VOLUME 1 | ISSUE 3 | 10 FEBRUARY 2014
USING SPORT FOR GOOD Maidan - The Sport for Development Magazine A Sport for Development Platform
‘A FOCUS ON SPORT FOR ALL’ Foreword: Edited from a video message by Wilfried Lemke to Next Step 2014
We are all aware that sport plays an essential role in creating a healthier and more active population, with a wide range of physical, social and mental benefits. Furthermore, the potential for education and social development through sport cannot be denied. This is why it is so important to ensure universal access to sport. It is also why we focus on sport for all. We want to give everyone the opportunity to experience these benefits. It is our responsibility to ensure that the doorway to sport is always open for all.
During his recent mission to Oceania and the Pacific, the Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace had a chance to visit an inclusive cricket programme for disabled persons from Cricket Fiji, supported by the Australian Sports Commission. Along with schools and other organisations for people with disabilities, they offer regular cricket training sessions adapted to the specific needs and capabilities of the participants. Additionally, Cricket Fiji offers fitness exercises and fruits during breaks to promote a healthy lifestyle.
Mainstreaming Fiji Disability Cricket is a programme that works in schools, special schools, villages and communities throughout Viti Levu in Fiji to improve the lives of people with disabilities by increasing participation in modified cricket activities and challenging the stigma surrounding people with disabilities by creating a participation pathway that runs concurrently with all Cricket Fiji programmes. Watch a film on the programme by ICC on www.youtube.com/watch?v=He6qt_AHg6Q To know more about the programme, visit www.cricketfiji.com.fj/index.php/programs/ community-cricket/inclusivecricket
This is where the United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace (UNOSDP) comes in. As an example, the UNOSDP organises the Youth Leadership Programme to engage and give direction to youth committed to Sport for Development and Peace in their local communities.
The Special Adviser highlighted that by the year 2015, there will be three billion people under the age of 25. They are the future. They play a central role in inspiring children to join sport.
Lemke stressed the need to see that role models are not only elite athletes but also ordinary people such as participants of the Youth Leadership Programme who want to work for a good cause and a better world through sports.
They inspire sport for all. However, youth also need sources of hope and inspiration.
To learn more, visit www.un.org/wcm/ content/site/sport/.
Wilfried Lemke currently serves as United Nations Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Sport for Development and Peace. Previously, he has acted as the Senator for Interior and Sport and the Senator for Education and Science in the German State of Bremen. He also managed Werder Bremen for 18 years, and was in charge of fundraising and initiation of relief projects in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern Europe. Mr Lemke is the author of ‘Ein Bolzplatz für Bouake’, a book that talks about the experiences he gained while travelling the world as the UN Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace. To know more, visit www.willilemke.com
Rebuilding Afghani Youth – The Skateistan Story
The A Ganar Alliance – Youth Workforce Development Through Sport
Playing For Change
Rugby For Social Change – The Jungle Crows Story
Improving Life Through Sport – The PS4L Story
Sports For Girls' Rights In Rural Jharkhand
The Business Of Football – A Call For Creative Solutions
Growing A New Sport – The Surfing Story
Taking D-I-S Out Of 'Disability'
Changing The Game For A New Breed Of Changemakers
Sport For Development – From Extreme To Mainstream
Building Inter-Community Peace Using Sport
The International Inspiration Programme In India
From Invisibility To In-Visibility
Child Protection In Sport For Development Programmes In India
Ability To Awaken The Good
Our Journey So Far In Sports And Development: What We Did Right
Football Has The Power To Change The World
Respiratory Health: Top Five Facts
A Powerful Tool For Recovery Of Disaster Survivors
Sport For Peace And Development
AFDP: Our Experience So Far
Life Skills Through Games – Book Review
How Do You Use Sport To Create Social Impact?
REBUILDING AFGHANI YOUTH:
THE SKATEISTAN STORY Oliver Percovich, Founder, Skateistan Skateistan began as a grassroots Sport for Development project on the streets of Kabul in 2007, and is now an award-winning organisation with projects in Afghanistan and Cambodia. Skateistan is the first international development initiative to combine skateboarding with educational outcomes. As 70 per cent of the Afghan population is under the age of 25, providing young people with the tools to succeed is crucial for Afghanistan's future. Skateistan works with youth aged 5-17, helping them develop skills in skateboarding, leadership, civic responsibility, multimedia and creative arts. In a country where you won't often find girls on bicycles, much less playing sports in public, skateboarding provides girls in Afghanistan with the ability to participate in active play. Since skateboarding is new to Afghanistan, preconceived notions against female
participation do not exist as they do with other more established sports, such as football. In Skateistan's covered indoor skate parks with allfemale classes, girls are given the rare opportunity to explore their athletic abilities. Skateistan's participants come from all of Afghanistan's diverse ethnic backgrounds, and include 40 per cent female students, hundreds of street-working children and youth with disabilities. Through skateboarding, friendships are forged, trust is built, and a sense of community that is essential towards building peace is created. Once kids are hooked on skateboarding, much more is possible. Several students' stories show the positive impact that skateboarding can bring to the life of a teenager. Hanifa's story is just one example. At fourteen years old, Hanifa is one of
Maidan Magazine | 2 Afghanistan's most talented girl skaters. Starting out as a student in Skateistan's creative arts and skateboarding programme, Hanifa joined the Skateistan team first as a volunteer, and is now working as paid staff. When she first joined the Skateistan programme in 2010, she was selling tea in a local park. She is now a paid skateboarding instructor and an inspiring role model to hundreds of other girls. In addition to teaching skating classes, Hanifa also regularly takes part in weekly staff development training sessions. She has been tutored in school subjects by shadowing Backto-School classes. Hanifa believes that by becoming a good skateboarder, she will make a better future for herself. Noorzai's story is another great example of how a motivated young person can transform their life if given the chance. Noorzai began skateboarding in 2007 when Skateistan consisted of simple street-based skate sessions in Macroyan fountain in Kabul. When Skateistan
built its first facilities, Noorzai went from being a student to volunteering as a skating teacher before being hired as paid staff. He is now employed as Sports Coordinator at Skateistan's newest project in Mazar-e-Sharif, Northern Afghanistan, organising children’s sports programmes. The positive changes in these young people’s lives demonstrate how skateboarding can lead to new opportunities. When students are extended the opportunity to take leadership roles within the organisation, they are able to learn employable skills, assume responsibility for themselves, build confidence and earn an income doing what they love. Long-term involvement allows youth at Skateistan to take ownership over the project. Each of their individual contributions helps to shape what the NGO can become. This model of local ownership is crucial in ensuring the sustainability of any Sport for Development project into the future.
When students are extended the opportunity to take a leadership role within the organisation, they are able to learn employable skills, assume responsibility for themselves, build confidence and earn an income doing what they love.
Oliver Percovich first travelled to Afghanistan in February 2007 and founded Skateistan. Skateistan is Afghanistan's only skateboarding school. To know more, visit www.skateistan.org Watch a film about Oliver's work with Skateistan: To Live and Skate Kabul on Vimeo: www.vimeo.com/15841377
A Ganar for me is force, dedication, and leadership. A Ganar has given me back everything that I needed in this moment. It has given me back the most important thing a person can have — values. - Cristhian Arquello, Ecuador
Nadia Moreno is currently working as a Sport for Development Officer for the A Ganar Programme. Nadia is a graduate from Emory University with a degree in Political Science and Sociology. Prior to joining A Ganar, Nadia worked with Soccer in the Streets (Atlanta, Georgia) and Fundacion Fundem (Bogota, Colombia). She has extensive experience in sport and community outreach work. For more information please see www.aganar.net
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THE A GANAR ALLIANCE: YOUTH WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SPORT Nadia Moreno ‘A Ganar’ means ‘to win’ or ‘to earn’ in Spanish. Led by Partners of the Americas, the A Ganar Alliance combats youth unemployment in Latin America and the Caribbean using team sports. In essence, A Ganar is a youth employment programme wrapped inside a ball. At-risk youth aged 16-24 acquire marketable job expertise by building on six core sport-based skills: teamwork, communication, discipline, respect, a focus on results, and continual selfimprovement. In 7-9 months, youth learn life and vocational skills and complete internships with local businesses. They learn to bring the best values of sport and apply them to the workplace. Our programme goals include: Provide sports-based employability training to at-risk and economically-disadvantaged youth in Latin America and the Caribbean; Increase capacity of partner institutions to
implement sport-for-development training which is flexible enough to meet local needs; Mobilise a broad range of donors and
stakeholders, including sports organisations, businesses, foundations, individuals, partners’ chapters, and others to advocate and promote youth opportunity; Strengthen alumni support, thereby creating
a network that supports safe spaces for youth that promote identity formation, civic engagement, and service learning; Develop a network of organisations capable
and committed to utilising sport for youth development.
A Ganar training is implemented in four integrated phases: Phase I: Sports-based training that translates sports skills to employability skills Phase II: Market-driven technical, entrepreneurial or vocational training Phase III: Supervised internships and apprenticeships Phase IV: Follow-on support (job placement, business involvement and re-integration in school). A GANAR’S IMPACT Of the more than 12,000 youth that have participated in A Ganar training, over 63 per cent of participants graduate from the programme; and over 70 per cent of programme graduates obtain formal employment, return to school, or start a business within one year. In high crime areas such as San Pedro Sula (Honduras), Kingston (Jamaica) and Cuidad Juárez (Mexico), A Ganar provides youth with positive identity, security and the opportunity to transform their lives. More than 500 businesses have participated in A Ganar programmes by hosting internships, hiring youth, providing mentors or sponsoring training. More than 60 organisations have implemented A Ganar programmes. A Ganar graduates have gone on to become successful teachers, technicians, business managers, university students and entrepreneurs. We believe in the Power of Sports to change lives!
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PLAYING FOR CHANGE Leรกn Terblanche South Africa is a beautiful country full of opportunity and possibility. But it faces many challenges that reflect the complexities at work globally, and mirror the unequal distribution of wealth in a globalised world. Post-apartheid South Africa is faced with the stubborn reality of widespread poverty and growing inequality, reinforcing segregation along racial and socioeconomic lines. South Africa has come a long way since its 1994 democracy to address these deep-rooted social issues, but it needs all sectors of society to work together to find creative solutions to integrate, educate and empower our communities. The Football Foundation of South Africa (FFSA) believes in the powerful role sport can play in uniting communities. With its universal language, sport has the unique ability to unite beyond racial, cultural and religious lines, and serve as a driver for social transformation. ABOUT THE FOOTBALL FOUNDATION OF SOUTH AFRICA The FFSA was established in 2008 to cultivate the potential of sport to empower individuals and trigger positive social change in marginalised communities. It started in the small rural town of Gansbaai, where the daily struggle of poverty, inequality, lack of opportunities and unemployment reaches young people much more rapidly than in urban centres. Gansbaai presented a particular challenge since it encompassed three divided communities living as a product of the old Apartheid regime. Barclays Spaces for Sports, along with local partners, brought a multi-purpose sports facility (complete with a full-size artificial football turf) to Gansbaai. The site is situated in the middle of three racially divided communities, serving as the perfect catalyst for social cohesion through sport.
