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Vol. 8

Issue 2

December 2010

ISSN 0975-5195

www.jivaonline.net

JIVA

JOURNAL

OF INDIAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION KERALA

micro_mkd@224318

Reg. No. Kerengo 1666/11/2003-TC B2-7133/03 SDM, Thrissur


ISSN 0975-5195 Vol. 8 Issue 2 December 2010

JIVA JOURNAL OF INDIAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, KERALA

EDITOR Dr. LAIJU M. PHILIP

Printer & Publisher: Dr. Theodore John For

INDIAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, KERALA VETERINARIAN'S BUILDING TC 25/2068, DHARMALAYAM ROAD THIRUVANANTHAPURAM- 695 001


JIVA

JOURNAL OF INDIAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, KERALA INDIAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, KERALA OFFICE BEARERS PRESIDENT GENERAL SECRETARY VICE PRESIDENT (N Z) VICE PRESIDENT (S Z) VICE PRESIDENT (LV) JOINT SECRETARY (NZ) JOINT SECRETARY (SZ) JOINT SECRETARY(LV) TREASURER BUILDING COMMITTEE MEMBER EDITOR (NEWS LETTER) JIVA ONLINE COORDINATOR EDITOR(JIVAONLINE) WEB MANAGER

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Dr. V.K. RAMESAN Dr. GEORGE VARUGHESE Dr. ASHRAF P.V Dr. YOHANNAN Dr. JAYA K. R Dr. P. SASEENDRAN NAIR Dr. DEVARAJAN. P Dr. SUNITHA KARUNAKARAN Dr. SAI PRASAD. S Dr. GIRIDHAR. S Dr. ANNIE VARGHESE Dr. K. R. ARUN KUMAR Dr. DEEPU PHILIP MATHEW Dr. SIBY CHACKO

JIVA COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN

:

Dr. K. VINOD KUMAR

EDITOR

:

Dr. LAIJU M. PHILIP

TECHNICAL ADVISOR

:

Dr. S. SULOCHANA

CONSULTANT EDITORS

:

Dr. SHIBU SIMON

:

Dr. ARUN GEORGE

:

Dr. CHINTU RAVISANKAR

:

Dr. JOHN KURUVILA

:

Dr. PRADEEP. M

:

Dr. RANJITH MOHAN

:

Dr. AJITH. P.

:

Dr. SUNITHA KARUNAKARAN

:

Dr. SUNIL WILSON

MEMBERS


EDITORIAL The animal based industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors towards self employment in kerala. It is a vital industry linked to many jobs in the related industries. However the health and growth of this industry is threatened by the emergence of animal diseases. Veterinarians play a significant role in maintaining a healthy society and their role is not confined to just animal health, but includes food security besides animal welfare and public health. Since animals and humans share an indisperable bond, the risk of disease transmission is vulnerable. It should be noted that 75% of human emerging diseases in the recent times are directly or indirectly caused by animals and most of those pathogens could potentially be used as bio-war or in bio- terrorism and are of zoonotic importance. At present, the animal husbandry sector is passing through a crucial genture of decline in animal population at one end, but as the saying goes, there is a hope at the other end. The emergence of new trends in animal husbandry sectors has encouraged many youths to become an entrepreneur in animal husbandry activities. By the extension activities, our dream of self sufficiency can be fulfilled to an extent. In this issue, an attempt has been made to include articles that are directly applicable at field level as well as articles which throw light to advances in this sector. As we welcome the new year, at the outset, I take this opportunity to thank all the veterinarians for their commitment and wonderful contributions to JIVA. The year goneby had been genuinely encouraging and we are overwhelmed by the contributions received from our fellow veterinarians. The new year is already shaping up with exciting new ventures. WISH YOU A HAPPY NEW YEAR Dr. Laiju. M. Philip


JOURNAL OF INDIAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION, KERALA (JIVA) Journal of Indian Veterinary Association, Kerala (JIVA), the official organ of Indian Veterinary Association, Kerala is quarterly scientific periodical with international status (ISSN-0975-5195) will bring about the latest updates in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry Practices. The journal covers almost all topics of Dairying and Animal Husbandry besides special emphasis on Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Meat and Feed industry, Diagnostics and Bioinformatics. The Journal JIVA will be in wide circulation among all stakeholders of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry sector including the Veterinary Professionals working with Animal Husbandry Department, Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala Livestock Development Board, Milma, Techno Park, Veterinary and Medical Research Institutes of the country. The Online edition of the same can enthrall the veterinary professionals across the globe.

Guidelines To Authors 1.

For publishing in the journal, article may be sent to sent by email to editorjiva@gmail.com or laijuphilip@rediffmail.com

2.

Article may be sent typewritten in double space in A4 size paper.

3.

Review article, Research article from all fields of veterinary and animal sciences, Clinical Article/ Case Reports and General Article are invited.

4.

Research Article and Clinical article may be in the following format; t TITLE

t Author(s)

t Designation tAbstract (optional) t Keywords (optional) t Introduction t Materials and methods t Result t Discussion t Acknowledgement t References t Contact details of Communicating Author 5.

Title of the article should be clear and concise.

6.

Introduction should clearly state the purpose/ aim/ objective of the article.

7.

Authors and their affiliations should be mentioned below the title.

8.

Word limit for Research and General Article is 2000 words, including tables, graphs etc.

9.

Word limit for Clinical Article/ Case Report is 1500 words, including tables, graphs etc.

10. Tables, photographs, graphs etc. should bear the reference number (table 1, table 2 etc) and the title. 11. References should be arranged in alphabetical order and numbered. Reference should be given in the format; Name of the author(s), followed by year (in parenthesis), Title, Name of the Journal, Volume, Issue and Page Number. Eg. Vegad, J.L. (2008). Bird flu- an overview: JIVA: 8(1):1-11 12. Articles are accepted on the understanding that these have neither been published nor submitted for publication in any other journal/ publication either in part or in full.


CONTENTS CURRENT ISSUE Achievements Of Animal Husbandry Department Over Half A Decade...... R. Vijayakumar Strength, Weakness, Opportunities And Challenges Of Buffalo Production In Kerala.... P. C.Saseendran Augmenting Poultry Production In Kerala......... A Jalaludeen and D. Anish

7 10 12

RESEARCH ARTICLE Progeny-testing Of Bulls In Tropical Small Holding System A Status Paper On Kerala Programme.................. Ani S. Das, Shaji Antonyand Arunkumar. P.S

17

Health Status And Growth Performance Of Weaned Murrah Buffalo Calves Reared Under Different Management Practices............... Smijisha, A.S. And Kamboj, M.l.

23

Examination Of Organs Of Laboratory Animals Infected With Chlamydophila Abortus Isolates From Livestock Abortions............ Binu K. Mani, M. Mini, G.krishnan Nair and Binitha P Chacko

27 30

Effective Knowledge Transfer In Animal Husbandry Through Wshgs Innovative Tools Designed And Developed And Analysis Of Its Implications....... T.S. Rajeev, S., Ramkumar, Hari.R. C., R. Marshal and K.R. Rajesh

32

Survey On Quality Of Well Waters, Human And Animal Health At Eloor Industrial Area, Kerala............. Divya Rani Thomas, B. Sunil, and C. Latha

36

Prevalence Of Brucella Abortus Antibodies Among Slaughter House Workers And General Population Of Kollam District, Kerala State...... B. J. Deepthy , B. Bibin Becha , K.C. Bipin and P.C. Raveendran

39

Prevalence Of Helminth Parasites Of Camels (camelus Dromedaries) In The Anseba Region Of Eritrea, North East Africa............ Basharat Ahmed Pandit , Michael Kahsay, Sanjay Devarajan And Paulo Luis Valerino Cambra

42

Strength Of Belief And Adoption Of Selected Modern Veterinry Practices Adopted By The Tribal Livestock Farmers Of Attappady In Palakkad District Bimal. P. Bashir, P.J. Rajkamal, Rajeev T. S., Reeja George P. and K.A. Mercey

46

Effect Of Sanitizers On The Bacterial Counts Of Beef Carcasses E. Nanu, C. Latha, B Sunil K., Vrinda Menon and Deepa Jolly

49

CONTENTS......

Performance Of Vigova Ducks Under Farm Conditions In Kerala.......... Sabin George, Binoj Chacko, Justin Davis, Pramod S, Nisanth P and Muhammad Aslam M. K.


CONTENTS......

CLINICAL REPORT Cholangiohepatocellular Carcinoma In A Duck........ Daly C. Davis, C. R. Lalithakunjamma, Mammen J. Abraham and N.Divakaran Nair

53

Crystalluria And Urine Retention In A Pug....... Sumi Cherian, Praveena Babu, Seena K. M , Mammen J. Abraham and C.R. Lalithakunjamma

55

Pasteurellosis In A Buffalo Herd - A Brief Report............... Rajagopal R, G. K. Nair and M. Mini Dystocia Due To Conjoined Twins In A Cow.......... Mary James, Sanamma John, Jogi Mathew and Ajo Joseph Surgical Correction Of Umbilical Hernia Using Polypropylene Mesh In A Dog....... Smitha Thomas P., Ambily Narayanan and Sumi Chandran Therapeutic Claw Trimming For The Treatment Of Pododermatitis Circumscripta (Sole Ulcer) In A Cross Bred Holstein Friesian Cow....... Sunil Kumar .R, and Nithin .C. J

57 60 61 63

Rabies Antibody Seroprotection Rates Among Veterinarians In Kerala..... Biju P. Habeeb, Janus A. and S. Raju

65 66

Septicaemia Due To Escherichia Coli Infection In Silkie (silky) Fowl (gallus Gallus Domesticus)............ Sunitha Karunakaran, G. Krishnan Nair, M. Mini and P.S. Hareesh

68

Necrotizing Dermatitis Caused By Staphylococcus Intermedius In A Rabbit...... Chintu Ravishankar and C. N. Dinesh

GENERAL ARTICLE Milk Allergy And Other Health Disorders From Consuming Milk............ Sathian, C. T., V. Vishnu Savanth, Rajkumar, S.N. and Sudheer Babu, P

70

Myths About Dairy Cattle Breeding............. K. C. Raghavan

72 76 77

Early Neutering In Dogs (END) An Animal Birth Control Programme..... M.K.Narayanan and K.Rajankutty Medicinal Plants With Antimicrobial Property: An Overview.......... Bibu J.K.,, Rajagopal, R.and Sureshbabu T.

The editor/editorial board and referees are in no way responsible individually or collectively for the views, data and technical details presented in the contributed papers


CURRENT ISSUE

ACHIEVEMENTS OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY DEPARTMENT OVER HALF A DECADE R.Vijayakumar Director Animal Husbandry Department, Government of Kerala

· New buildings provided to district veterinary centres of Thrissur, Ernakulam Malappuram , Kannur ,Kollam, Allapuzha, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta

· Massive Foot & Mouth Disease vaccination programme taken up in the state through Animal Disease Control project with NDDB assistance in eleven districts and FMD-CP a centrally assisted programme in districts of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam & Pathanamthitta · District Veterinary Centre Kozhikode strengthened with modern diagnostic facilities establishing a new video endoscopy unit. · Telepathology units established in District Veterinary centres linking with disease diagnostic laboratories · Two ambulatory Veterinary service facilities established in Thiruvananthapuram and Palakkad.

· The Veterinary Biological Institute could successfully produce vaccine against the disease Duck Pastuerella that was a major concern to duck farmers. · Antibiotic sensitivity kits produced at Veterinary Biologicals Palode with the support of Rajeev Gandhi Institute of Biotechnology. · For the first time in the State a massive deworming programme to recently 2 lakh calved 7

Issue 2

· The Veterinary Biological Production Complex successfully produced the Mastitis diagnostic kit that helps farmers in early diagnosis of Mastitis

December 2010

· With a one time additional central assistance of Rs 300 Lakh the State lab for livestock, marine and agri products could be modernized and made functional in the campus of agricultural whole sale market at Maradu, Kochi. The lab assesses the quality of meat, agri and marine products for export.

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The Animal Husbandry sector of Kerala has witnessed a spectacular and impressive progress over the last four years owing to meticulous planning, comprehensive efforts and result oriented interventions. The progress during this period has constantly evolved from sustenance to full fledged commercial ventures. The department has been in the forefront of this success saga and has to its credit many applaudable achievements and has left no stone unturned, infiltrating into every possible market interventions to make the state self reliant in livestock and poultry production. The department's relentless pursuit of excellence in the production sector has created an aggrandize in milk, meat and egg production from 21.02 lakh tone in 200607 to 25.85 lakh tone of milk in 2009-10, 119.39 crore in 2006-07 to 160.6 crore of eggs in 2009-10 and 1.9 lakh tone in 2006-07 to 2.2 lakh tone of meat in 2009-10 and increasing constantly. During this period the department also propelled veterinary service sector into greater heights by strengthening and modernizing the infrastructure of veterinary institutions and rendering veterinary service at the door step of farmers, reaching out to them. Other major accomplishments include but not limited to successful implementation of food security projects, other packages like Vidharbha, RKVY, Tsunami rehabilitation programme etc. The department was also successful in percolating the essence of the sector to the general public and farmers through various exhibitions, seminars, classes and festivities. The salient achievements are listed below Strengthening and modernization of veterinary services


CURRENT ISSUE

animals undertaken · 12 Local Self Governments provided with assistance worth Rs 43 lakh for construction of new buildings for Veterinary clinical institutions · D i s t r i c t Ve t e r i n a r y c e n t re s w e re strengthened at Thiruvananthapuram, Palakkad & Kannur with video endoscopes and Idukki and Kozhikode with ultrasound units. · Facilities for diagnosis of Rabies established in Rinderpest Lab Palakkad and Avian Disease Diagnostic Lab Thiruvalla.

December 2010

· Farmers of the State trained in different AH activities. · Regional exhibitions invoking massive public participation conducted at Peringottukara, Vattamkulam and Karunagapally. · A documentary on departmental activities produced

· A new Breeding policy formulated and enforced in the State to improve the genetic make up of our livestock and internal production.

· Exhibitions conducted at Onam Fair in Thiruvananthapuram to disseminate information and knowledge to public

· Artificial Insemination made free of cost to farmers

· The Department participated in the India International Trade Fair at New Delhi and bagged special commendation prize.

· New buildings provided to Regional Artificial Insemination Centre & Intensive Cattle Development Project at Thiruvananthapuram and Regional Artificial Insemination Centre Pathanapuram.

Issue 2

· A new Livestock Management Training centre at Kottayam

· As part of diversification of Veterinary Biological production centre a pharmaceutical production unit established Expansion of cross breeding activities

· Conservation of extinct breed of Attapady Black goats taken up through KLDB with 100% Central assistance.

JIVA Vol. 8

sector was instituted for the first time in the State as part of encouraging and recognizing farmers. Awards for best dairy, poultry, integrated young farmer and women farmer at state and district level and award for best performing animal welfare organization is given every year

· A Class with kit programme taken up through 100 selected institutions. · Information Kiosks for providing information to farmers installed at public places. · A Study tour for elite farmers conducted and visited NDDB and other states to share experiences with other farmers.

· 779 centres provided with goat artificial insemination facilities worth Rs 110 Lakh

· A spectacular event the “National Livestock Show & Food Festival conducted at Thiruvananthapuram this year.

Special livestock breeding programme

· Animal welfare clubs established in many schools.

· Approximately 22 thousand female calves enrolled each year and provided with feed at subsidized and health care, promoting scientific management practices, reducing age at maturity and increasing production.

· Investors meet organized to promote entrepreneurs in this sector Strengthening of farms

· As part of Presidents Mission for poverty alleviation 3860 crossbred calves enrolled in 200607 Extension activities

· With 80% Central Assistance, the Duck Farm Niranam and Turkey Farm Kollam could be strengthened and modernized. Regional poultry Farm Malampuzha, Mundayad modernized.

·

·

Award to best progressive farmers in AH 8

Regional Poultry Farm, Kodappanakunnu,


CURRENT ISSUE

and two farms of KSPDC strengthened under 80% Central assistance scheme · Jersey Farm Vithura modernized worth Rs 199.95 Lakh to house 150 cattle

Palakkad, Wyanad and Kasargode worth Rs 42 crores over a period of three years.9000 milch cows could be inducted to our State. · Rashtriya krishi vikas yojana schemes being successfully implemented since 2007-08

· The Goat Farm Parassala strengthened and modernized worth Rs 52.539 Lakh for housing 200 goats

· Tsunami rehabilitation programme worth Rs 5.5 crore successfully completed

· Central Hatchery Chengannur strengthened constructing grower houses, sick room, mortality pit etc.

· Kuttanad and Idduki packages being implemented

· Pig Breeding Farm Kappad strengthened worth Rs 21.70 lakh to rear parent stock

· Insurance scheme with GOI funds extended to eleven districts except Kasargode, Malappuram & Pathanamthitta

· An emu unit established in the district Livestock Farm Kudappanakunnu. · Three departmental poultry farms viz District Poultry farm Athavand, Regional Poultry Farm Koovapady and Regional Poultry Farm Manarcaud strengthened with GOI assistance. · Fodder cultivation promoted in four Departmental livestock farms Food security programme · An integrated scheme “ Jeevarekha” with one time additional central assistance worth Rs 10 crore launched in the state in which 6860 farmers could be benefited

· AHEAD software successfully developed, installed and running · A new website “www.ahd.kerala.gov.in” developed in the content management framework · Mobile phones under a CUG network being provided to all vets this year with a unique number for farmer's access · A Geographical Information system for the department developed

5000 pregnant heifers introduced in the state · The Government constituted a high level expert committee “Hali Committee” to study and suggest strategy to improve the internal production of milk meat and egg and the report was submitted to the government · A new Veterinary University was formed in the state

· 4500 Small and medium scale dairy farms supported by providing medicine and technical advice free of cost

· The Government initiated steps to establish new Cattle feed manufacturing unit at Karunagappally

·

· Two layer pullets each provided free of cost to 4.16 Lakh BPL families.

10000 animal health camps conducted

· A scheme for women self groups ”Gramareshmi” being implemented this year Other packages and special programme · Special package for suicide prone districts (Vidharbha package) implemented in the districts of

9

December 2010

· A scheme to boost up internal production of egg worth Rs 1 Crore through Kerala State Poultry Development Corporation launched

Other commendable achievements

Issue 2

· A scheme of Agriculture department worth Rs 140 Lakh implemented in Palakkad, Thrissur, and Pathanamthitta wherein 1500 milch animals inducted last year and a scheme worth Rs 2.5crore being implemented this year

JIVA V o l . 8

·

· Duck Insurance scheme for 7 lakh ducks launched in the state Information communication technology


CURRENT ISSUE

STRENGTH, WEAKNESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF BUFFALO PRODUCTION IN KERALA. P. C. Saseendran, Ph.D., Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy. India ranked first in milk production with 111 million tonnes annually. Buffaloes are the backbone of India's milk production. Buffaloes produced more than 60% of the milk in India. The population of buffaloes was 97.9 million as per 2003 census in comparison to the 185.2 million cattle population. Buffaloes in India are being raised mostly for milk production as evidenced by the 51 million buffaloes cows comprising 52 % of the total population. Whereas cattle cows of 64.5 million was only 34.82% of the population. But in Kerala buffloes contribution with it meager 75000 populations is very low. When we try to augment buffaloes contribution in Animal husbandry sector of the State a SWOC analysis is needed.

JIVA Vol. 8

Issue 2

December 2010

STRENGTH High commercial viability. In Kerala more than 60% milk is sold as liquid milk and per liter cost of buffalo milk is 20% more than cow milk. Buffalo milk gives 5-10% more yield than cow milk in fat-based and SNF-based milk products manufacture such as butter, ghee and milk powders because of its lower water content and higher fat content. Better Resistance at adverse conditions. Buffloes thrive better than cows on low quality feed and fodder resources. They are naturally resistant to disease and grow faster than other domestic animals. They are better adapted to waterlogged backwater and river basins conditions as they are resistant to schistosomiasis. Better and healthy products: Cholesterol content of buffalo milk is 0.65 mg/g as compared to the corresponding value of 3.14 mg/g for cow milk. The lower cholesterol value, presence of higher levels of various bio protective factors, such as immunoglobulin, lactoferrin, 10

lysozyme, lactoperoxidase as well as bifidogenic factors, make buffalo milk more popular in the health conscious market and more suitable than cow milk for the preparation of a wide range of special dietary and health foods. Higher innate levels of proteins and fat make buffalo milk a more economical alternative to cow milk for the production of casein, caseinates, whey protein concentrates and a wide range of the fat-rich dairy products. Proteins of buffalo milk, particularly the whey proteins, are more resistant to heat denaturation as compared to the cow milk proteins. Dried milk products prepared from buffalo milk is more suitable for those technological applications where higher levels of undenatured whey proteins were needed. Better appeal: Greater opacity of casein miscelles, coupled with higher levels of colloidal proteins, calcium and phosphorus make buffalo milk more densely white and superior whitening properties as compared to cow milk distinctively whiter buffalo milk and cream is having better appeal than the pale-creamish yellow cow milk and golden yellow cow milk fat. Buffalo milk is, therefore, more aptly suitable for the production of tea and coffee whiteners than cow milk. Better cheese: Cheese is the largest selling milk products in the world. Cheese made from buffalo milk displays typical body and textural characteristics. Certain delicacy cheese like Mozzarella cheese of Italy, traditional cheese varieties, such as paneer in India or pickled cheeses from the Middle-East countries, are best made from buffalo milk. Better nutrients; Buffalo milk has about 11.42 per cent higher protein than cow milk. Animal bioassays have shown the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) value of buffalo milk proteins to be 2.74 and that of cow milk as 2.49. Buffalo


CURRENT ISSUE

labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 km of waterways is a ideal setting for water The Vembanad lake is in fact the largest lake in India. The vast 15000 hecters of kole land is being used for paddy cultivation provide good amount of postharvest products. Demand supply gap for milk and meat. There is daily shortage of 6 lakh liters of milk in Kerala. Similarly daily percapita consumption of less than 10g is just half of the requirement. Huge investment proposal for milk production. NDDB has announced its plan to invest more than 15000 crores of rupees for augmenting milk and meat production which gives ideal impetus for buffalo production.

11

Issue 2

Establishing nucleus breeding stock, Nucleus stock of best buffaloe breeds having high genetic potential needs to be developed. The required infrastructure needed to be developed with funding source. Reduction of calf mortality. Buffalo calf mortality is very high and more than 40% at national level. A structured management and health protocol needs to be developed to bring down the calf mortality to the desired level. Developing buffalo milk collection and processing facilities. There is no specialized system for collection and processing of buffalo milk. There should be provision to give competitive price in comparison to the market price. There are exclusive products of buffalo milk and meat which require the development of expertise and skill manpower. Development of skilled manpower premium buffalo milk and meat products. Training modules for farmers in milk and meat products is not developed in massive scale. This has to be taken up in a holistic manner with sufficient involvement of unemployed or underemployed youth and women

December 2010

CHALLENGES

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milk is also superior to cow milk in terms of important minerals, namely calcium, iron and phosphorus which are higher by 92 per cent, 37.7 per cent and 118 per cent respectively than those present in cow milk. Buffalo metabolizes all the carotein into vitamin A, which is passed on to milk as such. Better and healthy meat: Buffalo meat tastes better than beef which has a lighter, sweeter flavor and doesn't leave a greasy feel in your mouth. Another interesting fact that makes about buffalo is the health benefits that come with it. Not only does it have 70% to 90% less fat compared to beef, on average it has 50% less cholesterol. And on top of that, it is higher in protein, iron and all the omega and amino acids. WEAKNESS Lack of sustainable population. Kerala's 64000 buffalo population is not sufficient to augment and sustain buffalo production. The problem is confounded by the fact that existing population consists mostly of nondescript types with a average milk production of less than 4kg per day. Lack of good sources of buffaloes. There is no nucleus stock of c hoice breed available with any of the organized or private sector. Bringing the good breeds from its home tract needs lot of investment and policy decisions. Lack of infrastructure for buffalo production. The artificial insemination facilities, milking machine availability, management skills and feed resources are lacking for buffalo production. Lack of skilled manpower. Buffloes require more skilful persons to manage especially for milking. They are comparatively hard milkers and slow letting down of milk. Lack of needed social acceptance: People of kerala over the years developed attachment and attraction towards crossbreds. The social acceptance of buffalo is low in compario to the cattle. OPPORTUNITIES: Contusive geographical atmosphere: Kerala is a 560 km long, narrow stretch of land with 44 rivers and backwaters having a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes and inlets, a


CURRENT ISSUE

AUGMENTING POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KERALA A Jalaludeen Associate Dean, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Pookot, Wayanad & D Anish Assistant Professor, Dept of Poultry Science, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy

Poultry production is largely a backyard enterprise even today in Kerala. Backyard poultry farming is still thriving especially in rural and semiurban areas. Till a couple of decades ago, the major share of the demand for eggs and poultry meat was met by village chicken. With increasing population, dwindling per capita availability of land and a high degree of urbanization, the number of households rearing chicken is came to a low. At the same time, there was a growing consumerism with an increase in per capita income. Thus a paradoxical situation developed in which supply was reduced and demand was increased, both caused by the same factors. The vacuum was filled by the flow of poultry products from neighbouring states, which have witnessed a revolutionary commercialization of poultry sector.

JIVA Vol. 8

Issue 2

December 2010

P R E S E N T S TAT U S O F P O U LT RY FARMING IN KERALA Commercialization of layer farming which occurred in South India during seventies and eighties had put Kerala in a disadvantageous position due to non-availability of inputs in general and feed materials in particular. We could not transform our poultry farming in to an industrial model. We remained backward in terms of commercial egg production. To cater our needs, we have got a continuous inflow of commercial table eggs from other states. Poultry population was also reduced due to the penetration of the cheaper commercial table eggs to every nook and corner of Kerala. Barring the public sector, practically there are no organized layer farms in Kerala as of now. With respect to meat birds, we have again seen a large inflow of commercial broilers from the neighbouring states. In the last two decades, small scale broiler 12

farming was flourished across the state. With the influx of live broiler chicken, the economic viability of these farms were affected, with the result they were compelled to close down. Again, in the last couple of years, a renewed interest in broiler farming is visible across Kerala. This can be ascribed to the financial slowdown in Gulf countries, which caused people to look for alternative livelihood resources like broiler farming. Nevertheless, broiler farming is also in its infancy stage compared to other South Indian states.

