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Key Concepts: Visual and Narrative Models of Important New Thinking

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FRAME: Emergence and Social Epidemics The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference !"#$%&'%()*+),-)'.,/'01-2.3'%42/)(2-5' by Malcolm Gladwell !"#$!%&&%'($)*%'+,$-*.$/%++0#$!"%'(1$23'$435#$3$6%($7%88#9#':#$$ !"#$%&'(&)#*&%+,-&&#

Introduction 6,7*1/8-721,' The book takes a crack at explaining how

contagious behavior—like a fashion trend, or the ./-#!((0#1%0-2#%#'3%'0#%1#-45&%67678#/(,#'(71%86(92# !-/%:6(3;&60-#%#<%2/6(7#13-7+=#(3#1/-#-)-38-7'-#(<#%# emergence of a bestseller—starts and grows in an !-212-&&-3;21%312#%7+#83(,2#67#%7#(38%76'#<%2/6(7=# organic fashion, much like a virus does, without any )9'/#&60-#%#:6392#+(-2=#,61/(91#%7"#'-713%&#'(713(&#(3# central control or master plan. It focuses in )%21-3#5&%7>#?1#<('92-2#67#5%316'9&%3#(7#-4%)5&-2# particular on examples where little changes create ,/-3-#&611&-#'/%78-2#'3-%1-#!68#-<<-'12#@&60-#,/-7#1/-# big effects (like when the temperature of fresh water 1-)5-3%193-#(<#<3-2/#,%1-3#+3(52#<3()#AB>B#+-83--2# drops from 32.2 degrees to 31.9 degrees and all of a 1(#AC>D#+-83--2#%7+#%&&#(<#%#29++-7#6'-#(''932E>#F7+# sudden ice occurs). And it also tries to understand 61#%&2(#136-2#1(#97+-321%7+#,/-7#'/%78-#/%55-72#7(1# when change happens not gradually, but 83%+9%&&"=#!91#-45&(26:-&">#./-#G1655678#5(671H#<3()# explosively. The “tipping point” from which the ,/6'/#1/-#!((0#1%0-2#612#161&-#62#1/%1#5(671#67#%#2"2I book takes its title is that point in a system’s 1-)J2#+-:-&(5)-71#,/-3-#%#2)%&&#'/%78-#&-%+2#1(#%# development where a small change leads to a huge /98-#-<<-'1=#67#%#:-3"#3%56+#16)-#<3%)-=#%7+#253-%+2# effect, in a very rapid time frame, and spreads 1/3(98/#1/-#2"21-)#67#%#'(71%86(92#<%2/6(7>#K(1#%&&# through the system in a contagious fashion. Not all 2"21-)6'#'/%78-#62#&60-#1/62=#!91#<(3#1/(2-#5-(5&-#,/(# systemic change is like this, but for those people ,%71#1(#<()-71#3%56+#'/%78-=#1/-#5367'65&-2#(3#'()I who want to foment rapid change, the principles or 5(7-712#(<#1/-#1655678#5(671#)(+-&#%3-#,(31/#-4%)67I components of the tipping point model are worth 678># examining. #

91(41,),75'1:'7;)'$1/)3' Components of the Model

# !"#$/3.$*8$+"#$;#.$ The Law of the Few L(71%86(92#-45%726(7#(<#6+-%2#(3#2"21-)6'#'/%78-2# Contagious expansion of ideas or systemic changes +(-27J1#3-&"#95(7#1/(92%7+2#(3#)6&&6(72#(<#5-(5&-#%&&# doesn’t rely upon thousands or millions of people 362678#95#(<#(7-#%''(3+#1(#'3-%1-#1/-#'/%78->#?721-%+=# all rising up of one accord to create the change. 1/-#3%56+#83(,1/#62#929%&&"#21%31-+#!"#%#/%7+<9&#(<# Instead, the rapid growth is usually started by a 5-(5&-#,/(#-4/6!61#2()-#067+#(<#-4'-516(7%&#!-/%:I !"##$%&"'()*+,$ '$-+&."#(*./()0.&*)1+#23 1+#2)"&*$').#4.,.45+-(

