Page 1


Table of Contents Introduction 4 Part A A.1 Design Futuring 8 A.2 Design Computation 14 A.3 Composition/Generation 20 A.4 Conclusion 26


Learning Outcomes



Algorithmic Sketches



My name is Magdalena Savage-Brajdic and I am a third year Architecture student at the University of Melbourne. Throughout my life I have had a strong interest in art, in particular painting and drawing. This regard for creativity cultivated an interest in architecture. In addition to the creative facet of architecture, my interest also stems from a regard of the ability to create the physical form from a mere idea. A physical form which has the ability of engaging more than a singular definition as to what it was born with. Architecture whilst it may be personal in design is a creative form which allows the interaction and interpretation of many. Although it may physical in form, it is fluid in the perceived reality in which it engages. During my studies, my view of architecture has been directed from a purely creative approach to one that accommodates impact and consequence. A consideration of space in terms of sustainable design, an exploration through architectural theory and literature. Whilst spaces in regard to views and



creative outcomes are fluid and ever-changing the static nature of our necessity to reflect sustainable practise within design is ever-present. To induce an influx of architecture which considers a future instead of only the present reality, there is a requirement for more complex systems. Employing programs which utilise computing can provide an insight into a more interactive means to reach such outcomes. My knowledge of projects in which utilise digital tools extent to widely known design projects performed by Zaha Hadid and ICD/ITKE, which utilise parametric modelling to achieve their form. My capability in utilising Rhino software will be complemented during Studio Air, allowing me the ability to engage with such a program, Grasshopper will provide me with an opportunity to gain insight into design which considers the built and the unbuilt, theoretical and practical, expanding design beyond a preconceived framework.



“Architecture is making of spac - Louis Kahn

sce” the thoughtful






Architectural practise has been subjected to change through the evolution of society and the resultant views and values. Currently there is a shift existent whereby there is emphasis placed upon the displacement of a purely aesthetic design in favour for designing with a specific aim; designing for the future. There is an admittance that society at large and design practise can longer assume that there is an imminent future. 1 Rather to design for the future is to paradoxically align oneself with the idea that a future may not be exist in complete certainty. To design for such, and a means for better ensuring the existent of a future where design can be still be practised and integrated into society, is to place consideration of sustainable practise at the forefront of design.



Rectification of our seemingly callous actions regarding the actions of the past and present design practise, can be found through speculative design. Through this form of design process, no one potential future is decidedly thought as the preceding reality in which we face.2 Rather it considers a range of possible realities, proving a platform for design interpretation and discussion of ideas. By not estimating at a potential future reality, design intent and outcome will not be subject to redundancy. The future reality of this world is dependent of the reformation of design values and intent to better reflect a more sustainable practise. Through this change, design for futuring can be to a higher degree understood.

Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, (Oxford: Berg, 2008), p.1

Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction and Social Dreaming, (MIT Press, 2014), p.2


Design which persists to challenge normality in form whilst providing an adapted yet simplistic opportunity for function is founded in L’Arbre Blanc, a modernistic take on the residential form. This design contributed to the field of ideas through the adoption of balconies which deviate from the expected linearity of an apartment building, hence creating a diversion from normality. These undulating protruding balconies, emulating its namesake “white tree” provide a more communal arrangement. This escape from the preconception of segregation of apartment living also provides contribution to the patterns of living. It provides an escape from such into a seemingly more communal facade providing the notion of the present existence of multi residential living as inadequate and outdated, in need of revolution. Creating this revolutionary form can be said to be an actualisation of radical design seen so little due to hyper-commercialisation, capitalism, a more atomised society and replacement of dreams with hopes. 1

It is a proactive voice within the landscape which provides versatility in space between the interior and exterior, opposing the commonplace confinement in apartment living, not only posing a solution to a critical design question but also supplying future inhabitants with an unprecedented style of living. Its divergence from typical, static apartment design provides future possibilities within Montpellier, whereby architectural of similar design intent may be considered. Although not yet built, it has already contributed to design culture, through its imaginative form and sustainable considerations. By providing a site which actively enables against de-futuring through sustainable consideration its future relevancy is maintained.