KERALA'S CONSTRAINTS 1. Increased pressure of population on land: Kerala has the third highest population density among big Indian states. Cost of land has increased considerably in recent years, as people started thinking of land as an investment. This is a constraint in starting large scale farms. 2. Inadequate availability of chicks: Public sector sources like Government and University farms have been the major sources of backyard chick supply in Kerala. However, the production capacity of these sources is too inadequate even for demand from villages. As far as supply of commercial chicks is concerned, domestic sources are totally inadequate. 3. High dependence of neighbouring states for commercial chicks: As commercial layer farming is rare is Kerala, the demand for commercial layer chicks is relatively less. In terms of broiler chicken, we largely depend on breeder farms located in Tamil Nadu for commercial broiler chicks and hatching eggs. However, many franchisee hatcheries are operating in Kerala which cater limited demand of chicks. 4. Insufficient feed resources: Energy and protein ingredients which are needed for compounding poultry feed is not available in sufficient quantities. We have to


CURRENT ISSUE

7. High wage structure: The wage structure prevalent in Kerala is not conducive for poultry farming activities, especially large-scale layer and broiler farming. 8. Seasonality of demand: Various slumps and peaks of demand is seen in the market with respect to poultry products especially broiler meat. 9. High cost of chicks: As the commercial chicks are not from breeder farms located in Kerala, the cost of chicks is higher than other states. The cost is also much variable around the year. 10. Non availability of quality feed : Although many branded commercial / poultry feeds are available in the Kerala market, quite often their nutrient content is variable which may affect the egg / meat output. The way forward Depending on adjacent states for basic food security of our state is not sustainable in long run. We

We need to follow a dual pronged strategy by simultaneously improving the production by masses in the rural areas (backyard system) and mass production for urban markets (intensive system). The needs of both systems are different. Improving backyard production The backyard system is a low - input low technology system which mostly depends on scavenging with an amount of supplementary feeds. Desirable characteristics of a backyard bird are (1) coloured plumage both in aesthetic as well as survival point of view (2) bigger body size and some amount of aggressiveness (3) medium to good productivity even under scavenging/low nutrient system (4) disease resistance (5) tropical adaptability (6) self propagation (7) brown or tinted eggs. ` The backyard birds which are available in markets will be sufficient in this respect. They include gramasree and gramalakshmi from KAU, gramapriya from PDP, Hyderabad and many other varieties.

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December 2010

6. Insufficient availability of poultry healthcare: Poultry are susceptible to many fatal viral infections which can be effectively prevented by vaccination. Quality vaccines with high efficacy are the most important need for commercial poultry farming. Vaccines for backyard poultry, especially R2B strain of New Castle disease is available both from Government sources as well as private sector. However, vaccine vials with more doses is not suited for village poultry since they are being reared in tens.

For any industry to grow through an infancy stage and to flourish, it is necessary to have a encouraging financial and policy push from the government machinery besides a favourable investment climate. The availability of credit from commercial banks is half-hearted and the interest rates have been at a higher side. Provision of various kinds of input subsidies from the government side, in par with agricultural farming helps in developing an infantile sector and influence entrepreneurs to adopt newer technologies.

Issue 2

5. Environmental pollution: Kerala's high population with its high waste output is already giving pressure to its fragile ecosystem. Poultry litter and excreta are highly rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, and have high capacity for pollution if not used judiciously. Moreover, our habit of dumping the slaughter wastes on the sides of highways can cause pollution and spread of diseases among humans and animals. On the contrary, over conscious public, LSG officials and pollution control board also stand in the way of Animal Husbandry farming practices.

can clearly see that production of eggs and meat from commercial poultry units stationed in Kerala, supplemented with the production from backyard units can only be a lasting solution to gratify our needs. Commercial poultry farming in Kerala will be a viable proposition if attempted with a definite strategy. By improving the poultry production in Kerala, we can reduce the money flow to outside the state and can improve employment opportunities and economic activities inside the state and boost up our markets.

JIVA V o l . 8

solely depend on bordering states for maize and soybean, which are essential for production of commercial feed. Even though unsalted dried fish is available in Kerala, the quantity may not be sufficient for a bigger output. Moreover, the monsoon climate prevailing over the state creates problems in open-air drying of fish.


JIVA Vol. 8

Issue 2

December 2010

CURRENT ISSUE

We need to: (1) Improve the availability of backyard varieties of chicken from various sources. Presently these birds are available from public sector sources like farms and hatcheries of Department of Animal Husbandry, Government of Kerala, farms of KAU and KSPDC. The numbers available from public sector sources cannot cater the market demand in full. We need to expand the activities of these sources to increase the chick production. In the private sector, many individual farmers and self-help groups undertake chick/egger nursery in which they rear chicks for about 6-8 weeks before sale to farmers. This has been found to be a profitable enterprise and the demand for their chicks is high. However, these businesses suffer from a lower availability of hatching eggs and day-old chicks. We need to create a viable public - private partnership model to ensure supply of hatching eggs and chicks to these nurseries. (2) Popularization of backyard farming using improved varieties like gramasree or gramalakshmi will not be sustainable if we cannot ensure their propagation. Unfortunately, the character of broodiness is lost when we select the birds for better egg production. Therefore, a small number of broody hens will be necessary in rural areas for replenishment of the stock. However, as the productivity of broody type hens are lower, it needs a separate marketing channel apart from improved backyard varieties. It is advisable that KAU and Government farms to collect native broody type chicken from field, and propagate a flock to supply to backyards in small numbers. This is important in conservation angle too. (3) Popularization of homestead farming: this refers to rearing of commercial layer birds in homes using homestead cages. Five to ten high producing commercial White Leghorn birds like “Athulya” will be more than sufficient for a household. This system may not be economically viable always as these birds are not allowed to scavenge for feed and we need to supply high quality layer feed in sufficient 14

quantities to these birds. Moreover, commercial birds cannot attain full productivity with household wastes alone. However, by adopting homestead cages we can ensure availability of fresh, wholesome eggs to the households and neighbourhoods where space for scavenging or foraging is not there with little additional cost. Popularization of homested farming has some prerequisites. Firstly, scientifically made homested cages and the technology to make them be made available widely. Secondly, as facilities for brooding chicks will not be available, we need to supply grower or ready-to-lay pullets to households. Promoting self-help groups or egger nurseries is an option to ensure supply if demand is consistent. Thirdly, quality grower and layer feed must be available in lower quantity packaging like 5-10 kg packets. It can also prevent spoilage of feed in Kerala's hot and humid climate, if we store feed for prolonged period. Encouraging commercial layer farming Commercial layer farming is not presently popular in Kerala due to various factors as discussed earlier. However, this does not mean that we should not make initiatives in this line. Other South Indian states, especially Tamil Nadu are examples for us. · More than 70% of raw materials for egg production in Tamil Nadu are brought from outside the state, similar to the situation in Kerala. · Supplies of some of the equipment, medicines, biological, most of parent stock and other inputs in Tamil Nadu are effected from outside, like in Kerala. Of course, Tamil Nadu has a good supply chain system. · Domestic market in Tamil Nadu does not support utilization of its production in total and hence depend on states like Kerala for marketing. On the other hand, domestic market in Kerala is of huge potential. To increase the egg production from commercial layers in Kerala, (1) The volume of operation must be large. About one lakh layer birds and above will be optimum. (2) To cut down the cost of operation and wages, automation must be done in feeding, egg


15

Issue 2

ensure not only veterinary inspected clean meat to consumers, but can also buffer the farmers against the seasonal losses. Many private companies have now come up with branded dressed chicken which is a positive sign. Live bird market need to be discouraged to prevent the spread of zoonotic diseases too. (4) We need to enhance the availability of equipment, biologicals and other inputs. It is desirable to have at least a location in a district from where these will be available. (5) We also need to have at least a lab in each of the three regions of Kerala for testing feed ingredients and compounded feed for nutritive value and toxic factors. Facility for testing water quality is also important. (6) Environmental pollution need to be of a biggest concern in the delicate ecosystem of Kerala. Poultry litter has a very high nutrient quality which is also capable of pollution. Dumping the slaughter wastes unscientifically is not only dangerous to public health, but also a loss of potential revenue. However, there is a lack of clear-cut guidelines and clarity of regulations regarding environmental pollution. Many a times this lack of clarity of guidelines creates an unnecessary roadblock to start poultry farming rather than the pollution itself. It is the need of the hour to rationalize, clarify and compile pollution-related laws with respect to animal farming in general and poultry farming in particular. Other Poultry Enterprises Quail Farming: quail farming is a flourishing enterprise at present in many parts of Kerala. However, the demand for quail egg and meat is confined to some districts. Unlike the broiler sector, the demand is fairly consistent. Broiler feed available in market or its simple modifications are used for quail rearing. Quails require no vaccinations as they suffer from fewer diseases compared to chicken. Quail farming is generally profitable and we need to take measures to propagate it in those areas where it is feasible. (1) At present, quality quail chicks are available

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collection, watering etc. (3) Measures must be taken to produce / procure quality chicks at competitive rates. (4) Feed cost contributes 75% of production cost, on an average. So every measure must be taken to reduce it. Own feed milling and mixing need to be done in automated plants. (5) Promoter should market egg on their own, avoiding middle men. (6) Overseas markets need to be explored and exploited. (7) Government must encourage the entrepreneurs who come up with projects for commercial layer farming giving all promotions and considerations given to industrial sector. A portion of money earmarked for ensuring food security can be diverted towards this. Supporting commercial broiler farming It has been felt that the biggest problem faced by broiler farming in Kerala is the seasonal fluctuation in demand. In the slump seasons, farmers do face losses. Moreover, there is a very high increase in chick costs too in a cyclical fashion. The major cause for this cost rise and losses are the demand-supply market mechanism. Because of these factors, broiler integration is pickin gup steadily in Kerala. (1) Steps must be taken to promote broiler parent breeder farms in private sector in different parts of the state. Alternatively support can be extended for establishing franchise hatcheries. Market interventions by the government via KSPDC can stabilize and buffer market variations, as was done previously. (2) Quality broiler feeds are available in market from well-known companies. Milling and mixing facilities at farm level will be economical if the farmer rears more chicks in the farm. (3) In the long run, it is not possible to get a stable income from a fluctuating market. It is necessary to change the consumption pattern of consumers. Presently the consumers of Kerala believe that a bird killed and dressed in front of him is wholesome, and consumers do not prefer frozen meat. Extensive advertisement and marketing strategy has to be followed in this respect. This can

December 2010

CURRENT ISSUE


CURRENT ISSUE

JIVA Vol. 8

Issue 2

December 2010

from private and public sector, both in day-old stage and grower stages. However, these sources are not able to satisfy the requirements, and farmers need to book for chicks months in advance. Ensuring adequate availability of quail chicks is necessary. (2) Scientifically made quail cages and its technological know-how like dimensions and space requirements need to be widely available so that aspiring entrepreneurs do not suffer from lack of availability of cages. (3) Although many quail feeds are available in Kerala market, many times they cannot support full production since their nutrient balance is variable. Ensuring quality feed is of utmost importance for supporting quail farming. Duck Farming: Farming of egg type ducks, especially the Kuttanadan ducks has been popular in many parts of Kerala. Our rearing system involves taking a flock of about 1000-2500 ducks to waterbodies and post harvest rice fields where leftover grains are available. However, as the number of waterbodies and rice producing areas has diminished the scavenging feed availablility of egg type ducks are on a decline. Unfortunately, it will not be economical to rear our indigenous ducks for egg purpose under full compounded feed. In order to augment duck egg production, backyard duck rearing

16

may be emphasized in house holds, especially in places where water bodies / paddy fields are available nearby. However, there is a demand for duck meat in some cities of Kerala and the cost is also very high. There is a big scarcity of quality meat type ducklings in the state. Steps must be taken to ensure supply of high quality ducklings like Pekin / Vigova to interested farmers. Meat type ducklings are reared like that of broiler chicken, even though the feed conversion efficiency is not comparable.

CONCLUSION s To conclude, we must understand that we can build a flourishing poultry sector in Kerala by following a sound strategy; from establishing breeder farms, production of compounded feeds, and automation of farms to tricky marketing.

s Steps must be initiated for developing a sound poultry production policy.

s Considering the potential of poultry as one of the tools for achieving food security, Government support for its production is significant.

s We must develop a single window system for the entrepreneurs who wish to start commercial poultry farming.

s Co-ordination of various Government agencies in poultry production activities is the need of the hour.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

PROGENY-TESTING OF BULLS IN TROPICAL SMALL HOLDING SYSTEM- A STATUS PAPER ON KERALA PROGRAMME. 1

2

3

1

Managing Director, 2Deputy General Manager & 3Deputy Manager Kerala Livestock Development Board, Thiruvananthapuram

Breeding programme in Kerala Improvement programme for cattle in Kerala started in 1951 through Key village schemes 1 and later through Intensive Cattle Development 2 3 Project (ICDP). Over decades the breeding programme of the state was refined. The programme 17

Issue 2

Dairy production in India is smallholder dominated. This system is preponderated with animals having poor milk production ability, poor dairy temperament, higher age at first calving and longer inter-calving interval; most of them also lack 'wanting traits' for draft purpose and are not classifiable under any breeds. Such nondescript (ND) animals without dairy predisposition are main feature especially among smallholding in the coastal belt of the country with hot humid climate, dairy breeds having evolved in the hot arid zones of North India and Deccan plateau. The cattle population of Kerala by and large fell into this category of ND animals. However, the animals possessed characters like disease resistance and adaptability to callous environmental factors. Milk production enhancement in a population with primacy of such ND cattle can be achieved either through grading up with recognized dairy breeds in tropics or crossing with exotic breeds like Holstein Friesian and Jersey. Former option had limited benefit since the dairy breeds were accustomed to hot arid climate, when the State has a hot-humid climate. Breeding of ND cattle with exotic dairy breeds was a sound choice for improving milk production potential, since conservation of ND cattle, which doesn't serve man's need in any way, is not justified. The large gap in productivity of the counter parts helped in vertical enhancement of milk production and reproduction traits among cattle in the state. The accepted level of exotic inheritance in the crosses involving an exotic donor breed being around 50% the breeding programme warranted inter-se mating of the first filial (F1) generation to retain required levels of disease tolerance and robustness. Crossbreeding, once unheard of in dairy circles, is becoming a more popular concept in the industry

worldwide. In dairying, most interest has been in trying to capitalize on heterosis to improve fertility and longevity rather than on milk production. Indeed, no breed out produces Holsteins, which make up 92 per cent of worlds dairy cow population. No breed has milk component levels higher than those of Jerseys. There have been concerns, however, about increased levels of cull rates, fertility, inbreeding, and health and fitness traits in traditional dairy breeds. However, in the crossbreeding practices for tropics involving the local genetic material as one counterpart, a major set back expected consequent to inter-se mating, is reduction of productivity from F1 to subsequent filial generations. Some form of rotational crossbreeding is usually used to take advantage of heterosis but also have relatively consistent results. A two-breed rotation where the offspring are bred back successively to one of the parent breeds maintains 67 per cent of the heterosis expressed as F1s. However, the advantage of rotational crossbreeding for tapping heterosis is reported as doubtful when comparing the complicity of the scheme. Hence, the deterioration in the crossbred over generation can be compensated and productivity enhanced only through a sound and continuous selection programme. This paper deals with the selection programme in tropical smallholder dairy sector with special emphasis on progeny testing (PT) as the tool, taking experiences of Kerala Livestock Development Board (KLDB) as a case study.

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INTRODUCTION

December 2010

Ani S. Das , Shaji Antony and Arunkumar. P.S. Kerala Livestock Development Board, Thiruvananthapuram


RESEARCH ARTICLE

that started with production and supply of superior bulls for natural service, under went many changes such as adoption of artificial insemination (AI) programme. The establishment of Indo-Swiss project of Kerala (ISPK), the present KLDB in 1964 was a major step in the success of the Kerala programme. A key aspect of the project was the introduction of the frozen semen technology and the establishment of a semen laboratory-cum-bull station in Mattupatti, which was the first of its kind in the country. AI had earlier been introduced in India through the Key Village Scheme of Government of India (GOI). The liquid semen technology employed at the time, however, greatly limited the distribution of semen because it could not be stored for long periods. The frozen semen technology introduced by the KLDB allowed long-term storage and long-range transport of bull semen, which made the setting up of largescale AI network possible in the state. The crossbred bulls for use in the state are sourced through four different ways in the state as given below.

programme of the state possess the following infrastructure. The genetic improvement in the target population is obtained through AI from over 2900 centers spread all over the state.

· Bulls procured from Field Performance Recording (FPR) area, which are progenies of best 3% cows in the area and are mated with proven crossbred bulls (selected through PT programme) and young F1 bulls (progenies of proven exotic bulls)

· Training facility for imparting hands-on practical training in the areas related to cattle breeding activities. Progeny Testing - Its Need And General Considerations Rendel and Robertson (1950) had estimated that in cattle improvement programmes involving the use of frozen semen for AI, 77% of the genetic progress will be through the paths cow to bull and bull to bull. A similar trend was also reported in the Zebu cattle of India (Acharya and Lush, 1968). Van Tassell and Van Vleck (1991) investigated weighted selection differentials for yield in the four paths of selection (sires and dams of bulls and sires and dams of cows) for births in the mid to late 1970s in the Northeastern United States. For sires of bulls, weighted selection differential was approximatelyequal to the potential, based on merit of available animals. In all other paths, actual selection differentials were far below the potential. Most disappointing was the merit for sires of cows, which were selected with only one third of the potential differential. Hence it can be concluded that the bulls used as sires in dairy cattle largely determine the genetic progress of future generation. PT being the best option

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· Bull born to Crossbred cows in the KLDB farms having superior production potentials, mated with proven crossbred bulls and young F1 bulls · F1 bulls born to Zebu cows in the field, inseminated with imported semen of proven exotic bulls (Jersey and Holstein Friesian). This helps in improving the productivity of the target population through incorporation of genetic superiority realized elsewhere in the world and also increases the genetic variance in the population. The latter increase the response to selection in later generations · Bulls born to embryo transferred cows using embryos produced through super ovulation of top elite cows in the KLDB farms/ FPR area, which are subjected to nominated mating with proven bulls The KLDB for implementing the breeding 18

· Bull mother herds of about 250 numbers in two nucleus farms · Replacement bulls/cows in the nucleus farms · Three bull stations/sperm stations keeping around 160-180 bulls in semen production · Seven regional semen banks for distributing the semen produced in the sperm stations to the AI centers based on a bull rotation programme and supply schedule. · Facilities for making available necessary liquid nitrogen (LN) for storage of frozen semen in the production station, during distribution and in the AI centers · Progeny testing area for FPR with a capacity to test 50 daughters each of 40 bulls annually


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Progeny Testing Programme in Kerala Owing to the fast progress made in the crossbreeding programme of Kerala, and acceptance of AI with frozen semen as the tool, 50% of frozen semen supplied in the state was that of crossbreds by 1977-78. The percentage of crossbred semen usage slowly rose up to 89 % by the year 1986-87. The increase in requirement of crossbred semen was expected well in advance and to be in pace with this growing demand, selection programme was planned and started from the year 1977-78. Hence PT was identified and adopted as the method for identification of proven bulls to produce next generation bulls. A PT programme was inevitable in the breeding policy of the state due to the use of crossbred as the major group wherein the segregation of genes is high. It was decided to select the bull dams by assessing their individual records. Since most of the farmers in the state can be classified as smallholder, progeny testing under closed herd system could not be of value and hence a FPR system was developed within the field. Correction of data for classifiable non-genetic effect was also carried out since the environmental variation in smallholding was expected to be very high. The progeny-testing programme implemented in Kerala is a young bull programme with field recording system. In this programme the genetic improvement is brought about in the target population through the selection of parents of the bulls used in the target area. The production of young bulls is through a nominated mating programme wherein the parents are proven bulls and elite cows. The elite cows are in the nucleus farm and the FPR area wherein they are selected based on their superiority with respect to the first standard lactation milk yield. Best 3 % cows in the FPR area are selected as the elite cows. The genetic superiority obtained by selection in this programme is transferred to the target population through the bulls born out of nominated mating. The state had not decided on doing a conventional progeny-testing programme as followed in closed herds. This decision was based on the comparative studies which showed that the

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for selection of sires with superiority for milk production, milk production being a sex-limited trait, is hence an inevitable component in any selection programme in dairy industry. PT is conducted to obtain an evaluation of genetic merit of individual animals based on performance of offspring. A number of different methods for increasing the rate of geneticimprovement of dairy cattle have been proposed since traditional PT methods became practiced routinely worldwide. Alternative strategies incorporating multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) have been suggested to produce offspring to augment a traditional PT program. Despite the abundance of current research in genetic markers, genetic improvement for dairy cattle is still dependent primarily on a successful PT program. In India, with a prevalence of smallholdings and lack of resources for opting the alternatives mentioned above, the best option is to have PT programme with field performance recording within smallholding as shown possible in Kerala. The merit ofthe sires selected is impacted by the combination of the pedigree merit of parents, number of bulls sampled, speed and accuracy ofthe PT, intensity of selection following the test, and maximum use of the best of the retained bulls. Selection of a larger proportion of bulls might result in a less rigorous program, but if bulls entering PT were high pedigreed, the effectiveness could be higher. Hence a continuous PT with proven bull (PB) being used as the sires for next set of PT bulls and selection of Elite cows (EC) for becoming dams of these bulls would be the best option. High generation interval is another important factor hindering the genetic progress through generations. To minimize generation interval, PT programs must ensure thatbulls are sampled and evaluated at a young age. Young bulls with outstanding pedigree merit should have semen collected as soon as maturity allows and semen distributed and used quickly in herds enrolled in milk recording, thus increasing the likelihood that daughters are born and calve when bulls are relatively young. Such a strategy requires the presence of an effective AI organizations and cooperation by dairy farmers. Operational characteristics of PT programs, such as rapidity of sampling,have an impact on program success.

December 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLE


annual genetic gain in the target population is equal in the young bull programme and the orthodox programme wherein 50 % of the test bulls are used as proven for target population . The appropriate time for starting the progeny testing programme in a cross breeding system under tropical situation is reported as year seven from the start of cross breeding with complete establishment by year 10. Test AI in Field Performance Recording Area The doses required for artificial insemination is dependent on conception rate, follow up of female calves registered and migration of animals from the progeny tested area. In Kerala programme 1,500 doses of test insemination are being done per bull to obtain around 50 completed lactation records of progenies. After the production of 1,500 doses from each of the bulls put to test, 10,000 doses are produced and kept in long storage. The subsequent doses of semen produced from these bulls are included in the general AI programme for the target population. In a batch about 60 bulls are tested. The test AI doses are marked with code number to avoid bias and the test insemination is completed over a period of 12 months. Selected AI centers representing all the agro-climatic zones in the state are utilized for test AI in the FPR area. The distribution of test doses to the FPR area is based on a specific bull rotation programme so that the semen of all bulls tested reaches every agro-climatic zone/region through two seasons. In Kerala three agro-climatic zones recognized for splitting the test insemination are the high ranges, mid ranges and costal area. The semen from each test bull is distributed to these regions for avoiding the climatic bias. This method also help in assessing the bull for its adaptability to all the zones since there is no separate breeding strategy advised for the zones in the breeding policy of the state. In the FPR area losses of progeny from the programme is experienced during different stages from AI of its dam till the completion of first lactation. The requirement of test doses per bull is arrived at based on these experiences, so that 50 completed progeny lactation are obtained. Herd book registry and incentive programs

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December 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLE

20

for the farmers are the only way to reduce the losses in identified progenies, thereby reducing the number of test inseminations. In order to increase the number of completed progeny lactation per bull/to reduce the number of test AI required, a progeny follow up programme was started in 1984. Under this programme, all the female progenies born in the FPR area from the test AI are identified and followed up at 6 months interval making use of the persons involved in milk recording of the progenies during their first lactation. During this period of follow up the girth measurements of the calves are also recorded, which give indirect information of the management provided to the progenies. Performance Recording Of the Progenies The FPR in Kerala to record the milk production started simultaneously with the test AI in 1977-78. This helped in establishing the FPR by the time the progenies were born. Waiting for subsequent records will only increase the generation interval without increasing the accuracy of selection.The Kerala programme of sire selection is based on the first lactation performance of the daughters. The completed lactations are computed from test day yield taken at monthly interval. In an area with low average cattle holding size per farmer, establishment of milking recording system is very difficult. Several hurdles were overcome while establishing a satisfactory FPR system some of which are given below. · Making farmers to realize the importance the FPR · Identifying the progenies with proper pedigree information · Identifying persons for carrying out the milk recording at odd hours · Developing proper supervision methods · Identifying suitable measuring devices The accuracy of the progeny testing results increase with the number of first lactation progeny records per bull. While the increase in accuracy is rapid till the availability of 50 progeny records per bull, then on the rate of increase becomes slow. Further, enhancement of the number of progenies could also result in a reduction of accuracy due to decline in effective control over the milk recordings. The progeny-testing programme in the Kerala state is so


RESEARCH ARTICLE

The data received from the FPR is result of the genetic merit and the environmental factors. Hence the data has to be corrected for maximum classifiable nongenetic effects before using for sire evaluation. The raw data received are corrected for the influence of AI

Where: µ = Recorded yield e1 to en = Effect made by the environmental factor that affects the yield in statistically significant manner E = Random unclassifiable error. The corrected milk yield is used for the breeding value estimation of the bulls using the following formula. Where: BV = Breeding value of the bull X1 = Least square corrected first lactation average of daughters X2 = Least square corrected first lactation average of cows in best three PT centres X3 = Least square corrected first lactation average of population n = Number of daughters 2

k =4 h /h

2

h2 = Heritability for milk production

21

December 2010

BV = 2 x n/(n + k) [(X1 X3) + 0.2 (X2 X3)]

Issue 2

Data Analysis

center/FPR center, age at first calving of the progeny, season of calving, month of calving, sex of calf, lactation length, nutrient availability (DCP and TDN) and shed type. The statistical significance of the effect made by these factors on the milk yield is assessed using computer aided least square analysis programme LSML 96 (Harvey, 1976). The significance of influence made by various factors on the milk production is done every year and the AI center, year of calving and age at first calving were most significant factors when the records of last ten years from 2000 was studied (Rajeev et.al.2002). The AI center effect may be taking into account majority of the differences in feeding and management practices from place to place within the state. The difference between the least square population mean and corrected means of the daughters are weighed for heritability of progeny test and then the breeding value of bull is estimated. The first lactation yield is corrected using a model as given below. Y = µ + e1 + e2 + … en + E

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designed for obtaining 50 first lactation records of each bulls put to test. The milk recordings are done through contracting agencies, which in turn keeps nominee milk recorders. The payment is per milk recording carried out by these milk recorders. Some of the formats used for data collection are as follows. · Milk recording schedule: Prepared on every first day of the month in triplicate and one each given to the milk recorder, AI center and Supervisor (employee of KLDB) · Daily milk recording report: Supplied to milk recorder for recording the milk yield of scheduled cow. Normally a milk recorder does two recording per cow on a day, two to three cows are scheduled per day and recording are done 25 days in a month. · Milk recording card: At each FPR supervision center (PT Unit), there are 6 12 milk recorders. Individual cards of all the cows recorded by the milk recorders are maintained, in which the test day milk yields, pedigree information and information regarding management provided are entered. The total lactation yield of the cows is calculated from the records on these cards at the PT co-ordination center using PC software. · Cow card: This is a copy of the milk recording report maintained with the owner of each cow under FPR. The recordings made in the daily milk recording report are also entered in these cards. This facilitates the checking of milk recordings done by the recorder during the supervision. The owners are provided with a computer report on completion of the milk recording. The first test day yields are collected between 25 and 45 days from the calving and subsequent records at an interval of 30 days ± 5 days. The morning and evening yield of the recorded cow in kg is taken on each test day and the 305-day lactation is calculated using centering date method. Environmental effects like the housing type, feeding practices, sex of calf, season of calving etc. are also collected in addition to the monthly recording of milk yield.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

Selection Applied In Kerala programme, the top 10 % of bulls tested are declared as proven bulls and the semen in long storage is used for nominated mating of elite cows. The semen of these bulls ranked based on the BV is used for nominated mating in the nucleus farm and the milk recorded area. The elite cows identified in the FPR area, which constitute the best 3 % of the recorded population, are provided with an elite cow card. On producing the card at the AI centers of FPR area the cows are served with proven semen made available at these centers. Cows, which are found likely to become proven based on the first three test day yield, are also served with the proven semen. Standards are prescribed for the first three test day yields based on the experiences/records of the past, which form the basis for identifying these superior cows. However, these superior cows are milk recorded for 10 months and calf is selected only after computing the first standard lactation yield. This nominated mating is resorted for getting male calves from the elite cows in their second calving cycle, thereby reducing the generation interval. The semen in long storage of bulls with negative breeding value is discarded. The semen in long storage having positive BV and not identified as proven are used for general AI in the target population. A sire directory is published every year showing the BV and other details of the proven bulls and other bulls in the KLD farms. In the state about 75% of the bull calves born to nominated mating are removed due to poor semen quality, poor freezability of semen, poor conformation of animal and substandard growth. Theoretical calculations have shown that the progeny testing programme carried out in Kerala can provide annual genetic gain 23 kg per animal per lactation. The realized genetic gain will be less and

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Annual genetic gain

22

even in closed herd dairy production system of UK, 60 to 70% expected gain is reported as the realized gain (Rendel and Robertson, 1950). The realized gain could be much lesser in Indian situations with cross breeding of ND as the breeding programme using more than one exotic breed, due to heterogeneity of the genetic groups and small herd size. The average first lactation yields of daughters in the FPR area batch wise are described in table 5. and the results therein are encouraging. The results of crossbreds with Red Sindhi and Sahiwal (Bos indicus) males and Jersey (Bos taurus) females used as foundation breeds, and each cross bred on to the F3 generation in Australia has not produced much higher than the crossbred of Kerala, indicating breeding and associate selection programme as a superior model.