Thanks to continued support from the Premier League and other key donors, the FFSA's programme flourished and a unique sports programme evolved: a holistic approach to development through sport, addressing various social issues and appealing to different target groups in order to achieve social inclusion through sport. Collective efforts made sports and education accessible to all. The FFSA uses a combination of teaching and learning methods that utilise positive community role models, consistent delivery of sports and education programmes, and makes learning fun through activities. THE PROGRAMMES The FFSA's sports programmes include football, netball, hockey and athletics, with a specific focus on engaging young people (girls and boys) from different communities. Education programmes include the Dibanisa Environmental Education Programme, Green Box Vegetable Garden Programme, Grassroot S o cc e r ' s H I V / A I D S c u r r i c u l u m , G i r l s Empowerment, Coaching Skills Development and Guide Training. The unique rural location and partnerships duly formed have enabled the FFSA to develop high quality, multi-awardwinning programmes that have been proven to affect social change and improve the lives of thousands of people. The FFSA reaches about 150 young people per day, 750 children per week, and 5,000 unique young people per year through its programmes in the Western Cape, six days per week: An average of between 20 and 50 contact hours per child per month. Success is attributed to the FFSA's ability to continually adapt and meet the needs of the communities in which it works. The quality and innovation demonstrated by its extensive programmes sets it apart as a focal point for sport and development in the Western Cape.
With its universal language, sport has the unique ability to unite beyond racial, cultural and religious lines, and serve as a driver for social transformation.
Leán Terblanche is the Programme Director, Football Foundation of South Africa (www.footballfoundation.com). The non profit was founded not only to promote sport but also to uplift the people of South Africa. Its objectives are to support and initiate grassroots sports development in South Africa by means of empowering individuals through providing access to education, resources, facilities and equipment.
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RUGBY FOR SOCIAL CHANGE: THE JUNGLE CROWS STORY Zaffar Khan At the Jungle Crows Foundation, we are passionate about sport in general, and rugby in particular. Some might see this as an odd sport through with which to work on social development (in Calcutta, where the Jungle Crows started, many people refer to rugby as the ‘fighting game’). When I started out, this is pretty much what I thought rugby was about, the chance to tear around a field, jumping and wrestling. I really had no clue about how powerful rugby could be and how it could change my own life. The Jungle Crows rugby team started in 2004 and I joined up as a player in 2005 while still at school. Little did I know that this was the start of a journey for me as well as for the Jungle Crows. Today, the Jungle Crows has moved on from its origins as a simple rugby club, to working with hundreds of children every week in some of the most deprived parts of Calcutta, Chennai and in tribal areas of West Bengal and Jharkhand. We have reached out beyond India and now support rugby communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. And we're now the Jungle Crows Foundation. Although we still play rugby, the core work of the Foundation is to support children as they grow by providing an organised sporting experience. One of the ways we do this is through our ‘Khelo Rugby’ project, which I started back in 2010 as a small way of trying to take the love I had developed for the sport of rugby and share this with my community. Never did I think that it would go on to impact so many young people and, at the same time, change the course of my own life. The impact that sports can make on a young
person is immense. In my case, it gave me a direction and discipline that, until the point that I started to play rugby, had never really been there. Suddenly, I had practice to get to, friends who were relying on me and on whom I had to rely. In rugby, we talk about the spirit of the game, and the more you become involved in coaching and playing rugby, the more you understand how important and integral this is to the sport. Integrity, passion, solidarity, discipline and respect encapsulate the ethos. We are delighted that the International Rugby Board has used a picture from Khelo Rugby to illustrate their Rugby Playing Charter. Our aim with Khelo Rugby is not to find the next rugby superstar but to expose as many children as we can to the joy and ethos of rugby. To be a positive influence in their young lives. Since our Community Coaches come from the same background as the children they coach, they understand what it takes to break out of their destiny, and they are determined to support more and more young boys and girls who seek to reach their potential. When I started playing rugby, I never thought that it would lead me to joining a Masters Programme at Cardiff Metropolitan University, the chance to coach their freshers’ team and subsequently return to the country of my origin and be appointed the first rugby coach of Afghanistan. It's been a great journey with the Jungle Crows and I am still on it. We have thousands more children to reach and tens of thousands more rugby games to play. Do come and join us!
The impact that sport can have on a young person is immense.
Zaffar Khan is the Khelo Rugby founder. Khelo uses non-contact tag rugby and netball to take sport into socially disadvantaged communities. The Jungle Crows Foundation was established in 2004 on an ethos that the club and rugby was open to all. It has become one of the most influential teams in India. ‘Like’ Jungle Crows on www.facebook.com/junglecrows
Our Community Coaches come from the same background as the children they coach, they understand what it takes to break out of their destiny, and they are determined to support more and more young boys and girls who seek to reach their potential.
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IMPROVING LIFE THROUGH SPORT: THE PS4L STORY Tamara Awartani Palestine: Sports for Life (PS4L) is a sports nonprofit based in Ramallah which aims to improve the life and health of kids, youth and women through sports throughout Palestine. Since its inception in 2010, PS4L has been focusing on providing beneficial, fun and healthy activities through its different sports academies to build healthy and vibrant communities. We have established soccer, basketball and gymnastics academies for children and youth aged 3 to 18 to develop sports, leadership and communication among Palestinians. Currently under occupation, Palestine has scores of prisoners of which hundreds are children. PS4L tries to develop children’s psychological and social aspect through sports, especially with those that survive imprisonment. PS4L thus works in deprived villages where there are neither sports nor activities by renovating fields and courts, and by establishing sports academies, recreational activities, and capacity building for youth coaches. PS4L has managed to form local and international networks through its different activities serving thousands of children throughout Palestine. PS4L uses sports to give their lives a different angle, to better their communication and to create leaders. From community projects in deprived villages, to working with people with disabilities, from hosting professional coaches in basketball and soccer to conduct clinics and camps, to sending children to basketball camps in Turkey and Italy: we have done it all. Sport strengthens our children’s personalities and communications skills, it also brings them together and creates new friendships. PS4L widens our kids’ horizons through sports cultural
exchanges at an international level. In 2012, PS4L was chosen among five other clubs in Palestine to make a partnership with C.U.S. Bari, Italy under the title of ‘Basketball for Peace’. C.U.S. Bari hosted a PS4L mini basketball team in Italy for 10 days, where Palestinian children were hosted at the homes of Italian children, and shared their daily lives. The Italian families were amazing. The children formed great friendships. They went to cultural activities and visits together, which also helped strengthen their communication skills. PS4L children also played in the international minibasketball tournament, which was a great opportunity to compete at an international level. This was a great success for PS4L. Since then, we have made sure this event is held annually. After all, we had seen the effect of development on our children and society. PS4L was hosted by Santeramo in 2013. The children had a great time and formed friendships with children in Santeramo. They also won 3 out of 6 games in the international tournament. PS4L is now preparing to take part in 2014 with more children from different academies. PS4L wants to spread the success throughout Palestine as we have experienced the effect of sports in developing the community. We have started doing capacity building for youth coaches in 10 different villages, and have established sports academies for village children led by local coaches and supervised by PS4L coaches. PS4L will also organise internal tournaments and, after that, academy tournaments in the short run to see the progress. Different fun and recreational activities will be tried out to give children and youth a feel of the impact of sport in developing our society.
Sport strengthens our childrenâ€™s personalities and communication skills. It also brings them together and creates new friendships.
Tamara Awartani has been a competitive swimmer, and played basketball for Sarriyet Ramallah. She was part of the Palestinian National Team, which participated in the West Asia Tournament and Arab Schools Tournament. During her studies at the University of Jordan, she joined the varsity Basketball team, was the captain of multiple clubs, played for the Jordan Basketball national team, and coached little leagues for five years. Back in Palestine, Tamara played with the De La Salle Jerusalem basketball team and won the local championship. Being passionate about raising the level of basketball in Palestine, Tamara worked as an agent, recruiting external talent to come and play in local clubs. She founded a basketball school for children aged 4-13, and took part in two international mini-basket tournaments. For more information, visit www.ps4l.org
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FOOTBALL FOR GIRLS’ RIGHTS IN RURAL JHARKHAND Maidan Editorial Team
Gender disparity is very high in Jharkhand. The state leads India in child marriages. Denied education and the right to choose, girls go on to
have children even before they turn 18. Human trafficking is also rampant here, increasing the women's risk of contracting and spreading HIV. This was one of the reasons Gastler chose to settle in Jharkhand, where he taught English to tribal children before he started Yuwa, a nonprofit that works to promote health, education and improved livelihoods among rural communities in Jharkhand. And they do this using football as a means to engage children and promote teamwork.
In rural Jharkhand, a 7-year-old tribal girl walks along an uneven village road, struggling under a huge bag of cement. Her brother, an 18-yearold, walks two paces behind her, sending text messages from his cellphone. “This is a common occurrence in the villages in Jharkhand,” says Franz Gastler, a US national from Minnesota who has been living in India since 2007. “Girls aren't given the opportunities that their brothers are.”
We found that when you put a girl in charge, your programme will likely turn into a movement
Maidan Magazine | 12 Yuwa mostly works to teach girls football. Their approach ensures that girls in the village take responsibility for their team and their community. “We asked boys what they needed to play. Their response was 'jerseys, shoes, socks, football, etc – all the gear’. When we asked girls the same question, they said they only needed a football and a coach. They were motivated because this was something they didn't otherwise have a chance to do,” says Gastler. Another lesson Gastler learnt was that it's important to put children in charge. “When you're 12, you have parents and teachers telling you what to do. But it's your 13-year-old coach that you're most likely to look up to and listen to. To you, that 13-year-old is the coolest person in the world,” explains Gastler. “We found that when you put a girl in charge, your programme will likely turn into a movement.” Rather than just spoon-feed the girls, Yuwa's programme requires girls to contribute towards the cost of their equipment. This way, each girl takes responsibility for the team, and girls are encouraged to earn and be responsible for their money. When the programme started, there was a lot of resistance from families of the girls. Relatives didn't like the idea that an 8-year-old was not doing housework because she had to go play football instead. But the girls' achievements – locally, nationally and internationally – have helped widen Yuwa's reach. While there's still some resistance from families, for the most part parents are now proud to send their girls to the Yuwa programme. From a team of 15 girls in a single hamlet organised by one girl, today, more than 200 girls from ten villages practice football every day as part of the programme. In July last year, the Yuwa programme got mention nationally and internationally when 18 tribal girls from Yuwa India secured third position in Spain's Gasteiz Cup. US Ambassador to India, Nancy Powell, who visited Jharkhand a few months later, met the teenage footballers and remarked: “I am proud of their determination and achievements amid odds.”
While the visit from Powell was encouraging, the girls have received no help from their own government. Even before their trip to Spain for the competition, the girls faced discrimination from their own Panchayat. Despite the fact that they receive no support from government bodies, the Yuwa programme continues to try and reach out to as many girls in Jharkhand as possible. As Gastler puts it, the programme is an attempt to grow a tree, not build a house. Instead of hiring coaches to lead the girls, the programme is trying to create coaches and leaders among them, he says. To this end, football is the most effective approach – the Yuwa girls prove this every day.
For more information about Yuwa, visit www.yuwa-india.org Listen to Franz Gastler talking about his life and work in a TedX Talk: www.youtube.com/watch ?v=fv4qnnzIOXs
Photo courtesy: Yuwa Facebook page: www.facebook.com/MyYuwa, www.sportskeeda.com and www.womenstory.in
Why should we use football for development? Because it works!
