Timber structure Timber is widely available as construction material. It has much longer history of use. Timber, depending on type off tree it comes from, is divided into different grades. Each and every of them can find different application in architecture. Modern techniques allowed to treat timber and make it fire, weather, insect proof. Thanks to that even when exposed to harsh conditions, timber would sustain its quality.

Conclusion Considering the properties of both steel and timber frame structures, use of timber seems more sensible. We have to take into account the principles of the design, that is creating sustainable building. The material choice is bringing look of light and contemporary building in contrast with heavy and monolithic existing building and Barbican development.

However, it has its lifespan and will have to be replaced after few decades. To be able to use timber as a frame, it has to be of a specific grade, like C16 or C24, at specific size, span and spacing.

Advantages: • sustainable material • can be reused in different application when uses its properties • gives contemporary and warm feeling to it • perfect for prefabricated elements Disadvantages: • has many restrictions to the size and length on which in can be used • labour intense

Timber frame structure (image source: https://www.pinterest.co.uk/ pin/500110733592423040/?lp=true [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

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5. MATERIAL STRATEGIES TRANSPARENCY

Transparency

Translucent concrete

This project is looking to provide with new sustainable way of living, planting and using space as integral whole.

An innovative building material that has light-transmissive property. It is possible thanks to Plastic Optical Fibres (POF) added to the concrete mix. The concrete mix contain only fine aggregates like sand compared to standard concrete mix. The optical fibres are 4% to 5% by mix volume.

This is also applied to materials choices. Where possible, re-used materials will be applied, like glass for roof reused from glass exhibition cabins. Other materials will reflect the activities and separation for private and public spaces.

Mixing with the optical fibres do not lower the properties of concrete. It is can be used as a floor and load-bearing walls, wall cladding partition wall. This material gives a great opportunity to create an unique visual experience as well as allow light into dark area. People can ‘see shadows through the wall’ that indicate activities behind it.

Advantages: • have the same properties as normal concrete • improve lighting in the building without the need for additional artificial lighting • aesthetic view • many applications Disadvantages: • costly to produce • required skilled team to cast it •

Translucent concrete (image source: https://inhabitat.com/translucent-concrete/ [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

Polycarbonate panels These panels are know in construction industry for many years now. At the beginning, it was used in warehouses, sheds and other out buildings. Recently, it gain a new dimension - decorative and visual as well as aesthetic characteristics. In technical terms, it is a thermoplastic of high thermal stability, toughness and dimensional stability. It is resistant to many chemicals and maintain its rigidity in temperatures between 140°C and -20°C. It it widely used as a building decorative material, for semi-transparent finish. The surface of it change depending on weather conditions - sun, clouds, rain, and during night time. When it gets outside, interior is flooded with light and passers-by can see inside the building.

Conclusion Both material are suitable for this project and give best possible properties. However, time, cost and labour required for translucent concrete makes it undesired. Polycarbonate however, is easy and quick to install and gives more possibilities for use and application in the proposed project.

Advantages: • • • •

easy to produce widely recycled can create curves its surface changes depending on weather and time

Disadvantages: • on its own, it does not have any acoustic and thermal properties • has to be used as a part of double skin facade system

Use of polycarbonate panels in Beinfeld Architeture (image source: http://beinfield.blogspot.co.uk/2012/08/volo-aviation-helps-you-withyour-aia.html [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]).

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REFERENCES

Site analysis

Environmental

- Climate. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_ of_the_United_Kingdom [Accessed on 29 Dec 2017].

- GrowUp London urban farming. Available at: http://growup. org.uk [Accessed 19 Dec 2017].

- Temperature and rain analysis. Available at: https://www. statista.com/statistics/322658/monthly-average-daily-temperatures-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/ [Accessed on 30 Dec 2017].

Structure & Materials

- Temperature and rain analysis. Available at: http://www.holiday-weather.com/london/averages/ [Accessed on 30 Dec 2017]. - Demography https://www.trustforlondon.org.uk/data/topics/population-geography/ [Accessed on 5 Jan 2018].

- Barbican foundations and piling. Available at: http://www. barbicanliving.co.uk/barbican-story/construction/foundations/ [Accessed on 16 Jan 2018]. - Drilling through concrete. Available at : http://www.megasaw.com.au/concrete-cutting-techniques-from-the-experts/ [Accessed 18 Jan 2018].

- Owning houses in London. Available at: https://visual.ons. gov.uk/uk-perspectives-2016-housing-and-home-ownership-in-the-uk/ [Accessed on 5 Jan 2018].

- Alternative techniques to demolish concrete. Available at: http://www.concreteconstruction.net/how-to/repair/alternative-concrete-demolition-techniques_o [Accessed 18 Jan 2018].

- Ergonomics of standing work. Available at: https://www. ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/standing/standing_basic. html [Accessed 22 Jan 2018].

- Water jet. Available at: https://www.hydroblast.co.uk/concrete-removal/ [Accessed 18 Jan 2018].

- Ergonomics of standing work. Available at: http://www. drkarchitects.com/30343/id/creative-of-standing-desk-ergonomics-anthropometry-and-ergonomics-why-should-you-car e-work-while/ [Accessed 22 Jan 2018].

Precedents - Simmons Hall. Available at: https://www.archdaily. com/65172/simmons-hall-at-mit-steven-holl [Accessed 21 Jan 2018].

- Translucent concrete. Available at: https://www.slideshare. net/shashankjavalagi/translu [Accessed 18 Jan 2018]. - Polycarbonate. Available at: http://www.bpf.co.uk/plastipedia/polymers/polycarbonate.aspx [Accessed 18 Jan 2018]. - Steel frame structure. Available at: https://theconstructor. org/structures/construction-steel-structure-foundations-columns-beams-floors/18648/ [Accessed 21 Jan 2018].

- Laban Centre. Available at: https://www.e-architect.co.uk/ london/laban-centre [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]. - Laban Centre. Available at: https://www.dezeen. com/2016/12/11/herzog-de-meuron-laban-dance-centrenew-photographs-jim-stephenson/ [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]. - Laban Centre. Available at: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/ building/laban-centre-for-movement-and-dance/ [Accessed 21 Jan 2018]. - ReGen Villages. Available at: https://www.dezeen. com/2016/05/20/effekt-designs-regen-villages-produce-own-food-energy-danish-pavilion-venice-architecture-biennale-2016/ [Accessed 21 Jan 2018].

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Technology Report DSIT B  

Strategies report supporting design thesis project. It include for materials, and construction techniques, environmental and structural issu...

Technology Report DSIT B  

Strategies report supporting design thesis project. It include for materials, and construction techniques, environmental and structural issu...

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