CONCLUSION Dairying in India is a major source of subsidiary income for the rural sector especially in the smallholdings. The GOI and the respective State Governments also give thrust for improving this sector. AI with frozen semen is gaining importance as a tool for large-scale dissemination of superior genetic material in the target population.. However, continued genetic improvement in the given environment is possible only through a sound selection programme from within the population and PT is a time-tested method for sire selection taken up by all the countries where dairying has flourished. However, most of the States in the country are yet to start PT as a tool for selection. Many models of PT are available for practicing in closed herds as carried out by the developed countries. Such models may not be of much value for smallholder predominated population constituting the majority in India. The PT programme of KLDB as explained in this paper could be considered as an option for implementing country wide since the same has been functioning successfully from 1977 and has produced positive results in target population of Kerala state.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

HEALTH STATUS AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF WEANED MURRAH BUFFALO CALVES REARED UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 1

2

Smijisha A.S . and Kamboj M.L . Livestock Production Management Section National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India 132 001

ABSTRACT The present study was aimed to evaluate two methods of feeding and individual housing on growth status and health performance of buffalo calves (n=18) from birth to two months of age. The average daily body weight gain was 348, 418 and 451 gm in C (group housed & fed the colostrum and milk using a pail), T1 (group housed and fed colostrum and milk through a plastic bottle )and T2(housed individually in wooden calf pen and fed colostrum and milk through a plastic bottle )respectively which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than in C. The average milk feeding rate was significantly lower (p<0.02) in T1 (222.56 gm/min) and T2 (208.42 gm/min) than in C (426.1 gm/min). The average body measurements were not significantly different among 3 groups of calves. The calves fed colostrum or milk using a plastic bottle with screw nipple and individually housed in calf boxes had higher rate of growth and incidence of feacal scour was higher in group housed calves than in the individually housed calves. Key words: Buffalo calves, method of feeding, growth status, health performance

1 MVSc Scholar & 2 Professor, Livestock Production Management Section National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana

The study was conducted on the Murrah buffalo calves maintained at Cattle Yard of the National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal (Haryana). The newborn Murrah buffalo calves born from January to April in 2005 were included in the study. Each pen had cement concrete flooring partly covered by asbestos roof and partly left open thus using enough space for calf for loafing. The sheds were well ventilated and had provision for ceiling fans for summers. In winter there were provisions to protect the calves from cold. On 6th day after birth those animals in treatment 2 were shifted to individual wooden calf pen kept in the covered portion of above described pens and had given the colostrum and milk using the bottle with screw 23

December 2010

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Issue 2

The careful rearing of calves is the soundest basis for good livestock husbandry. In buffalo calves the mortality rate under one month of age has been reported to average about 10 percent and varies from 3 to 30 percent in individual herds. Under village conditions, calf mortality may even surpass 50 percent. However in well managed dairy herds, calf mortality usually should not exceed 5 percent from birth to 30 days of age. (Dutta et al., 1994)2 The dairy calves are born without any immunoglobulin in their serum and antibody production is not initiated until about 10 days after birth in calves and a normal level is not attained until about 8 weeks of age. When the calves are weaned at birth, the feeding of colostrum/milk is normally done using an open pail. Bottle feeding is better than open pail feeding in terms of amount of colostrum intake and health of calves' .It has been observed that the buffalo calves are slow learner as compared to the crossbred calves. (Besser et al., 1985)1

The study was conducted with the following specific objectives: 1. To evaluate two methods of colostrum and milk feeding for the growth and health performance of buffalo calves. 2. To study the effect of individual housing on the growth and health of buffalo calves.

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INTRODUCTION


RESEARCH ARTICLE

nipple (Westfalia, Germany.) Six wooden pens were placed with two feet space in between them to avoid intersuckling. The calf pens are made up of wood except the door. Door was made up of iron and has provision for keeping the aluminum pails (two in numbers) with the capacity of 4 liters as well as one feeding bottle. In one pail drinking water was available at all the time and Table 1 No

(up to 5 days)

(6th day to th 56 day)

it was changed at two times a day. In another one concentrate feed was given from 15th day onwards (0.125 kg). Fodder was provided on the floor of pen in front of the door. There was provision for keeping the feeding bottle on the door in such an angle so that the calf can drink milk in an easy way without any assistance. There was a water trough and feed manger in each pen The details of experimental ( 15th day onwards)

fodder

1

Control ( C)

At the rate of At the rate of th th I/ 10 of body I/10 of body weight using pail weight

0.125 Kg

Ad lib

Group housing existed at NDRI farm

2

Treatment-1 ( T1)

At the rate of At the rate of I/ 10th of body I/10th of body weight using weight bottle with nipple

0.125 Kg

Ad lib

Group housing existed at NDRI farm

3

Treatment 2 (T2)

At the rate of At the rate of th I/ 10 of body I/10th of body weight using weight bottle with nipple

0.125 Kg

Ad lib

Individual housing in wooden slatted floor

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Mean SE of average daily gain (gm) in body weight of experimental buffalo calves

80 0

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A ve ra g e b o d y w ei g h t g ai n (g m )

70 0

JIVA Vol. 8

Housing

60 0

50 0

40 0

30 0 co ntro l T1

20 0

T2 10 0

0 1 st w e ek

2 nd w ee k

3rd w e ek

4 t h w ee k

5 t h we e k

W e ek s a fte r b ir th

24

6 th we ek

7 th we ek

8t h w ee k


RESEARCH ARTICLE

Average feeding rate of colostrum / milk (mean Âą SE) up to 2 weeks after birth.

Incidence of feacal scours in experimental buffalo calves % of calf days 0-2 weeks

2-4 weeks

4-6 weeks

6-8 weeks

C

3

7

8.3

-

-

-

T1

2

6

7.14

-

-

-

T2

1

5

-

2.3

3.5

-

animals are given in Table 1. The overall means of rate of feeding of colostrum / milk in C, T1 and T2 were 426.10 15.30, 222.56 15.50 and 208.42 15.50 gm/ min, respectively. The bottle fed calves (T1 and T2) had significantly lower (p<0.02) feeding rate than pail fed calves (C). The slower rate of feeding in T1 and T2 calves as compared to control group of calves may be due to the narrow opening of the bottle nipple which is simulated on the pattern of a teat of cow's udder. The nipple opening allows a limited flow of milk to the calf against the negative pressure exerted by the calf for suckling whereas in case of pail feeding the calf has an easy assess to the milk and it can suckle colostrum/milk at a very faster rate once it has learned to feed from the pail.

The average daily gain (ADG) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in case of T2 (451 0.09 gm) than in case of C (348 0.11gm). The higher ADG recorded in T2 calves may be due to combined effect of bottle feeding and individual housing provided to these calves. The T2 group of calves had lower rate of colostrum and milk feeding which may have resulted in the more secretion of saliva, better mixing of the milk with digestive enzymes. This may have resulted in better utilization of colostrum and milk. As the calves in T2 were individually housed there may be less chance of getting infection from the group mates. The ADG in T1 (418 0.07 gm) was higher than in case of C (348 0.11gm) group of calves. This may be attributed to the effect of 25

December 2010

No of calf days

Issue 2

No of calves affected

JIVA V o l . 8

Treatment


RESEARCH ARTICLE

JIVA Vol. 8

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December 2010

colostrum or milk fed through bottle which might have led to better digestion and absorption of nutrients as feeding rate was lower than C group of calves. The incidence of total number of afflictions was highest in C (10), followed by T1 (8) and T2 (2). This may be due to a better immune status of T2 calves compared to T1 and C group of calves. Another probable reason may be the better hygiene in individual housing leading to less spread of communicable diseases like eye infection and less occurance of infectious diarrhea. Higher incidence of diseases in T1 in comparison to T2 may be due to the group housing in these groups of calves as the group housed calves may be amenable to cross infections. A higher percent of calf days suffered due to feacal scours in the first two weeks of life in C ( 8.3%) and T1 (7.14 %) as compared to T2 in which the incidence of calf scours was nil up to 2 weeks of age. T2 group of calves as they had a better initial immune status than the calves in other 2 groups. The individual housing may have prevented the spread of cross

26

infection of feacal scours due to various infectious agents. There was a high positive correlation in body weight with body measurements (body length, body girth and body height) in all the groups of experimental buffaloe calves.

CONCLUSION Based on the results obtained from the present study and the discussion on the same, the following conclusions were drawn. The calves fed colostrum/ milk using a plastic bottle with screw nipple and individually housed in calf boxes had improved immune status & higher rate of growth. .

REFERNCES 1.Besser, T.E., Garmedia, A.E., McGuire, T.C. and Gay, C.C. 1985. Effects of immunoglobulin IgG and IgM concentration in calves. J. Dairy Sci., 68: 2033-2037. 2.Dutta, N.D., Baruah, K.K., Bora, N.N., Dutta, J.B. 1994. Care and management of dairycattle and buffaloes. Kalyani Publishers, pp. 90-93.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

PERFORMANCE OF VIGOVA DUCKS UNDER FARM CONDITIONS IN KERALA Sabin George1, Binoj Chacko2, Justin Davis3, Pramod S4, Nisanth P5 and Muhammad Aslam M K6 Department of Livestock Production Management College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Thrissur

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Meat and meat products form an essential part of the diet of an average house hold in Kerala. Chicken, Beef and Mutton are much sought after delicacies in our dining table. Though Duck meat is no new item in the menu, its availability is limited to certain regions where duck farming is popular in the State. Traditional duck farming in Kerala is closely associated with paddy cultivation. The unique 'nomadic system' of duck rearing is the focus of present day duck production system in Kerala. The birds are allowed to occupy paddy fields, soon after harvest. The ducks scavenge on left over grains as well as weeds, snails and fresh water crustaceans. The birds are taken in large herds from place to place in close synchrony with harvest seasons. In addition to this small household units of duck rearing are also popular. However traditional system of duck rearing is intended for egg production whereas the males and spent females are utilised for meat purpose. This is an important reason so as to why duck meat is still not very popular among the consumers of the State. There is however an emerging business opportunity in the marketing of Duck meat. As the demand for duck meat spiralled up, some innovative farmers identified the business opportunity and started to concentrate on meat production. Instead of Desi/Kuttanadan ducks which are mainly used for egg production, the progressive farmers started using broiler variety ducks for commercial duck meat production. White Pekin ducks remain the most popular duck breed for meat production in Kerala. The article discusses the performance of VIGOVA Super-M (M stands for meat) broiler ducks under field conditions in Kerala.

The Vigova Super-M duck was developed in Vietnam using White Pekin and Aylesberry ducks. The present study is based on the functioning of a commercial duck farm (Ebenezer duck farm) in Thrissur District of Kerala. The Vigova ducks were obtained from Central Poultry Development Organisation (CPDO) Bangalore, which is an arm of Government of India engaged in uplift of poultry sector. Fertile eggs are brought from Bangalore by train at an average cost of Rs.8/ egg. The eggs are incubated and hatched in a private hatchery at a cost of Rs. 2.50 per egg. The observed average hatchability is 50%. At hatching the cost each duckling will reach up to Rs.15. Incubation period of eggs is 28 days and is done at a temperature of 37.2 to 37.5 degree Celsius. Candling is done on 7th day and the eggs are turned hourly. Eggs are transferred to hatcher on 25th day. After hatching the ducklings are moved to brooding and rearing sheds, observing standard management practises.

3

Assistant Professor, Department of Livestock Production Management,

4

Research Scholar, Department of Animal Breeding, Genetics & Bio-Statistics,

5

Veterinary Surgeon, Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram

6

Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Dispensary, Palakkuzha, Ernakulam

Issue 2

Assistant Professor, Department of Livestock Production Management, Assistant Professor, All India Co-ordianted Research Project on Poultry,

Fig (i): Seven weeks old Vigova Super M ducks at the point of sale

27

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1 2

December 2010

INTRODUCTION


RESEARCH ARTICLE

The ducks are housed in a 16,000 square feet shed, with areas for brooding, growing and finishing. The brooding shed and the growing cum finishing shed measures 8,000 sq. each in area. An average of 8000 ducks at different stages of growth is being grown in this farm at a time. The birds are taken care by a family (Husband & Wife). The construction is in the pattern of typical poultry sheds roofed with either tiles or GI sheets. The concreted flooring is covered with litter materials. The sides of the shed are covered with wire net. Utmost care has been taken for providing clean drinking water all the time, especially at the time of feeding. Care has been taken to provide automated water channels at the sides of the shed to avoid water from the drinker wetting the litter. The feeding vessels are designed in such a way

as to avoid wastage. The floor space provided for ducks ranges from ½ square feet/duckling to 3 ½ square feet/ duck at the time of marketing. The ducklings were reared on broiler chicken starter feed for the first 28 days (4 weeks) and broiler finisher feed is fed thereafter. The birds were allowed to feed adlibitum. Data was collected from a sample of 200 birds. Total feed consumption (Kg) was calculated at weekly intervals by adding daily feed intakes. The birds were weighed weekly and feed conversion ratio was calculated from feed consumed and weight gained. Deaths were recorded and mortality rate for entire farm ( birds) was calculated. Feed intake over seven weeks was summed to arrive on cumulative feed intake. The results are summarised in Table (1)

Table (1): Production & economic parameters observed in the farm

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Age (week)

28

Body weight (g)

Cumulative feed consumption(g)

Cumulative Feed: weight gain

Mortality (%)

0

46.11 ± 0.39

1

178.44 ± 2.38

225.38 ± 2.88

1.76 ± 0.01

2.03 ± 0.3

2

326.78 ± 4.57

602.78 ± 7.21

1.85 ± 0.12

1.2 ± 0.1

3

729.34 ± 15.62

1531.3 ± 14.28

2.1 ± 0.14

1.1 ± 0.5

4

1173.43 ± 26.58

2691.7 ± 19.35

2.29 ± 0.17

0.25 ± 0.2

5

1639.65 ± 29.44

3977.7 ± 28.98

2.43 ± 0.21

0.25 ± 0.2

6

2119.35 ± 32.87

5287.8 ± 45.78

2.50 ± 0.24

0.5 ± 0.3

7

2561.66 ± 36.05

6703.3 ± 69.35

2.62 ± 0.27


RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ducklings with an average body weight of 46 gram at day old stage attained an average body weight of 330 grams at 2 weeks. The broiler ducks in this farm builds an average body weight of 2.5 Kg between 50-55 days of age. The observed dressing percentage ranges from70% to75%. The feed conversion ratio observed in the farm ranges from 1.76 to 2.6. The observed average mortality is 1.2% per month and reflects the low incidence of diseases.

on dry mash, a combination of dry and wet mash or pellets. Ducks prefer wet mash due to difficulties in swallowing dry mash. Pellet feeding, though costly, is useful to prevent wastage of feed, convenience in handling and better cleanliness of sheds. Ducks are good foragers and hence feed cost can be reduced by the use of pond or supplementary green feed. It is preferable to catch the birds by neck rather than on the side of the body.

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

Ducks in general does not require elaborate houses. The shed should be well ventilated, dry and rodent proof. The roof may be of shed type, gable or half round, with solid or wire floors. Though duck is a water fowl and very fond of water, water for swimming is not essential during any stage of duck production. The farm in the present study does not offer a pond to the birds. In this regard, it is very important that, water in drinkers should be sufficiently deep to allow full immersion of their heads. The birds therefore keep their eyes free of scaly deposits and bills free from feed remnants. If such a facility is not provided, it is likely that some of the birds end up being blind due to deposition of such materials in eyes. Swimming however has been associated with a slight increase (0.3%) in body weight of meat type ducks in comparison with ducks with no opportunity to swim. In real terms this would mean an increase of around 75g over 2.5 kg. The observed average mortality of 1.2% per month reflects the low incidence of diseases. Ducks may be grown

Commercial broiler duck farming is yet to pick momentum in Kerala. The venture under study is marketing around 1,000 birds in a week, which weighs close to 2 tons. By now the entrepreuner had developed marketing channels, and a retail outlet ensuring constant demand. Meat is sold at the rate of Rs. 150/Kg. Direct involvement in marketing provides higher profit to the owner. The owner also reported that demand for duck meat had dropped earlier in 2009 when reports of Avian Infleunza and Swine Flu started pouring in from different parts of the nation. Once the pandemic was contained, sales rebounded gradually. After critical review, authors had reached the opinion that broiler duck farming could be a profitable enterprise in areas where consumer demand can be ensured.

REFERENCE

Issue 2

December 2010

Duck management guide accessed from www.cpdosrbng.kar.nic.in/DUCK%20FARM ING%20GUIDE.pdf on 10/11/2010

29

JIVA V o l . 8

RESULTS


RESEARCH ARTICLE

EXAMINATION OF ORGANS OF LABORATORY ANIMALS INFECTED WITH Chlamydophila abortus ISOLATES FROM LIVESTOCK ABORTIONS 1

2

3

4

Binu K. Mani , M. Mini , G.Krishnan Nair and Binitha P Chacko Department of Veterinary Microbiology College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur

ABSTRACT A reference isolate and two local isolates each from bovine and caprine abortions were inoculated intraperitonialy in mice and guinea pigs. The lesions in the dead and sacrificed animals revealed that the caprine isolates are more virulent than both the local bovine and reference isolates. Staining of impression smears of affected organs revealed chlamydial elementary bodies.

INTRODUCTION Chlamydiae have wide distribution among warm and cold blooded animals. They are of microbiological interest because of their mode of interaction with Eukaryotic host cells and their specialized lifecycle with unique features of parasitism. Chlamydial infections among domestic animals are increasingly being recognized in India (Griffiths et al., 1995; Batta et al., 1996 and Katoch, 1997). In Kerala Chlamydophila abortus has been isolated from lungs in goats, aborted foetus and semen samples from bovines (Francis, 1988). Mice and Guinea pigs have been employed for isolation and virulence studies of chlamydial isolates of ruminant origin (Storz, 1971 and Page, 1981). Various lesions in the internal organs were observed in infected mice and Guinea pigs (Page, 1981). This communication details the gross and microscopic differences observed among isolates of Chlamydophila abortus, from cases of abortion in cattle and goat and a reference strain.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS A reference strain obtained from Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Palampur and two local isolates of Chlamydophila abortus each from bovine and caprine abortion were used for the study. Each isolate (heavily infected yolk sac (YS) suspension after third passage) was inoculated intraperitoneally in groups of six BALB/C mice, which are three to four weeks aged and two guinea pigs (NIH-coloured, aged four to five weeks). 30

For mice, 0.2 ml of infected YS suspension in SPG (Katoch, 1997) and for guinea pigs three milliliters of infected YS suspension in PBS (pH7.2) were used. 0.2 ml SPG and three milliliters of PBS (pH 7.2) respectively, were inoculated in two mice and a guinea pig, which were kept as control Autopsy of the dead animals were done on the same day and examined for any gross lesions. Organ samples of lungs, liver, spleen and peritoneal exudates were collected. Impression smears of these organs and exudates were prepared. These smears were stained using Giemsa, modified Ziehl Neelsen and Gimenez methods. The live animals even after three weeks following inoculation, were sacrificed and subjected to examination as above. The lesions were noted and organ samples were collected for demonstration of Chlamydiae by staining impression smears.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION One of mice inoculated with bovine isolate died on 14th day post inoculation (PI) and the other five survived. The mortality rate was 16.7 per cent. On Autopsy of sacrificed mice, peritonitis with stringy exudates and congestion of lungs, spleen and liver were the lesions observed. An additional hepatic necrosis was also noticed in the dead mouse. Two mice inoculated with caprine isolate died on 12th day and the other two on 14th day PI. On post mortem of the dead mice, pneumonic lesion, and severe pulmonary congestion were noticed, but congestion in 1 Assistant Professor, 2 Professor, 3 Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Thrissur. 4Lecturer, Navajyothi college of Education, Olarikkara.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

results were in accordance with the observations made in the present study. Necropsy lesions reported by Mani et al (2006) were similar to this study, including congestion and necrosis of internal organs and peritonitis.

SUMMARY The infection of three Chlamydophila abortus isolates in mice and guinea pigs was studied. The severity of lesions were more in mice compared to that in guinea pigs

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Acknowledged to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research for funding the project of Chlamydiosis in livestock with special reference to abortion in livestock'

31

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Batta, M.K., Sharma, M., Asrani, R.K., Katoch, R.C. and Joshi, V.B. (1996). Investigations on abortion outbreaks in migratory sheep and goats of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Vet. J. 73: 432. Francis, R. (1988). Prevalence of chlamydial agents in livestock in Kerala. M.V.Sc. thesis, Kerala Agricultural University. Griffiths, P.C., Plater, J.M., Martin, T.C., Hughes, S.L., Hughes, K.J., Hewinson, R.G. and Dawson, M. (1995). Epizootic bovine abortion in a Dairy herd: Characterization of Chlamydia psittaci isolate and antibody response. Br. Vet. J. 151: 683. Katoch, R.C. (1997). Epidemiology and immunodiagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci infection in sheep and goats. Technical report submitted to Director, Far Eastern Regional Research Office, American Embassy and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi. Mani,B.K., Mini,M., Jayaprakasan,V.,Nair,G.K and Saseendranath,M.R. (2006). Pathogenicity of Chlamydophila abortus isolates in mice and guinea pigs. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 37: (1&2). Page, L.A. (1981). Obligatory intracellular bacteria. The genus chlamydia. In “The prokaryotes”, vol. II. (M.P. Starr, H. Stolp, H.G., Truper, A. Balows and H.G. Schlegel, Eds.) Springler-Verlag, New York, pp. 2210. Storz, J. (1971). Chlamydia induced diseases. In “Chlamydia and Chlamydia induced diseases” (C. Thomas, Ed.) Springfield, Illinois.

December 2010

REFERENCES

JIVA V o l . 8

liver and spleen were mild. Sacrificed mice, revealed peritonitis and adhesion of internal organs. The mortality rate was 66.7 per cent for caprine isolate. Only two mice, that had been inoculated with reference strain died, one on twelfth day and the other on fifteenth day of PI. Post mortem of the dead mice revealed fibrinous exudates in the peritoneal cavity and severe hepatic and pulmonary congestion with necrosis in liver and lungs. Mild spleenic congestion was observed. Survived mice had moderate degree of peritonitis, adhesion of liver to peritoneum and whitish peritoneal exudates. Impression smears from organs of all the inoculated mice revealed chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) on staining by Giemsa. Giemenez and modified Ziehl Neelsen. Control group did not show any lesions on internal organs after sacrifice. No EBS could be detected from Impression smears of its organs. One of the guinea pigs, inoculated with caprine isolate died 10 days PI and revealed severe pulmonary congestion, hepatic necrosis and yellowish stringy fibrinous exudates in the peritoneal cavity. The one that survived had only mild congestion of lungs and liver. Post mortem examination of sacrificed guinea pigs, which had been inoculated with local bovine isolate, revealed mild peritonitis and moderate congestion of liver and lungs. Chlamydial EBs were detected on staining the impression smears of lungs, spleen and liver of all the guinea pigs inoculated with local and reference isolates. No elementary bodies could be detected from impression smears of organs of sacrificed control animal In the present study, the mortality of mice ranged from 16.7 to 66.7 per cent. It could be inferred that the two bovine strains (local and reference strains) were of moderate virulence while that of caprine strain was of greater virulence in mice compared to the other two. However, Storz, (1971) had observed that chlamydial isolates from ruminants were of low pathogenicity for mice. Out of the two guinea pigs inoculated with caprine isolate(which was more virulent in mice), one died of chlamydial infection, while the bovine isolates did not kill any guinea pig at all. Page (1981) observed that Chlamydophila abortus organisms were less pathogenic to guinea pigs compared to mice. These


RESEARCH ARTICLE

EFFECTIVE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY THROUGH WSHGS INNOVATIVE TOOLS DESIGNED AND DEVELOPED AND ANALYSIS OF ITS IMPLICATIONS T.S.Rajeev1, S. Ramkumar2, Hari.R,C.3, R.Marshal4 and K.R.Rajesh5 Dept .of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur

ABSTRACT WSHGs (Women Self Help Group) have been evolved as a suitable movement to combat the poverty in Kerala. One of the chief avocations which can guarantee the alleviation of the impoverished women in Kerala is the Animal Husbandry sector. But the chief problem observed in this area is the dissemination of Knowledge. The current study focused on designing and developing of various novel tools for knowledge dissemination among the WSHGs involved in animal husbandry and allied sector. It also analyzes the efficiency of these tools in knowledge transfer process. Key words: Knowledge transfer, WSHG, designing and developing of knowledge transfer tools

JIVA Vol. 8

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December 2010

INTRODUCTION The economic marginalization of the women in the developmental process has drawn considerable attention in the recent years. In Kerala the incidence of unemployment among the women folk is much higher than their male counterparts.Infact it is three times higher in urban sector and five times in rural sector. In this scenario, the Women Self Help Group (WSHG) movements started in Kerala to eradicate absolute poverty through concerted community action. It facilitated organization of the poor women folk for combining self help with the demand led convergence of available service and resources to tackle the multiple dimension and manifestation of poverty, holistically. One of the chief avocations which can guarantee the alleviation of the impoverished women in Kerala is the Animal Husbandry sector, but the chief constraint in this area is to disseminate the proper knowledge for carrying out these programmes. The animal husbandry department and other developmental organizations are performing effective extension through various institutional and traditional techniques. The WSHGs found to be an effective channel for better technology transfer and bringing out desirable changes in animal husbandry 32

entrepreneurs in Kerala. The current study focused on designing and developing of various tools for knowledge dissemination among the WSHGs involved in animal husbandry and allied sector. It also analyzes the efficiency of these tools in knowledge transfer process. All these tools were prepared primarily for the WSHGs under the DeLPHE project funded by the British Council.