Whilst its completed existence only remains on on paper, the importance of the design would of persisted if it were to infinitely remain unbuilt, as it was the idea or the imagining of the different, which was created from the known; the tree. Set to be built in Montpellier, France the facade of the building was to be imminently different from its surrounds. Its form ‘a tree reshaping itself to grow within its environment’, 2 gives comment to the imminent need to reshape views and values to be able to proceed into the future. Critically, sustainability is not only reflected within the design but is utilised in the practical operation of the building. By adopting not only sustainable practise but also encapsulating such form, its appreciation and its relevancy in the future is ensured. 1.

2. 10

Dunne, Raby. p.6.

OXO Architectes, “Mixed Use Tower in Montpellier, France”, Oxoarch.Com, 2018 <> [Accessed 4 March 2018]. CONCEPTUALISATION

Figure 1. L’ Arbre Blanc

Figure 2. Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Arbre Blanc CONCEPTUALISATION 11


Zaha Hadid’s mega-structure proposes a design emulating from fluidity and connection. The structure itself comprises of three primary structures, each independent structurally, yet are symbiotically iterative through the fluidity of form. This achievement of fluidity and organic form of the mega-structure contributes to the field of ideas and technical work-flows. These qualities of form can be said to be uncharacteristic of large structures which can be to a large degree a prescription of rigidity and static form. The organic composition of each of the structures provide an avenue for interaction between the three forms, however contrasts the centre from the surrounding environment of geometric angular design. The design revolts against the urban landscape of Changsha through challenging or critiquing the reality which presently exists. In the background of the form devised by Hadid, the cityscape is one predominantly consisted of Euclidean geometry. Hadid’s designed form revolts against this , and to a further degree the seemingly ‘hyper- commercialisation’ evident in the form of the urban landscape.1

This contribution is further reflected whereby Hadid creates an environment of interaction between not only the existing and the future built environment but also the built environment and the human experience. These “petal shaped volumes”, 3 resemble a cellular quality contributing to a larger entity or that of the individual human in contributing to societal future. This design provided that future imaginings of built form could look beyond the present reality and reach towards a future which encapsulated a form disparate from its surrounds yet not disparate from human interaction. Its fluidity of form in contrast with the geometric surrounds also suggests the future form of buildings could lend towards a gentle more unobtrusive position within the metropolitan landscape, providing an assertion for a more sustainable and environment conscious design approach.

Although the built form is still unfinished, the visual representation of the reality expected has made a great contribution to design. The unfinished built form can be said to still convey a product of critical design. 2 By challenging the notion of the status quo in regards to the locality, being that of standard geometry of the urban landscape and that of the compositional form of mega-structures, this design whilst unbuilt enforces its importance as a critical design. However whilst there is disparity in form, the site is unified through the interaction of the large encapsulating structures which contribute to the site and visitors of the site by creating a pedestrian thoroughfare. 12


Figure 3. Changsha Meixihu International Culture and Arts Centre

1. 2.


Dunne, Raby. p.6.

Fry. p.34

Amy Frearson, “Changsha Meixihu International Culture and Art Centre by Zaha Hadid Architects”, 2013, < changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art-centre-by-zaha-hadid/> [Accessed 4 March 2018].

Figure 4. Changsha Meixihu International Culture and Arts Centre CONCEPTUALISATION 13



PART A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION Architectural design has been indeterminately furthered through the avid participation of computers. Computerisation and computation have coupled as both such influential influences. Computerisation gave rise to the ability to actualise an idea into digital form whilst computation allows complex ideas of design to be formed through algorithmic and parametric avenues. The design process of problem analysis has been largely affected by computation which devised a movement disparate from the ‘compositional and representational theorising’ to a more process and scripted design.1 This shift in design rhetoric of direct representation of predetermined forms and structure, to a design which was born from algorithmic design or design which was not preconceived, has propelled and redefined architectural practise creating a larger range of conceived possibilities. It has permitted for more complex and intricate forms,



and fluidity in finding solutions to architectural and design problems. This has a large impact upon the design and construction industry, as the stages of expressing and eventually attaining these goals may be not only be relied upon the human but alongside the computer forming a ‘symbiotic relationship’ 2 Through this relationship a larger consideration and importance can be held upon design performance and materiality. Rather than the actuality of design’s functional ability solely being assessed upon completion as in history, functions can be evaluated alongside forms in the in the generative process. This allows for a more ‘dynamic’ design process which not only focuses on the form or aesthetic ability of a building, but also delves further into functional qualities. This focus and evaluation of functionality through digital means provides future opportunity to create architecture which has greater ecological consideration.