Slum Soccer in India, a streetfootballworld partner
THE BUSINESS OF FOOTBALL: A CALL FOR CREATIVE SOLUTIONS Jürgen Griesbeck Why should we use football for development? Because it works! The field of development through sport is on the rise, with the streetfootballworld network playing a key role in strengthening the sector. And from our experience, we know that the game of football is an especially effective means of tackling some of the world's most pressing issues. Football is the world's most popular sport. It is completely unique in its vast allure and power, with which it is able to reach out to people from all over the world and from all social classes. It offers a way to increase or accelerate impact on
communities where young people face challenges in the areas of HIV/AIDS, gender inequality, unemployment or access to education. We know that football works and we know that it has a unique position. But we also know that football is not yet being used to its full potential. What we need are creative solutions and a willingness to tackle these global challenges as a team. This is why we see an increasing need for the global football industry to play its part in embedding social change into the heart of the business of football, thus improving the lives of people across the globe.
Maidan Magazine | 14 Football appeals to those in need, and also to those who have the resources and skills to help; it is a common interest that can bring us together to tackle these common challenges. Street football world has already been part of many football-based solutions, advising businesses, organisations, federations and governments on how to incorporate the power of the beautiful game into their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Working with the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) – the governing body of Asian football – on the development of a 10-year strategy for the region, we have seen how social impact can be incorporated as a central element in a football business model. And with this initiative, the AFC has shown remarkable ambition. FIFA has also demonstrated an innovative use of football, placing it as a key component in their CSR strategy, Football for Hope (FFH). Initially established as a joint project between streetfootballworld and FIFA in 2005, FFH has developed into one of FIFA's key CSR initiatives, under which several projects are currently being implemented. One of these are 20 Centres for 2010, the social legacy campaign of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Another is an annual call for proposals, which has become an important opportunity for organisations to fund initiatives that are critical to achieving their particular development goals.
Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup. The most recent innovator we've teamed up with is prizeo.com, an enterprise that maximises the potential of celebrities by having them give away money-can't-buy experiences to raise funds for non-profit organisations. Prizeo helps celebrities engage their fans in a meaningful way and raise money for a social cause. We see great potential in Prizeo to tap into the international football industry and leverage funds, spark relationships and spread visibility for grassroots football-for-development organisations. W e h a v e c o m e a l o n g w a y. T h e streetfootballworld network connects close to 100 organisations from over 60 countries. Some major players in the football industry are getting on board and starting to see social responsibility as a necessity in the game. As we continue our quest to attain a worldwide understanding of the power of football, we must continue searching for these creative solutions – solutions that harness the love of the game and turn it into a trusted tool for social change.
The Baguinéda Football for Hope Centre opening in Mali (from the FIFA 20 Centres for 2010 initiative)
The FFH Forum and the FFH Festival were major milestones for building and sharing knowledge, as well as for celebrating achievements on significant platforms, such as the FIFA
Jürgen Griesbeck is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer of streetfootballworld, Germany. He was recognised as Social Entrepreneur of the Year, Europe, 2011. The streetfootballworld network unites over 80 organisations that use football to tackle social challenges such as HIV/AIDS, armed conflict, and homelessness. To know more, visit www.streetfootballworld.org
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GROWING A NEW SPORT: THE SURFING STORY Kishore Kumar Surfing started in India in the late 1990s when a few international travellers who had found some waves left their boards in India. This ignited a new culture on the Indian coastline. Jack Hebner (also called Surfing Swami) and Rick Perry are the two surfers who are responsible for what the sport is today in India. As kids, they began surfing in the 60s at Jacksonville Beach, Florida, USA. Back in the day, both Jack and Rick were members of North Florida's first surf club, Oceanside, and were among the pioneers of surfing on the East Coast of the United States. They are now pioneering surfing in India & have established Mantra Surf Club in Mulki, Karnataka. ABOUT SURFING FEDERATION OF INDIA Surfing Federation of India (SFI) was established in 2011 by a group of Indian surfers from Mantra Surf Club, also known as Surfing India. These surfers began surfing in 2001 and then went on to become enthusiastic surfers, dedicating their time and energy to making surfing an acknowledged sport in India. Taking surfing to people of all ages in all walks of life
became the inspiration to establish the SFI. SFI is recognised as the National Governing Body [NGB] for Surfing in India by the International Surfing Association [ISA], the world governing authority for surfing. It is working in co-operation with the International Surfing Association to support the campaign of including surfing into the Olympics and other national and international multi-sport events. It is also the goal of the SFI to select surfers from India to form a National Surf Team, to host national and international surfing competitions and to invite people from the international surfing community to come to India and explore the surf destinations along India's 7000 kilometers of coastline and in its island Union Territories. In 2013 SFI hosted national surfing competitions, one on the east coast called Spice Coast Open in Kovalam Beach, Kerala, and one along the west coast of India called Covelong Point Classic Surfing Competition in Covelong
Kishore Kumar is the President of the Surfing Federation of India. For more information, log on to www.surfingfederationofindia.org
Point, Chennai. Both surfing events were a huge success with over 100 Indian surfers — both men and women — participating in different categories at the event. ABOUT SURFING AMBASSADOR Jonty Rhodes, perhaps one of the best-known cricketers to have ever played for South Africa, is also an avid surfer and promoter of the sport. In between stints in India when he is coaching the Mumbai Indians team for the Indian Premier League, Jonty often surfs in India. He has agreed to be an Ambassador for the Surfing Federation of India. ABOUT SPICE COAST OPEN 2013 India’s first official national Surfing and Stand up Paddle (SUP) competition got under way at the renowned beach town of Kovalam in Kerala on May 3, 4 and 5, 2013. SFI organised this event with the support of Kerala Tourism Department. The three-day event had surfing competitions for different age categories and SUP races for SUP enthusiasts with two categories — under 25 and above 25. In all, more than 100 participants took part in Spice Coast Open. The event had an excellent crowd turnout and garnered a lot of attention about the sport of surfing. It got extensive national media coverage and wide publicity throughout the duration of the event.
ABOUT THE COVELONG POINT CLASSIC SURF CONTEST 2013 SFI, in association with Covelong Point Surfing School, held a second edition of the national surf contest at Covelong Point, Chennai. More than 100 surfers from across India descended upon this tiny fishing village of Kovalam (Covelong) near Chennai. It is the first surfing village in India and has produced over 40 surfers in a short period of time. The swell forecast was accurate and surfers had amazing swell to showcase their skills. The level of competitiveness in surfing has grown leaps and bounds in just a couple of years — this was evident at the contest. There were various categories for different age groups, and an open category for international surfers. SFI also roped in certified ISA judges from Bali, Indonesia. The judges were excited to see the surfing skills put on display by Indian surfers. The federation has been very successful in promoting surfing in India and is hoping to make surfing a very popular water sport activity. SFI is also planning to hold many educational programmes for surfers, instructors and aspiring judges. The sport of surfing is just getting started and still has a long way to go in India. This is just the beginning.
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TAKING ‘D-I-S’ OUT OF DISABILITY By Paul Copeland and Sneh Gupta Janak Singh was born in 1992 in a desert village near Jodhpur, Rajasthan. At age three, he caught a fever, and when it subsided, Janak had lost the use of his legs. That fever was polio. Ever since then, Janak has fought to reclaim the full and rewarding life that polio would otherwise deny him. When he was 10 years old, Janak’s parents offloaded him on SKSN Institute, a residential school for children with disabilities near Jodhpur, supported by the Indiability Foundation. There, Janak was able to develop his passion for sports — kabaddi and cricket — in an environment where everybody was disabled, but where each supported the other with a ‘can do’ attitude. In his home village, Janak was a pariah, excluded from cricket, and seen as a figure to be made fun of, or even as cursed. Now that Janak was on the inside of a community, he discovered, despite his disability, his immense strength and athleticism. When Indiability launched the Indian Mixed Ability Group Events project, Janak became team Captain. He travelled to London for a mini Paralympic event where he won no less than five gold medals. For the first time, he was accepted and held in high esteem. He had seen the world and achieved more than many in his village would ever do. We at Indiability and SKSN, have over two decades of experience of using sport to promote social inclusion for people with disabilities like Janak’s. But this inclusion doesn’t just come about through disabled people showing what they can do physically… there are other ways sports and games help them become accepted into communities. At our community IMAGE sessions in remote villages, we weave important health messages into games. An example might be a ‘stepping
stones across water’ tag game. We mark out ‘stones’ in the dirt and tell participants they have to move around without falling off. But then we tell them that the water is contaminated through open defecation — and if they fall into the water, they will contract polio, typhoid or cholera, and get sick. Our disabled community members teach village kids why even simple hand washing with soap is important, and they become visible examples of what can happen if the kids don’t pay attention to hygiene issues. The village community can’t look down on our disabled members any more: instead, these disabled members are the ones that bring important health information, and are to be respected for their education. For many of the disabled kids, this is a hugely empowering experience, making them feel included into society as never before, turning them into changemakers of the future. One newly recruited community IMAGE member, 16-year old Sharda, described it like this: “I’ve never taken part in any event before. I've never played any sport because both my legs are disabled. I’ve never had the courage to speak in front of large groups of people. But the IMAGE training has made me do all this. My new life has started with IMAGE!”
Indiability exists to change the face of physical disability in India. They work to change attitudes towards a healthier and socially inclusive country. For more information, please visit www.indiability.org. The SKSN, or the Sucheta Kriplani Shiksha Niketan, a senior secondary, co-educational residential school established in 1991, is home to just over 550 physically challenged children and approximately 50 fullyabled day scholars. For more information, please visit www.sksn.org
Paul Copeland is a director, writer and producer based in London. He specialises in international factual drama and documentary projects. He first came across Indiability when working with its President, Sneh Gupta, on the global sensation ‘The Girl with Eight Limbs’ — a documentary following two-year-old Lakshmi Tatma as she underwent daring surgery to separate her parasitic conjoined twin after Lakshmi came under the care of Indiability. Paul is now a trustee and believes passionately in their work on behalf of the disabled across India.
Above: Janak Singh playing Cricket; top left: Uka Singh; right: Sharda © Laureus Sport for Good Foundation © Indiability Foundation
Why should we use football for development? Because it works!
CHANGING THE GAME FOR A NEW BREED OF CHANGEMAKERS WHEN SPORT IS NO LONGER JUST A GAME Vishal Talreja How does a young and underweight teen go from several unsuccessful attempts at being selected in any rugby team to forming and leading his own rugby team and being a catalyst of change in his community? This seemingly incredulous story isn’t too good to be true — it is the story of Nandish, a Dream A Dream graduate and now a Life Skills Facilitator at Dream A Dream’s after school Life Skills Through Sport programme. Nandish, son to a farmer father and a mother who works as domestic help, did not know how to speak in English or to use a computer, but he
was a young person with a big dream — he wanted to play for the Indian Rugby Team and become a police officer. After many failed attempts at getting selected to many rugby teams, Nandish had almost given up on sports until he found, and became a part of, Dream A Dream’s sports programme. Years after he officially graduated out of the programme, Nandish is still very much involved in the programme he says changed his life “...in every possible way”. Having experienced it first-hand, he now sows the same impact back into his community where
Maidan Magazine | 20 he formed a community of his own and has been leading it to different tournaments while also running the Life Skills programme for 100-150 children from two schools in the community. Young boys now look up to Nandish and see a role-model they can emulate. This is not an unfamiliar story for us and it is one that we have seen over and over, taking as many unique forms as there have been graduates of our programmes — programmes that have themselves evolved since the organisation’s inception in 1999. The Dream Life Skills Through Sport programme has seen several changes over the years, from a specific sport being used as a medium, to a curriculum periodically renewed, to the impact assessment tool we use being refined. While the current medium of delivery is the sport of football, the programme continues to consistently deliver high impact life skills improvement year after year, with stories of transformation in the lives of thousands of young people like Nandish. Using a unique Dream Life Skills Assessment Scale developed with support from Dr. David Pearson and Dr. Fiona Kennedy, we have been measuring the impact of Life Skills on participants in our programme. In 2012-13 alone, 911 of the 1,236 young people assessed in our Dream Life Skills Through Sport programme showed positive life skills development in one or more of the five life skills assessed (ability to take initiative, ability to overcome difficulties, ability to interact with others, ability to manage conflict and ability to understand and follow instructions). A paper co-authored by Dr. Pearson and Dr.