MATERIALS AND METHODS As part of the research project (DeLPHE), conducted in Department of Veterinary & AH Extension, COVAS, Mannuthy, funded by British Council under the leadership of RAGACOVAS, Puthuchery, spanning through five states, research were conducted to evolve suitable methods. A total of 40 WSHGs were selected randomly from the four districts of Kerala viz Wayanad, Thrisssur, Palakkad and Idukki. The groups were selected on the criteria of minimum 2 years experience in cattle rearing and the 50% of the members should have cattle. The e training need analysis was conducted using interviews, workshops and surveys. Based on the results evolved, the state level workshop to identify suitable methods were conducted 1

Assistant Professor, Dept .of Vety & A.H.Extension, COVAS, Mannuthy

2

Professor, Dept .of Vety & A.H.Extension & Project Leader, DeLPHE, RAGACOVAS, Puthuchery

3

P.G. Scholar, Dept .of Vety & A.H.Extension, COVAS, Mannuthy

4&5

Research Associates, Dept .of Vety & A.H.Extension, COVAS, Mannuthy


After primary research as per the methodology discussed above, the following innovative tools were designed and developed for the purpose. Each tool were separately tested for their level of satisfaction among the WSHGs selected. The results of level of satisfaction of technology and knowledge transferred were one of the variables tested among the WSHGs. After field testing the results of each tools were analyzed and tabulated as. 1.COMBACCS (Cell Phone Operated Mobile audio Communication & Conferencing system)

User Friendly Visual/ Audio quality Attractiveness Sustenance of the attention

Excellent 86% 69% 75% 60%

V. Good 20% 19% 20% 23%

Good 1 4% 8% 05% 10%

Satisfied 0 2 0 7%

Not satisfied 0 2 0 0 33

Issue 2

RESULTS

It is a cell phone /mobile phone based audio interaction mechanism. The farmers / group members shall have direct interaction through mobile phone with an expert at any time. This method is just as the mobile phone dialogue between two individuals, in which on one side it can be heard through a loudspeaker to a larger number of audience group and the whole group can interact at same time. It needs a mobile connection, and an active sim card between the expert and the group. The cell phone usage is more common and widely spread in Kerala, which can be effectively utilized for technology transfer self help groups and to groups. 1. COMBACCS The WSHG members were asked to quote their sincere opinions directly. The positive and negative expressions as received are illustrated in the same sense. According to them, the advantages of COMBAACCS included, A new innovative knowledge transition method, no need to take long journeys to attend training classes, very useful and direct method of interaction, all members have equal chance of participation, no need of subject repetition, Audible for whole group, Can discuss & clarify any subjects, Easy knowledge source like radio, All concentration will be focused on that particular equipment, Very clear and loud sound system, better than any other traditional method, Can use inside a large hall with more audience, the members will not have any reluctance to ask their doubts such as in public meetings, Class timing can be fixed according to the convenience of both expert and WSHG members, Expert can take classes .There will not be any loss of knowledge transfer, Direct conference can give more reliable Information, easily portable, Time saving method, Easy to operate to anybody (User Friendly -Simple mobile operation method),More economic and profitable method of learning were also the points noted by them.

JIVA V o l . 8

among the veterinarians and other officials . Both results were analyzed and lead to designing and developing of the knowledge dissemination tools. Certain tools already designed by experts were co-opted and tested for efficacy among WSHGs based on the above results. Selected tools were introduced to the WSHG members of the five districts and a period of one month was given to them to familiarize with the tools. After one month the suitability and efficiency of each of the selected tools were analyzed.

December 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLE


RESEARCH ARTICLE

2.VAKTHRAM User Friendly Usage of familiar visuals Aesthetic Size Visual/ Audio quality Attractiveness Sustenance of the attention

Excellent 66% 34% 54% 18% 38% 50% 30%

V. Good 30% 44% 34% 24% 54% 42% 36%

2.VAKTHRAM (Visual Assistant and Knowledge Transferring Automated Mechanism)

It is a teaching aid for the master trainers of Women Self Help Groups. A topic which has to be discussed in the meeting will be divided into eight sub topics . Each sub topic made to illuminated slides and controlled by a remote, so that teacher can

JIVA Vol. 8

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December 2010

3.SARANA User Friendly Usage of familiar visuals Aesthetic Size Visual/ Audio quality Attractiveness Sustenance of the attention 34

Excellent 89% 29% 21% 56% 30% 37% 37%

Good 2 4% 18% 12% 34% 8% 8% 18%

Satisfied 0 4% 0 8% 0 0 10%

Not satisfied 0 0 0 16% 0 0 6%

illuminate one by one and explain simultaneously. At the end of session each slide will automatically repeat illumination and will lead to full projection. This instrument can be hanged in the wall any where and is so light that it fit into any common mans house wall. It has 4 hrs battery backup for charging for two hours Advantages & opinions as per their opinion was, a new & attractive knowledge transition method, very simple remote operation (User Friendly) easily portable, simple folding method, will help to improve presentation skills of the members,topics can be divided into eight simple slides, written slides will help the presenter to read and explanation, pictures and illuminated slides will give more attraction and concentration to the audience, more effective & attractive in dark rooms, more economic and profitable method of learning, auto illumination will create curiosity & interest in revision of contents (Slides) 3.SARANA (Self Learning Aid and ReadyReckoner in Animal Husbandry Activities) It is a Ready Reckoner type visual aid containing information on Animal Husbandry. Pointing the arrow to the required information in the outer circle will lead to unveiling of further related , essential and extra information in the inner round in different

V. Good 11% 56% 53% 25% 33% 43% 41%

Good 0 15% 11% 11% 25% 14% 22%

Satisfied 0 0 10% 0 6% 6% 0

Not satisfied 0 0 5% 6% 5% 0 0


RESEARCH ARTICLE

4. ROVAKTRA User Friendly Usage of familiar visuals Aesthetic Size Visual/ Audio quality Attractiveness Sustenance of the attention

Excellent 67% 25% 71% 87% 32% 65% 30%

V. Good 24% 59% 24% 13% 40% 29% 22%

Good 9% 16% 5% 0 8% 3 4% 33%

Satisfied 0 0 0 0 17% 2% 14%

Not satisfied 0 0 0 0 3% 0 0

DISCUSSION

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Certain innovative tools were designed for effective technology transfer in animal husbandry and other allied sectors. It was scientifically tested with the Women Self Help Group members for whom it was intended. The four tools out of the 12 identified tools were much successful in catering to the needs of WSHGs involved in animal husbandry as an alternative method of training. The findings of this research are much beneficial for the developmental organizations in AH sector, which are performing effective extension through various institutional and traditional techniques. Nevertheless, the current study also focused on designing and developing of various tools for knowledge dissemination and bringing out higher levels of effective behavioral changes among the WSHGs involved in animal husbandry using the same tools.

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CONCLUSION

JIVA V o l . 8

columns. This can be used in relating common symptoms of diseases to the cause, etiology, first aid and further necessary information for seeking veterinary assistance. 4. ROVAKTRA (Rolling Visual Aid for Knowledge Transfer in Animal Husbandry) Teaching aid to assist the master trainers to explain a particular topic divided in to sub topics. Each sub topics are represented using pictures and illustrations. Up on finishing the last sub topics other /opposite side of the same role will have a poster designed for describing the benefits of adopting the scientific practices on discussion.

All the tools were welcomed by the WSHG members. On using COMBACCS they said it reduced their need for long journey to get expert advice. They found all tools very effective in knowledge dissemination, much better than the traditional tools. They also find it much attractive so that each one could transfer their attention. They also found the instruments very handy and portable. Only limitation they found about SARANA, ROVAKTHRA, and VAKTHRAM is about the letter size. They commented the letter size could be enlarged. In total the WSHGs found these tools as an effective channel for better technology transfer and bringing out desirable changes in animal husbandry entrepreneurs in Kerala


RESEARCH ARTICLE

SURVEY ON QUALITY OF WELL WATERS, HUMAN AND ANIMAL HEALTH AT ELOOR INDUSTRIAL AREA, KERALA 1

2

3

Divya Rani Thomas , B. Sunil , and C. Latha Department of Veterinary Public Health College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur.

JIVA Vol. 8

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INTRODUCTION Industrialization is considered as the corner stone of development strategies due to its significant contribution to economic growth and human welfare. Industrial growth indicates nation's progressing economic status and it plays vital role in the growth and development of nation. Industrial activities have direct and indirect adverse effects on our environment. Large scale industrial growth has caused serious concerns regarding the susceptibility of groundwater contamination due to waste materials. The rapid pace of industrialization, which has recently become the need of the time for a developing country like India has turned into a major source of groundwater contamination and health problems. Most of the industries discharge their effluents without proper treatment into nearby open pits or pass them through unlined channels to low lying depressions on the land resulting in contamination of groundwater, which has long been considered as one of the purest forms of water available in nature. The industrial wastes have a great deal of influence on pollution of waterbody by altering the physical, chemical and biological nature of water. The deterioration of water quality causes health hazards and death of human, livestock and death of aquatic lives, crop failure and loss of aesthetics. Understanding these facts, a survey was conducted in selected households in Eloor industrial area in Ernakulam district to understand the characteristics of wells and practices among people, quality of well waters, human and animal health problems related to industrialization.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty five households distributed in three wards of Eloor Grama panchayath, viz. ward 3 (Methanam East), ward 4 (Panchayath Head 36

Quarters) and ward 20 (Depot), were selected for survey. The major industrial units functioning in the area include Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore (FACT), Hindustan Insecticides Limited (HIL), Indian Rare Earths (IRE) and Merchem Limited etc. Care was taken to include households close to Kuzhikandam creek of Eloor, into which industries discharge their effluents. The characteristics of wells were assessed through direct observation and practices among people were studied by survey using a well designed questionnaire. The impact of industrialization on human and animal health was surveyed. Retrospective study of all cases recorded in Eloor Veterinary Hospital for past five years was carried out and discussions were made with Senior Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Hospital Eloor and Assistant Surgeon, Primary Health Centre Eloor to study the health problems related to industrialization among animals and human being in Eloor.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Due to industrialization, the quality of air, water and environment in Eloor has deteriorated and people in Eloor find problems in sustaining their lives. They crave for pure water, fresh air and clean environment. From the survey conducted among 25 households in Eloor it was understood that 20 per cent of people did not use their wells for any purpose. All selected household had free house connection as source of water and 80 per cent utilized this as their drinking water source. Still 20 per cent used their wells for drinking purpose even though they had house connections. In their view well water was clean without any odour or impurities and they could not appreciate any problem with well water. They were unaware about the chemical pollution of their wells and the deteriorating quality of water. It was 1

Ph. D. Scholar, 2 Associate Professor, 3Associate Professor and Head Department of Veterinary Public Health College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur


37

Issue 2

of eyes and ephiphora, whenever the quality of air changed. Health survey conducted in nine wards of Eloor (2008) also reported that 85.2 per cent of the people experience breathing problem. The people in Eloor talk of nights when the stench of chemicals was so strong that breathing became difficult. This was corroborated by The Assistant Surgeon of Primary Health Centre, Eloor. According to them, most of the cases brought to the hospital are either respiratory or cutaneous problems. Survey results also revealed that 72 per cent suffer from one or other type of skin problem mainly due to contact with contaminated water. Sixty per cent suffered from musculoskeletal diseases. The problems associated with drinking contaminated water were not a major problem as majority did not depend on wells for drinking water. Problems crop up only when the panchayath water supply gets disrupted. Gastrointestinal disorders including nausea and vomiting were also reported by a few (20 per cent), after drinking contaminated water. Four per cent of households experienced neoplasm, whereas sixteen per cent suffered from congenital anomalies and mental retardation. In Eloor, 32 per cent households depended on primary health centre for treatment facilities and the rest on private hospitals. Health insurance policies were present in 12 per cent households. Animal health problems Among the major animal health problems in Eloor, 55.56, 27.59, 24.14 and 6.9 per cent animals had digestive disorders, reproductive disorders, skin diseases and lameness, respectively. Retrospective analysis of cases recorded in Eloor veterinary hospital, from January 2005 to December 2009, revealed that 26.28, 4.49, 0.58, 3.45, 2.85, 41.48, 4.96 per cent cases were digestive disorders, respiratory diseases, Among the health problems in animals, digestive disorders (55.56 per cent) were found to be main problem reported by the farmers. These included anorexia, enteritis and indigestion, suggestive of cadmium toxicity. Nisha (2001) observed prevalence of cadmium toxicity in cattle of Eloor industrial area. Retrospective analysis of case record in Eloor Veterinary Hospital for past five years also revealed incidence of digestive disorders

JIVA V o l . 8

observed that water was turbid and yellowish in colour especially during summer season. Majority (80 per cent) of them complained that water was hard and it consumes more soap and lather formation was difficult. Some of them found difficulties in cooking with their well water, so that rice and pulses take more time to get cooked. Some had reported falling and roughness of hair with the well water (16 per cent). Some (24 per cent) had also highlighted odour and burning sensation with well water. Still some others (eight per cent) were not using their wells even for gardening and had the opinion that wilting of plants occurs with such water. Even with these problems, 48 per cent used well water for other purposes such as bath or toilet purpose, washing clothes, cooking and gardening. Lack of continuous supply of water through the house connection was another important challenge. Sometimes water may not be available for two to three days. In such situations people are forced to drink well water and to arrange sufficient facilities to store large volume of water. Majority (92 per cent) had the practice of drink boiled water. Disinfection was practiced by 48 per cent per cent households and bleaching powder was the disinfectant invariably used. It was pointed out that the quantity of bleaching powder used was not sufficient for effective disinfection. Fifty two per cent wells were disinfected twice in a year Thirty two per cent wells did not conform the minimum distance from the nearest polluting source such as septic tank, animals shed, manure pit, waste disposal site etc. To avoid bacterial contamination, the wells should be located not less than 15 metres from likely source of contamination (Park, 2009). Close proximity of some of the wells to polluting sources also added to poor quality of water. Twenty per cent households in Eloor reported that their well water samples were taken for analysis by some agency. But they were unaware about the results. Human health and allied aspects Of the 25 households surveyed, 88 per cent were suffering from respiratory problems. Members of all 25 household had the opinion that air was polluted and had a noxious smell and smog. Air quality changes were noticed during morning hours. They experienced, discomforts including dyspnoea, nausea, vomiting, sneezing, frequent cough, general weakness, irritation

December 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLE


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December 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLE

(26.28 per cent). The Senior Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Hospital Eloor, opined that seasonal enteritis was one of the main problems especially during monsoon season. During that time animals drink water from water logged area such as paddy field and road contaminated with industrial effluents. Gastroenteritis is also associated with lead toxicity due to the caustic action of lead on alimentary mucosa (Radostits et al., 2007). Sandhu and Brar (2000) suggested that anorexia along with colic is a predominant sign of lead poisoning in cattle and diarrhoea may be present in some cases. It was pointed out that house connection was the drinking water source for animals and animals were fed with locally available grass and concentrates. Reproductive disorders were reported in 27.59 per cent of animals. These mainly included anoestrum, repeat breeding and abortion. Retrospective analysis of cases also pointed out that 4.96 per cent of cases recorded in hospital were reproductive disorders. Some of the farmers complained that 4-5 inseminations were required for conception. Some of them sold their animals because of infertility problems. Even though the average number of artificial insemination per conception was 1.8 to 2 in the panchayath, it had gone as high as five to six in some areas especially near to Kuzhikandam creek indicating the severity of pollution in the area. Abortion in cattle at 5 to 6 month of gestation was also reported by some farmers. This could be attributed to lead toxicity (Sandhu and Brar, 2000). Cadmium toxicity also causes reproductive disorders by disturbing carbohydrate metabolism and producing glucose intolerance. Skin diseases were reported in 24.14 per cent animals and are accounted for 2.85 per cent of cases recorded in Veterinary hospital. Lameness was reported in 6.9 per cent of animals. This might be attributed to fluoride toxicity, as high fluoride concentration disrupts osteogenesis leading to inadequate matrix formation and defective mineralization. Cheeran et al.(1987) and Kumar (2000) reported symptoms of fluoride toxicity in cattle of Eloor industrial area such as lameness, reluctance to move, palpable bony exosotosis

38

particularly in metacarpal and metatarsal, ribs and mandibular bones. It was also understood that eight per cent animals were insured in Eloor.

CONCLUSION From the survey, it was understood that groundwater pollution in Eloor was mainly industrial origin, but household pollution also contributed to some extent. Human beings as well as animals suffered from various illnesses, as a consequence of industrialization. Construction of sanitary wells, keeping adequate distance from polluting sources, with adequate platform, drainage and parapet was recommended. Steining of wells and covering the wells with nets should also be adopted. Disinfection of wells with required amount of suitable disinfectant at regular interval also helps to minimize pollution mainly of microbial origin. Education of households on safe handling and use of drinking water was also recommended.

REFERENCES Cheeran, J. V., Raghunandanan, V. R., Nair, A. M. C. and John, K. A. (1987). Toxic effect of industrial effluents on animals. ICAR project report (1984-1987). Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur, Kerala. Health Survey of Nine Wards of Eloor Gramapanchayath. (2008). Conducted by the Research Institute, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, Kalamssery, Kerala. Kumar, P. S. (2000). Fluorine toxicity and its effect on cattle in Eloor industrial area. M.V. Sc. Thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 98p. Nisha A. R. (2001). Assessment of cadmium toxicity in cattle of Eloor industrial area. M.V. Sc. Thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 54p. Park, K. (2009). Park's Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 20th edition. M/s Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, Jabalpur, 872p. Radostits, C. M., Gay, C. C., Hinchcliff, K. W. and Constable, P. D. (2007). Veterinary Medicine. A Text Book of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats. 10th edition. Elsevier, Noida, 2156p. Sandhu, H. S. and Brar, R. S. (2000). Text book of Veterinary Toxicology. First edition. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 327p.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

PREVALENCE OF Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES AMONG SLAUGHTER HOUSE WORKERS AND GENERAL POPULATION OF KOLLAM DISTRICT, KERALA STATE 3

Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. It is still an uncontrolled serious public health problem in many developing countries including India. It is an occupational disease in which farmers, shepherds, butchers, abattoir workers, veterinary and laboratory workers are at high risk. Among these the slaughter house workers are more prone to infection as compared with other occupation because they are exposed to carcasses and viscera of infected animals and get infected through cuts, wounds and splashing of infected blood and other fluid in the conjunctiva. The disease in humans is septicemia with sudden or insidious onset and is accompanied by continuous fever, chills, profuse sweating, weakness, fatigue, insomnia, sexual impotency, headache, arthralgia, undulant fever, nocturnal sweating, headache, pain in leg joints and lumbar region. The diagnosis of the disease can be challenging and is frequently delayed or missed because the clinical picture may mimic other infectious and noninfectious conditions. Diagnosis can be established by laboratory methods such as serology and blood cultures. Prolonged incubation period, special growth media, and subcultures are required for the isolation of these fastidious, slow growing bacteria. However, cultures are not always positive when other tests are positive. Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis such as agglutination tests, Indirect immunofluorescence (I-IF), Rose Bengal plate 1

. Tutor in Medical Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Travancore Medical College, Mevaram, Kollam. 2 . Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics, COVAS, Mannuthy. 3 . Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, COVAS, Pookot. 4 . Director, School of Health Sciences, Palayad, Kannur

test (RBPT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT), and Indirect-ELISA (I-ELISA). In India, many workers have reported seroprevalance of brucellosis from time to time, in cattle, buffalo, and humans (Kalorey et al, 2000 and Mohanty et al, 2000). However, reports are scanty on seroprevalance of Brucellosis among slaughter house workers.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This particular study was conducted to estimate Brucella abortus antibodies among slaughter house workers and normal population in the southern region of Kerala to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job and to find out the effectiveness of different serological tests like RBPT, STAT, and I-ELISA for its diagnosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 210 samples were collected from both occupationally exposed persons and from general population. Among these 110 serum samples were from slaughter house workers working in the main slaughter houses of Kollam district of Kerala and a second group of 100 samples from healthy population of Kollam District. The study population thus selected was interviewed by using a pre tested structured questionnaire, the purpose of the study was explained and a written informed consent was obtained before collecting the materials. The blood samples were collected from the radial vein by professional laboratory technicians from a local hospital during the month of January 2009 and the separated serum samples were kept at 20ยบC till testing was done. Sera samples were subjected to (RBPT), (STAT) and (I-ELISA). The Rose Bengal 39

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INTRODUCTION

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B. J. Deepthy , B. Bibin Becha , K.C. Bipin and P.C. Raveendran School of Health Sciences, Palayad, Thallessery, Kannur, Kerala


RESEARCH ARTICLE

Plate Test antigen (IVPM, Ranipet), Brucella abortus plain antigen for STAT (IVRI, Izatnagar) and Indirect ELISA kits for detection of IgG (Vircell Microbiologists, Spain) were utilized for the study. Rose Bengal Plate Test was performed by mixing a drop of RBPT reagent with a drop of serum on a glass slide and an apparent agglutination reaction observed in 2 to 4 minutes were taken as positive. STAT was performed by mixing serially diluted serum (1:20 to 1:2560) with fixed quantity of B. abortus plain antigen in small test tubes. A titre of 80IU and above after overnight incubation at 37ยบC were taken as positive. Test was done as per procedure given by the manufacturer and An OD value equal to or greater than 0.6 was taken as positive in I-ELISA.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Out of the 210 samples tested, 44 (20.95%), 2(0.95%) and 7 (3.33%) samples were found positive for antibodies to B. abortus by RBPT, STAT and IELISA respectively. Samples collected from slaughter house workers (n=110) showed a seropositivity in 31 (21.18%), 2 (1.81%) and 7 (6.36%) cases by RBPT, STAT and I-ELISA respectively. Thirteen (13%) seropositive cases were detected in general population (n=100) by RBPT.

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Group

No. of Samples tested

workers and 13% prevalence among the general population by RBPT are observed in southern part of Kerala. This is similar to the report of 34% prevalence by Chauhan, (1999) and 17.39% prevalence by Thakur and Thapliyal, (2002) among field veterinarians and animal handlers.STAT remains as the most popular and yet used worldwide diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of brucellosis because it is easy to perform, does not need expensive equipments and training. STAT measures the total quantity of agglutinating antibodies (IgM and IgG) against B. abortus (Young, 1991). In this study, only 1.81% of the slaughter house workers showed seropositivity by STAT. Mantur, 1988 reported a prevalence of 3% brucellosis among patients attending Karnataka Medical College, Hubli. A study by Mantur et al., (2004) among children in Bijapur during a period of 13 years reported 1.6% seroprevalence by STAT. In another study, Mantur et al., (2006) reported brucellosis with a prevalence of 1.8% among adults in Bijapur during a period of 16 years.The reduced number of seropositivity in patients (more number of false negative results) may be attributed to the performance of tests early in the course of infection, the presence of blocking antibodies (non-agglutinating, incomplete) or the so-called "prezone" phenomenon (Aliskan, 2008).Indirect -ELISA could detect 6.36% positive

RBPT No. of Positives

STAT

i-ELISA

%

No. of Positives

%

No. of Positives

%

Slaughter workers

110

31

28.18%

2

1.81%

7

6.36%

General population

100

13

13%

0

0

0

0

Seropositive cases could not be identified from general population by STAT or i-ELISA. The results are summarized in Table 1. The present study represents the seroprevalence of brucellosis among persons with high risk occupational exposure in southern part of Kerala. The overall exposure rate of 20.95% by RBPT, 0.95% by STAT and 3.33% by ELISA found in this study suggests the endemicity of brucellosis in the surveyed population. In this study, 28.18% seroprevalence of B. abortus among slaughter house 40

cases of IgG antibodies to B. abortus among slaughter house workers. I-ELISA typically uses cytoplasmic proteins as antigens. In comparing with STAT, I-ELISA yields higher sensitivity and specificity since no cross reactions have been reported between soluble cytoplasmic proteins of these organisms (Almuneef and Memish, 2003). High incidence of Brucella antibodies in slaughter house workers points to their hygienic status and the necessity for providing proper protective clothing to this occupationally high risk group.RBPT can be used as a rapid screening test with high sensitivity for initial screening of large population.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

REFERENCES Aliskan, H. 2008. The value of culture and serological methods in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Mikrobiyol. Bul. 42(1):185 195. Almuneef, M. and Z.A. Memish, 2003. Prevalence of Brucella antibodies after acute brucellosis. J. Chemother. 15:148 151. Chauhan, R.S. 1999. Brucellosis in India and its impact on export of buffalo meat. Indian J. Ani. Prod. 31: 316 317. Kiel, F.W. and M.Y. Khan 1987. Analysis of 506 consecutive positive serologic tests for brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1384 1387. Mantur, B.G. 1988. Prevalence of brucellosis in north Karnataka: A serological and cultural study. MD.

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I Acknowledge Dr. S. Raju, Dr. Zaira Rani Kunju and Dr. Deepa L., Veterinary Surgeons under the Kerala Animal Husbandry Department, working in Kollam District; Dr. N. Gopinathan, Medical Officer, District Corporation Office, Kollam, P. Gopinathan, Health Inspector (Grade I) and Muhammed Faizal Y., Junior Health Inspector (Grade II), for thehelp rendered during the collection of samples for this study.