Rivka Oxman, Robert Oxman, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014), p.4.

Yehuda E Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), pg.3.



Designed for the Milan expo through digital generation, the ‘Land of Hope’ pavilion prescribes a form in which the roof, the focus of the design which is undulating in entirety yet fragmented. Whilst the form is a symbolic gesture to the floating cloud to the theme of ecology it cannot be said to reiterate or reproduce a direct representation of such a form, rather scripting induces a part in the design process creating an unprecedented interpretation. However whilst not a direct representation of form, demonstrating the significance of the cloud through computational design, heightens the communication in the design process from design intent to interpretation. This pavilion also demonstrates the redefinition of design practise through computation. This is achieved through the complexity in the design; the roof existing as a complex fluid motion indescribable through standard geometric form. This complexity in form existing not as a ‘theoretical precondition’ but rather as a ‘formal result’,1 challenges design discriminatory of computation as regressive. This complexity also poses change within the design and construction industry. The symbiosis between the human and the computer evident in this design is also evident throughout the design to construction. The Land of Hope generates a seemingly complex form into an achievable construction through the use of ‘shingled bamboo panels’ 2 extending symbiosis through the design to construction. The unique innovation of seemingly complex form through computation, iterated into simple structural elements cannot be dismissed without precedent; through the historic concept of segmenting complexity into simpler constituents.

The pavilion through its curvature and non-linearity achieves a ‘departure from Euclidean geometry’.3 This non-adherence to simplistic geometry and undertaking of radical forms through computation allows for realisation of the expansion of form-finding. This rejection of typical ‘continuity and morphology’ whilst conveying idealisms hope to be realised through harmony of city and nature. As indicated in Figure 2, the performance of the form has been assessed. Whilst an only a diagrammatic assessment, it represents the idea of a structure which can be assessed based upon performance prior to construction, rather than just the aesthetic quality. Through consideration of passive ventilation through form, the importance of ‘digital linkage of form generation and performative form finding’ is highlighted.4 Through its utilisation which challenges the form and resultant

of computation a design validity of the expected function is produced.

Figure 5. China Pavillion Form Generation


Link Arc, ‘China Pavillion for Expo Milano 2015’, Link Arc, [11 March 2018].


Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003). p. 15.


Link Arc

4. Oxman, Oxman. pg. 7. 16


Figure 6. China Pavillion



‘Bloom’, is an architectural exploration performed by Dosu Studio Architecture. Dosu Studio Architecture explore and develop an organic structure eventuated through a seemingly ceaseless yet accessible form. By utilising computation this fluidity of form is coupled with a deep consideration of functionality. This is conducted through means of materiality; consisting primarily of ‘14,000 thermobimetal tiles’,1 providing an environmentally reactive surface. The solution synthesis within the design process is affected by this exploration, whereby a design outcome has been computed not solely reliant on aesthetic qualities but also as a response to ‘complex contextual and functional influences’.2

The utilisation of computation within this design has also provided an expansion in the conceivable form. Its unbeknown, non-standard form of fluid motion creates a ‘non-linear system (which) changes indeterminately’.5 This non-standard geometry is realised not purely in a theoretical framework but reach actualisation through digital generation. The fragments which form the design in its entirety are cellular in representation and function; each operating and reacting independently yet cohesively. This ability of a built form responding to external stimuli in a performative manner is due to the ‘learning from natural principles of design’,6 and replication of such through computation. This exploration of natures functionality provides a unique physical form which doesn’t rely on aesthetic quality, rather it explores the possibility. This unique ability which computation in regard to formulation of responsive ecological forms presents an exploration of the conceptual not dissimilar to Walter Gropius, Bahaus. ‘Ignoring conventions of style or aesthetics’ 7 like the Bahaus, the unique design of ‘Bloom’ can be related to the historical architectural concepts.