;+-$(1$#)%+# .#<-5$#%$)/$"/-$ &")&+7$)+%&."#

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handful of people who exhibit some kind of exceptional behavior. In the propagation of 6(3>#?7#1/-#53(5%8%16(7#(<#67<-'16(92#+62-%2-2=#1/-3-# infectious diseases, there are often certain types of %3-#(<1-7#'-31%67#1"5-2#(<#5-(5&-#,/(#!"#1/-#7%193-#(<# ,/%1#1/-"#+(#(3#1/-#&6<-21"&-#1/-"#&-%+#%&&(,#1/-# people who by the nature of what they do or the lifestyle they lead allow the growth of the disease to 83(,1/#(<#1/-#+62-%2-#1(#165#2(#1/%1#61#!-'()-2#%7# -56+-)6'>#./-#2%)-#'%7#!-#2%6+#<(3#)%7"#(1/-3# tip so that it becomes an epidemic. The same can be 13-7+2;%#2)%&&#79)!-3#(<#5-(5&-#@&60-#20%1-!(%3+I said for many other trends—a small number of -32E#/%:-#1/-#%!6&61"#1(#67<-'1#%#&%38-#79)!-3#(<#(1/-3# people (like skateboarders) have the ability to infect a 5-(5&-#,61/#%#7-,#6+-%#@&60-#%#21"&-#(<#'&(1/678#(3# large number of other people with a new idea (like a 2/(-2E>#M61/67#1/-#&%,#(<#1/-#<-,=#1/-3-#%3-#1/3--# style of clothing or shoes). Within the law of the 1"5-2#(<#-4'-516(7%&#5-(5&-#,/(#1-7+#1(#&-7+#+6253(I few, there are three types of exceptional people who 5(316(7%&#67<&9-7'-#1(#)%0-#%#'/%78-#165#%7+#!-'()-# tend to lend disproportional influence to make a %#13-7+>#./-"J3-#L(77-'1(32=#$%:-72#%7+#N%&-2)-7># change tip and become a trend. They’re Connectors, # Mavens and Salesmen. 2*''#:+*91$ # ./-3-#%3-#2()-#5-(5&-#,/(#2--)#1(#07(,#-:-3"I Connectors (7->#F2#67<(3)%16(7#13%:-&2#1/3(98/#7-1,(302=# There are some people who seem to know 1,(#1/6782#1-7+#1(#/%55-7>#O6321=#1/-#67<(3)%16(7# everyone. As information travels through networks, 62#/68/&"#&60-&"#1(#'()-#67#'(71%'1#,61/#%#'(77-'I two things tend to happen. First, the information is 1(3;)9'/#)(3-#&60-&"#1/%7#'()678#67#'(71%'1# highly likely to come in contact with a connector— much,61/#2()-(7-#,/(#62#7(1#2(#'(77-'1-+>#N-'(7+=#6<# more likely than coming in contact with 1/-#67<(3)%16(7#-78%8-2#1/-#'(77-'1(3J2#671-3-21=# someone who is not so connected. Second, if the /-#(3#2/-#,6&&#+62136!91-#61#1(#%#/98-#79)!-3#(<# information engages the connector’s interest, he or (1/-3#67+6:6+9%&2#67#%#2/(31#5-36(+#(<#16)-=#'3-%1I she will distribute it to a huge number of other 678#%#1655678#5(671>#./-3-#+(7J1#7--+#1(#!-#)%7"# individuals in a short period of time, creating a (<#1/-)#67#%#2"21-)#1(#53(5%8%1-#%#7-,#13-7+># tipping point. There don’t need to be many of them # in a system to propagate a new trend. 43<#'1$ # $%:-72#%3-#67<(3)%16(7#25-'6%&6212>#./-"J3-#1/-# Mavens 1"5-2#(<#5-(5&-#,/(#07(,#-:-3"1/678#1/-3-#62#1(# Mavens are information specialists. They’re the 07(,#%!(91#%#'-31%67#1(56'>#P91#1/-"#/%:-#(7-# types%++616(7%&#<-%193-#1/%1#)%0-2#1/-)#+6<<-3-71#<3()# of people who know everything there is to know about a certain topic. But they have one (3+67%3"#-45-312Q#1/-"#&(:-#1(#2/%3-#,/%1#1/-"# additional feature that makes them different from 07(,#,61/#(1/-32>#./-"J3-#7(1#7-'-22%36&"#%#/9!# ordinary experts: they love to share what they know 67#%#7-1,(30#&60-#%#'(77-'1(3#62=#!91#1/-"#%3-#-%I with 8-3#1(#2/%3-#,/%1#1/-"#07(,>#$%:-72#%3-#6)5(3I others. They’re not necessarily a hub in a network like a connector is, but they are eager to 1%71#%2#1655678#5(6712#!-'%92-#1/-"J3-#(7#1/-#&-%+I share678#-+8-#(<#%'R963678#7-,#67<(3)%16(7>#./-"# what they know. Mavens are important as tipping points because they’re on the leading edge 07(,#1/6782#1/%1#1/-#3-21#(<#92#+(7J1>#?7#%#7-1,(30# of acquiring new information. They know things (<#67+6:6+9%&2=#1/-"J3-#&60-&"#1/-#<6321#1(#07(,#(<#%# that the rest of us don’t. In a network of individuals, 5(1-716%&#2"21-)#'/%78->#?<#1/-"J3-#67#1(9'/#,61/# they’re likely the first to know of a potential system %#'(77-'1(3=#1/-7#1/-#'/%78-#'%7#8-1#'())976I change. If they’re in touch with a connector, then '%1-+#:-3"#3%56+&"># the change can get communicated very rapidly. # =30#1>#'$ Salesmen # ./-2-#5-(5&-#%3-#1/-#R9671-22-716%&#5-329%+-32# These people are the quintessential persuaders who ,/(#'%7#8-1#5-(5&-#1(#)%0-#+-'626(72#%7+#1%0-# can get people to make decisions and take actions