Issue 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Thesis submitted to Karnataka University, Dharwad. Mantur, B.G. and S.K. Amarnath, 2008. Brucellosis in India a review. J. Biosci. 33(4): 539 547. Mantur, B.G., S.K. Amarnath and R.S. Shinde, 2007. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 25(3): 188 202. Mantur, B.G, A.S. Akki, S.S Mangalgi, S.V. Patil, R.H. Gobbur and B.V. Peerapur, 2004. Childhood brucellosis - a microbiological, epidemiological and clinical study. J. Trop. Pediatr. 50:153 157. Mantur, B.G., M.S. Biradar, R.C. Bidri, M.S. Mulimani, Veerappa, P. Kariholu, S.B. Patil and S.S. Mangalgi, 2006. Protean clinical manifestations and diagnostic challenges of human brucellosis in adults: 16 years' experience in an endemic area. J. Med. Microbiol. 55: 897 903. Smits, H.L. and S.M. Kadri, 2005. Brucellosis in India: a deceptive infectious disease. Indian J. Med. Res. 122: 375 384. Thakur, S.D and D.C. Thapliyal, 2002. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in man. J. Commun. Dis. 34: 106 109. Young, E.J. 1991. Serologic diagnosis of human brucellosis: Analysis of 214 cases by agglutination tests and review of the literature. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13: 359 372.

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The positive cases can be confirmed using tests with more specificity like I- ELISA. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for detection of Brucella species are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time


RESEARCH ARTICLE

PREVALENCE OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF CAMELS (Camelus dromedaries) IN THE ANSEBA REGION OF ERITREA, NORTH EAST AFRICA Basharat Ahmed Pandit 1, Michael Kahsay2, Sanjay Devarajan3 and Paulo Luis Valerino Cambra4 Hamelmalo Agricultural College, P. O. Box No. 397, Keren, Eritrea, North East Africa

ABSTRACT The prevalence of helminth parasites in the camels of Zoba Anseba was studied. For the study a total of 230 fecal samples were collected and investigated. The investigation showed an infection rate of 46.08%. The helminthes ova's identified were Trichostrongylus 51(48.11%), Haemonchus 20(18.86%), Ostertagia 15(14.15%), Cooperia 12(11.32%), Trichuris 21(19.81%), Monezia 9(8.49%) and Fasciola 2(1.88%). Mixed infection with two to three species of helminths was recorded. The infection rate due to various helminths in males and females as well as young's and adults were non significant (P > 0.05) Key Words: Camels, Parasites, Eritrea

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INTRODUCTION Eritrea is located in north east Africa. It is a country bordered by Sudan to the north and west, Ethiopia to the south, Djibouti to the south east and red sea to east with about 1216km coast line. Eritrea has six zobas (zones), namely, Debub, Anseba, Maekel, Southern red sea, Northern red sea and Gash Barka. Zoba Anseba is found in the western escarpment which consists of 11 sub zobas. This zoba receives an annual rainfall of 600 mm in the highlands and less than 350 mm in the western lowlands. The average temperature of the zoba ranges from 10- 25 oC in the plateaus to 16-35 in the western lowlands (Bissrat and Thomas,1999). Livestock serves as back bone in the agricultural production system in the country.. There are about 0.368 million camels in Eritrea. Camel is one of the most important animal in the country. Though camels are generally browsers but also graze, especially, when they come across green grass. While grazing, they become victimized by different types of diseases in which parasitic ones take the main role. Since camels are reared in hot climates, there is more chance of getting certain diseases, especially; parasitic diseases as parasites and their transmitting vector are endemic in these tropical areas. Many a times the difference between profit and loss in camel production can be directly attributed to parasitic diseases apart from diseases

caused by other organisms. Parasitic diseases are generally of insidious nature and are frequently stated to be the serious problem. Despite the susceptibility of camels to parasitic infections, they may not usually die or manifest obvious clinical signs. However, the slow, constant drain in their health often means a substantial loss in income to the farmer. Hence the present study was undertaken to monitor the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of camel in and around Zoba Anseba region of Eritrea.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Camels of different villages of Zoba Anseba were screened for the study. A total of 230 faecal samples were collected and examined for observing the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic fauna in the area for the first time during 2009 & 2010. The samples were collected from both male and female camels, and different age groups (Young's and Adults). Camels up to 3 years of age were referred as young's and above 3 years as adults. The faecal samples were collected in polythene bags and brought to laboratory for examination. All the samples were examined by both sedimentation and floatation techniques (Soulsby, 1982). The samples positive for mixed type of parasitic infections. (nematode, cestode and trematode) were noted. All the parasitic eggs were identified on the bases of 1

Professor Veterinary Parasitology, 2 Veterinary Pathologist & Head , Veterinary Epidemiologist ,Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Keren, Eritrea,

3&4

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Name of the Parasite Trichostrongylus Haemochus Ostertagia Cooperia Trichuris Monezia Fasciola

Positivity % in Males 30 (28.30%) 9 (8.49%) 8(7.54 %) 7 (6.60 %) 14 (13.20 %) 6(5.66 %) 2 (1.88 %)

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Student t Testâ&#x20AC;? was applied for both the means Null Hypothesis: There was no significant relation between the mean effects of males and females due to different Parasitic infections, t = 0.728, Probability = 0.48 and Probability > 0.05 hence not significant at 5% level of significance. 44 According to Gebrehiwet(1998), the

Positivity % in Females 21 (19.81 %) 11 (10.37%) 7 (6.60 %) 5 (4.71 %) 7(6.60 %) 3(2.83 %) 0(0.00 %)

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Out of the 230 faecal samples collected, 106 (46.08%) were found positive for different types of helminth eggs. Most of the camels were showing mixed type of infection with two or three species of helminth parasites. The parasites identified on the bases of morphology of ova's were as: Trichostrongylus 51(48.11%), Haemonchus 20 (18.86%), Ostertagia 15(14.15%), Trichuris 21(19.81%), Cooperia 12(11.32%), Monezia 9(8.49%) and Fasciola 2(1.88%). Since mixed infection was observed with two to three species of helminthes, the percent positivity was calculated from the total positive cases. The infection rate of helminths was calculated on the basis of sex and out of 106 camels positive for different type of parasites, 60(56.60%) were males and 46(43.39%) were females. The males seem to be more susceptible due to the fact that they are used for draft purpose and are more exposed to parasitic infections(although statistically not significant). The prevalence rate observed by different helminths was as under

was found as high as 19.81% and is in agreement with that of Manefield and Timson(1997). Similarly the infection due to Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Cooperia were also observed by Manefield and Timson(1997) from the camels in Australia. In the present study only one camel was found positive for Fasciola which might be due to 43

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

prevalence of diseases in camels were highest in the rainy season(47.7%) and lowest in the dry season(19.2%) Parsani et al (2008) have recorded the common gastro intestinal nematodes of camels as Haemonchus, Nematodirus, Nametodirella, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Ostertagia, M a r s h a l l a g i a , C o o p e r i a , Tr i c h u r i s a n d Camelostrongylus from the camels of Rajasthan, India. They have also observed maximum prevalence with these parasites during rainy season. Mostly the area under Zoba Anseba remains dry and gets maximum rainfall during July and August which frames the baseline for the infection of the animals with different types of diseases in the area. .The present study is also approximately in agreement with the findings of Parsani et al (2008). Further, Manefield and Timson(1997) from Australia have reported that Camel is the least likely of all domestic livestock to suffer from heavy burdens of helminths. Although low grades of nematode infection are common, during high rainfall, parasitic gastro enteritis may result. In the neighboring Eastern Sudan, Haemonchus spp and Trichostrongylus spp were among the commonest helminths species found(Fadle, M et al ,1992). In the present study the whipworm Trichuris

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morphological features given by Soulsby, 1968 and 1982. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using standard't'test (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967).


RESEARCH ARTICLE

On the basis of age, out of 106 positive camels, 35 were young's (33.01%) and 71 were adults (66.98%)

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The prevalence rate observed by different genera were as under Name of the Parasite Trichostrongylus Haemonchus Ostertagia Cooperia Trichuris Monezia Fasciola

Positivity % in Young 12 (11.32 %) 8 (7.54 %) 3(2.83 %) 5 (4.71 %) 4 (3.77 %) 6(5.66 %) 0 (0.00 %)

Positivity % in Adults 39(36.79 %) 12(11.32 %) 12 (11.32 %) 7 (6.60 %) 7(6.60 %) 3(2.83 %) 2(1.88 %)

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Student t Testâ&#x20AC;? was applied for both the means Null Hypothesis: There was no significant relation between the mean effects of young and adults due to different Parasitic infections, t = - 1.258, Probability = 0.23 and Probability > 0.05 hence not significant at 5% level of significance.

44


The authors are thankful to Mr. Semere Amelsom, Dean, Hamelmalo Agricultural College for enabling us to conduct the study and to Dr. G. S. Rao Assistant Professor, Statistics, for his assistance in analysis of the data.

REFERENCES Bissrat Ghebru and Thomas Kholer (editors) (1999). Soil and Water Conservation and Management in Eritrea. Proceeding of the AEAS/University of Berne. Collaborative Workshop, Asmara, 17-20 February, 1998. Fadle, M., Magzoub, M., Burger, H.J., (1992)

46

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Prevalence of Gastro intestinal nematode infection in the dromedaries(Camelus dromedaries) in Butana plains, Sudan., Revue d Elevase et de Medicine Veterinaraire des Pays Tropicaux, 44(3 4) 291 293. Gebrehiwet. T(1998) Camels in Eritrea An all purpose animal., World Animal Review 91(2) Page 34 - 42 Manefield, G. W. and Tinson, A. H. (1997). Camels A Compendium Sydney Post Graduate Foundation Vade Mecum Series C No. 22. Parsani, H.R., Veer Singh and Momin,R.R(2008) Veterinary World Vol.1, No.10 Snedecor, G. W and Cochean, W.C.(1967) Statistical th methods 6 edition Oxford and Indian Book House, Calcutta. Soulsby. E.J.L. (1968). Helminths and arthropods, United States, 6th edn, Pp 227 to 229. Soulsby.E.J.L, (1982), Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals, 7th edition, ELBS and Bailliere Tindall Publication, London

JIVA V o l . 8

the fact that camel has been migrated from another Zoba, as Zoba Anseba has no or meager availability of surface water. Gebrehiwet(1998) has observed that camels move in Eritrea during early morning hours and late evening. During these periods, the infective third stage larvae can move up the leaves and camels can get infection even while browsing.

December 2010

RESEARCH ARTICLE


RESEARCH ARTICLE

STRENGTH OF BELIEF AND ADOPTION OF SELECTED MODERN VETERINRY PRACTICES ADOPTED BY THE TRIBAL LIVESTOCK FARMERS OF ATTAPPADY IN PALAKKAD DISTRICT Bimal. P. Bashir1, P.J. Rajkamal2, Rajeev T. S.3 , Reeja George P.3 and K. A. Mercey4. Dept .of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur

ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken with the objective of determine the strength and percentage of adoption of selected modern veterinary practices adopted by the tribal livestock farmers of Attappady block. Stratified random sampling procedure was adopted. One hundred and twenty tribal livestock farmers were selected from all the three panchayats viz. Agali, Pudur and Sholayoor of Attappady block. A well structured interview schedule were prepared and used for the study. The study revealed that out of the fourteen beliefs on modern veterinary practices studied, seven were found to be weak. They in the order of their strength were, treating for expulsion of placenta, ecto-parasitic infestation, snake bite, fracture, respiratory disorder, horn / hoof evulsion and external wound. Out of the above weak beliefs, adopters were more for the belief or practice of treating ecto-parasitic infestation (45.83%). However, adopters were the least for treating external wounds (29.17%). The adoption percent ages of all these weak beliefs were less than 46 percent age. A systematic and well-planned effort must be there to propagate adoption of modern veterinary practices in the area. The strong beliefs on modern veterinary practices among the tribal livestock farmers in the order of strength were, treating for the bite of rabid animals, treating for digestive disorders, deworming for endo-parasitic infestation, medication for infectious diseases, treatment of mastitis, treatment of fever and medication for bloat. The adoption percent ages of all the strong beliefs were more than 45 percent age. Key words: tribal, livestock, farmers, Attappady, belief, veterinary, practice

JIVA Vol. 8

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INTRODUCTION Tribes constitute about 1.4 percent of the total population of Kerala (2001 census report). Attappady, the location of the present study, is the largest tribal settlement area of Kerala. The tribal folk of Attappady are the most backward among vulnerable ethnic groups of the state. They have a traditional economy mainly on land, livestock and forest. The present study was undertaken with the objective of determine the strength and percentage of adoption of selected modern veterinary practices adopted by the tribal livestock farmers of the area.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Attappady tribal block of Palakkad was selected as the area of study. This tribal block comprises of three 47

panchayats which are Agali, Pudur and Sholayoor. The strength of belief on modern animal husbandry undertaken against selected disease conditions and their treatment were individually rated over all the respondents on a five point continuum viz., strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree with respective weightage of 5,4,3,2 and 1. Every belief was later categorized either as strong belief (>3.05) or weak belief (<3.05) belief depending on the mean score. Percentage of adoption of each belief based practice was also calculated from the structured interview schedule. 1

M. V. Sc. Thesis Submitted to Kerala Agricultural University Professor and Head, Dept. of Vety. & A.H.Extension 3 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Vety. & A.H.Extension 4 Professor, Dept. of Statistics 2


RESEARCH ARTICLE

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1. Weak belief (<3.05) on modern animal husbandry practices undertaken against selected disease condition and their treatment. Sl. No.

Statements

Adopters

Mean score

f

%

1

Retention of placenta

3.05

52

43.33

2

Ecto parasitic infections

2.99

55

45.83

3

Snake bite condition.

2.92

53

44.17

4

Fracture.

2.77

42

35.00

5

Respiratory disorder

2.75

44

36.67

6

Horn /Hoof evulsions

2.53

37

30.83

7

External wound

2.46

35

29.17

Farmer's mean = 3.05. Data in Table 1 pertained to the weak beliefs on modern veterinary practices. These beliefs in the order of their strength were, treating for expulsion of placenta (3.03), ecto-parasitic infestation (2.99), snake bite (2.92), fracture (2.77), respiratory disorder (2.75), horn / hoof evulsion (2.53) and external wound (2.46). Out of the above beliefs, adopters were more for the belief or practice of treating ecto-parasitic infestation (45.83%). However, adopters were the least for treating external wounds (29.17%). The adoption percentage of all these weak beliefs are less that 45% and genuine effort must be there from the authorities to encourage adoption of modern veterinary practices in the area. Table 2. Strong belief (>3.05) on modern animal husbandry practices undertaken against selected disease condition and their treatment. n=120 farmer's mean = 3.05. Adopters f

%

1

Bite of rabid animals.

3.48

54

45.00

2

Digestive disorder

3.38

55

45.83

3

Endo- parasitic infections (Deworming).

3.30

66

55.00

4

Medication for infectious diseases.

3.29

70

58.33

5

Mastitis

3.28

68

56.67

6

Fever

3.20

54

45.00

7

Bloat.

3.12

60

50.00

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Mean score

Issue 2

Statements

48

JIVA V o l . 8

Sl. No.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

Data in Table 2 pertained to the strong beliefs on modern veterinary practices among the tribal livestock farmers. They in the order of strength were, treating for the bite of rabid animals (3.48), treating for digestive disorders (3.38), deworming for endoparasitic infestation (3.30), medication for infectious diseases (3.29), treatment of mastitis (3.28), treatment of fever (3.20) and medication for bloat (3.12). Out of the above seven strongly held beliefs; adopters were more for treatment of infectious diseases (58.33%). However, adopters were the least for treating fever (45.0%).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Facilities provided by Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and Kerala Agricultural University are thankfully acknowledged.

REFERENCES Anonymous. 2001. Census report. Scheduled Tribes Department, Govt. of Kerala Avinashilingam, N.A.V., Singh, U. and Kumar, R. 2008. Existing dairy farming practices of six major dairy tribes of Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 61(1): 8087. Somasundaram, S. (1995). Indigenous Knowledge in farming system. Unpub. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Extension. T.A.N.U., Coimbatore. Sunil, G. 2001. A study of the traditional belief system in dairy husbandry among tribals of Attappady. M.V.Sc. Thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 114 p.

INFOMANIA

JIVA Vol. 8

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December 2010

(Compiled by Dr.Jayesh.V, Veterinary Surgeon and Dr.V.R.Mohanan, Chief Veterinary Officer, District Veterinary Center, Kalpetta, Wayanad) Based on Pharmacology Materia Medica and Therapeutics for Veterinary Students by V.Srinivasan., 1975, Scientific Book Company,Patna) 1.Name the formaldehyde derivative, used as a urinary antiseptic and which acts only in an acidic medium. Usually ammonium chloride is administered I hour before its administration. 2.How do we name the product containing acetic acid, distilled water and honey and was used as a vehicle for cough electuaries. 3.What is the indication for intravenous administration of oxalic acid in dogs ,as 1grain(65mg) dissolved in 5cc of distilled water. 4.To kill mad dogs, it is seen advised that a cotton wool tied to the end of a long pole and dipped in 1ounce of Scheele's acid can be thrust into a dogs mouth so that the acid may be squeezed into its throat.What is chemically Scheele's acid. 5.Name the compound ,available in our hospitals, used in fever but also finds mention for treatment of psoriasis in dogs as 2ml i/v injection of a 20% solution three times a week. 6.List two antigalactagogues 7.Tartar emetic was widely used in cattle as a 7.5-10 % aqeous solution at a dose rate of 50mg per kg.Which is the specific antidote. Cntd..... Page 52

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

EFFECT OF SANITIZERS ON THE BACTERIAL COUNTS OF BEEF CARCASSES 1

2

3

4

4

E. Nanu , C. Latha , B Sunil K ., Vrinda Menon and Deepa Jolly Department of Veterinary Public Health College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur-680 651, Kerala

ABSTRACT The antibacterial effect of food grade sanitizers on the beef carcasses was undertaken in the present study. The sanitizers used in the study include Lactic acid (1% and 2 %), combination of lactic acid (1% ) and sodium chloride (5%), combination of Potassium sorbate (0.5%) and sodium chloride (5%), Potassium sorbate (2.5%), Chlorine (200ppm and 100ppm) and combination of lipase (0.5%) and Vitamin C (0.5%). Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant reduction in the total viable count of the treated carcasses. The most effective of all sanitizers used in the study was found to be chlorine (200ppm) which showed a complete inhibition of the growth of coliforms and E. coli. The maximum effect on the bacterial counts was observed in case of chlorine (200 ppm) followed by lactic acid (2%), combination of lactic acid (1%) and sodium chloride (5%) and combination of potassium sorbate (0.5%) and sodium chloride (5%). Maximum reduction of faecal streptococcal count was observed when lactic acid (2%) was sprayed on the beef carcasses. Sulphite reducing clostridium (SRC) count also reduced significantly (P=0.01) when treated with lactic acid (1%) and sodium chloride (5%), chlorine 100ppm and chlorine 200ppm. Key words: Sanitizers, Antibacterial , Beef carcass

1

Professor, 2 Associate Professor and Head,3 Associate Profess, 4Assi. Professor Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur

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Collection of sample: During the study, a total of six beef carcasses were collected randomly from a meat processing plant in Kerala, to detect the antibacterial effect of various sanitizers. Equal number of carcasses selected were treated as control samples. Sanitizers The sanitizers used in the study include Lactic acid (1% and 2 %), combination of lactic acid (1% ) and sodium chloride (5%), combination of Potassium sorbate (0.5%) and sodium chloride (5%), Potassium sorbate (2.5%), combination of lipase (0.5%) and Vitamin C (0.5%) and Chlorine (200ppm and 100ppm). The swab samples were collected from 100 2 cm area each from brisket, shoulder, back, round and flank regions of the carcass. The samples from each carcass were pooled into 500 ml of 0.1% peptone water. Evaluation of bacterial counts The total viable count (TVC) and sulphite reducing clostridial count (SRC) were evaluated as

December 2010

MATERIALS AND METHODS

JIVA V o l . 8

Meat, one of the most important livestock products, though highly perishable, play a significant role in human nutrition. In India, beef is generally consumed in limited parts of the country, but in Kerala, it is one of the most widely consumed meat and is generally available fresh, immediately after slaughter. During slaughter operations, the carcass is exposed to extraneous contamination, tropical environment and temperature variation which favour microbial multiplication and subsequent reduction in the shelf life of meat. Several intervention strategies have been developed to reduce the bacterial load on carcass surface. One such strategy that has gained relatively wide acceptance in the meat processing industry is carcass washing and sanitizing. Nowadays, the use of certain generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substances viz. organic acids, certain salts and their combination have received increasing attention as a carcass sanitizer. In the present study, the effect of various sanitizers on the bacterial counts on beef carcass has been evaluated.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

was in accordance with the study of Kondiah et al (1985). The significant reduction in mean TVC count on treatment with acetic acid and chlorine (200ppm) was also observed by Anderson et al (2006) on application of these sanitizers on beef carcass. The combination of lactic acid(1%) with sodium chloride (5%) did not reveal a synergestic effect, while lipase (5%) with vitamin C (0.5%) combination reduced the count by 2.39 log10cfu / cm² without change in the colour of the carcass. Castillo et al (2001) and Gill and Badoni (2004) also reported significant reduction in E coli on beef carcass at a higher concentration of lactic acid, as against the study by Brackett et al (1994) who reported that lactic and acetic acid at 0.5-1.5% levels was ineffective in reducing E coli on beef. A significant reduction in the TVC and E. coli counts was reported by Kotula et al. (1994) and Prasai et al.(1997), on treatment with lactic acid spray. The combination of potassium sorbate with sodium chloride revealed a synergistic effect, as the reduction in TVC was nearly 2 log10cfu /cm² whereas the difference was only 1 log10cfu /cm² when potassium sorbate (2.5%) was used alone. The bactericidal effect of 200ppm chlorine on coliforms and

described by Swanson et al (2001), coliform count (CC) and faecal streptococcal count (FSC) was estimated as per the procedure described by Nordic Committee on food analysis (1973) and (1968b) respectively. The Escherichia coli count (ECC) was estimated as prescribed by Indian Standards (1980). The data obtained from the above study was subjected to statistical analysis following procedure described by Rangaswamy ( 1995).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The effect of different sanitizers on the mean bacterial count of beef carcass is shown in the table. · Figures in the same column bearing the same superscript differ significantly · Figures in the same column bearing different superscript do not differ significantly Statistical analysis of data revealed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts of the treated carcass. The most effective of all sanitizers used in the study was found to be lactic acid (2%) and chlorine (200ppm), as it brought about a reduction of 3 log10cfu / cm² in TVC. The effect of lactic acid (2%)

Table: Effect of sanitizers on the mean bacterial counts of beef carcass

JIVA Vol. 8

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December 2010

Sanitizer

Mean bacterial counts in carcass log 10 cfu / cm² TVC

CC

ECC

FSC

SRC

Lactic acid (1%)

5.22 ± 0.28a

1.17±0.01 a

0.69±0.01 a

1.77±0.13 a

1.68±0.27 a

Lactic acid (2 %)

4.38 ± 0.35a

1.27±0.12 a

0.19±0.13 a

0.36±0.13 a

1.27±0.27 a

Lactic acid (1%) and Sodium chloride (5%)

5.45 ±0.27 a

2.37±0.19 a

0.76±0.07 b

1.06±0.27 a

0.89±0.23 a

Potassium sorbate (0.5%) and Sodium chloride (5%)

5.31±0.29

Potassium sorbate (2.5%)

6.23±0.16 a

Lipase (0.5%) and Vitamin C(0.5%)

5.03±0.28

Chlorine (200ppm)

4.92±0.29

Chlorine (100ppm)

6.16±0.32

Control

7.42±0.23a

50

a

a

1.07±0.10

a

2.55±0.08 a 0.73±0.21

a

Nil a

0.19±0.18

1.01±0.24

a

1.88±0.14 a 1.01±0.21

b

Nil a

2.68±0.11 a

0.13±0.12

b

2.29±0.17 a

1.99±0.49

a

1.91±0.09 a 1.83±0.21

a

1.23±0.39

a

1.21±0.09 a 1.37±0.29

a

1.66±0.29 a

0.53±0.11 a

2.13±0.28

0.45±0.14

2.76±0.15 a

2.21±0.31

a


RESEARCH ARTICLE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for funding the project on “Bacterial quality assurance of meat in processing plant KAU”. The facilities required for the study provided by the Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy is also gratefully acknowledged.