Kennedy, along with Dream A Dream Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Vishal Talreja, on a peer-reviewed published scale (the Dream Life Skills Assessment Scale) developed by them, has been accepted for publication in an international journal, ‘Social Behaviour and Personality’: Kennedy, Pearson, Brett-Taylor & Talreja (2014). ‘The Life Skills Assessment Scale: Measuring Life Skills of Disadvantaged Children in the Developing World’ is currently in press. This will give to the development world a standardised scale to measure life skills for disadvantaged children across communities and geographies. Nandish’s story therefore doesn’t stand alone. His is also the story of Anitha, Ranjith, Sukanya, Revanna, Girish, Manjunath and several of the 43,000 young people who have been so impacted by these programmes over the last 14 years. The transformation they experienced thrusts them forward into roles where they become catalysts for change in the lives of other young people and their communities at large. To these inspiring young people then, rugby or football is no longer just the name of the sport they engage in but it is now a part of their identity and a way of life thus creating a new breed of community change makers who bring care and empathy into the way they respond to the frantic pace of change in the world. This is the reason we take immense pride in our graduates, and this is the essence of our work where young people are empowered to make their own choices, take charge of their lives and, in turn, make a positive difference in the world around them.
Vishal Talreja is the Co-Founder and Executive Director of Dream A Dream, a professional organisation that works to empower young people from vulnerable backgrounds by developing life skills, and, at the same time, sensitising the community through active volunteering, leading to a non-discriminatory society where unique differences are appreciated. Over 14 years, Dream A Dream has impacted the lives of 43,000 young people through its various Life Skills programmes for young people and educators, and is aiming to impact 240,000 young people by 2016. For more information visit www.dreamadream.org Watch two YouTube films about Dream a Dream’s work: www.youtube.com/user/DreamADreamIndia/ www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL389425858B13E52F
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SPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT: FROM EXTREME TO MAINSTREAM Rekha Dey effectiveness of sport in development.
Over the last decade or so, the sport for development concept has been based on using sport as a tool for the development of underprivileged communities. Intrinsic benefits derived from sport have been researched, analysed, and programmes on the ground evaluated. From all this, it is clear that sport does not bring just one or two advantages to society at large. It is a bunch of interconnected elements of ‘change’ that could happen to all or a few groups or individuals in a variety of areas. Sport could help make school an interesting place for children, it could bring out-of-school children back to school, and, if practiced regularly in a mentor-driven environment, it can bring behaviour change in children and youth with improved communication and negotiation skills, tolerance and a feeling of respect for all, leadership skills, decision-making and teambuilding skills. Above all, something that comes automatically, is living an active and healthy lifestyle.
Not even 2-5 per cent of the people can reach levels of excellence in sports and become champions.
We published the ‘Power of Play’ report this year, a study on India’s sport for development sector, where 75 organisations that use sport to bring about development were identified. Many stories have been published in the previous two editions of the Maidan magazine, supporting the
More than 90% of people or players who are passionate about a career in sports are not skilled and do not have job-oriented training available, and hence don’t get the opportunities. They end up leaving the sports ecosystem to join other streams.
Rekha Dey manages the Australian Sports Outreach Program (ASOP) in India, s u p p o r t i n g organisations using or practicing sports with children and youth. Access the full report Power of Play on www.dasra.org/pdf/P owerofPlay_Report. pdf
In short, we all know and have enough research-based evidence to support the fact that sport has an impact on our well-being. The challenge now is to get sport to the mainstream. How do we ensure sports participation rates increase in a country where sport is not valued much? Connecting with the grassroots and collaborating with existing sports institutions such as state governments and sports associations could be one approach. The other approach is to deal with the employment ‘puzzle’. The way different academic streams show career pathways, sport, unfortunately, does not. And that is indeed a key factor in India for parents to discourage their children from participating in sports.
However, there is some good news: the fitness or wellness market in India has shown a phenomenal growth over the last few years, and is growing further at a very past pace. According to a report published by Pricewaterhouse Coopers, by 2015, wellness services in India will have the potential to generate three million jobs. Fitness centres and gyms are mushrooming across the length and breadth of the country. There is rising demand for skilled personnel to manage this growing sector. Therefore, the need is to give adequate importance to skill development and training of youth who can seek employment opportunities within this industry.
Photo courtesy: Magic Bus India Foundation/Rob Thomas
BUILDING INTER-COMMUNITY PEACE USING SPORTS Dr. Nico Schulenkorf Maidan: You have worked in two countries experiencing long-term conflict. What were your key findings? Nico: From 2005 to 2009, I researched a small NGO initiative in Sri Lanka that used sport to contribute to reconciliation efforts between Sinhalese and Tamil communities in a war-torn environment. Then there was Israel â€” probably the most-known conflict area we have in the world. Everyone has heard about the problem that Israel and Palestine have. An organisation called Football for Peace (www.football4peace.eu) had an ongoing project where an Arab and a Jewish community were able to engage on the sports field. At any other time, despite living adjacent to each other, they donâ€™t engage at all. One reason people agreed to participate was because the initiative was started by an independent organisation that was neither Jewish nor Arab. Over the past 10 years, the trust factor was such a key that this
initiative has now grown to 33 projects in many of the northern parts of Israel. My key findings from both these countries: 1. Sports projects are quite effective to achieve reconciliation at the community or local level. 2. These particular projects were not big enough to have an impact on the larger community or the country. In order to grow these initiatives, they have to be leveraged by key stakeholders. One opportunity is that they may be combined with a non-sport component, such as music, tourism, arts or other events. 3. Sport by itself is not going to solve problems between rival groups. It is important to structure the programme and plan for specific development outcomes. You have to put a lot of community resources, planning and management into it to achieve long-term and sustainable change.
Maidan Magazine | 24 When one dominant group is represented and a smaller group struggles under a civil war situation, sport can make small steps towards changing people, but the big step has to follow. I donâ€™t think we are at that stage yet where sport can change the overall political environment. However, the politicians will hopefully see some value in the sport and reconciliation initiatives, and are hopefully inspired and want to take it forward in the future. Maidan: This brings us to the larger question of acceptability. Even in important studies and reports that policy makers and practitioners regularly refer to while designing programmes and allocating resources, it is very rare to find mention of sport and activities as an approach towards solving the worldâ€™s development problems. What is your take on this? Nico: Sport has always been seen as leisure and fun. We have all heard the prejudice that sport is simply a hobby and therefore not really worth investing in. This perception is starting to change a bit in the academic circles. A few sociology journals have started to publish and highlight sportsâ€™ effectiveness in meeting serious development challenges. But it remains something that we need to push a lot harder for, especially those of us who are from the academic community.
BACKGROUND READING: Schulenkorf, N., Thomson, A. and Schlenker, K., 2011. Intercommunity Sport Events: Vehicles and Catalysts for Social Capital in Divided Societies. Event Management, 15 (2), 105-119. Schulenkorf, N. and Sugden, J., 2011. Sport for Development and Peace in Divided Societies - Cooperating for InterCommunity Empowerment in Israel. European Journal for Sport and Society, 8 (4), 235-256.
Dr Nico Schulenkorf is part of a small but committed group of academics researching and writing on the use of sport for development. In this interview, he talks to the Maidan Editorial Team.
25 | Maidan Magazine Expert Voice
THE INTERNATIONAL INSPIRATION PROGRAMME IN INDIA Vivek Ramchandani The British government’s International Inspiration (II) programme, a legacy of the 2010 London Olympics, helped trigger serious global interest in the use of sport as a tool for human development. Targeting sports development in 20 countries, the programme achieved unqualified success at a scale never heard of before. It served not only to enhance inclusive participation in physical education and sport across the board, but also to boost student enrolment and school attendance. However, in 2007, when UNICEF India received the funding to implement International Inspiration to promote inclusive, grassroots sports, there was no precedent to emulate, especially at the scale envisaged. This was because sports development did not figure amongst the strategic outcomes laid out in UNICEF’s country programme for India. The UNICEF education team was at a loss until we encountered a then little-known organisation called Magic Bus, whose influence on the lives of children through football in the Mumbai slums inspired UNICEF to design robust, sustainable, volunteer-based project models that delivered sport and education development outcomes along with two of the Indian government’s most ambitious missions, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (education-for-all) and the PYKKA (sport-for-all). Sustained advocacy and emphasis on macrolevel capacity building led to systemic policy change and placed sport firmly on the Indian government’s development agenda, as an important component in young people’s education and well-being. The programme evaluation report concluded that in India,
International Inspiration had “an impact far in excess of the resources applied”, having exceeded targeted outcomes and influenced sustainable change. On the other hand, because the programme was a macro-level pioneering venture involving untested ideas and evolving strategies, and given the sheer scale and diversity of India, the emphasis was primarily quantitative, focusing mainly on scale and reach. Because of these, the lack of baseline information, good documentation and effective monitoring and evaluation systems proved counter-productive. There were somewhat wide variations in programme results from location to location. Simply put, while the programme success is unquestionable, having generated awareness that led to enhanced participation in sports at the grassroots level, much more could have been achieved in terms of potential long-term impact and sustainability had there been effective M&E systems to review, assess and tweak its implementation and capacity building strategies periodically at the micro-level. THE AUSTRALIAN SPORTS OUTREACH PROGRAMME (ASOP) INDIA Shortly before International Inspiration came to an end, the Australian government decided to launch the Australian Sports Outreach Program (ASOP) in India, and build on the successes achieved by the earlier work. However, the ASOP strategy differed greatly from the International Inspiration in that it focused primarily on programme quality for long-term sustainability and employed a partnership approach that aimed to increase capacity and improve the quality and impact of existing sportbased development activities.
Maidan Magazine | 26 ASOP based its approach on three pillars: communicate (advocacy and behaviour change communication), connect (develop networks to pool resources and knowledge for mutual benefit) and collaborate (develop synergetic partnerships supported by access to resources, technical know-how and funding support). While the core design elements stand, the India programme has, since inception, evolved into a coalition of partners that agreed to work together to address a key set of programme priorities in addition to their individual organisational objectives. These include the development and implementation of systems and processes for each ASOP partner to ensure: good practice in child protection, gender and disability inclusion; efficient, outcome-based monitoring and
evaluation; effective strategic growth planning and resource mobilisation; cost-effective behaviour change and advocacy communication.
In addition, ASOP has supported development of the Maidan platform — which is an information sharing website, an annual practitioner conference and a sport-fordevelopment magazine.
Photo Courtesy: FFSA
All-in-all, having built on the successes of the International Inspiration Programme and instituted quality management systems at the micro-level, ASOP represents considerable evolution and sophistication in project design and it too has exceeded its original outcome expectations.