Key Concepts: Visual and Narrative Models of Important New Thinking

that they ordinarily wouldn’t take if left to themselves. But these salesmen are not the type that are reviled in popular culture—instead they’re people who have the ability to persuade in part !"#$%&'(#)!#(#)*+(%,-$&!,$.+(/%0.-&1#(#!2*($3(.*3#(#%( because they can get the other person to root for #)*4'*.5*'6(70#(#)*'*('!.*'4*&(!,*(&%#(#)*(#+8*( them in the same way that an audience roots for a #)!#(!,*(,*5$.*-($&(8%80.!,("0.#0,*9$&'#*!-( performer on stage. They also use their emotions as #)*+1,*(8*%8.*(/)%()!5*(#)*(!:$.$#+(#%(8*,'0!-*($&( contagious influences on other people. Their ability 8!,#(:*"!0'*(#)*+(("!&(;*#(#)*(%#)*,(8*,'%&(#%(,%%#( to persuade makes them strong carriers of infectious 3%,(#)*4($&(#)*('!4*(/!+(#)!#(!&(!0-$*&"*(,%%#'( ideas, concepts, trends and changes. 3%,(!(8*,3%,4*,(%&('#!;*6(<)*+(!.'%(0'*(#)*$,( *4%#$%&'(!'("%&#!;$%0'($&3.0*&"*'(%&(%#)*,(8*%= The Stickiness Factor 8.*6(<)*$,(!:$.$#+(#%(8*,'0!-*(4!2*'(#)*4('#,%&;( Every advertising firm dreams of creating those "!,,$*,'(%3($&3*"#$%0'($-*!'>("%&"*8#'>(#,*&-'(!&-( specific types of messages that capture the attention ")!&;*'6( ( of the public in such a way that the message becomes ingrained into the culture. Xerox became !"#$%&'()'*#++$,-(&./$ synonymous with photocopying. The Wendy’s ?5*,+(!-5*,#$'$&;(3$,4(-,*!4'(%3(",*!#$&;(#)%'*('8*= brand received a boost with the phrase “where’s the "$3$"(#+8*'(%3(4*''!;*'(#)!#("!8#0,*(#)*(!##*&#$%&(%3( beef?” Nike’s slogan became a mantra for a #)*(80:.$"($&('0")(!(/!+(#)!#(#)*(4*''!;*(:*"%4*'( generation: “Just do it.” But slogans are not the only $&;,!$&*-($&#%(#)*("0.#0,*6(@*,%A(:*"!4*('+&%&+= things that rely upon stickiness for success. 4%0'(/$#)(8)%#%"%8+$&;6(<)*(B*&-+1'(:,!&-(,*= Teachers look for ways to provide stickiness in their "*$5*-(!(:%%'#(/$#)(#)*(8),!'*(C/)*,*1'(#)*(:**3DE( lessons. Television shows try to find ways to get F$2*1'('.%;!&(:*"!4*(!(4!&#,!(3%,(!(;*&*,!#$%&G( CH0'#(-%($#6E(70#('.%;!&'(!,*(&%#(#)*(%&.+(#)$&;'(#)!#( viewers hooked. People trying to make changes in organizations hunt for ways of presenting the ,*.+(08%&('#$"2$&*''(3%,('0""*''6(<*!")*,'(.%%2(3%,( /!+'(#%(8,%5$-*('#$"2$&*''($&(#)*$,(.*''%&'6(<*.*5$= change so that its features become contagious. The '$%&(')%/'(#,+(#%(3$&-(/!