The rejection of purely aesthetic architecture not only affects the design process but also transcribes a reformulation of design practise. Through the composition of environmentally stimulated tiles which retract upon heat or sun penetration, computation has placed emphasis on the redefinition of design as a practise of material. 3 The intricacies of each fragment reflected through their function and individuality of design, also creates a dynamic shift within the design and construction industry. This complexity of design permissible through computation has ‘renewed the architect’s traditional role as a master builder’. 4 This renewal is a direct impact of the architect’s control over the complexity of form and function of the materiality. Hence, the argument that computation results in the superfluous of the architect is diminished. 1. Dosu Architecture, ‘Bloom’, Dosu-Arch, (revised 2012), <> [accessed 11 March] 2.

Kolarevic. pg.4


Oxman, Oxman pg. 5

3. 5. 6. 7.


Oxman, Oxman. pg.5 Kolarevic. pg.27

Oxman, Oxman. pg.8 Kolarevic. pg.4


Figure 7. Bloom

Figure 8. Bloom




PART A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION The reality of architectural practise has been fluid and responsive to the catalyst of time. Design throughout history has progressed from design articulated by hand through to computerisation, and presently is conducting a transition, or rather at the present reality, an incorporation of computation. Computerisation is a design means which is still utilised to create static forms of design. This static nature is founded from the imputation of data which will be representational of the output of data which is generated. There is no fluidity or unexpected complexity in the outcome of the design. Computation, a cause of the shift from compositional to generative design, is a dynamic and ever-changing form of design. Unlike computerisation the input does not have expected output, it incorporates the knowledge of the designer but also heightens the designers ability and their understanding on how to solve problems. 1 This imminent shift in design approach will have an effect on design process and practise. The introduction and inclusion of computation brings a greater focus upon functionality. The integration of algorithmic thinking provides a greater scope for identifying, evaluating and progressing to better outcomes.2 This greater depth of interpretation of and generation allows design outcomes to be greater aligned with design intention, and largely more Influenced by heightened understanding of functionality.


Peters, (pg.10).


Bradley Elias, “Compositional/Generative”, 2018.


The effect of the shift towards computation also potentially diminishes the responsibility of the architect. Prior to computation it can be argued the intuition of the architect was more greatly relied upon. However through the integration of computation, simulation has extended beyond the structural components of a form to the simulation of the anticipated experience. This seeming reduction of the artistic role of architectural practise cannot be construed as such. Like the perception of Jackson Pollock’s painting’s to be lacking in ‘human spirit’ 4 the notion of varied art form does not equate to the loss of art. The progression from design modernism which prescribes perfection in detail to computation which induces parametric modelling does not need to viewed negatively, it can be construed as an evolution within art.5

Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 (pg. 10).



Transition from composition to generative design creates a shift with the algorithmic and scripting cultures within design. Through the use of computation, design firms have attained great understanding on the use and application of scripting, however knowledge of computation does not discriminate as information is easily attainable through multiple internet platforms.3 This ease of information and distribution of ideas deem the inevitability of computation as the forefront of design. Whilst computation may be considered as design which promotes isolation, integration of people in physical and through forums can be seen.

Peters, (pg.11).

Peters, (pg.14).



This architectural exploration performed by ICD/ITKE, lead by Achim Menges explores the ability of generative design to create an entity which is based on the anatomy of a sea urchin. The non-static nature of computation coupled with the processes of algorithmic thinking allowed for the representation of the sea urchin-like-structure. The inclusion of algorithmic thought and generative iterative design allowed for an avenue in which a product of biomimicry was analysed, interpreted and actualised. Through the iteration of a natural entity, a purposefulness is brought towards the ability of computation to highlight the importance and replication of ecological systems to create architectural forms. This creates a heightened function of the pavilion. The pavilion not only provides a form in which the students of Stuttgart University can interact with, but also prescribes a statement of importance towards ecological systems.