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Anderson M.E, Marshall, R.T, Stringer, W.C and Naumann, H.D 2006 Efficacies of three sanitizers under six conditions of application to surfaces of beef. J Fd Sci, 42(2):326-329 Brackett, R., Hao, Y. and Doyle, M., 1994. Ineffectiveness of hot acid sprays to decontaminate Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on beef. J. Food Prot. 57, pp. 198203 Castillo, A Lucia, L.M Mercado, T and Acuff, GR (2001) In plant evaluation of lactic acid treatment for reduction of bacteria on chilled beef carcass. J Fd Prot. 64: 738-740 Doores, S (1993) Organic acids : In Brannen, AL and Davidson, AM Editors 1993 Antimicrobials in food. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 95-124 Gill, C.O. and Badoni, M. Effects of peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite or lactic acid solutions on the microflora of chilled beef carcasses. International Journal of Food Microbiology 91(2004):43-50. Hardin, M.D., Acuff, G.R., Lucia, L.M., Oman, J.S., and Savell, J.W. Comparison of Methods for Decontamination from Beef Carcass Surfaces. Journal of Food Protection 58(1995)368-374. Indian Standards, 1980. SP:18. Handbook of Food Analysis. Part I. General Methods. Indian Standards Institution. Manak Bhavan, 9, Bhadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi - 1 Kondaiah, N, Peter, Z and Morgan, J 1985 Effects of chemical dip on unchilled fresh beef inoculated with E coli, S aureus, S. faecalis and Clostridium perfringens stored at 30ºC and 20ºC Kotula, K.L., and Thelappurate, R. Microbiological and Sensory Attributes

December 2010

REFERENCES

JIVA V o l . 8

E. coli was cent per cent. However, considerable reduction of these organisms was also seen when the carcasses were treated with 100ppm chlorine and lipase and vitamin C combination. Potassium sorbate (2.5%) did not reveal considerable bactericidal effect on coliforms. However, the application of lactic acid (1% and 2%) and lactic acid and sodium chloride combination on the beef carcasses reduced the E. coli count by about 2 log10cfu /cm². Smulders and Greer (1996) reported no effect of lactic acid on E coli O157H9 strain even when treated with 3% lactic acid. The reduction in counts of different pathogens on treatment with organic acids on beef has been reported by Harden et al (1995) and Tinney et al (1997) Although statistical reduction in faecal streptococcal count was observed when treated with different sanitizers except 100ppm chlorine, a maximum reduction to 0.36 ± 0.13 log10cfu /cm² was observed only when lactic acid (2%) was sprayed on the beef carcasses. Sulphite reducing clostridium (SRC) count also reduced significantly (P=0.01) when treated with lactic acid (1%) and sodium chloride (5%), chlorine 100ppm and chlorine 200ppm, as the count reduced to 0.86 ± 0.23, 0.53 ± 0.10 and 0.45 ± 0.14 log10cfu /cm², respectively. However, lactic acid (1%) level did not significantly reduce the growth of sulphite reducing clostridium, which was also reported by Doores (1993) who observed a reduction in the growth of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens at higher concentration of lactic acid. Hence, the maximum effect on the bacterial counts was observed in case of chlorine (200 ppm) followed by lactic acid (2%), combination of lactic acid (1%) and sodium chloride (5%) and combination of potassium sorbate (0.5%) and sodium chloride (5%) in order of preference. All these are GRAS substances and have been approved as a direct food additive for use in decontamination of carcasses. It also does not endanger human health. Moreover, they did not have any effect on colour and odour of the carcass surfaces. The treatments especially chlorine, lactic acid and sodium chloride are very cost effective and can be used in routine practice in meat processing plants.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

of Retail Cuts of Beef Treated with Acetic and Lactic Acid Solutions. Journal of Food Protection 57(1994):665-670. Nordic Committee on Food Analysis. 1968b. Determination of faecal streptococci in foods (68). UDC. 576.851.21 Nordic Committee on Food Analysis. 1973. Determination of number of coliform bacteria in foods (44). UDC. 576.851.48 Rangaswamy,R. 1995 In : A textbook of agricultural statistics. New Age International Publishers Ltd. New Delhi. p 495 Prasai, R.K., Kastner, C.L., Kenney, P.B., Kropf, D.H., Fung, D.Y.C., Mease, L.E., Vogt, L.R., and Johnson, D.E. Microbiological Quality of Beef Subprimals as Affected by Lactic Acid Sprays Applied at Various Points during

Vacuum Storage. Journal of Food Protection 60(1997):795-798. Smulders, F J M and Greer, GG 1998 Integrating microbial decontamination with organic acids in HACCP programme for muscle foods prospects and controversies. Int J Fd Microbiol 44(3) : 149169 programme for muscle foods prospects and controversies. Int J Fd Microbiol 44(3) : 149-169 Swanson, K.M.J., Petran, R.L., and Hanlin, J.H. (2001). Culture methods for enumeration of microorganisms. Compendium of methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (eds. th Downe's, F.P. and Ito, K.). 4 edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, pp. 536716. Tinney, K.S., Miller, M.F., Ramsey, C. B., Thompson, L.D., and Carr, M.A. Reduction of Microorganisms on Beef Surfaces with Electricity

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December 2010

INFOMANIA CONTINUED... 8.Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide is a quarternary ammonium compound , 1% aqeous solution of which can be used for sterilization of instruments, wound cleaning and its 0.1% solution in 70% alcohol can be used for skin sterilization of surgical sites. What is its commonly used name 9.What does Aqua Bulliens mean. 10.Which compound gives red colour to Tr.cardamom. 11.If collyrium stands for eye lotion,collunaria stands for nasal lotion and collutaria for mouth washes, how do we term aqeous solution for ear drops such as 2.5% boric acid. 12.What are the strengths of Glacial acetic acid,acetic acid,dilute acetic acid and vinegar. 13.Golden lotion indicated for dermatological affections is obtained by mixing 2 ingredients in water in a ratio of 1:2;10 , and then simmering the mixture till it becomes golden yellow coloured and filtering after 3-5 days.Which are the two ingredients? 14.For the closure of oesophageal groove in ruminants, what should be the time gap between the administration of 10ml of a 10% copper sulphate solution and later the fluid medicine,so that the latter goes directly to abomasum. 15.This is a gum resin based tincture. Externally it is used as a deodorant and an antiseptic. Internally , it is a nauseant, carminative and an antiseptic expectorant. It is also seen advised for painting on bandages to prevent dogs from gnawing off the bandage .Also advised to prevent feather pulling in poultry and for mixing with alcoholic liquors to prevent their abuse by addicts. Identify this common tincture. Answers in Page 59

52


CLINICAL REPORT

CHOLANGIOHEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN A DUCK 2

3

INTRODUCTION Hepatic tumours other than marek's disease and lymphoid leucosis in avian species have been reported occasionally. Few reports were available on simultaneous occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma in ducks (Campbell, 1941; Konch et al.,2008 ). In reporting a series of hepatic neoplasms in 21 related domestic ducks, Campbell suggested genetic, viral or dietary factors as possible etiological agents, but he was unable to clearly implicate a single cause. This document concerns the description of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma that occurred in a duck

MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty one ducks brought for necropsy to the Centre of Excellence in pathology during a period of ten months from January 2009 to October 2009 were used for the study. For the histopathological study, tissue pieces were collected in 10 % neutral buffered formalin. Then they were processed and embedded in paraffin. Sections were cut at 4-5 micron thickness and stained with routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain . Out of 121 ducks necropsed, one was a case of cholangiohepatocellular Carcinoma in a 15 months old female duck.

4

Microscopically tumour replaced much of the normal hepatic architecture. In some areas, the hepatocytes were disorderly arranged (Fig.2) in the form of diffuse sheets or as trabeculae or cords without a central vein. The cells have scanty lightly basophilic cytoplasm and large central nuclei. In other areas there were proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells forming duct like structures (Fig.3). The cells were cuboidal with a small amount of clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were small,fairly uniform and hyperchromatic. Although the tumour had invaded and replaced most of the hepatic parenchyma, the unaffected part of the parenchyma showed varying degrees of fatty change, congestion ,haemorrhage and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Based upon the two different patterns, the tumour was classified as cholangiohepatocellular carcinoma. The histological appearance of the hepatic carcinoma of the present study was in agreement with the observations of earlier workers. Fig. 1: Liver showing greyish white nodules

December 2010

RESULT AND CONCLUSION

1

Issue 2

Postmortem Findings At necropsy the carcass was emaciated .Liver was slightly enlarged and focal greyish white nodules(Fig.1) were present on the surface. Other findings include epicardial haemorrhage, pulmonary congestion, splenomegaly and enteritis. Kidneys were apparently normal. M.V.Sc. Scholar, 2Director i/c, 3Associate Professor and 4Professor Centre of Excellence in Pathology.

53

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1

Daly C. Davis , C.R. Lalithakunjamma , Mammen J. Abraham and N.Divakaran Nair Centre of Excellence in Pathology College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy.


CLINICAL REPORT

Fig. 2: The hepatocellular pattern showing disorderly arranged hepatocytes HE x100

Fig. 3: Cholangiocellular pattern : Showing proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells forming duct like structures and fatty change. HE x 400.

REFERENCES

Goyal D, Singh A, Sood N, Gupta K and Sood KN. (2005).A rare case of cholangiohepatocellular carcinoma in poultry. Indian J.Vet.Pathol. 29(1):52-53. Konch C, Upadhyaya TN, Goswami S and Dutta B (2008). Spontaneous cases of hepatic carcinoma in ducks. Indian J.Vet.Pathol. 32(1):73-74. Moultan JE (1978). Tumors of the pancreas, liver, gall bladder and mesothelium. In:Tumors of domestic nd animals, 2 ed. J.E. Moultan, ed. University of California press, Berkeley. 279-281 pp. Singh SP and Sharma SN (1996) .Hepatocellular carcinoma in a turkey.Indian J.Vet Pathol. 20(1):53-54.

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December 2010

Campbell JG (1949). Spontaneous hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma in the duck: An experimental study. Br.J.Cancer 3: 198-210. Devi RV, Sreelatha C and Ahmed NM (1999) .Cholangiocellular carcinoma in ducks . A report. Indian Vet. J. 76: 1126-1127. Dillberger JE,Citino SB and Altman NH. (1986). Four cases of neoplasia in captive wild birds. Avian Dis. 31(1):206-208. Elangbam SC and Panciera RJ (1998). Cholangiocarcinoma in a blue-fronted amazon parrot.Avian Dis. 32:594-596.

54 0


CLINICAL REPORT

CRYSTALLURIA AND URINE RETENTION IN A PUG 4

INTRODUCTION: Crystals represent the precipitation of salts in urine and fall under the category of microscopic abnormalities. Their presence is largely dependent on the urine pH, and the factors that alter the pH of urine, in turn, lead to the formation of crystals. A case of urine retention and crystalluria in a pug breed of dog detected at post-mortem is reported in this paper together with the pertinent histopathology of the urinary bladder. The possible reasons are also discussed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS A pug breed of dog aged two months was presented for necropsy at the Department of Pathology, Veterinary College, Mannuthy. The owner reported that the animal was experiencing difficulty in passing feces and urine for the past three days and was showing general dullness and lethargy. The animal was treated with a dose of liquid paraffin, B complex vitamins and a digestant tonic, but showed only little improvement. Radiography revealed a distended fluid filled structure in the abdomen. On further investigation it was understood that the animal was being fed only with imported dog food since one month of age. A detailed post-mortem examination was conducted and the organs were examined for lesions. Urine sample was collected for detailed investigation, from the bladder using a syringe. Pieces of bladder tissue were collected in 10% formalin fixative for routine histopathological studies.

RESULTS On post-mortem examination, the most striking observation was a highly distended bladder filled with retained urine occupying much of the abdominal cavity. The urinary bladder mucosa revealed diffused areas of haemorrhage and necrosis . Nephrosis and sub-capsular 1, 3

Teaching Assistants, 2 M.V.Sc. Scholar, 4Associate Professor, Director i/c, Centre of Excellence in Pathology

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haemorrhages of kidneys were seen . Diffused hepatitis was noted . Areas of congestion were seen in the intestinal mucosa and lungs. The urine was deep red in color, with suspended fibrin flakes and creamy white granules. A highly alkaline pH was recorded with the pH paper. Upon centrifugation, the red colour was retained and thick creamy white sediment was obtained. Microscopic examination of the urine sediment by a simple slide press method revealed three dimensional colourless crystals, with typical â&#x20AC;&#x153;coffin lidâ&#x20AC;? ends, identical in structure to that of triple phosphates (Simmerville et al., 2005). Clumps of coccoid bacteria and a large number of neutrophils could be seen on microscopic examination of the sediment after compound staining. Fibrin strands, epithelial cells and RBCs could also be observed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of the urinary bladder tissue sections revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells, consisting predominantly of neutrophils, indicating acute cystitis. Clumps of RBCs indicating areas of haemorrahge were also observed in the sections. Discussion: The degree of crystalluria has been found to be dependent on the pH, concentration of ions and temperature of the urine. (Stockham et al., 2002). Crystals in urine have been suggested to be significant in cases of urolithiasis and metabolic disturbances. (Benjamin, 1976). Usually the crystals in acidic urine of carnivores have been found to be amorphous urates and uric acid and less commonly oxalates and hippuric acid. Triple and amorphous phosphates have been associated with alkaline urine of herbivores. None the less, prolonged retention of urine and metabolic disturbances have been opined to alter the pH of urine (Sastry, 1976), thereby causing a precipitation of crystals corresponding to the altered pH. 55

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Sumi Cherian , Praveena Babu , Seena K.M , Mammen J. Abraham and C.R. Lalithakunjamma Centre of Excellence in Pathology College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy.


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In the above discussed case, the occurrence of hepatitis and nephrosis strongly suggests a metabolic disturbance, supported by the fact that the animal had a history of being fed only with imported dog food since one month of age. This in turn, could have resulted in a shift of urine pH to the abnormal alkaline range thus favoring the precipitation of the triple phosphate crystals typical of the altered pH. Urolithiasis, urine retention and bacterial invasion resulting in haemorrhagic cystitis could have followed, augmenting the condition, ultimately resulting in the death of the animal.

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REFERENCE: 1. Benjamin, M.M. (1976). Outline of Veterinary rd Clinical Pathology. 3 Ed., Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. pp: 211. 2. Sastry, G.A. (1976). Veterinary Clinical Pathology. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 3. Simmerville, J.A., Maxted, W.C., Pahira, J.J. (2005). Urinalysis A comprehensive review: American Family Physician : 71 (6): 1153-62. 4. Stockham, S.L., Scott, M.A. (2002). Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Iowa State press. pp: 326.


CLINICAL REPORT

PASTEURELLOSIS IN A BUFFALO HERD - A BRIEF REPORT 1

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Rajagopal, R , G.K. Nair and M. Mini

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MATERIALS AND METHODS In the herd, three out of 10 animals were dead. The symptoms exhibited were dull appearance, congested mucous membranes, inappetance, increased temperature, increased respiratory rate, laboured breathing, grunting, prominent submandibular oedema, clear nasal discharge and excessive salivation. Blood smears, peripheral blood (collected in defibrinated bovine blood) from dead and in-contact animals and the organ samples of heart, lungs and liver from dead animals were taken to Department of Veterinary Microbiology, COVAS, Mannuthy for Microbiological examinations. Blood smear examination was performed following Leishman's staining. The bacterial isolation was tried from the organ samples using bovine blood agar (10 per cent) under microaerophilic conditions at 37C. The peripheral blood collected in defibrinated blood was incubated at 37C for 3 hours prior to 1

Senior Research Fellow, All India Network Programme on Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, 2 Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, 3 Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Thrissur.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Animals with haemorrhagic septicaemia become dull and reluctant to move, salivate profusely and develop subcutaneous oedema in the neck and larynx (Blood et al., 1983) which were seen in this outbreak also. outbreak. Blood smear from dead animals revealed bipolar organisms suggestive of Pasteurellosis. But the blood smears from live in-contact animals revealed only very few bipolar organisms. Post 57

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Pasteurella multocida is a commensal organism usually seen in the upper respiratory tract of a wide range of animals including the domestic and wild bovids. Under stress conditions, they multiply and cause pasteurellosis which is very much lethal, especially to buffalo. Buffalo is the natural host for Pasteurella multocida and will succumb with almost 100 per cent case fatality rate once the clinical symptoms appear. Pasteurellosis is endemic among buffalo in India. Singh et al. (2007) reported a prevalence rate of 2-12 per cent and case fatality rate of 43-79 per cent for pasteurellosis in cattle and buffalo in India. This report deals with an outbreak of acute pasteurellosis in a buffalo herd at Peechi, Thrissur district.

inoculation to bovine blood agar. It was also inoculated @ 0.2 ml to eight weeks old albino mice by intra-peritoneal route to test the pathogenicity as well as to obtain the pure culture of the organism. After the initial assessment of the morphological characters of the organisms by Gram staining, biochemical characterization and biotyping was done employing the methods described by Mutters et al. (1985). Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done using standard disc diffusion method as per Bauer et al. (1966). The following antibiotic discs (Himedia, Mumbai) were used: ciprofloxacin (10µg), ampicillin (30µg), gentamicin (10µg), chloramphenicol (10µg), cefotaxim (30µg), oxytetracycline (10µg) and cotrimoxazole (25µg). The inhibition zones were measured and the degree of sensitivity was interpreted using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard's (NCCLS) chart provided with the antibiotic kits by Himedia, Mumbai. Pasteurella multocida-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PM-PCR) was conducted using bacterial culture lysates as template DNA and the species specific primers for Pasteurella multocida (custom synthesized by M/s Genei, Bangalore, India) as per the method described by Townsend et al. (1998).

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Department of Veterinary Microbiology College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur, 680651


CLINICAL REPORT

mortem examination revealed petechial haemorrhages in heart, pericardial effusion, pale necrotic areas in liver and congested , oedematous lungs. On blood agar, 24 hours post inoculation, convex, mucoid, iridescent colonies were observed. Gram staining revealed small Gram negative coccobacilli arranged singly or in pairs. Positive reactions to indole and ornithine decarboxylase have been described as the most useful biochemical indicators in the identification of P. multocida. Mutters et al. (1985) based on fermentation patterns of dulcitol and sorbitol categorized those positive for sorbitol but negative for dulcitol as P. multocida subsp. multocida. Biotyping proved the organism to be Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida. Biochemical characteristics of the isolate are presented in Table. PM-PCR revealed an amplicon of 460 base pairs (bp), confirming it to be P. multocida. The isolate was pathogenic to mice as it killed the mice

within 12 hours and the organism was re-isolated from the internal organs of mice in pure culture. Antibiotic sensitivity testing revealed that the organism was highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, moderately sensitive to gentamicin and oxytetracycline, while it was completely resistant to cotrimoxazole. Similar antibiotic sensitivity profile was previously reported for avian strains of Pasteurella multocida by Sivachandra et al. 2004. It was interesting to note that the organism was completely resistant to sulphatrimethoprim combination which was once the drug of choice for pasteurellosis. This antibiotic resistance can be attributed to acquisition of R-plasmids and to certain intrinsic genes of the bacterial genome. Kehrenberg and Schwarz (2005) described a novel trimethoprim (TMP) resistance gene, designated dfrA20, which was detected on the 11-kb plasmid pCCK154 from Pasteurella multocida. The animals were initially treated with Sulpha-TMP, which was later replaced with enrofloxacin. Following quinolone therapy, the in-contact animals which started showing the initial

Biochemical test

Result

Biochemical test

Catalase Oxidase Methyl Red Voges-Proskauer Nitrate reduction Indole Citrate Ornithine decarboxylase (ODB) Lysine decarboxylase (LDB) Triple sugar iron (TSI) agar

Positive Positive Negative Negative Positive Positive Negative Positive Negative Acid slant, acid butt Negative Negative

Sugar utilization

Gas production H2S production

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Biochemical characteristics of the isolate

Moitility Growth on Mac Conkey agar Haemolysis 58

Non-motile Negative Negative

Dulcitol Trehalose Maltose Xylose Mannitol Salicin Arabinose Raffinose Lactose Sucrose Sorbitol Fructose Galactose

Result

Negative Negative Negative Positive Positive Negative Negative Negative Negative Positive Positive Positive Positive


CLINICAL REPORT

The authors are grateful to Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for providing financial support under the All India Network Programme on Haemorrhagic Septicaemia and the Dean, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala for providing the necessary facilities for conducting this study.

REFERENCES Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.C. and Turck, M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45: 493-496.

December 2010

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Benkirane,A. and DeAlwis,M.C.L.2002.Hemorrhagic septicaemia, its significance, prevention, and controlinAsia.Vet.Med.Czech.47: 234-240. Blood, D. C., Radostits, O. M. and Henderson, J. A. 1983. Veterinary Medicine. 6th edn. BalliereTindall,Eastbourne,U.K.p591. Kehrenberg,C.andSchwarz,S.2005. dfrA20,aNovel Trimethoprim Resistance Gene from Pasteurella multocida. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother.49:414417. Mutters R.S., Ihm. P., Pohl, S., Frederiksen, W. and Mannheim, W. (1985). Reclassification of the genus Pasteurella trevisan 1887 on the basis of deoxyribonucleic acid homology, with proposals for the new species Pasteurella dagmatis, Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella stomatis, Pasteurella anatis and Pasteurella langaa.Int. J. Syst.Bacteriol.35:309-322. Shivachandra, S.B., Kumar, A.A., Biswas, A., Ramakrishnan,M.A.,Singh,V.P.andSrivastava, S.K. 2004. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern among Indian strains of avian Pasteurella multocida. Trop.Anim.HealthProd.36:743-75 Townsend, K.M., Frost, A.J., Lee, C.W., Papadimitriou, J.M. and Dawkins, H.T. 1998. DevelopmentofPCRassaysforspeciesandtype specific identification of Pasteurella multocida isolates.J.Clin.Microbiol.36:1096-1100.

Answers

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1.Hexamine 2.Oxymel 3.In severe epistaxis as haemostyptic 4.Acidum hydrocyanicum,4% 5.Sodium salicylate 6.Alum per os and Belladona externally 7.Atropine sulphate 8.Cetrimide 9.Hot water 10.Cochineal 11.Auristillae 12. 99%, 33%, 6% and 5.4% 13.Sublimed sulphur and quick lime 14. Five seconds 15.Tr.asafoetida

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symptoms of inappetance and slight nasal discharge recovered. Though the infection was contained, it should be noted that the animals recovered can act as carriers which will remain as a source of infection for many weeks. Benkirane and De Alwis (2002) observed that young and young adult animals are more susceptible than older ones. Higher incidence of HS is associated with humid conditions and high buffalo population density. In this case also, it was found that those dead were calves and heifers, also the buffalo were housed in a lean to type house with very limited space. The inclement weather of south west monsoon may also would have played its part in causing the disease.


CLINICAL REPORT

DYSTOCIA DUE TO CONJOINED TWINS IN A COW 1

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Mary James , .Sanamma John , Jogi Mathew and Ajo Joseph Department of Animal Husbandry,Kerala

INTRODUCTION Conjoined twins arise from a single ovum and are monozygotic. There are two theories regarding the formation of conjoined twins. The first one is the “fission theory” which states that conjoined twins occur when a fertilized ovum (egg) begins to split into identical twins, but is somehow interrupted during the process mainly in the later phase of division and develops into two partially formed animals which are stuck together. The second one is the “fusion theory”. According to this theory twins become conjoined after the fertilized ovum initially splits into identical twins. When two newlyseparated identical twin embryos are lying in close proximity to each other, sometimes signals get mixed up and cells get attached to other cells of the same type which belong to the other twin. Thus two embryos become fused together.

animal was straining for parturition for three hours with no progression in parturition. This was the third calving and both the calves born earlier were normal. The general condition of the animal fair and ligaments were totally relaxed. The perennial region of the cow was thoroughly cleaned with one thousand potassium permanganate solution. The birth passage was completely relaxed and after sufficient lubrication with obstetric cream, the animal was examined per vaginally and a calf in breach presentation was found. Both the hind limbs were retrieved through the birth passage. On further examination, another pelvic part attached to the first calf was identified. On finding it impossible to get the calf through birth passage, caesarian section was performed at the left abdomen and the calf was taken out. The anomalous male calf (Fig.) was a conjoined twin monster. The twin calves were joined at the anterior thoracic to the sternum. The calf had two heads, four forelimbs, four hind limbs, and two tails. Both had separate thoracic and visceral organs, but joined at the entire length of the sternum. This type of conjoined twins is designated as Thoracopagus Bicephalus Tetrapus Tetrabrachius twins. This type of conjoined twinning supports fusion theory.

REFERENCES

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G. H. Arthur, D. E. Noakes, H. Pearson, Veterinary th reproduction and Obstetrics 5 Ed, ELBS, UK, Page, 225-228 Stephen. J. Robert, Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital nd diseases 2 Ed (Indian Ed) Page 73-74 “Siamese Twins” delivered by Caesarean section

CASE HISTORY AND OBSERVATION A case of dystocia in a crossbred HF cow was reported at the Veterinary Hospital, Kozha, Kottayam District, Kerala with a history that the 60

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Senior Veterinary Surgeon, V. H. Thalayolaparambu Senior Veterinary Surgeon, V. H. Kozha 3 Veterinary Surgeon, V. D. Kaduthuruthy 4 Veterinary Surgeon, V. D. Kurichy 2


CLINICAL REPORT

SURGICAL CORRECTION OF UMBILICAL HERNIA USING POLYPROPYLENE MESH IN A DOG

MATERIALS AND METHODS A male German Shepherd pup was brought to the Veterinary Dispensary, Puthenvelikkara at four months of age with a swelling in the umbilicus and was diagnosed as umbilical hernia. The animal was not healthy at the time of presentation. So the owner was advised to give a healthy diet and proper supplementation to his animal. Also advised to push the hernial contents back to the abdominal cavity and apply a thick padding so that the hernial ring gets reduced with time. The animal was brought to the hospital again at 11 months of age. The pup changed to a heavy animal weighing 30 kg but the hernial ring increased in size and the intestines could be palpated in the hernial sac. The skin covering the hernial sac lost its normal texture and colour and started developing sores. So the surgery was fixed immediately. 1

Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Dispensary, Puthenvelikkara Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Dispensary, Edakunnu 3 Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Polyclinic, Mala 2

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The animal recovered uneventfully. The follow up was done up to four months and the animal didn't show any recurrence and discomfort. Umbilical hernias can be congenital and acquired. In 61

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Hernia is an abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through a defect in the wall of the cavity in which it lies. Most hernias involve a protrusion of the belly wall or diaphragm. Canine umbilical hernias are mostly congenital and seems to be due to failure of the normal occlusion of the umbilical ring, so that as intra abdominal pressure increases with the growth of the pup, omentum and intestine are forced through its aperture, pushing ahead of the peritoneum covered by skin thus producing a hernial sac containing one or more of these structures. The hernias are usually comparatively small and it disappears when the animal grows. This article deals with a case of umbilical hernia which was surgically corrected using polypropylene mesh.

After proper fasting, the animal was premedicated using Inj. Atropine (0.045 mg/kg s/c) and Inj. Xylazine (1mg/kg i/m). The surgical site was prepared and Povidone Iodine was applied. The animal was anaesthetised using Inj. Ketamine(10mg/kg i/m) and Inj. Diazepam (0.2 mg/kg i/v). The animal was maintained on fluids and anaesthesia was maintained using Inj. Ketamine and Inj. Diazepam. The animal was placed in dorsal recumbency and a midline incision was made over the hernial sac and the hernial sac borders were identified. The hernial contents were repositioned and the muscle bellies on either ends were freed from the fascia and scarified and sutured together by horizontal mattress sutures using catgut 1. Since the defect was very large and the tension on the suture site was more, we decided to reinforce the suture site by applying a polypropylene mesh of size 1-0 using simple interrupted sutures. The excess skin was removed after ligating the blood vessels supplying the skin. The skin was slightly undermined and horizontal mattress sutures were applied using silk. Antibiotic coverage was done using Ceftiofur sodium @ 2.2 mg/kg b. wt. s/c. Inj Polybion and Inj. Meloxicam were given i/v. The animal recovered from the surgery after fifteen minutes and we advised the owner about the post operative care. The animal started taking food from the next day onwards. The suture site was dressed using povidone iodine and antibiotic and other medications were continued till seventh day and sutures were removed on the seventh day.

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Smitha Thomas P1., Ambily Narayanan2 and Sumi Chandran3 Department of Animal Husbandry,Kerala


CLINICAL REPORT

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the embryonic stage, the abdominal cavity is formed by the fusion of the cephalic, caudal and lateral folds and congenital umbilical hernia is caused due to the delayed fusion of the lateral folds. Acquired umbilical hernias can occur through excessive traction of the unbilical cord during whelping or from severance of the umbilical cord too close to the puppies' umbilicus. Simple congenital umbilical hernias are common. Most affected pups do not require surgical intervention or other corrective procedure to ensure closure of the hernial ring. As the animal grows, the umbilical opening either contracts or does not enlarge and in the full grown dog the hernia usually appears small relative to the size and weight of the dog. During routine surgical repairs, the ends are trimmed and sutured tightly. Ripley and Carnan (1974) reported that reinforcement of the routine closure can be done by placing a sheet of Mersilene mesh 6.5 cm square over the repaired area. This procedure is indicated in cases of severe umbilical hernia if difficulty in closing is encountered, if muscular hypoplasia is suspected or present, or following failure of an original repair. A case of correction of congenital canine midline hernia using a steel mesh of nickel-chromiun and molybdenum alloy of size 000 due to recurrence after routine surgical repair was also reported. Releasing incisions can be done on the rectus fascia if excessive tension on the suture site is present. In case of larger defects, prosthetic materials can be used. In the case described, we used a polypropylene mesh since the defect was too large and the muscle ends had tension. This will prevent the recurrence also. In this case, one postoperative complication occurred was slight necrosis of the caudal aspect of the suture site which was corrected by trimming the necrosed part and

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freshening the wound and it healed up quickly. This might have occurred due to the retention of a part of the older unhealthy skin at that part. Umbilical hernia should be differentiated from delayed closures where a small amount of fat slips out of the area before the umbilicus closes and gets trapped as the belly wall seals spontaneously. Umbilical hernia should also be differentiated from abscess, cyst, haematoma etc. The dogs with umbilical hernia should never be bred. These defects are quite serious and irresponsible breeding can lead to major openings in the abdominal wall.