The Next Step 2014 Conference coming to India, with delegates expected from all over the world, is a case in point. Sport for development in this country has certainly come a long way in the seven years since 2007 and we now have much to contribute globally. IF YOU ARE DESIGNING YOUR OWN SPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Having been directly involved with the design and implementation of both programmes, I strongly recommend consideration of the following key elements when planning similar projects: 1. Selection of partners Go where the energy exists. Identify partners already committed to doing good work through sport. Ensure the mutual alignment of project and organisational philosophy, aims and objectives. Avoid being prescriptive while ensuring adherence to the greater project objectives. Conduct due diligence: examine track record, leadership, HR capacity, organisational efficiency and systems (particularly monitoring and evaluation), financials, reputation, testimonials, references.
2. Work planning Develop work plans collaboratively and set realistic, achievable targets. Establish realistic financials, with mechanisms to review budgets and spending periodically. Take cognizance of partner priorities and avoid forcing them outside their normal purview.
27 | Maidan Magazine Be sure to recognise weaknesses and incorporate appropriate capacity building activities.
3. Monitoring and Evaluation Establish baseline data related to key project outcomes and desired impact. Develop simple but effective data collection mechanisms that are easy for field staff to use and do not detract from core project activities. Consider the use of digital recording devices. Establish effective data compilation and documenting systems for text, photos, video. Establish good analytics and a strong M&E
system, ideally one that automatically provides regular feedback to the field, partners and donor agencies. 4. Communication and Advocacy regular feedback to and from partners. Ensure
a project newsletter with contributions from partners. Include relevant information and developments from around the world compiled by the secretariat. Assist
partners to communicate their successes effectively and to report honestly on failures to institute dialogue on issue resolution without fear of punitive measures. Post
successes in relevant forums, so partners receive external credit and are encouraged. Encourage partners to join relevant forums
to foster networking, knowledge.
Assist partners to develop efficient documentation systems. Let relevant information be discussed through peer review and put to good use rather than simply being filed away.
5. Project Management Establish an accessible project secretariat, encourage an open door policy and organise periodic face-to-face meetings to establish trust, understanding and good communication. Eliminate bureaucracy and provide single window donor interaction for partners. Establish an independent panel of advisors selected for strengths that contribute to programme objectives and ensure that they make field visits and interact often with partner agencies. Ensure the use of standardised reporting systems and formats that link seamlessly with data collection, compilation and M&E analytics, so reports are easy to assemble. Plan to conduct an annual review involving all partners to ensure project ownership with partners reporting to and learning from each other. Plan for an independent mid-term review of
project strategies and activities. Encourage and support bilateral and multilateral peer-to-peer interaction and learning.
Vivek is an educator on a crusade for child-friendliness and quality in schools, and has established a successful private school planning and systems consultancy practice. He has helped set up several contemporary schools before moving on to acquire new skills and knowledge in public sector education development and management. In 2005, he joined UNICEF, discovered the potential of sport as a powerful means to facilitate social change and led the design and implementation of International Inspiration. He led design development for the Australian Sports Outreach Program (ASOP) in India and functioned as ASOP India Coordinator from 2010-2012. He is now retired and happily golfing in Dehra Dun.
Maidan Magazine | 28
FROM INVISIBILITY TO inVISIBILITY INVISIBILITY AS EXCLUSION TO inVISIBILITY AS INCLUSION Eli A. Wolff and Mary A. Hums One way to think about inclusion is as a process, a journey, going from exclusion to inclusion. Another way to think about it is going from invisibility to inVisibility. The inclusion process is all about building relationships and breaking down perceived barriers, stereotypes and preconceptions. Invisibility or exclusion means to be ignored, isolated, overlooked, and to exist on the sidelines, never part of the team but abandoned to the margins. Invisibility is not warm and welcoming. Exclusion is not safe and secure. Excluded persons or groups feel neither accepted nor supported in their environment. Exclusion and invisibility often occur because of disability, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity and religious background. The transition from exclusion to inclusion involves awareness and education. Opening the door to create inclusion means a willingness to learn and grow, a willingness to create visibility where there was once invisibility. The journey away from exclusion means opening our minds to conversation and dialogue, seeing inclusion as opportunity and strength, rather than weakness and limitation. This stage of the inclusion journey brings attention to the excluded individual or group. Initially, uncertainty and then discovery take place when marginalised individuals and groups begin to integrate. There is an attention to exposure and
figuring out the best ways to navigate, engage and adapt to the environment. InVisibility happens when there are seamless interactions, trust and communication between the individual or group and the environment. Adaptation happens quietly, with no fanfare, as a normal part of the human experience. InVisibility allows for complete acceptance such that a person or a group can simply exist and be a valued part of a community, free of stigma, fear, or isolation. Experiencing full inclusion is the ultimate feeling of respect and dignity, based on sincere building of relationships between people and groups. While there has been progress toward inclusion on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, religion, and disability status, there is still much further to go in reaching inVisibility for all. The journey from invisibility to inVisibility is challenging yet rewarding and is an important part of human development and the social change process. The inclusion process is a way to understand and design the human environment and consider the value and contributions of all people and groups in a community. It is a way to reflect on how we see difference and how we measure and bring attention to our own preconceptions. Hopefully, we can all move toward a community of inVisibility where we can respect, trust and understand one another.
Eli Wolff is Programme Director of the Sport and Development Project at Brown University and also directs the Inclusive Sports Initiative at the Institute for Human Centered Design. Dr. Mary Hums is Professor of Sport Administration at the University of Louisville, and Research Fellow with the Inclusive Sports Initiative at the Institute for Human Centered Design.
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CHILD PROTECTION IN SPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN INDIA Angie Bamgbose BACKGROUND Over the past year I have worked with the Australian Sports Outreach Program (ASOP) India, which is funded by the Australian Government and managed by the Australian Sports Commission. ASOP India partners with seven Sports for Development (SfD) organisations in India, namely, All India Football Association, Australian Rules Football Association India, Magic Bus India, Naz Foundation, Rashtriya Life Saving Society India and Special Olympics Bharat. These SfD programmes aim to use sport-based activities to improve development outcomes in health, education and participation of children and young people, especially girls. Sports programmes promote a child’s right to recreation as enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) Article 31 which states that: “1. Parties recognise the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts. 2. Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.” As a child protection consultant, my work focuses on ensuring that children participating in the SfD programmes are safe. This is known as child protection, and can be defined as an organisation’s responsibility to prevent children
from experiencing harm within or outside the organisation, and to respond to children who are at risk. The right to be safe from harm is contained within the UNCRC, Article 19, which states that children have the right “to be protected from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child” which includes staff and volunteers within SfD programmes. Many international donors, including Australian Aid, now require that development partners have child protection policies in place. THE ISSUE In SfD programmes which target children and young people, there is a need to ensure child protection is prioritised. The UN Office on Sport for Development and Peace makes a clear link between sport and child protection, “While recognising that every youth and child has a right to sport and play, the human rights of participants must be respected and protected. The most common forms of abuse in sport are physical, sexual, psychological and neglect; abuse that can have devastating consequences for the health and development of children.” This is particularly important due to the nature of SfD activities, which involve child-volunteer relationships, close physical contact, and travel for tournaments, that can contribute to risks of child abuse occurring. Significant issues affecting children’s rights in India require further consideration of risks to children. The last periodic review to the UNCRC in 2004 in relation to protection of children concluded that :
Maidan Magazine | 30 Corporal punishment is not prohibited in schools of most states, in the family, nor in other institutions for children, and remains acceptable in society. There is a high prevalence of violence,
abuse, including sexual abuse, and neglect of children within society, and a lack of effective measures to combat this problem, and the laws concerning sexual abuse are outdated. There is an increasing number of child
victims of sexual exploitation, including prostitution and pornography. THE RESPONSE OF SfD PROGRAMMES The SfD programmes I worked with aimed to minimise the risk of child abuse occurring in their programmes through the implementation of a Child Protection Policy (CPP) and a Code of Conduct. These policies provide a practical guide to preventing child abuse from occurring within the organisation. The CPP applies to all staff, board members, volunteers, consultants, partner organisations and people visiting the programmes, including government, donors and media representatives. The reporting process in the CPP outlines obligations and responsibilities for reporting and managing any concerns relating to child abuse. It also protects staff from unfair processes should any allegations be made about them. The CPP is implemented through:
A commitment to child protection and not employing anyone who may pose a risk to children. Child-safe recruitment and screening to minimise the chance of employing a person who poses a risk to children, and provisions in contracts to discipline or dismiss staff who break the CPP. Mandatory reporting of alleged or suspected cases of child abuse. Child Protection awareness raising and ongoing training of staff. A Child Protection Code of Conduct which outlines acceptable and unacceptable behaviour signed by staff and associates. Assessment and management of risk. Regular review of the policy to ensure that it continues to address the changing context of the programme.
LESSONS LEARNED The challenge remains in the implementation of policies. By partnering with other organisations with existing systems for support and mentoring, the risk for each partner of child abuse occurring has been significantly reduced and will strengthen each partners’ child protection capacity, reduce the risk of child abuse and, where it does occur, strengthen the response to assist the child.
Angie Bamgbose is an international child protection consultant and registered social worker with expertise in child protection. She is Director of Building Blocks for Development, a U K- b a s e d c h i l d development and protection consultancy that provides a wide range of support and services to safeguard and respond to child protection concerns.
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ABILITY TO AWAKEN THE GOOD Dr. Viliami Puloka Sport is a universal language that speaks to the hearts and appeals to our sensibility as human beings. Playing sport has the ability to awaken the good within us. I have lived and worked in countries as diverse as Papua New Guinea, Hawaii, Thailand, the United Kingdom and my home country, Tonga. In all these very different countries and cultures, I found sport to be a very powerful instrument. It generates instant energy and passion, especially among the country’s youth. It is a healthy way to channelise the youthful propensity of risky behaviour, which is normal as part of their growth and developmental experiments in life. The Pacific Island countries and territories have a very high percentage of young people. According to ‘The State of the Pacific Youth’, 2011 report, youth in the age group of 15-24 years account for nearly two million people, which is close to a fifth of the region’s total population.These young people need to be treated and recognised as valuable resources of society. Sport does that by training, and by instilling in them functional and productive behaviours, the spirit of sportsmanship and respect for each other, leadership skills, and a sense of responsibility. Through sport, they can express themselves where they lack appropriate social skills even vocabulary. We have used sport as a platform to provide a youth-friendly environment for engagement on various developmental issues including non-
communicable diseases, mitigating risk factors such as smoking, poor nutrition, physical inactivity and alcohol abuse. In sports, we mainly think of the physical aspect, but its contribution and influence on mental preparedness, confidence and on youth’s attitudes is the greatest contribution of sport to human social development. I am excited about working with the Sport for Development approach in public health. Sport’s unique and universal power to attract, motivate and inspire makes it a highly effective tool for engaging and empowering individuals, communities and even countries to take action to improve their health. Sport can also be a powerful means of mobilising more resources in the global fight against disease, but this potential is only just beginning to be realised. According to the WHO, experience and scientific evidence show that regular participation in appropriate physical activity and sport provides people of both sexes and all ages and conditions, including persons with disabilities, with a wide range of physical, social and mental health benefits. Physical activity and sport support strategies to improve diet and discourage the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Physical activity and sport help reduce violence, enhance functional capacity, and promote social interaction and integration.