Whilst computation can be argued to promote a diminishing role of the architect, the form in question refutes this idea. The design team through assistance of biologists and engineers, was able to retain control of the design process. Whilst a perfromative dynamic study, the form of the pavilion was controlled through generative, computational means from the commencement of the design process through parametric modelling through to the robotic construction. The ability to create a form which is accurate in representation and constructional quality of an ecological entity is made possible through generative means. The ability to eventuate biomimicry allows for the consideration of computation being necessary component of future design practise.

Through the integration of many designers and other professions allows for the ‘building of algorithmic thought’ which provides the unique form and construction of the pavilion.1 The construction of the form consists of bending custom-laminated beech plywood which is then passed through industrial grade sewing machine. The unexpected joining system of the plywood causes the plywood transfer tensile forces much like the components within a sea urchin’s shell.2 The utilisation of an unexpected construction method to construct a complex system is cause of the digital scripting from standard materials. 3 1.


Peters, (pg.11).

ICD, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion,’ ICD Uni,

<> [Accessed 13 March]

3. ICD 22


Figure 9. Research Pavillion

Figure 10. Research Pavillion



The Prairie House, an architectural design by Oambra requires its form through computational design. The parametric modelling allows fluidity in not only the shape of the form but also between the form and the landscape. The parametric modelling utilised, not only allows for the actualisation of form, but the structural elements and the functionality also to be realised. The house utilises a tensegrity structural system which allows for performative design to be executed. This form allows for the reactivity of the external environment; in the colder months the form contracts and in the hotter months expands. This creates a dynamic and complex system of passive ventilation. Algorithms have expanded through becoming integral part of many interactions and experiences within not only the built form, but as an individual experiencing such forms.1 In this particular case, the individual experience of the home. Integration of dynamic and complex generative design within the everyday life experience , creates a shift in the algorithmic culture. Whilst algorithmic thinking to a large extent exists only in forms of significance, an introduction to complex forms within the home provides generative design a greater inclusion within the wider community. This inclusion will allow for an imminent progression from the purely compositional to the parametric , generative design approach. However, despite the ability of the inclusion generative design , might it be too optimistic to assume its integration within a small scale residential sense? The design itself has remained inbuilt, potentially evidence for this consideration. 1. 24

A question of interest and willingness to commit to a residence which is of generative design might be negated. Generative design is one which surrenders the design upon an architect and their symbiotic relationship with algorithmic modelling. This may include a resignation of control and input in the design by the occupier of the design which may not align with individual’s views. Hence, whilst generative design allows for progressive forms to be actualised, society may not provide acceptance of such.

Figure 11. Parametric modelling design of Praire House

Figure 12. Praire House Interior

Orambra, ‘Prairie House’, Orambra, <>, [accessed 15 March] CONCEPTUALISATION

Figure 13. Praire House CONCEPTUALISATION 25

PART A.4. CONCLUSION Through the exploration of computation utilised within architecture, the importance of this form of design is seen through its ability to create complex forms; to create the inconceivable. This form of design has allowed for the actualisation of spaces and forms through algorithmic thinking which were dynamic in form, complex, unexpected, performative and responsive to external influence. My intended design approach is to include these qualities of generative design, with particular emphasis upon a design which is inclusive of responsiveness /performative consideration. Innovation is prescribed by adopting this design approach as by designing in a dynamic matter, the performance of a form can be realised prior or even be altered during actualisation, dismissing the reality of performance indications only conceivable after formation. . It is significant to design as such as by designing a performative form, it allows design to be able create for the future. The future reality is a factor influential to the designing and building of form as it can affect the overall performance and design intent. Through building for the future, the resultant benefit does not lie solely upon people in the current reality, but also those within the future. Through the complexity and inconceivable outcomes , solution to issues which were deemed unsolvable may be unanswered.