+'(#%(;*#(5$*/*,'()%%2*-6( trick is that there is usually one small element I*%8.*(#,+$&;(#%(4!2*(")!&;*'($&(%,;!&$J!#$%&'()0&#( within the design of the television show or the 3%,(/!+'(%3(8,*'*&#$&;(#)*(")!&;*('%(#)!#($#'(3*!#0,*'( strategic plan or the marketing idea that provides the :*"%4*("%&#!;$%0'6(<)*(#,$"2($'(#)!#(#)*,*($'(0'0!..+( stickiness component. It’s not necessary that the %&*('4!..(*.*4*&#(/$#)$&(#)*(-*'$;&(%3(#)*(#*.*5$'$%&( entire idea or that all of the components of the new ')%/(%,(#)*('#,!#*;$"(8.!&(%,(#)*(4!,2*#$&;($-*!(#)!#( educational intervention be sticky. If only one 8,%5$-*'(#)*('#$"2$&*''("%48%&*&#6(K#1'(&%#(&*"*''!,+( component is irresistible enough, it will bring the #)!#(#)*(*&#$,*($-*!(%,(#)!#(!..(%3(#)*("%48%&*&#'(%3( rest of the components along with it. Some other #)*(&*/(*-0"!#$%&!.($&#*,5*&#$%&(:*('#$"2+6(K3(%&.+( features that contribute to stickiness include: %&*("%48%&*&#($'($,,*'$'#$:.*(*&%0;)>($#(/$..(:,$&;( participation, practicality, personal. #)*(,*'#(%3(#)*("%48%&*&#'(!.%&;(/$#)($#6(L%4*(%#)*,( 3*!#0,*'(#)!#("%&#,$:0#*(#%('#$"2$&*''($&".0-*G(8!,#$"$= The Power of Context 8!#$%&>(8,!"#$"!.$#+>(8*,'%&!.6(( The physical and social environment within which ( an individual or group of people receives a !"#$0.1#/$.2$3.*&#4&$ particular type of information can radically <)*(8)+'$"!.(!&-('%"$!.(*&5$,%&4*&#(/$#)$&(/)$")( influence whether the information sticks and gets !&($&-$5$-0!.(%,(;,%08(%3(8*%8.*(,*"*$5*'(!(8!,#$"0.!,( passed on. But it’s not necessarily that the #+8*(%3($&3%,4!#$%&("!&(,!-$"!..+($&3.0*&"*(/)*#)*,( environment as a whole causes the contagious #)*($&3%,4!#$%&('#$"2'(!&-(;*#'(8!''*-(%&6(70#($#1'( behavior. Instead, it’s possible to take a trend to the &%#(&*"*''!,$.+(#)!#(#)*(*&5$,%&4*&#(!'(!(/)%.*( tipping point by tinkering with the smallest details "!0'*'(#)*("%&#!;$%0'(:*)!5$%,6(K&'#*!->($#1'(8%''$:.*( #%(#!2*(!(#,*&-(#%(#)*(#$88$&;(8%$&#(:+(#$&2*,$&;(/$#)( #)*('4!..*'#(-*#!$.'(%3(#)*(*&5$,%&4*&#6(M&(*A!48.*( "!&(:*(3%0&-($&(#)*(C:,%2*&(/$&-%/'E(*A8*,$4*&#($&( For more information contact: F*/(N%,2(O$#+($&(#)*(*!,.+(PQQR1'6(K3(!(/$&-%/($'( :,%2*&(!&-(.*3#(0&,*8!$,*->(8*%8.*(/!.2$&;(:+(/$..( 257 Castle Glen Road Walnut Creek CA 94595-2642 "%&".0-*(#)!#(&%(%&*("!,*'(!&-(&%(%&*($'($&(")!,;*6( (925) 934-1786 L%%&>(4%,*(/$&-%/'(/$..(:*(:,%2*&>(!&-(#)*('*&'*( %3(!&!,")+(/$..('8,*!-(3,%4(#)*(:0$.-$&;(#%(#)*('#,**#(