The term ‘youth bulge’ refers to the demographic phenomenon when the proportion of youths in the population is significantly larger than other age groups, both older and younger. Each of the sub-regions in the Pacific has a large youth bulge in the adult working-age population. Across the region, the youth age group of 15-24 years accounts for a third of the working age population (1559 years). Eleven countries stand out with even more than a third of their adult working age populations in the youth age group. These are the Republic of the Marshall Islands (42 per cent) and Tonga (37 per cent), and Samoa, Tokelau, American Samoa and Kiribati (each with 36 per cent). The Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu have between 34 and 35 per cent of their working age population aged 15-24 years.
Photo Courtesy: Nike/Daniel Berehulak
Sport’s unique and universal power to attract, motivate and inspire makes it a highly effective tool for engaging and empowering individuals, communities and even countries to take action to improve their health. Sport can also be a powerful means of mobilising more resources in the global fight against disease, but this potential is only just beginning to be realised.
Dr Viliami Puloka has broad international experience as a scholar of clinical and public health medicine. He trained and worked in Papua New Guinea, Hawaii, Thailand, the United Kingdom and his home country, Tonga. He was a clinical public health officer with the Tonga Government Ministry of Health for more than 15 years. In his most recent post as head of health promotion and noncommunicable disease management in Tonga, he helped develop the national strategy to prevent and control NCDs. He was instrumental in the development and establishment of the Tonga Health Promotion Foundation, the OPIC Study Tonga project and the setting up of the first ProLead Pacific initiative. He joined SPC in 2006 as Physical Activity Adviser and became the team leader of the HPL section in June 2008.
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OUR JOURNEY SO FAR IN SPORTS AND DEVELOPMENT: WHAT WE DID RIGHT Bonaventure Enemali When we started the African Child Social Empowerment Centre, it seemed to us that things may not work out. The community did not buy into the idea. They thought we were a local childrenâ€™s sports team, requesting allowances to participate in a sports training exercise. After identifying a few children and youth who were willing to be trained, securing a sports training venue became the next challenge. Eventually, we got a school football field where we started the first training. But the stakeholders were anxious to know why the African Child Social Empowerment Centre and its team were so keen to use sport as a means of community development. This is what we explained to them:
AFRICAN CHILD SPORTS CLUB STRATEGY Community Leaders
African Child Social Empowerment Centre
Sport is one of the 12 core implementing projects of the organisation that was rapidly bringing unity among different religious and tribal groups, cutting across the barriers between rich and poor. It promotes skills such as teamwork, and values such as tolerance. Today, we have 20 girls and thirty boys between the ages of five and 12, plus 10 girls and 37 boys between the ages of 13 and 23. As of December 2013, the African Child Sport Club has 97 participants with different sports abilities. We have participated in various competitions and four of our trained youth have been signed on by better local clubs. Our sports activity is now widely accepted and recognised in the community. Our strategy was simple: partnership and perseverance. And, of course, the passion, commitment and expertise, without which our sport club team, and using sport in community development with no funding whatsoever, would not have been possible.
Bonaventure Enemali is a social entrepreneur with a focus in nurturing and promoting the skills and talent of advantaged and d i s a d va n t a g e d A f r i c a n children and youth. He is the founder of African Child Social Empowerment Centre (ACSEC) under which the AFRICAN CHILD FOOTBALL CLUB operates. He has an academic qualification in social psychology, manpower development and business management. Like the ACSEC on Facebook: www.facebook.com/pages/ African-Child-SocialE m p o w e r m e n t Centre/115009462002856
Children & Youth
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FOOTBALL HAS THE POWER TO CHANGE THE WORLD Mel Young Football has the power to create real change. The Homeless World Cup uses football to work with people who are homeless and living in real poverty. Our organisation works in 70 countries around the world. We have one partner per country (in India this is Slum Soccer [www.slumsoccer.org], based in Nagpur). Throughout the year, in these 70 countries, people simply come together to kick a ball around. Homelessness and extreme poverty mean loneliness and isolation. Self-esteem and confidence are very low. Football brings people together and allows them to gain confidence and self-respect because they are playing together as a team. It is like becoming part of a bigger family. Once a year, the annual Homeless World Cup is held somewhere in the world, and players are picked to represent their country. Last year, it was held in Poznan, Poland; in 2012 it was held in Mexico City; and this year it will be held in Santiago, Chile, in October. The week-long event is a celebration of all the hard work that has taken place throughout the year. Thousands of fans come to watch, and the event is broadcast through the world. The stereotypical image of homeless people is destroyed, as lives are changed completely. 80 per cent of those involved change completely – coming off drugs and alcohol, getting jobs, going to college and finding homes. Every year, the Homeless World Cup is involved with over 100,000 homeless people. Sport makes a huge
difference in their lives. Since we started in 2003, we have proven conclusively that football has the power to change lives. But we need to do so much more. The United Nations estimates that there are one billion people who are homeless. I use the figure of 100 million. Whatever the figure, it is an outrageous one, given the phenomenal advancement of the world we live in. And it manifests itself in every country in the world: from the richest to the poorest! I don’t want to live in a world where there is any homelessness. We have the power to change this and everyone should become involved. Sport is an easy way for people to get connected and make a difference. There have been plenty of challenges since we started the Homeless World Cup. Finance is always a challenge, and the issue of gaining visas for homeless people so that they can travel is also difficult. Like many of our other challenges, we get around this by being focused and passionate, determined to make a change. We know that we are building a movement: more and more people are joining in. I would encourage anyone who is thinking about becoming a social entrepreneur to take the plunge. It can be very challenging at times but the rewards are immense. We need as many change makers as possible so that we can make the world a better place for everyone.
M e l Yo u n g i s t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e H o m e l e s s W o r l d C u p (www.homelessworldcup.org), and recognised as one of the world’s leading social entrepreneurs by the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship. In 2001, Mel and Harald Schmied came up with the idea of the Homeless World Cup and the first tournament was held in Graz in Austria in 2003. Mel is the author of ‘GOAL: The Story of the Homeless World Cup’. He has received honorary degrees from Queen Margaret’s University, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh University and Glasgow Caledonian University.
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RESPIRATORY HEALTH: TOP FIVE FACTS Dr. Imran Agus Nurali A 2010 mapping of the physical fitness of students in Indonesia at elementary, junior high, and high schools in 17 provinces (among 12,240 students) showed that 45 per cent of them are poor, and 38 per cent are average in terms of physical fitness. Interestingly, no students were found to be ‘good’ in terms of physical fitness. A similar survey done among health practitioners for sports health in 17 provinces (with 294 people) in 2011, showed that 50.3 per cent had poor or very poor fitness levels. The National Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas) in 2007, showed that disease in people aged 18 years or less was dominated by a variety of Non Communicable Diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (30.3 per cent) hypertension (29.8 per cent), heart disease (7.2 per cent), stroke (0.8 per cent), Diabetes Mellitus (1.1 per cent) and Asthma (4.0 per cent). To sum up, as many as 48.2 per cent of Indonesia's population aged over 10 years lack physical activity, with physically inactive women (54.5 per cent) higher than men (41.4 per cent). Physical inactivity contributes to a poor level of physical fitness and goes on to impact the fairly high rate of non-communicable diseases in Indonesian society. One’s physical fitness level also affects the body’s immune system in the fight against influenza (the common cold), upper respiratory tract infections and excessive fatigue. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPORT MEDICINE AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH The respiratory system is a gas exchange process that occurs in the body. Needless to say, it is essential for survival. Pulmonary ventilation maintains maximum oxygen concentration at
the minimum concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveoli. High intensity exercise or sport can cause extreme stress to the body. Lung ventilation is generally known to have a linear relationship with oxygen consumption at different levels of exercise. At the time of intensive exercise, oxygen consumption will increase. An athlete who exercises regularly has a greater lung capacity compared with people who never exercise. Here are the top five things to remember about your respiratory health while exercising: 1. Physical Fitness: Physical fitness is a person’s ability to perform daily work without experiencing excessive fatigue. Physical fitness consists of two components: health-related fitness and skillrelated fitness. The health-related fitness component consists of elements of the cardiorespiratory endurance, joint flexibility and muscle strength endurance, and body composition. 2. Exercise at altitude: An athlete should do acclimatisation prior to exercising in order to adjust the respiratory system in avoiding interference with the body structure or physiological function. Acclimatisation is the process of improving tolerance and individual appearance after a few hours to several weeks at altitude. Pulmonary disorders that often occur due to rapid ascent include Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) and High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE). Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMC) is a disorder with symptoms of polycythemia that is common to people living in altitude.
Maidan Magazine | 36 3. Sports in depth From sea level, atmospheric pressure will increase by 760 mmHg (1 atmosphere) for each depth of 10 m (33 feet). Units of the amount of pressure is atmospheric absolute (ATA), while the size of the pressure (Pressure Gauge) shows the pressure gauge reads 0 at the surface level, because the pressure is always lower than 1 atmosphere absolute pressure. The disease is specifically a result of gas bubbles in the nerve tissue, that can be at the level of moderate or severe depending on the amount of gas bubbles formed. Symptoms include pain in the joints, dizziness, shortness of breath, fatigue, paralysis and malaise. This can be prevented through slowly going to the surface of the sea. 4. Respiratory Exercise The action of the diaphragm up into the chest is called abdominal breathing. Physiologically, respiratory exercise by holding oneâ€™s breath while moving causes stomach under hypoxic conditions (oxygen deficiency in the lungs and blood). This continues to the end of the entire cell. Body tissues, especially muscle cells, are active. So this will train the entire body cell through the mechanism of hypoxia to survive in conditions of oxygen deprivation. Uses of respiratory exercises can also be found in other various forms of physical exercise such as yoga, tai chi, satria nusantara etc. 5. Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA) Excessive physical exercise is one of the most common causes of early onset of bronchospasm as an asthma attack. It can attack a variety of age groups and with different levels of physical fitness. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, chest discomfort or burning and/or shortness of breath â€• classic asthma symptoms. Factors contributing to ExerciseInduced Asthma (EIA) include the intensity of activity, the degree of airway stability, control of underlying chronic asthma and temperature/ humidity of inhaled air. Local water pollution can also play a role in worsening symptoms. EIA is most frequently diagnosed in children and young adults who are more likely to engage in strenuous activity.