PART A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES My understanding of computation in architecture has significantly evolved within the previous few weeks. Prior to the study of architectural computation, my knowledge of architectural practise greatly consisted of computerisation. Whilst this form of design is limited to predetermined forms which do not explore the complexity of parametric modelling, computation and generative design is the antithesis of such. Through the utilisation of Grasshopper this unexpected nature of form and a degree complexity , I was able to gain a preliminary understanding to the impact in which algorithmic sketching can have upon the design practise. This learning and interaction with depth in form which are not composed entirely of Euclidean geometry could have been utilised to improve past designs. Previous work could of been deemed with a better outcome through this acquired knowledge of algorithmic sketching which prescribe non-standard form of greater fluidity and complexity.



Through distortion of points the regular form of a chair is morphed into a unexpected form.

The amount of boxes selected in OcTree has a great effect on the density and fluidity of the form.


By utilising OcTree, a seeminly standard defintion of a chair is given complexity of form.



Through the design brief of ‘aggregated furniture’ exploration of simple lofted forms which were transformed through OcTree were explored. OcTree a command which can produce seemingly Euclidean geometries of squares and rectangles, can be reiterated to find fluidity in form. The bottom left and right demonstrate this quality, however the top left figure through manipulation of control points achieves a form of greater complexity and fluidity.

The differentiation of between which plane the form is populated has great control over the smooth and sharp qualities of the design

‘PROGRAMMED WALL’ Through the further exploration of lofting, with the addition of contouring and manipulation of planes and orients components, I was able to attain a form which represented the idea of a ‘wall’. A wall which permit protection whether mentally or physically, creating shelter for the individual who interacts with it. Through the manipulation of Grasshopper I was able to construct forms varying from sharp and smooth, mimicking the ideals of protection. CONCEPTUALISATION 29

REFERENCES Brady, Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 (pg. 10). Dunne, Anthony & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2014). Dosu Architecture, ‘Bloom’, Dosu-Arch, (revised 2012), <> [accessed 11 March] Elias, Bradley, “Compositional/Generative”, 2018 Dunne, Anthony & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2014). Fry, Tony. Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg, 2008). ICD, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion,’ ICD Uni, <> [Accessed 13 March] Kalay, Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008). Kolarevic, Branko Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003). Link Arc, ‘China Pavillion for Expo Milano 2015’, Link Arc, [9 March 2018]. Oxman, Rivka, Oxman, Robert, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014). OXO Architectes, “Mixed Use Tower in Montpellier, France”, Oxoarch.Com, 2018 <> [Accessed 4 March 2018].



Figure 1.

OXO Architectes, “Mixed Use Tower in Montpellier, France”, Oxoarch.Com, 2018<http://www.> [Accessed 4 March 2018].

Figure 2.

OXO Architectes, “Mixed Use Tower in Montpellier, France”, Oxoarch.Com, 2018 <http://www.> [Accessed 4 March 2018].

Figure 3.

Frearson, Amy, “Changsha Meixihu International Culture and Art Centre by Zaha Hadid Architects”, 2013, <https:// changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art-centre-by-zaha-hadid/> [accessed 4 March 2018]

Figure 4.

Frearson, Amy, “Changsha Meixihu International Culture and Art Centre by Zaha Hadid Architects”, 2013, <https:// changsha-meixihu-international-culture-art-centre-by-zaha-hadid/> [accessed 4 March 2018]

Figure 5.

Link Arc, ‘China Pavillion for Expo Milano 2015’, Link Arc, [9 March 2018].

Figure 6.

Link Arc, ‘China Pavillion for Expo Milano 2015’, Link Arc, [9 March 2018].

Figure 7.

Dosu Architecture, ‘Bloom’, Dosu-Arch, (revised 2012), <> [accessed 11 March]

Figure 8.

Dosu Architecture, ‘Bloom’, Dosu-Arch, (revised 2012), <> [accessed 11 March]

Figure 9.

ICD, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion,’ ICD Uni, <> [Accessed 13 March]

Figure 10. ICD, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion,’ ICD Uni, <> [Accessed 13 March]

Figure 11. Orambra, ‘Prairie House’, Orambra, <>, [accessed 15 March] Figure 12. Orambra, ‘Prairie House’, Orambra, <>, [accessed 15 March] Figure 13. Orambra, ‘Prairie House’, Orambra, <>, [accessed 15 March]