CONCLUSION Umbilical hernia can be repaired using routine closure reinforced by a polypropylene mesh if the defect is too large so as to avoid the recurrence. The routine small hernias can be repaired conservatively.

REFERENCES Hurov, L. (1961). Mesh implant for correction of congenital canine midline hernia: Can. Vet. Jour.2:393-396 Jahromi, A. R., S. D. Nazhvani, M. J. Gandmani and S. Mehrshad (2009). Concurrent bilateral inguinal and umbilical hernias in a bitch: Vet. Arhiv. 79: 517-522 Margo B. Maloney (2005).Umbilical hernia. Versatile hunting dog. pp. 24-25. MclPhillips, J. and M. Felton (1939). Hereditary umbilical hernia in dogs. J. Hered. 30: 433-435. Ripley, W. A. and H. R. Mc Carnan (1974). Clinical Note. Umbilical hernia repair with mersilene mesh. Can. Vet. Jour. 15(12):357. Slatter, D.(1993).Textbook of small animal surgery. 2 ed. W.B. Saunders company, Philadelphia. pp: 431-436.

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CLINICAL REPORT

THERAPEUTIC CLAW TRIMMING FOR THE TREATMENT OF PODODERMATITIS CIRCUMSCRIPTA (SOLE ULCER) IN A CROSS BRED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN COW 2

Sunil Kumar .Rยน and Nithin .C. J Department of Animal Husbandry,Kerala

A cross bred Holstein Friesian cow at its second lactation was presented with an history of reluctance to walk, reduced milk yield and high fever. On examination after trimming of hoof, there was sole ulcer in medial and lateral digits of both the hind legs.

TREATMENT As there was sole ulcer in the both claws of both hind legs ,the application of an orthopedic block to reduce the pressure at the affected area is not possible so skillful therapeutic claw trimming was done .Aim of the treatment was to relieve pain by giving analgesic and antipyretic; Phenyl butazone :-10mg/kg(Artizone-s)IV ,Pentazocine:- 1-2 mg/kg(Fortwin) IM on alternate days for seven days ,antihistaminic; cholpheneramine maleate(Chloril)-50 mg IM for seven days and antibiotic; procaine pencillin ,pencillinG sodium,streptomycin sulphate (Dicrysticin-s) 2ml/50 kg BW for five days and dressing with Oxaferin (Tetrachloro decaoxite) for ten days with adequate padding .Later every ten days interval dressing was 1 2

The animal had a spectacular recovery and ulceration regressed better, there is a little bit of softness at forty fifth day and by ninety days healthy horn tissue was produced. Animal now have a perfect sole region with no ulcers and the production and performance of the animal improved.

DISCUSSION Laminitis and related hoof disease is an upcoming threat to the productivity and performance of cattle reared in Kerala. Lack of exercise, hard unyielding surfaces, high energy concentrate diet, inadequate fiber diet, lack of functional claw trimming and hoof care are the factors predisposing to subclinical laminitis and sole ulcer. REFERENCE Toussaint Raven, E. (1985). "The principles of claw trimming."Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 1(1): 93-107. Greenough PR, Patrica N S.,(1985), subclinical laminitis in bovine ,Bovine practice;23:85 Mgasa M N.,(1987), Bovine pododermatitis c i r c u m s c r i p t a ( s o l e u l c e r ) a e t i o l o g y, pathogenesis, treatment and control, Veterinary Research Communications; 11:235-241

Veterinary Surgeon, District Veterinary Centre, Thiruvananthapuram BVSc & AH Scholar, COVAS, Mannuthy

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CASE HISTORY

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In the present scenario of cattle rearing in Kerala where the cows are reared in confined conditions and fed with high concentrate diet hoof diseases and lameness are very common. Functional claw trimming and skillful correction is the only way to prevent and control the incidence of laminitis .Pododermatitis often the result of subclinical laminitis. Sole ulcer damages the horn producing tissues in the dermis which is associated with a circumscribed area of hemorrhage and ischemic necrosis.

done with copper sulphate and sulphanilamide combination for four times ,then topical application of ox tetracycline hydrochloride liquid (Vet) locally every day and adequate padding was done for fifteen days. During every fifteen days interval skill full therapeutic surgical claw trimming was performed.

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INTRODUCTION


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Left hind leg of the cow during different stages of treatment

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Right hind leg of the cow during different stages of treatment

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NECROTIZING DERMATITIS CAUSED BY STAPHYLOCOCCUS INTERMEDIUS IN A RABBIT Chintu Ravishankar1 and C. N. Dinesh2 College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookot

INTRODUCTION Pyogenic infection of the skin is a common condition which is encountered in companion animal practice. Members of the Genus Staphylococcus especially S. intermedius and S. aureus are the pathogens commonly associated with the condition (Quinn et al., 2002). This communication deals with a case of necrotizing dermatitis in a rabbit.

MATERIALS AND METHODS A swab from an extensive necrotizing lesion (Fig. 1) on the face of an adult Soviet Chinchilla rabbit was submitted to the Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookot for microbial isolation and characterization. The swab was cultured on blood agar and incubated at 37째C for 24 hours. The predominant colony type obtained on the agar was characterized as per Quinn et al. 1994).

was oxidase and Voges Proskauer test negative and positive to catalase, urease (weak), nitrate and oxidation fermentation (OF) tests and fermented maltose. It gave a positive coagulase test (tube test done with rabbit plasma diluted 1:10) within 3 hours. Based on the results of these tests, the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus intermedius. The isolate was sensitive to erythromycin, oxytetracycline, cloxacillin and methicillin and resistant to bacitracin, polymyxin B, amoxycillin, ampicillin, clotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and penicillin G. Many cases of skin disease conditions caused by staphylococci in dogs have been reported (Loeffler et al., 2007; Shumaker et al. 2008 and Fazakerley et al. 2009). However, reports of the occurrence and etiology of such conditions in rabbits is scarce.

CONCLUSION A severe case of necrotizing dermatitis in a rabbit caused by Staphylococcus intermedius is reported.

1 2

Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding

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Culture of the sample on blood agar yielded dull white opaque hemolytic colonies after 24 hours of incubation. The bacteria were Gram positive and arranged in clusters. The isolate grew well on mannitol salt agar, with yellowish color change of the medium. It

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fazakerley, J., Nuttall, T., Sales, D., Schmidt, V., Carter, S.D., Hart, C. A. and McEwan, N. A. 2009. Staphylococcal colonization of mucosal and lesional skin sites in atopic and healthy dogs. Vet. Dermatol. 20:179-184 Loeffler, A., Linek, M., Moodley, A., Guardabassi, L., Sung, J. M., Winkler, M., Weiss, R. and Lloyd, D. H. 2007. First report of multiresistant, mecA-positive Staphylococcus intermedius in Europe: 12 cases from a veterinary dermatology referral clinic in Germany. Vet. Dermatol. 18:412-421 Quinn, P.J., Carter, M. E., Markey, B. and Carter, G. R. 1994. Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, Wolfe Publishing, London Shumaker, A. K., Angus, J. C., Coyner, K. S., Loeffler, D. G., Rankin, S. C. and Lewis, T. P. 2008. Microbiological and histopathological features of canine acral lick dermatitis. Vet. Dermatol. 19:288-298.

December 2010

REFERENCES


CLINICAL REPORT

RABIES ANTIBODY SEROPROTECTION RATES AMONG VETERINARIANS IN KERALA Biju P.Habeeb1, Janus A.2 and S. Raju2 Indian Veterinary Association, Thrissur

INTRODUCTION Rabies is the most fatal zoonotic disease which affects man and animals. Hence it is safe to have sufficient rabies antibody seroprotection rates in Veterinarians when attending confirmed or suspected cases of rabid animals. A feeling of protection against rabies will provide mental and physical strength at times of need. Hence the present study was conducted among the Veterinarians of Kerala to assess their rabies seroprotection status.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

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The sample group consisted of fifty two Veterinarians of Kerala and the study was conducted as part of the first World Rabies Day programme th organized by IVA, Kerala on 8 September 2007, at Thrissur. Two Vets among the 52 who had not undergone prior rabies immunization remained as control. Serum samples were collected observing standard laboratory procedures and rabies antibody titres were estimated using rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) at the Indian Immunologicals Ltd. (IIL), Hyderabad. The immunization details of the study group were recorded. Information such as type of vaccine, route of administration, time since last vaccination were obtained and analyzed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the present study, 50 (96.15%) out of the 52 Vets were previously immunized against rabies. Among this 36 (72%) had undergone post exposure vaccination and the remaining 14(28%) had undergone only pre exposure vaccination. Out of the 50 Vets, 48 were males and 2 were females. The study group was of the age ranging from 26 years to 50 years and the mean age was 34.9 years. Among the 50 Vets, 48 (96 %) had an antibody titer above 0.5 IU/ml 66

which is the minimum protective antibody titer. Three out of 50 (6%) had an antibody titre near the cut off (0.5 IU/ml to 1.5 IU/ml) (Table). The highest serum rabies antibody titer obtained was 135 IU/ml and the lowest was 0.112 IU/ml. The immunization history revealed that the Vets had undergone vaccinations with Human Diploid Cell Vaccine, Purified Vero cell Rabies Vaccine, Chicken Fibroblast Cell Culture Vaccine and Sheep brain (Nervous Tissue) vaccines, either one type alone or different types at different periods. 47 Vets (94%) had received the vaccine via intra muscular route alone; two Vets (4%) both S/C (umbilicus) and i/m route and one (2%) S/C route (umbilicus) alone. One Vet who had received post exposure sheep brain vaccine S/C (umbilicus) at the age of 12 years and no subsequent immunization showed a titre of 2.29 IU/ml at the time of test which was at the age of 31 years ( 19 years later). Another Vet who had received post exposure sheep brain vaccine S/C ( umbilicus) at the age of 2 years and CFCC vaccine prophylactic via I/M route at 23 years of age showed an antibody titre of 134.896 IU/ml at the age of 31 years ( 8 years since last vaccination). One Vet who had undergone 3 doses of prophylactic rabies immunization 8 years ago and a single dose of I/M injection 3 years prior to test showed an antibody titre of 0.112 IU/ ml which is below the minimum protective antibody level. Ranney et al.(2006) opined that type of vaccine, method of administration, number of vaccinations and time since vaccination did not influence rabies antibody titre. Similar findings were observed in this study also. The limitations of the present study included the small sample size, the immunization history revealed by the participants, variation in the type of vaccines, vaccination schedules 1 2

District Secretary (2007), IVA (K), Thrissur. Veterinary Surgeons, AHD, Kerala.


CLINICAL REPORT

Table. 1 RFFIT Level Route of Vaccination

Mean age of Vets( Years)

Mean time since last vaccination ( Years)

Total number of Vets

< 0.5

i/m

37

3

2

0.5 1.5

i/m

32

5.3

3

1.6 4.9

i/m or s/c

33.3

7.5

13

5 9.9

i/m

31

5

2

10-19.9

i/m

33

2.53

12

20-39.9

i/m

37.3

7

5

40-99.9

i/m, s/c

37.1

3.2

11

>100

i/m, s/c

31

8

2

Among the 50 Vets who had undergone prior rabies immunization, 48 Vets (96 %) possess an antibody titer above 0.5 IU/ml which is the minimum protective antibody titer. One Vet who had undergone prophylactic rabies immunization 8 years ago and another single dose of injection 3 years prior to test did not possess the minimum protective antibody level. The present study emphasizes the need for assessing rabies seroprotection status of all the Veterinarians periodically to ensure complete protection against rabies.

The authors are grateful to IVA, Kerala (2007), Indian Immunologicals Ltd., Hyderabad and Animal Husbandry Department, Government of Kerala for providing the assistance, facilities and service in conducting the study.

REFERENCE Ranney, M., Partridge, R., Jay, G. D., Eastman Rozzoli, D. and Pandey, P. (2006), Rabies Antibody Seroprotection Rates Among Travelers in Nepal. Journal of Travel Medicine, 13: 329333.

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CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Issue 2

and route of administration. Hence an elaborate and systematic study is recommended for drawing accurate conclusions.

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RFFIT level(IU/ml)


CLINICAL REPORT

SEPTICAEMIA DUE TO Escherichia coli INFECTION IN SILKIE (SILKY) FOWL (Gallus gallus domesticus) Sunitha Karunakaran, 1 G. Krishnan Nair2, M. Mini3 and P.S. Hareesh4 Department of Animal Husbandry,Kerala

INTRODUCTION The Silkie (also spelled Silky) is a breed of chicken named for its unique silk like fluffy plumage. The breed has several other unusual qualities, such as dark blue flesh and bones, a small walnut-type comb, dark wattles, turquoise blue earlobes, five toes on each foot (most chickens only have four) and come in several colors like red, buff, blue, black and white. All Silkies have black skin, bones and grayish-black meat; their Chinese language name is wu gu ji literally "crow boned chicken" meaning "black-boned chicken". Melanism which extends beyond the skin into an animal's connective tissue is a rare trait, and the Silkie is one of only a handful of chickens to exhibit it. In the present paper death in Silkie Fowls due to Escherichia coli infection and its diagnosis and successful treatment with antibiotics is documented.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS Death of Silkie fowl was reported to Clinical Laboratory, District Veterinary Centre, by private breeders from different parts of Palakkad district. Four dead birds submitted within two hours of death, from four different private farms during the period from March to October 2010 formed the material for investigation. Detailed post mortem was conducted and gross lesions were recorded. Heart blood smear and impression smears from liver and spleen were stained with Giemsa. Heart blood, swabs from liver, spleen and kidney were cultured on Brain Heart Infusion Agar (BHIA) with five per cent sheep blood and Mac Conkey's agar and incubated at 37 o C under aerobic conditions. The isolates were identified based on Quinn et al. (1994). Antibiotic sensitivity test of the isolates obtained was done as per the standard single disc diffusion method of Bauer et al. (1966) using Mueller Hinton's agar. 68

In addition, portions of liver, spleen and intestine were cultured for Salmonella by incubating macerated tissues in Selenite F broth at 37 o C for 48 hrs. This enrichment was followed by culture on Mac Conkey's agar, Brilliant Green Agar (BGA) and Xylose Lysine Deoxy cholate (XLD) Agar and incubated o overnight at 37 C.

RESULTS The most important clinical signs reported by owners were droopiness, loss of appetite, weight loss, open mouth breathing, diarrhea and death. Gross lesions observed upon necropsy were, haemorrhages and necrotic areas in the liver, swollen kidney, congested spleen, petechiae in heart, catarrhal enteritis and hemorrhages in the mucosa of the intestine. Gross lesions were common to all four birds examined except that fibrinous pericarditis was observed in one dead bird. Heart blood smear and impression smear from liver and spleen upon giemsa staining revealed presence of medium sized, bacilli. Culture of heart blood, liver and spleen on Mac conkey's agar yielded bright pink lactose fermenting (LF) medium sized colonies in pure form after incubation at 37 o C for 24 hr. Culture on to BHIA enriched with blood also revealed characteristic growth of E coli after 24 hrs of incubation. On Gram's staining the isolate revealed Gram negative medium sized rods that were positive for catalase, indole and methyl red (MR) and negative for oxidase, voges-proskauer (VP) and citrate. The isolate gave acid butt (yellow) and acid slant (yellow) in Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) agar slant and was motile at 37 o C. When inoculated on to Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar these were giving distinct metallic sheen, yellow colonies in Brilliant Green Agar (BGA) and acid reaction (yellow) in Xylose Lysine Deoxy cholate 1

Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Clinical Lab, DVC, Palakkad, 2 Professor & Head, 3 Professor, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, 4 Veterinary Surgeon, S.L.B.P, Thrissur


CLINICAL REPORT

(XLD) agar. Hence, based on morphological, cultural and biochemical reactions the isolate was identified as Escherichia coli. The isolates obtained were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, sulpha-TMP, enrofloxacin, ciproflaxacin and resistant to oxytetracycline and ampicillin. One isolate showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. Tissues cultured in Selenite for isolation of Salmonella did not reveal characteristic growth of Salmonella on culture on to selective media. Based on the post mortem lesions, culture for bacteria and biochemical tests, death of Silkie fowls was diagnosed as due to Escherichia coli infection.

Escherichia coli isolates obtained were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, sulpha-TMP, enrofloxacin, ciproflaxacin and resistant to oxytetracycline and ampicillin. One isolate showed resistance to ciprofloxacin.

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

Pathogenic E. coli may cause airsacculitis, salpingitis, peritonitis, polyserositis, septicemia and other extra-intestinal diseases in chickens, turkeys and other avian species. Escherichia coli also constitutes part of the intestinal microflora of healthy birds and most of the diseases associated with E. coli are considered secondary to environmental and host predisposing factors. Experimental infections have shown that the air-exchange regions of the lungs and the air sacs are important sites of entry of E. coli into the bloodstream of birds during the initial stages of infection and that resistance to phagocytosis may be an important mechanism in the development of the disease. Diagnosis of E. coli infections is based on the clinical picture, lesions and isolation of E. coli (Permin et al., 2006). Laboratory diagnosis of infections due to enterobacteria is based on isolation of the organisms on routine diagnostic media like blood agar and Mac conkey agar and identification based on colonial morphology, reactions on selective/indicator media and biochemical tests. Direct microscopy is not usually helpful, especially for enterobacteria as they share the property of being Gram negative medium sized rods with many other bacterial genera (Quinn et al., 1994). Antimicrobial resistance testing of 525 avian E. coli strains isolated in Kashan-Iran showed very high levels of resistance to 11 antimicrobials tested, especially to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98.7%) and to ciprofloxacin (69.7%). There is a clear association between heavy antimicrobial consumption in poultry industry and the recovery of resistant bacteria (Moniri and Dastehgoli, 2007). In the present case

Dead Silkie fowls were submitted to Clinical Laboratory, DVC, from four different private farms located in different parts of Palakkad district for disease investigation. Upon post mortem all the birds were showing similar type of lesions. Isolation of bacteria was attempted in Mac conkey's agar. Based on cultural characteristics, primary and secondary biochemical tests and serotyping, the isolates obtained was characterized as Escherichia coli. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of each isolate was studied separately. The disease in ailing birds was successfully treated with oral preparations of most sensitive antibacterial agent supported with liver stimulants and vitamin supplements.

TREATMENT The disease in Silkie Fowls was successfully treated with oral preparations of antibiotics like Sulpha TMP for five days in one case and with ten per cent Enrofloxacin in other three cases, along with supportive therapy using liver stimulants (Liv 52 syrup orally) and vitamin supplements.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C. and Turck, M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45: 493-496. Moniri R. and Dastehgoli K. 2007. Antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy and septicemic chickens. Pak J Biol Sci. 10:2984-87. Permin. A., Christensen. J.P. and Bisgaard. M. 2006. Consequences of concurrent Ascaridia galli and Escherichia coli infections in chickens. Acta Vet Scand. 47: 4354.

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REFERENCES

December 2010

The present work was supported by R&D Project grant received from the Director, Department of Animal Husbandry, Kerala State and also technical guidance from Dept. of Microbiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy.


GENERAL ARTICLE

MILK ALLERGY AND OTHER HEALTH DISORDERS FROM CONSUMING MILK Sathian C. T., V. Vishnu Savanth, Rajkumar S.N. and Sudheer Babu P University Dairy Plant, Kerala Agricultural University Mannuthy.

INTRODUCTION

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

Milk allergy is a type of food allergy. It is an adverse immune reaction to one or more of the proteins in cow's milk and/or the milk of other animalsproteins that are normally harmless to the non-allergic individual. Milk allergy is the most common food allergy seen in early childhood. It affects about 2-3 percent of infants in the developed countries, but fortunately 85-90% of affected children lose clinical reactivity to milk once they surpass 3 years of age. Incidentally 13-20 percent of the children allergic to milk are also allergic to beef. Most kids who are allergic to cow's milk also react to goat's milk and sheep's milk, and some of them are also allergic to the protein in soy milk. Milk allergy usually occurs a few minutes to a few hours after milk is consumed. In vitro studies demonstrate a similar proteomic make-up and suggest antibody cross-reactivity between cow milk and water buffalo milk proteins. Similarly, one study showed a high degree of skin test positivity to water buffalo milk in patients with cow milk allergy.

Lactose intolerance: Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, because of a lack of the required enzyme lactase in the digestive system. It is estimated that about 75% of adults worldwide show some decrease in lactase activity during adulthood. The frequency of decreased lactase activity ranges from as little as 5% in northern Europe, to more than 90% in some African and Asian countries. Milk protein intolerance: Milk protein intolerance (MPI) is the delayed reaction to a food protein that is normally harmless to the non-allergic, non-intolerant individual. Milk protein intolerance produces a non-IgE antibody which is not detected by allergy blood tests. Milk protein intolerance produces a range of symptoms very similar to milk allergy symptoms, but can also cause blood and/or mucus in the stool. Treatment for milk protein intolerance is the same as for milk allergy. Milk protein intolerance is also referred to as milk soy protein intolerance (MSPI).

The principal symptoms are gastrointestinal, dermatological or respiratory. These can translate to: skin rash, hives, vomiting, and gastric distress such as diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain or flatulence. The clinical spectrum extends to diverse disorders: anaphylactic reactions, atopic dermatitis, wheeze, infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), oesophagitis, allergic colitis, headache/migraine and constipation. The symptoms may occur within a few minutes after exposure in the case of immediate reactions, or after hours (and in some cases after several days) in delayed reactions.

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SYMPTOMS

70

TREATMENT Diagnosis of milk allergy is difficult. Therefore, elimination diets and challenge tests are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder..At present, the only proven treatment consists of elimination of the milk from the child's diet and the introduction of formulas based on extensively hydrolyzed whey protein or casein; amino acid-based formula is rarely indicated. Majority of the children will regain tolerance to cows' milk within the first 5 years of life. Apart from milk products, milk derived products like casein, caseinates and processed foods containing dairy ingredients (bread, cookies, soups etc.) can cause


GENERAL ARTICLE

Food habits for allergic individuals Since milk protein may be transferred from a breastfeeding mother to an allergic infant, lactating mothers are put on a dairy elimination diet. For formula fed infants, milk substitute formulas are used to provide a complete source of nutrition. Milk substitutes include soy based formulas, hypoallergenic formulas based on partially or extensively hydrolyzed protein and free amino acid-based formulas derived from casein and whey proteins. Non-milk derived amino acid-based formulas, known as amino acid formulas or elemental formulas are considered the gold standard in the treatment of cows' milk allergy. Hydrolyzed formulas come in partially hydrolyzed and extensively hydrolyzed varieties. Partially hydrolyzed formulas (PHFs) are characterized by a larger proportion of long chain peptides and are considered more palatable. However, they are intended for milder cases. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas (EHFs) are composed of proteins that have been largely

Testing Your Baby for Milk Allergy "Challenges" You may need to keep milk out of your child's diet for up to 1 year. After that, he/she can be tested to see if he/she still has milk allergy. These tests are sometimes called challenges. Your baby will be made to eat a milk formula at the doctor's office. You will then wait for a couple of hours to see if anything happens. If everything is okay, your child can start eating and drinking milk. If your child has an allergic reaction, you will need to keep milk out of his/her diet longer. Usually challenges are repeated every 3 to 6 months to see if the milk allergy has been overcome.

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CMA usually is a temporary condition. It is suggested that by the age of 3 years, 85% of children have regained tolerance to CMP. More recent studies, however, are less optimistic; persisting IgE-mediated CMA is reported to persist up to the age of 8 years in 15% to even 58% of children. It is advisable to repeat challenges at regular intervals in order to keep the child on an elimination diet no longer than strictly necessary. Challenges can be scheduled at the ages of 12, 18 and 24 months and yearly thereafter.

Issue 2

Prognosis

broken down into free amino acids and short peptides. Casein and whey are the most commonly used sources of protein in hydrolyzed formulas because of their high nutritional quality and their amino acid composition, but their use is limited by the high cost and bad taste. Soy based formula may or may not pose a risk of allergic sensitivity, because, some infants who are allergic to milk may also be allergic to soy. Also, soy based formulas are not recommended for infants under 6 months. However, for infants with multiple allergies there is rice milk or oat milk based formulas available. Replacements available for children and adults are rice milk, soy milk, oat milk and almond milk, but these are not suitable for infants. Special infant formula based on soy, rice, almonds or carob seeds are commercially available. When foods of dairy origin are completely avoided, replacement source of calcium may need to be found to prevent the longer term risk of calcium deficiency and osteoporosis. Some vaccines contain casamino acid, derived from bovine casein, as the growth medium. Casamino acid is a mixture of amino acids derived from the hydrolysis of casein, used as a supplement in the growth media. Extreme caution must be taken to prevent a serious or life threatening reaction while using these.

JIVA V o l . 8

the reaction. In highly sensitive individuals even â&#x20AC;&#x153;nondairyâ&#x20AC;? toppings (they may contain dairy ingredients less than 0.5% by weight) or foods contaminated with dairy ingredients (from equipment, containers etc) cause allergic reaction. Treatment for accidental ingestion of milk products by allergic individuals varies depending on the sensitivity of the allergic person. Frequently medications such as an epinephrine pen or an antihistamine are used. . Milk allergy can even lead to anaphylaxis, a severe, life threatening allergic reaction.


GENERAL ARTICLE

MYTHS ABOUT DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING K.C.Raghavan Professor, Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics and Breeding College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy., Trichur

In February 2010 there appeared a series of articles in one of the leading dailies in Malayalam analyzing the reasons for the decrease in milk production in the state. On going through the articles one got the feeling that the main culprit in the case was the breeding policy of the state and many reasons for this were quoted. No counter arguments were seen published either by the authorities or experts in this field (it may also be possible that the replies sent never got published, as happened to my letter). In this connection I would like to share my views on some of the issues raised by the newspaper and on other recently debated topics.