REFERENCES Development of Physical Quality Center: Mapping of Physical Fitness of School Children, The Ministry of Education, Jakarta 2010 Nurali, I A, Physical Fitness Measurement Results for Sports Health Program Manager at the 3 Regional Provinces, 2011 Adegoke OA, Arogundade O, The effect of chronic exercise on lung function and basal metabolic rate, African Journal of Biomedical Research, 2002 Heyward, Vivian H, Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription, Illinois : Human Kinetics, 1991 Wilmore JH, Costill DI, Training for sport and activity, the key to athletic performance, Iowa, Kendall Hunt Pub, 1990. Yunus F, Wiyono W H, Febriana R, Medical problems at altitude, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran No. 138, 2003 www.brianmac.co.uk./physiollr.html Guyton A, The Physiology of Human Body, Binarupa Aksara, Jakarta 1994 www.coremap.or.id/downloads/menyelam_ 1158562081.pdf. 2008 Soewolo, Basoeki S, Yudani T, Human Physiology, IMSTEP JICA-Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, 1999 W i s n u Wa r d o yo, H e a l i n g G y m n a s t i c Revitalization, Spa Medica, Yogjakarta, 2003 www.angelfire.com/fl/sutan/penjelasan.htm Slater, J.B. and Slater, E.G, Exercise induced asthma, Sports Medicine Update, 1996 Storms, W.W. and Joyner, D.M. (1997), Update in exercise-induced asthma: A report of the Olympic exercise asthma summit conference, The Physician and Sports Medicine, 1997
Dr Imran Agus Nurali is a Sport Medicine Specialist. He is also President of the Indonesian Sports Medicine Association and Chief of the SubDirectorate of Urban and Sports Health, MoH of Indonesia
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SPORT IS A POWERFUL TOOL FOR RECOVERY OF DISASTER SURVIVORS Srikanta Misra Disasters, both natural and man-made, continue to affect the lives of millions of people across the world. While the infrastructural damages are manifold and require immediate restoring, there is another aspect that is affected, the damage of which can be extremely long term if neglected, and can never be measured. The survivors who have experienced the disaster live with trauma — trauma of losing near and dear ones, their belongings, and experiencing death and destruction first-hand. The psycho-socio trauma, the pain, hurt, anger and misery that they undergo is difficult to explain or understand, and is rarely acknowledged. For survivors, the crisis begins after the disaster. There is a crucial need for health and medical care, psycho-social support and counselling and, in some cases, food and shelter for survivors. In the longer term, there is a need to make a substantially greater investment in order to restore infrastructure, help people find work, address long-term mental health issues caused by trauma and loss, and make the area more resistant to future disasters. Humanitarian relief efforts provide assistance for immediate relief, rehabilitation and rebuilding of communities affected by disaster. Trauma occurs when a person is exposed to a life-threatening event and their response is most often one of intense horror, fear and/or helplessness. To address this emotional distress, disaster responders have traditionally used a clinical mental health approach, focusing on trauma recovery. In recent years, humanitarian organisations have begun to look more towards psychological
interventions to address both emotional and social needs people disaster. Create safeofspace and surviving activities toaoccupy children and youth Sanitation, hygiene education/outreach Assess psycho-social disorders Refer to treatment Structured to alleviate trauma and to
return to normalcy Pairing with supportive adult figures Facilitate re-entry to school Spread joy and happiness Develop leadership Promote cooperation & conflict management skills Raise awareness about HIV/AIDS and other diseases Improvement of daily coping and other life skills.
SOURCE A Guide For Practitioners In The Field Of Sport For Youth In Emergencies; Care, Mercy Corps, Schwery Consulting, 2008
A psycho-social intervention aims at using community resources with or without external input in order to rebuild the coping capacities of individuals affected by disasters, thus enhancing their inner strength, responsiveness and flexibility in the face of high levels of stress and traumatic events. In other words, this reenforces their resilience — inner strength, responsiveness and flexibility — that enables them not only to withstand stress and trauma, but also help overcome these faster. More and more projects in recent times are using sport as a psycho-social tool in disaster and conflict
Maidan Magazine | 38 response. Sport interventions are being used in the field as a non-medical approach to building the coping capacities of people affected by disasters. Psycho-social sport programmes are not about winning and losing, they are about the process of helping people restore their social and psychological health. It is important to emphasise that the definition of sport used here goes beyond competitive sport but also includes notions of play, recreation and collective community actions. Sports and play activities are culturally accepted, non-conflicting and naturally occurring activities that can have a healing effect on individuals and communities in postdisaster melancholy contexts. Sports and play activities access and activate innate resilience that can naturally strengthen, heal and protect individuals in times of extreme stress. Psychosocial sport programmes aim at restoring social well-being and psychological health through group-focused activities, and are tailored to fit the contexts of local culture, traditions, social norms, needs and resources. Evidence shows that group interventions are most effective, but it is appropriate for individuals with more serious psychological symptoms to receive individual clinical interventions. Psycho-social sport programmes can provide a safe, structured and friendly environment for people to begin to share their emotions through verbal and non-verbal communication. Sport and physical activity can allow for brief periods of respite, focus attention away from the experience of loss, and provide an opportunity to reinforce educational messages. Additionally, sport and play can provide a welcome breathing space for parents and caregivers, highlighting the impact of sport and play programmes on different levels of community members. Several project evaluation reports revealed that children
preferred being in a group rather than ‘doing nothing at home’. In fact, ‘having fun’ was the least popular reason children chose to participate in the sports and play programme. There are also indications that participation in psycho-social sport programmes can positively influence school performance and children’s behaviour in the home environment. Sports coaches have an important role in providing psycho-social support. They hold a key function in how sport and play is utilised as a psycho-social intervention, and methods used to train coaches will be influential on the effectiveness of the programmes implemented. After training, the coaches can become trusted adults whom young people, parents, and others affected by disaster can build relationships with over a period of time. This is an important element of psycho-social healing. Sport, thus, is an approach, not just a tool, towards rebuilding lives after disasters.
www.sportanddev.org/en/learnmore/sport _and_disaster_response/ Robert Henley, Helping Children Overcome Disaster Trauma Through Post-Emergency Psycho-social Sports Programs, 2008 Source: The Fondation Terrre des hommes Lausanne’s psycho-social programme of recreation centres after the Bam earthquake in Iran
Srikanta Misra is Senior General Manager, Magic Bus. He has worked on institutional partnerships as well as programme management with various international development agencies on themes such as education, livelihood, urban poverty, social exclusion and emergency response. He also has extensive experience of forging partnerships and resource mobilisation from various institutions such as bilateral and multilateral agencies, corporate houses, Trusts and Foundations.
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SPORT FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT Shikha Uberoi Sports — especially tennis — have been my life. Through my academic research, professional tennis playing years, and fieldwork, I have found the use of sport as a critical tool towards development for peace, social upward mobility, human empowerment and community building. Sport, unlike much else, has an uncanny ability to suspend differences. Every Olympic year, the world holds its breath, watching incredible athletes from around the world celebrate physical and mental triumph, something every human being can relate to. Political and religious tensions are set aside for two weeks every four years because the world enjoys a warm, fuzzy feeling of human camaraderie and peace, and does everything in its power to secure that feeling. There is a kind of sanctity in suspending differences that the world consciously or unconsciously strives to protect and perpetuate through sport. These are the golden moments of silence that the sporting world and the non-sporting world are uniting to capitalise on for human development. The Olympics and world competitions are not the only examples that permit me to say that
Shikha Uberoi is an Indian-American professional tennis player. Her highest ranking is 122 in the world in singles. In 2004, she made her Grand Slam debut as world No. 275 qualifier in the US Open (in her first Grand Slam), defeating No. 56, Obata.
sports facilitate peace. Think about the last corporate retreat your company took and the team-building games you played there. Personal differences such as religious beliefs, socioeconomic backgrounds, sexual orientation, gender and age were not important during the moment of play. Effort towards the mutual goal of victory was the only matter of importance. While playing, one is forced to look past differences and work with teammates towards a superordinate goal. This is the essence of sport. Additionally, sport facilitates social upward mobility, as sport has long been associated with cultural capital theory explained by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in which non-financial social assets such as acquired skills or intellect are used to accumulate cultural capital and promote upward social mobility. Boys and girls being able to acquire social capital is critical for their personal value in life and for community building, and therefore nation building. One can notice the striking correlation between nations with high development rates and elite sportspersons. Perhaps this is why we see countless initiatives by state departments, NGOs, former athletes to build bridges, empower people, and hurdle boundaries through sport. On June 21 2012, Senator Clinton and the US State Department launched the ‘Empowering Women and Girls through Sport’ initiative with partners like ESPN, and legendary sporting icons as ambassadors. However, even prior to the US State Department’s effort, we saw the success of Afghanistan's Awista Ayub, now ‘Seeds of Peace’, taking girls to new heights with soccer in Afghanistan. Ayub founded the Afghan Youth Sports Exchange, an organisation that nurtures Afghan girls through soccer. It began with just eight young women and has now taken off into a 15-team competitive league with hundreds of
Maidan Magazine | 40 girls participating through the Afghanistan Football Federation. I can also touch upon examples of members of academia and the various social entrepreneurs who use sport as a vehicle to facilitate development. In her travels to Africa, Princeton Universityâ€™s professor of architecture, Jane Harrison, found communities that value their local soccer pitches more than their own homes or water sources. The heart and future of these communities are their soccer fields. So, understanding the value of the soccer pitch, Jane Harrison designs and places rain waterharvesting mechanisms1 in soccer stadiums. The community members do everything to protect their stadium and, thus, their water supply. I can shine some light on social entrepreneurs creating transportable and reusable mini soccer pitches and tennis courts on the rooftops of malls and small gyms in schools because they believe in the mechanism of sport as a tool for education, gender equality, and community building. Despite the fact that competitive sportâ€™s purpose is to find differences, which team or individual is better than the other, it is in the act of game playing and game watching that the difference is suspended, and this facilitates peace. We have been watching the diplomatic and policy-making world create global initiatives that harness the unique power of sport. Sportsdriven social entrepreneurs have altered the dimensions of sports to make them accessible to all, as they see playing fields as necessary teaching fields. The power of sport is no longer restricted to those who simply play games for fun because now â€” the fun games are the power of girls, boys, and nations. Footnote 1 PITCHAfrica is a registered 501c3 non-profit headquartered in the United States. It promotes an innovative approach to community-based rainwater harvesting using sport as a catalyst. PITCHAfrica projects encourage sustainable community development by comprehensively addressing the need for clean water, sport, education, health, food security, gender sensitivity and peace-building initiatives. Founding Partners, Jane Harrison and David Turnbull, describe PITCH as a man-made ecosystem capable of empowering and transforming communities. Visit www.pitch-africa.org for more information.
Photo courtesy: Nike/Daniel Berehulak
AFDP: OUR EXPERIENCE SO FAR Urs Zanitti To use football for development, one needs to have a clear vision, be innovative, and have commitment. One also needs to work hard to build bridges between those who know and those who want to learn. You need to be ready to fight in order to get things done as only limited financial and human resources are available in this area. It is critical to identify reliable, capable partners and ensure they work together. These points are the key to moving the Football for Development agenda forward. Football for Development is a relatively new topic, only being adopted by some football organisations around 10 years ago. It started
with the more wealthy institutions distributing charity money. T h i s i s n o w c h a n g i n g , b u t s l o w l y. Correspondingly, development organisations do not really understand the football world and are often not willing to invest in a sector where the image of a game can be somewhat tainted. The question therefore is: are football organisations reliable partners in development and application of international standards, or should development organisations just use the power of Football for Development without collaboration with the various football organisations? In some cases the latter may often be easier.
Maidan Magazine | 42 There is also the question of financing the investment in Football for Development initiatives. Does the private sector understand the value of CSR and grassroots in football? I don’t believe that this is yet the case (with the exception of some companies such as our AFDP partner PepsiCo). At the moment, in Asia, there are only a few individuals, NGOs, football clubs and associations that advocate for collaboration between football and development institutions. There is a lot of awareness, education and advocacy work to be done. Our experiences show that NGOs can be more reliable and responsive. Organisations such as Magic Bus, for example, are more impact-focused and use the real power of football to educate youth. But the impact of NGOs is also limited in comparison. Major impact can only be achieved when official football organisations accept and assume responsibility for social development through football. Together, we have a big task ahead. Associations and clubs in Europe are successfully doing that already. AFC was the first international football organisation to develop a long-term strategy linking football and development. If this approach is, in effect, implemented seriously, then we may experience a positive impact in the coming years in fields as diverse as nutrition, health and employment capabilities of the youth. A first significant result was achieved by AFDP together with international partners and the Football Associations of the United Kingdom. This coalition made it possible to clarify the IFAB rule relating to the headscarf in football, opening doors to the empowerment and better
health of millions of girls and women, particularly in Asia. The two worlds of football and development are still talking different languages. People who understand both worlds are rare. The technical expertise acquired through years of experience in both worlds has helped the AFDP management in building bridges. In the future, if we listen more to the voices of developing countries and combine it with the excellent work that community departments of top clubs are doing, then we can be confident of achieving impact. AFDP partners, PepsiCo and UEFA, have been very happy with the positive results achieved by AFDP and its implementing partners in a short time, and are motivated to continue. There is a need to have such an innovative bridge builder and advocate for the agenda for Football for Development. But AFDP has only just embarked on its journey, being nearly two years old. The decisive point in the coming years will be the progress of grassroots football development involving private and public sectors and NGOs, as well as using football coaches as conscious youth life skills educators. Urs Zanitti is CEO at AFPD (Asian Football Development Project). Urs was the Head/Director of Development at FIFA and has worked for the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, as well as at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland. For more information, www.weareasia.com/en/the-afdp/
Giving each and every child the opportunity to live and grow well is an objective that can be approached through the universal appeal and unique power of sport, but local and international organisations must come together and work towards the same goal if we want to see real change. On behalf of AFDP, I’d like to thank Magic Bus for its key role in this positive movement.