of the environment. An example can be found in the “broken windows” experiment in New York City in the early 1990’s. If a window is broken and left unrepaired, people walking by will conclude that no %&(/)$")($#(3!"*'>('*&-$&;(!('$;&!.(#)!#(!&+#)$&;6( one cares and no one is in charge. Soon, more F*/(N%,2(!88.$*-(#)$'(8,$&"$8.*($&(,*5*,'*>(-$.$;*&#.+( windows will be broken, and the sense of anarchy 8.!+$&;()!,-:!..(%&(#)*(.$##.*(#)$&;'(.$2*(:,%2*&(/$&= will spread from the building to the street on which -%/'>(;,!33$#$(!&-(8!&)!&-.$&;($&("*,#!$&(",$4*= it faces, sending a signal that anything. New York ,$--*&(8!,#'(%3(#)*("$#+6(M'(!##*&#$%&(#%(#)*(.$##.*( applied this principle in reverse, diligently playing #)$&;'($48,%5*->(,*'$-*&#'(3*.#(4%,*("%43%,#!:.*( hardball on the little things like broken windows, 4%5$&;(!:%0#($&(#)*$,(&*$;):%,)%%-'(!&-(",$4$&!.'( graffiti and panhandling in certain crime ridden 3*.#(.*''("%43%,#!:.*6(M##*&#$%&(#%(#)*(C:,%2*&(/$&= parts of the city. As attention to the little things -%/'E("!0'*-(#)*(",$4*(,!#*(#%(#$8(!&-(,*-0"*($&(!( improved, residents felt more comfortable moving ,!-$"!.(/!+6(( (about in their neighborhoods and criminals felt less comfortable. Attention to the “broken windows” <)*,*1'(!('%"$!.('$-*(#%(#)*(8%/*,(%3("%&#*A#6(K#( caused the crime rate to tip and reduce in a radical '**4'(#)!#(;,%08'(%3(08(#%(PSR("!&('*,5*(!'($&"0:!= way. #%,'(3%,("%&#!;$%0'(4*''!;*'6(<)*+(*A)$:$#(!('%,#(%3( T%$&#(4*4%,+('+'#*46(U&*()0&-,*-(3$3#+(8*%8.*($'( There’s a social side to the power of context. It !:%0#(#)*(4!A$404(&04:*,(%3(8*%8.*(#)!#(!('$&;.*( )04!&(:*$&;("!&()!5*(!(5!.0!:.*(,*.!#$%&')$8(/$#)9 seems that groups of up to 150 can serve as !(,*.!#$%&')$8(#)!#("!&('*,5*(!'(!&($&3.0*&"*(#%($&-$= incubators for contagious messages. They exhibit a 5$-0!.(:*)!5$%,6( sort of joint memory system. One hundred fifty people is about the maximum number of people that a single human being can have a valuable relationship with— a relationship that can serve as an influence to individual behavior.

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tipping_point