Kerala has a well chalked out livestock breeding policy. It is basically formulated by experts in this field and is periodically reviewed. But the seriousness with which the programme is implemented is important, notwithstanding the difficulties the authorities face in the process. The policy clearly spells out on the breeds to be used, the maximum exotic inheritance level and the targets to be achieved. Milk production cannot be increased by any short term effort. It needs sustained effort. Any country which has increased its milk production has done so only by systematic selection mainly through progeny testing. We have a policy which, if patiently implemented and strictly followed, will definitely increase the milk production. Every time experimenting with a new programme is done, some temporary advantage may be gained, but it ultimately ends up in chaos. So it is not the breeding policy, but the difficulties faced in the implementation that is to be addressed.

Is the young bull programme a wasteful expenditure?

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December 2010

Is there anything wrong with our breeding policy?

Kerala is the only state in the country where the crossbred population is more than 80 percent and 72

where there is a good network of artificial insemination centers. The approved breeding programe is implemented through this network. Though the progeny testing (PT) programme is a very expensive affair, it is the only method presently available to bring out a sustainable increase in milk production. Young bull programme is usually done as forerunner of PT programme; bulls are selected based on dams' yield or pedigree performance and their progeny is tested for yield. This implies that the bulls used in young bull programme should have higher production potential. Based on the performance of the progeny, only 10-20% of the bulls are selected. These are known as progeny tested bulls. There is a misconception that we should use only progeny tested bulls on our cows and not the bulls of the young bull programme. It is argued that the young bull programme is a waste of money. However, it should be understood that that the young bull programme is the first step in progeny testing and we cannot do away with it. The young bulls can also definitely be used for breeding purposes. If properly implemented this programme will definitely increases the population average and it has been reported that it indeed increased the average in Kerala. The progeny tested bulls can be used either in the farmers' flock or they can be used for the production of more young bulls. So the argument that we should use only progeny tested semen comes from ignorance about the procedure.

Is embryo transfer an answer? The reproductive potential of each new born calf is enormous. There are an estimated 1,50,000 potential eggs or ova in the female and countless billions of sperm produced by each male. By natural breeding, only a fraction of the reproductive potential of an outstanding individual could be realized. The average bull will sire 15 to 50 calves per year and the average cow will have one calf per year and 10 calves in its entire lifetime under normal management conditions. Just like artificial insemination in bulls, embryo transfer is a technique that can greatly increase


GENERAL ARTICLE

According to newspaper reports, tenders have been invited for the purchase of Montbeliarde breed of cattle to our state. A cow is reported to produce around 6500- 7500 litres of milk in a lactation period of 305 days under European conditions. Its body weight is reported to be around 600-700 kg. However, the production potential of Jersey, Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian which were used for crossbreeding in the state is more than this. Montbeliarde is a comparatively heavy breed too. It is reported that this breed has low incidence of mastitis. But does this advantage compensate other demerits? It is claimed that high value bulls with a productivity of 20-50 liters milk per day are available, the semen of which is distributed at subsidized rates throughout the state. The production potential of these bulls will be higher than that reported for French breeds in Europe!! The only precaution we have to exercise is that a perfect bull rotation programme should be practiced. We have almost done away with the heavy breed Brown Swiss from our breeding programme because it needs more feed. Reports say that Montbeliarde is heavier then Brown Swiss. Same genotypes perform differently under different environmental conditions. European breeds if brought to Kerala will not produce the same as they produce under exotic conditions. Some parts of Kerala are said to have similar climatic conditions as that of Europe (?). We should remember that environment doesn't mean climate alone. It includes feeding and management also. It is not possible to reverse a decision made in the animal breeding sector. So utmost caution is required before we decide to bring new germplasm to the state. The regulatory committee set up by the government should discuss the issue before arriving at a final decision.

December 2010

It is often opined that pure bred animals may be used on the existing cattle population of the state. But it should be noted that our population's exotic blood level is already high and it might be one of the reasons why the production of the present generations is coming down. Increasing the already high exotic blood level worsens the situation. Studies conducted so far have revealed that there is no use in increasing exotic level beyond 62.5% under normal situation. Higher exotic inheritance and purebreds need to be tried only in high altitude areas.

Do we need to import new breeds?

Why is genotype environment interaction important ?

Issue 2

Is insemination by purebreds effective?

It is already proved that exotic level of inheritance beyond 50-75% level will not have any advantage.

The performance of different breeds differs in different environments. Good germplasm should be adequately supported by good environment in terms of feeding and management The government

JIVA V o l . 8

the number of offspring that a genetically important cow can produce. Embryo transfer provides with a method to increase the rate of genetic gain by increased selection intensity on cows. This technology has not become popular because of many reasons: 1.This technology is too expensive for commercial dairy producers. 2. Economical only to breeders' registered cattle that supply young sires to artificial insemination industry and merchandise excess females. 3. In theory it is one of the best methods, but in practice it has seen that the recovery rate of embryos is very less under our conditions. 4. The cost involved in this programme is very high. According to Bharathiya Agro Industries Federation (BAIF), to produce a female calf it costs 15,000 to 20,000 rupees. 5. Related problems like distocia may arise. Embryo transfer and various forms of genetic engineering have great potential for genetic improvement of dairy cattle. Much of the potential for genetic improvement of yield has not been realized because of heavy selection emphasis on non-yield traits. However, much greater attention is now being directed towards cows that rank high on the elite cow index list. High cost is still an important obstacle to widespread use of embryo transfer for genetic improvement, but as technique and reliability improve, costs will undoubtedly decrease. A significant breakthrough in genetic engineering, such as practical methods of sex control, should increase the impact of embryo transfer as a tool for genetic improvement. There are no reports that any of the states in India has increased its total milk production by adopting embryo transfer programme on a large scale. This is a tool can be exploited for the production of bulls for progeny testing.

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should bring more calves under the feed subsidy programme and fodder cultivation should be expanded. The reason why fodder production programmes taken up by the govt. departments fail should be explored. Unavailability of feed and fodder resources is one of the main problems for the already high exotic inheritance.

Is privatization of AI going to be harmful? Yes. As pointed out earlier, the only way to bring about a sustained improvement in productivity is by selection. For this purpose data recording is absolutely essential. Though this process is not now being done systematically, we have a good network existing for this. Private AI network, unless it is from an authorized registered agency which maintains records of breeding and milk production, is going to be suicidal in the long run. Majority of private AI agencies are not bothered about maintaining records. The govt. agencies should assure the best germplasm, suitable to our conditions to farmers. At present farmers depend on other sources because of the non availability of good genetic material. Breeding value of the bull should be made available to farmers. Private AI should be discouraged.

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Are high tech dairy farms an answer? Completely mechanized dairy farming where milking, feeding, recording are done automatically look good, no doubt, but does it increase the milk production of the state? Can it be economic? If the high producing animals of this extremely favorable environment are going to be part of the farmer's herds, the same environment should be provided for them. It may be possible for farmers who are capable of high investments. Let time prove whether the state's milk production will be improved by such an endeavour. Which is better - spending a huge amount of money for this purpose or spending half the amount on ordinary farmers by way of feed subsidy?

Is Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) going to help us ? We are generally fascinated by high sounding words like genomic selection or marker assisted selection. It is reported that we are going to practice genomic selection in our cattle. Fine, we 74

should be proud that we have reached that level. But before that, let us examine what it is. All living organisms are made up of cells that are governed by the action of genetic material called DNA. A small fraction of the DNA sequence typically makes up genes, i.e., the sequence codes for proteins, while the remaining and major share of the DNA represents noncoding sequences, the role of which is not yet clearly understood. The genetic material is organized into sets of chromosomes and the entire set of chromosomes is called the genome. In a diploid individual (i.e. where chromosomes are organized in pairs), there are two alleles of every gene one from each parent. Molecular markers are identifiable DNA sequences, found at specific locations of the genome, and transmitted by the standard laws of inheritance from one generation to the next. Using the marker map, putative genes affecting traits of interest can then be detected by testing for statistical associations between marker variants and any trait of interest. These traits might be genetically simple or they could be genetically complex quantitative traits, involving many genes and environmental effects. The molecular marker may be located within the gene of interest - gene-assisted selection (GAS). This is the most favorable situation for MAS but these kinds of markers are the most uncommon and are difficult to find. The marker is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) (It is the tendency of certain combinations of alleles to be inherited together.) Population wide LD can be found when markers and genes of interest are physically very close to each other and/or when lines or breeds have been crossed in recent generations. Selection using these markers can be called LD-MAS. The marker is not in linkage disequilibrium. This is the most difficult situation for applying MAS. Currently, MAS does not play a major role in genetic improvement programmes in any of the agricultural sectors. Enthusiasm and optimism remain concerning the potential contributions that MAS offers for genetic improvement. However, this seems to be tempered by the realization that it may be more difficult and therefore can take longer than originally thought before genetic improvement of quantitative traits using MAS is realized. Although conventional breeding programmes that rely on phenotypic records have their limitations, it has been shown over time that they can be


GENERAL ARTICLE

highly successful. Application of MAS will not occur in a vacuum and the potential benefits (genetic, economic, etc.) of using MAS need to be compared with those achieved or expected from any existing conventional breeding. Wait till we achieve by selection and management before thinking about MAS. All developed countries have attained the most by selection and now they are exploring ways like MAS to improve production. Let researchers try these first.

Is increased milk production our sole motto? I have talked to a few veterinary surgeons of Palakkad distirct who have reportedly produced excellent results in increasing the milk production of their panchayaths, either by purchase of new animals or/and by improvement in management practices, and by using the breeding facilities available in the state. Elappully panchayath could increase its milk production fourfold and Kannady and Akathethara could make significant improvements in the production scene. I understood that the first thing done by the authorities in Elappully panhayath was to take a survey of farmers who left dairying in the panchayath, and to make efforts to bring them back to dairying. A wonderful and inspiring task indeed. This effort paid off. Not only did milk production soar, but it also helped in achieving livelihood security for many poor farmers. All of us have seen the panchayath receiving the trophy and one crore rupees from the Chief Minister of Kerala. Food security along with livelihood security should be our goal. Let the ordinary farmers of our state be our first priority.

The present average production of a crossbred animal of the state is less than seven litres and if this can be increased to 10 liters, the milk requirement of the state can be met. This is in no way an easy job. A consistent genetic improvement programme and improvement in management practices by state departments joining hands with the Kerala Agricultural University and local bodies is absolutely essential. Elapully and a few other panchyaths in Palakkad district have shown us the way. A sincere effort from the side of the authorities is needed to retain farmers in this field and bring back those who have already left dairying. Bringing in more exotic animals in a population where the exotic inheritance is more than what is advisable will not do any good. A good selection from among the crossbreds by a systematic progeny testing and bringing in more population under test is required. Embryo transfer should be used for the multiplication of good female germplasm for production of more bulls for progeny testing. Let us try genomic selection and marker assisted selection once we attain maximum by selection and management. The promising work done by our fellow veterinarians in different panchyaths should not be ignored and should serve as models for emulation by other enthusiastic vets. Our slogan should be food security and livelihood security for ordinary farmers. Our main thrust should be on ordinary farmers with one or two cows who are the backbone of our dairy industry.

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CONCLUSION


GENERAL ARTICLE

EARLY NEUTERING IN DOGS (END) An animal birth control programme

India is a country with an open garbage handling system where there is availability of plenty of food to stray dogs and other animals. In such situations, especially in urban areas, the population growth of stray dog is rapid and uncontrollable. The potential areas that may harbour stray dog population are constantly expanding. The traditional method of control of overpopulation by mass euthanasia is not a preferred approach in a civilized society. In 1990 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) collaborated on the publication of “Guidelines for Dog Population Management”, which proposed a new, long-term method for the control of urban dog populations in a more humane manner. The method advocates systematic sterilization programme rather than the mass euthanasia. In 1992, in a case raised by Smt. Maneka Gandhi, the Delhi High Court ordered that animal birth control (ABC) programmes should be substituted for the ineffective and cruel killing methods. The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) had been advocating ABC programme in 1970 itself. In 1994-95 AWBI lounched immunization- cum- sterilization programme in metros like Bombay, Delhi, Culcutta, Madras, Bangalore and Hyderabad. At present the ABC programme is being practiced in adult female and male dogs but could not achieve the target of control of over population of dogs due to so many reasons relating to its capture, maintenance etc. To overcome such problems, early neutering at the age of 8-12 weeks has become a preferred substitute to adult sterilization. The history of early neutering starts in 1940's and become popular in 1974 with the Humane Society in Medford Oregon decided to spay/neuter all their dogs and cats prior to adoption. Dr. Leo

JIVA Vol. 8

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M.K.Narayanan and K.Rajankutty University Veterinary Hospital, Kokkalai, Thrissur-680 021.

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Lieberman in 1987, truly set the spark for the popularity of prepubertal sterilization by publishing “A Case for Neutering Pups and Kittens at two months of age”. Dr.Lieberman is considered as the father of prepubertal neutering by many. Countries like USA and Australia are following early neutering in dogs since1980s and 1990s respectively and recommended it as a safe and non deleterious means to control over population. Advantages of END Programmes are :

s Capture and control of animal is easy s Maintenance is economical due to less requirement of space,food,sutures,anaesthetics,medicines etc.

s Less trauma, leading to faster recovery and healing with less stress on the animal.

s Post operative complications 'near zero'. s Less input of veterinary and nursing time. s The incidence of mammary, testicular and perianal tumours can be reduced

s Neutered puppies are well accepted for adoption by people, hence they get a better shelter.

At present a pilot study on Early Neutering in Dogs(END) has been started at the University Veterinary Hospital, Kokkalai, Thrissur as part of the project entitled, ”Prepubertal Sterilization in Dogs for the Control of Overpopulation”, funded by Department of Animal Husbandry,Government of Kerala.


GENERAL ARTICLE

MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTY: AN OVERVIEW 1

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1

Research Associate, Arjuna Natural Extracts Ltd., Aluva, 2Vocational Teacher in Livestock Management, GVHSS, Chengannur, 3Veterinary Surgeon, Veterinary Dispensary, Mooniyur

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ornamental tree with beautiful bunches of yellow flowers. It is popularly known as Kani konna in Malayalam. The plant has a high therapeutic value and it exerts an antipyretic and analgesic effect. Besides, it has been found to exhibit antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activity and it is widely used as a mild laxative. In the Indian literature, this plant has been described to be useful against skin diseases and liver troubles. The leaf extract is also indicated for its anti-tussive and wound healing properties. Cassia fistula has been checked for its activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis E. coli and a few field isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, and Salmonella typhi and the results were promising. It should be noted that the alcoholic extract showed greater inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus compared to aqueous extract. One chloramphenicol resistant field isolate of Staphylococcus aureus too was susceptible to alcoholic extract of Cassia fistula (Vimalraj et al., 2009). Emblica officinalis Popularly known as Nellikai, Emblica officinalis is also named as Amla, or Indian gooseberry. The species is native to India and also grows in tropical and subtropical regions. The fruits of Emblica are widely used in the Ayurveda and are believed to increase defense against diseases. It has its beneficial role in cancer, diabetes, liver treatment, heart trouble, ulcer, anaemia and various other diseases. Similarly, it has application as antioxidant, immunomodulator, antipyretic, analgesic, cytoprotective, antitussive and gastroprotective. It is also helpful in neutralizing snake venom and as an antimicrobial. It has been reported to posses potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. ozaenae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella

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Medicinal plants form the backbone of traditional system of medicine in India. Even before the advent of modern ethno pharmacology, Indians had been using a multitude of plants for the treatment of various diseases. It is estimated that in India, about 2500 species of plants are used for medicinal purposes and about 90 per cent of the medicinal plants provide raw materials for the herbal pharmaceuticals (Rajasekharan and Ganeshan, 2002). In the recent times, the fledgling science is spawning wide spread interest among researchers. The plant preparations are preferred to synthetic drugs due to their apparent lower incidence of adverse reactions and being cost effective. This escalating buzz in ethnopharmacological research reflects recognition of the validity of many traditional claims regarding the value of natural products in health care. Medicinal plants are rich source of novel chemical moieties that form the ingredients in traditional systems of medicine, modern medicine, nutraceuticals, food supplements and lead compounds in synthetic drugs. Indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs has evoked multiple drug resistance against the pathogenic microorganisms of animals as in the case of humans. This necessitates the discovery of novel bioactive phyto-compounds in the treatment of diseases caused by pathogenic organisms. Following the footsteps of human medicine, veterinary medicine is also slowly embracing safe, having fewer side effects, cost effective and eco-friendly ethno medicine. This article addresses some of the common plants having antimicrobial property with various other pharmacological effects and with prospects for extensive use in Veterinary clinical practice. Cassia fistula Cassia fistula, a semi-wild Indian Labernum also known as the Golden Shower, native to India, is an

December 2010

Bibu J.K. , Rajagopal R. and Sureshbabu T. Arjuna Natural Extracts Ltd., Aluva


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December 2010

GENERAL ARTICLE

paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B and Serratia marcescens (Saeed and Tariq, 2007). Ficus religiosa Ficus religiosa, locally known by the name Areyal is a large deciduous tree, distributed throughout India; wild as well as cultivated. Various parts of the plant like bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits, seeds, and latex are medicinally important. The bark contains tannin, rubber and wax. The plant parts are used in diseases of blood, vagina, uterus, diarrhea, dysentery and scabies. The bark and the latex are used in inflammations and hemorrhages. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of F. religiosa leaves showed antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhimurium, S. typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis and E. coli. In another study, chloroform extract of fruits showed antimicrobial effect against Azobacter chroococcum, Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptomycin lactis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (Chandrasekar et al., 2010). Helianthus annuus Commonly known as sunflower (Sooryakanthi in Malayalam), is distributed worldwide. The plant contains oleic acid and the highly saturated sunflower contains a new triacyl glycerol which was identified as an isomer of oleic acid. It also contains various alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, fixed oils and simple phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial property of Helianthus annuus has been attributed to the sesquiterpenes (Spring et al., 1992). The seeds have medicinal importance as diuretic, expectorant and also used for cough, throat and lung infections. It is a folk remedy for blindness, bronchitis, carbuncles, catarrh, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, dysuria, fever, inflammation, pleuritis, scorpion stings, snakebite, urogenital ailments, and wounds. It is also used as an anticancer agent. Tectona grandis Tectona grandis (Common name Teak) is one of the most famous timbers in the world. It is commonly found in India and other South East Asian countries. According to Ayurvedic system of 78

medicine, wood is acrid, cooling, laxative, sedative to gravid uterus and useful in treatment of dysentery. It allays thirst and possesses anthelmintic and expectorant properties. Extracts from various parts of teak show expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and astringent properties. It is used in bronchitis, hyperacidity and dysentery. In traditional medicine, a wood powder paste has been used against bilious headache and swellings. Antifungal and synergistic action of the methanolic extract with tetracycline has been reported (Purushotham et al., 2010). Though some works on pharmacological potential of teak has been carried out earlier, a systematic approach of characterization which can bring out a clear picture of medicinal value of the plant is lacking. Azadirachta indica Commonly known as Neem (Vepu in Malayalam), is ubiquitous in distribution. The important bioactive compounds in neem are azadirachtin, salannin, volatile oils, meliantriol and nimbin. The antimicrobial property of Neem has been established extensively against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Vibrio cholerae, M. tuberculosis, Streptococcus mutans and S. faecalis. Neem oil seed kernels have antifungal activity against Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichosporon, Geotrichum and Candida sp (Rao et al., 1986; Biswas et al., 2002). Also, neem leaf is effective in treating various diseases such as eczema, ringworm, foot problems, gangrene and chronic wounds. It has antii n f l a m m a t o r y, h y p e rg l y c e m i c e ff e c t s a n d hypolipidemic effects. It is also believed to remove toxins from the body, neutralize free radicals and act as a blood purifier. Recently it was found to have anticancer and hepato-renal protective activity (Sharma et al., 2009). Boiled neem leaf water makes an excellent antiseptic to clean wounds, soothes swellings and eases skin problems. Allium cepa Allium cepa, commonly known as Onion, vernacularly as Basal, is distributed worldwide. It contains numerous organic sulfur compounds which attributes to its various pharmacological actions. The antimicrobial property of Alium cepa has been reported against E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Psuedomonas


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remarkable antibacterial effect against S. typhi, E. coli and S. aureus (Sumathi and Parvathi, 2010). Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, commonly known as Chembarathi in local language, belongs to the family Malvaceae. Traditionally this plant is used for the control of dysfunctional uterine bleeding and as an oral contraceptive. Some of the chemical constituents isolated from this plant are cyanidin, quercetin, hentriacontane, calcium oxalate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid. Flavonoids are also present. The antimicrobial activity has been reported by Nair et al. (2005) against Pseudomonas testosteroni, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus morganii and Micrococcus flavus. Mentha arvensis Mentha arvensis L. commonly known as Puttiyana is an erect branched perennial herb is used to treat liver and spleen diseases and jaundice. The oil is antiseptic, carminative, refrigerant, stimulant and diuretic. Menthol is used in stomach disorders. The infusion of leaves is used in indigestion and rheumatic pains. Significant antimicrobial property against Staphylococccus aureus has been reported (Nascimento et al., 2009). Mimusops elengi Mimusops elengi, commonly known as Mukura, is an evergreen tree, 5-8 m tall. The fruit is used as astringent, coolant and anthelmintic. The tender stems are used for diarrhoea and dysentery. The flowers' lotion is used for wounds and ulcers while the seeds are used in constipation. The pentaflavone compounds isolated from Mimusops elengi has been claimed to possess antimicrobial property against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria (Hazra et al., 2007). Minor antimicrobial activities for Terminalia chebula, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Butea monosperma, Salvia indica and Withania somnifera have also been reported. Hemidesmus indicus, Coscinium fenestratum, Tephrosia purpurea, Euphorbia hirta, Symplocos racemosa, Curcubito pepo. Eclipta alba has been found to be active against acne causing bacterium.

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pyocyaneus and Bacillus subtilis (Azu and Onyyeagba, 2007). Onion is used for cancer treatment and promotes healing of stomach ulcers. It is also used as antiseptic, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, diaphoretic and expectorant. It is used in coughs, parasites, wound, burns, dog bites, bee stings, ear aches, warts, intestinal and kidney infections. Aegle marmelos Aegle marmelos, commonly known as Koovalam in Malayalam, is popularly known as Bael tree. Ancient Hindu physicians regard the unripe or half ripe fruit as astringent, digestive, and stomachic, prescribing it for diarrhoea and dysentery. The ripe fruit is aromatic and is used as laxative. The fresh juice of the leaves is taken with honey as a laxative and febrifuge. The fruit is used as a remedy for diarrhoea. It has been screened for the antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and has been proved to be effective can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by the resistant microorganisms (Suresh et al., 2009). Sapindus emarginatus Sapindus emarginatus, commonly known as Chavakayimaram in Malayalam, belongs to the family Sapindaceae. This 8 to 10 m high tree bears fruits which contain saponin and glucose. Traditionally, it is used as anti-inflammatory and antiprurutic. It is used to purify the blood. The seed is intoxicant and the fruit rind has oxytropic action. The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of S. emarginatus leaf against P. testosteroni, K. pneumoniae, M. flavus, P. morganii, B. subtilis and S. epidermidis has been well documented ( Nair et al., 2005). Terminalia bellerica Terminalia bellerica, commonly known as Tahnnikai, commonly known as belleric myrobalan. It is routinely used as traditional medicine by tribal folk to get remedies from several ailments such as fever, cough, diarrhoea, skin diseases and oral thrush. Chemical substances of sitosterol, gallic acid, ethyl gallate, galloylglucose, a new triterpene, the belleric acid and chebulagic acid have been isolated from fruits of T. bellerica. Fruit extract of T. bellerica has been reported to produce fall in blood pressure. T. bellerica showed

December 2010

GENERAL ARTICLE


GENERAL ARTICLE

CONCLUSION Development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents shown by the microorganisms appears to be a continuous process since the time antibiotics were discovered. Plants have great potential as antimicrobial compounds and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant microbes. Hence work on isolation and characterization of active principles from medicinal plants and their pharmacodynamic study using latest techniques would be highly beneficial. 1. Azu, N.C. and Onyyeagba, R.A. 2007. Antimicrobial properties of extracts of Allium cepa (Onions) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. Internet J. Trop. Med. 3(2). 2. Biswas, K., Chattopadhyay, I., Banerjee, R.K. and Bandyopadhyay, U. 2002. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica). Curr. Sci. 82: 1336-1345. 3. Chandrasekar, S.B., Bhanumathy, M., Pawar, A . T. , S o m a s u n d a r a m , T. 2 0 1 0 . Phytopharmacology of Ficus religiosa. Pharmacog. Rev. 4:195-199. 4. Hazra, K.M., Roy, R.N., Sen, S.K. and Laskar, S. 2007. Isolation of antibacterial pentahydroxy flavones from the seeds of Mimusops elengi Linn. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6: 1446-1449. 5. Nair, R. Kalariya, T. and Chanda, S. 2005. Antibacterial activity of some selected Indian medicinal flora. Turk J Biol. 29: 41-47. 6. Nascimento, E.M.M., Rodrigues, F.F.G., C a m p o s , A . R . , C o s t a , J . G. M . . 2 0 0 9 . Phytochemical prospection, toxicity and antimicrobial activity of Mentha arvensis (labiatae) from Northeast of Brazil. J. Young Pharmacists. 1: 210-212.

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REFERENCES

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7. Purushotham, K.G., Arun, P., Jayarani, J.J., Vasanthakumari, R., Sankar, L. and Reddy, B.R. 2010. Synergistic in vitro antibacterial activity of Tectona grandis leaves with tetracycline. Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res. 2: 519-523. 8. Rajasekharan, P.E. and Ganeshan, S. 2002. Conservation of medicinal plant biodiversity in Indian perspective. J. Med. Aromatic Pl. Sci. 24: 132-147. 9. Rao, D.V.K., Singh, K., Chopra, P., Chabra, P.C. and Ramanujalu G. 1986. In vitro antibactericidal activity of neem oil. Indian J. Med. Research. 84:314-316. 10. Saeed, S. and Tariq, P. 2007. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens. Pak J. Pharm. Sci. 20: 32-35. 11. Sharma, D., Lavania, A.A. and Sharma, A. 2009. In vitro comparative screening of antibacterial and antifungal activities of some common plants and weeds extracts. Asian J. Exp. Sci. 23: 169-172. 12. Spring, O., Rodon, U. and Macias, F.A. 1992. Sesquiterpenes from noncapitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus. Phytochemistry. 31: 1541-1544. 13. Sumathi, P. and Parvathy, A. 2010. Antimicrobial activity of some traditional medicinal plants. J. Med. Plants Res. 4: 316-321. 14. Suresh, K., Senthilkumar, P.K. and Karthikeyan, B. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of Aegle marmelos against clinical pathogens. J. Phytol. 1: 323-327. 15. Vimalraj, T.R., Saravana kumar, S., Vadivel, S., Ramesh, S. and Thejomoorthy, P. 2009. Antibacterial effect of Cassia fistula extract on pathogenic bacteria of veterinary importance. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 5: 109-113.


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