- HRH Prince Ali Bin Al-Hussein, Chairman, Asian Football Development Project
LIFE SKILLS THROUGH GAMES, A BOOK BY SEBASTIAN ROCKENFELLER Clemens Mulokozi Since 2008, Jambo Bukoba has been supporting children and young people in Tanzania through games and sport. By building a relationship and creating an atmosphere of trust, Jambo Bukoba encourages equal opportunities for girls, improves the quality of education, and teaches children about HIV and AIDS. Sebastian Rockenfeller’s Teacher’s Manual ‘Life Skills through Games’ illustrates the gainful activities of the constantly growing German association. The new guidebook explains in English and Swahili how sport and games can make a child’s life better – not only in Africa, but all over the world. This guide complements and gives examples of the extensive teaching programme that sports specialist Sebastian Rockenfeller has developed specifically for teachers in Tanzania. This is the first Teacher’s Manual of its kind and is produced
in two languages: English, and the native language of Tanzania, Swahili. In the manual, Sebastian Rockenfeller explains in parallel texts the fundamentals of the teaching programme for sports teachers, which he developed principally in Tanzania itself. In addition, he provides Tanzanian teachers with a theoretical basis alongside practical teaching suggestions for sports lessons — for example, how to plan and develop a lesson or how the teacher should behave in front of the pupils. Sebastian, who is a qualified sports scientist, describes exercises which not only provide physical training but also help improve life chances. In this way, through games, children learn respect for each other and develop confidence in each other as well as developing self-confidence and a sense of responsibility. At a further stage the exercises offer access to
Maidan Magazine | 44 sensitive subjects such as health (HIV/AIDS), education and equal opportunities for girls. “It is my sincere hope that with our help teachers can provide a high standard of teaching which makes an important difference to the development of each individual child,” he says. For us at Jambo Bukoba, it is a matter of pride: to be able to present our thoughts and aims, derived from our experience and which can now be put into practice in a book that teachers can consult regularly as a source for good ideas. As a means of encouraging teachers, training to be sports teachers and supported by the Foreign Office, the German Olympic Association sent Sebastian Rockenfeller to Tanzania for eight months to provide expertise in sports education. The German Sports University in Cologne supported Sebastian both financially and with their expertise in producing this book. This training programme is now the basis for the work of Jambo Bukoba in the area around the city of Bukoba. Dr. Karen Petry, the Vice Principal of the Sports University, explains, “This Teacher’s Manual provides additional support for teachers on the ground in Tanzania; it helps them to pass on long-term understanding and improve the quality of their lessons. In this way, young people can develop as individuals and can gain a real sense of future possibilities.”
Sebastian analysed the current situation and the requirements in the Kagera region along with his Tanzanian colleagues. He visited 18 schools, interviewed head teachers and sports teachers and handed out questionnaires to pupils. Students and assistants at the Sports University assisted him with this and helped create the basis for the project. The need to act is urgent: In the Kagera region the outlook for children and young people is very bleak. About 60 per cent of new cases of HIV are aged between 15 and 24; 80 per cent of them are girls. One in four young people can neither read nor write. All of these things limit the chances of a whole generation. The results so far demonstrate the success of the training programme in Tanzania. Teachers at 310 schools have received professional training. 155,000 children have benefited from this and have received a total of 6,510 sets of sports equipment. Despite these very real achievements, we still have a long way to go along the path of equal opportunities and a good education in Bukoba. The book will go a long way in winning us some much-needed support for our work.
About his work, Sebastian says, “My work in Tanzania and the results I have seen have once again shown me that a high-quality sport and games programme aimed at the prevailing educational needs and conditions provides a unique opportunity to prepare people in a sustainable way for their future.”
Clemens Mulokozi is the Founder of Jambo Bukoba, which means ‘Hello Bukoba’ in Swahili. The charity is supported by the Tanzanian Government, and valued supporters such as the German Postal Service, FC Bayern’s Women’s team and the German Olympic Federation. The charity has been operating with its programme of ‘Life Skills Through Games’ for five years in Bukoba, which is the capital of the Kagera region in North-west Tanzania. Yo u c a n f i n d o u t m o r e a b o u t J a m b o B u k o b a a t w w w. J a m b o B u k o b a . c o m a n d o n www.facebook.com/jambobukoba. Further information about Sebastian Rockenfeller is available at: www.facebook.com/Rockenfeller.Trainings.18. You can download the manual free on www.JamboBukoba.com
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HOW DO YOU USE SPORT TO CREATE SOCIAL IMPACT? Andy Sellins At Cricket for Change, we use cricket, rugby and other sports as the vehicles to develop young people. In 2012, we worked with around 10,000 people in the UK, 30 per cent of whom are people with disabilities. The 19 programmes we run with support from 32 funders are with the help of a five-member team. It is a diverse team, including 40 per cent with disabilities. 90 per cent of our coaches are graduates from our own programme. In the last 10 years, we have helped set up programmes in 20 different countries, including Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Jamaica, Bangladesh, USA, Cuba, Sierra Leone and South Africa. Cricket for Change is creating the space for young people to think and act differently. Some of our projects: Hit the Top is the largest disability cricket programme in the world. This programme enables young people with disabilities to gain independence, confidence and new networks of friends through playing cricket. The Refugee Cricket Project creates a safe space for unaccompanied child asylum seekers to flourish in the UK. The Dallaglio Foundation Rugby for Change runs in partnership with the Dallaglio Foundation mentors, and inspires and motivates ‘at risk’ young people onto a positive journey using the values of rugby.
Your job Your lifestyle.
Have you ever asked yourself... ‘What enabled me to get involved in sport?’ A local club reaching out to you and making you feel welcome and valued? An inspiring role model? Maybe a teacher, coach, parent, sibling or friend.
Even with these answers, the challenge is how to replicate these to make social impact. The Cricket for Change answer would be, above all, to make sport accessible. We also need our sport for development programme to be: Welcoming and not intimidating In the heart of the community we are trying to reach Inexpensive or free to users With simple rules at the beginning Using simple and inexpensive equipment With regular competitions With a friendly and reliable coach who is focused on the needs of the young people, not the needs of the sport.
An effective sport for development programme is also likely to share the following features:
Have you ever asked yourself... ‘What role has sport played in my life?’
1. A clear aim – what are we trying to change?
A sense of belonging
2. A clear need – why are we aiming to do this?
A tolerance and respect for others
3. A clear target group – whose lives are we trying to change?
Your friends and social life Your sense of who you are Your aspirations to be as great as you can be Your personal code of conduct
4. A clear methodology – how are we trying to make a change? 5. An inspiring and flexible delivery team – supported by dynamic and supportive management.
6. A good network of partners – especially local organisations that can help you find and retain the young people you are aiming to work with. 7. A clear plan – with timescales, responsibilities and a budget. 8. A clear monitoring and evaluation system. Creating an environment of change also needs the following things: Keep it simple – have a programme aim you
can explain in 10 seconds. Use a strong name and a simple logo to
create a memorable programme identity or ‘brand’. Create a safe and reliable environment – agree on some ground rules with the young people, explain what you are offering them and what you expect in return. Build relationships with young people using various coaching styles to create trust – use this trust to start making changes to attitudes and behaviours. From the start, explain to everyone involved the link between playing sport and wider personal development, and reinforce this
message regularly. Create a user group with clear roles, responsibilities and influence. Make the monitoring and evaluation part of the everyday life of the programme and not a ‘bolt on’, and learn to notice and keep a record of even the smallest changes in your young people. Don’t be scared of not getting it right and therefore end up doing nothing.
In summary, here are the 10 simple rules to keep in mind: Rule 1: Keep it inexpensive. Rule 2: To make a change you must commit to the long term. Rule 3: Coaches who come from the target group itself often become the most effective and inspirational role models. Rule 4: Hold regular competitions and festivals to keep players and coaches motivated. Change the venues to help break down barriers and the fear of others.
This article was edited from a presentation by Andy Sellins, made to the IOC World Conference on Sport for All. Andy Sellins is the Chief Executive of Cricket for Change. For more information, visit www.cricketforchange.org.uk
the effectiveness of your programme. Rule 10: Share your findings and best practice in your country and region but also at international forums such as ‘Beyond Sport’ and ‘Next Step’. Describe the impact not the sport. This brings us to the last two questions: How do you measure the effectiveness of a sport for development programme? There are many ways to handle this: Feedback from your user groups Use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) Use of Return On Investment data (ROI) Young people’s Personal Development Plans (PDPs) questionnaires/ interviews with participants, observations of coaches/ leaders/ teachers/ parents/ community leaders/ police etc. Surveys in the local community
Rule 5: Focus on the personal development of the young people and the development of the sport will follow. Rule 6: Get the media on your side to celebrate the successes of the young people. Rule 7: Use famous sportsmen and women to promote and inspire but make sure they understand the aim and methodology. Graduations and competitions provide an ideal platform to showcase your achievements to potential funders, so invite wealthy individuals and companies that you want to approach for funding. Rule 8: Work with your coaches and user group to create a methodology that is relevant, achievable, measurable and scalable. Rule 9: Work hard and be creative in proving
Monitoring social media such as Facebook and Twitter Independent research, perhaps partnership with your local university
The second question is, how do you pay for a sport and development programme? Our answer is, by tackling social issues, you become part of a wider funding environment. This may include local, regional and central government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and charities, trusts and foundations, donations from wealthy people, funding from companies through their corporate social responsibility programme (CSR), sponsorship or donations. To get most of this type of funding you must have evidence that you are effective. One final piece of advice: if you cannot measure it, don’t do it!
I Am Light. Why should I hide in darkness when I am brilliant and beautiful why can't I triumph or struggle in public? Why can’t I laugh or cry for all to see? I am me I am light
- Eli Wolff
Photo courtesy: Magic Bus India Foundation/Rob Thomas
The Maidan Editorial Team is very proud to publish the third issue of this magazine. This issue carries voices and/or experiences from 19 areas around the world.
EDITORIAL TEAM PUBLISHER Pratik Kumar, CEO Magic Bus India Foundation Post: A-75, First Floor, Sector 58, Noida, Uttar Pradesh â€“ 201301, India
CONSULTING EDITOR Rekha Dey, ASOP
DESIGN AND LAYOUT Jenny Poser
EXECUTIVE EDITOR Bidisha Fouzdar
EDITORS Geetanjali Jhala Ritika Sen
Maidan Magazine February 2014, Volume 1, Issue 3