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MAGAZINE OF CULTURAL TOURISM

Januar, 2017. Price 5€

broj 9, godina VII

Volim Život I love life

Vojo Stanić

Od beznaĐa do nade From despair to hopE

Malo je lijepo

Branka Bogavac

StražarSka kućica

Small is beautiful

The Watchman’s Hut

ISSN 1800-8054

Zetska Sveta Gora The Holy Mountain of Zeta

GLAVNI GRAD PODGORICA


Connecting the Balkans with the World.

Logistika pokreće život, mi pokrećemo logistiku Milšped Grupa, tržišni lider u oblasti transporta i logistike na našim prostorima uspješno posluje već 23 godine i u svom sistemu broji preko 1800 zaposlenih i godišnji prihod od 100 miliona eur. Na čvrstim osnovama do sada dostignutog uspjeha i besprekornog poslovanja, Milšped širi svoju mrežu otvaranjem novih tržišta, kako bi svojim klijentima pružio uslugu koja briše sve granice, jer zadovoljstvo klijenata je jedino mjerilo našeg uspjeha. Strateško opredjeljenje kompanije utemeljeno je na visokim vrijednostima korporativne kulture, poštovanju partnerskih odnosa sa klijentima, primjeni naprednih tehnologija kao i društveno odgovornom poslovanju, koje je u srži filozofije poslovanja naše kompanije. Milšped Montenegro posluje na tržištu Crne Gore punih 15 godina. Kompanija Milšped pruža kompletnu logističku uslugu na teritoriji Crne Gore od međunarodnog transporta preko carinskog zastupanja do skladišta, distribucije i domaćeg transporta. Stručnost zaposlenih vam pruža kompletnu sigurnost u domenu poslovanja. Milšped Montenegro predstavlja važnu kariku u pružanju usluga Milšped Grupe. Logistics drives life. We drive logistics. Milsped Group, a market leader in the field of transport and logistics in our region, has been operating successfully for 23 years and its system comprises over 1800 employees and annual revenue of 100 million Euros. The solid foundations of the achieved success and impeccable business are used as a ground for Milsped expansion of its network by opening new markets with the aim of providing its customers a service that erases all boundaries, as the only indicator of our success is the client’s satisfaction. The strategic orientation of the company is based on high values of corporate culture, the respect of partnerships with customers, the implementation of advanced technologies, as well as on the corporate social responsibility that presents the core philosophy of our company. Milsped Montenegro has been operating on Montenegro market for 15 years. Milsped company provides complete logistic service on the Montenegro territory, from International transport through customs representation and storage, distribution and domestic transport. Employees’ expertise ensures your complete security when it comes to the operation. Milsped Montenegro is an important link in providing the services of Milsped Group.

www.milsped.com office.mn@milsped.com


Crnogorska narodna nošnja�������������������������������������� 4 The National Costume Of Montenegro�������������������� 8

OD BEZNAĐA DO NADE - Branka Bogavac�������������������������64 FROM DESPAIR TO HOPE - Branka Bogavac������������������������70

SRCE KULTURE PODGORICE��������������������������������������������������12 THE HEART OF PODGORICA CULTURE��������������������������������14

KULTURA EKONOMIJE I EKONOMIJA KULTURE�����������������76 ECONOMY OF CULTURE AND CULTURE OF ECONOMY���84

Muzej Elektro privrede crne gore na cetinju�����22 the montenegrin museum of electrical power in cetinje�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������24

zetska sveta gora��������������������������������������������������������������88 holy mountain of zeta����������������������������������������������������92

volim život - Vojo Stanić������������������������������������������������������28 I LOVE LIFE - Vojo Stanić����������������������������������������������������������36 malo je lijepo�����������������������������������������������������������������������46 small is beautiful ��������������������������������������������������������������56

ODISEJA NA HIMALAJIMA�����������������������������������������������������96 HIMALAYAN ODYSSEY����������������������������������������������������������108

Elektronsko izdanje časopisa preuzmite na www.renome.me


Uvod Urednice Uvaženi čitaoci, ljubitelji tradicije, materijalnog i nematerijalnog kulturnog nasljeđa, časopis RENOME u ovom broju, između ostalog donosi priče: O nastanku i porijeklu Crnogorske nošnje; razgovor sa Vojom Stanićem, Malo je lijepo, razgovor sa Jankom i Caroline Jovičević, Branka Bogavac u razgovoru - Od beznađa do nade, Muzej EPCG - pripovijeda o pojavi električne energije u Crnoj Gori i elektrifikaciji Cetinja; Kultura ekonomije i ekonomija kulture; Srce kulture grada govori o 50 godina Kulturno Informativnog Centra „Budo Tomović“; Odiseja na Himalajima prenosi iskustva tima „Ženske ekspedicije - Himalaji 2015“ i Zetska Sveta Gora donosi sjećanja na Prečistu Krajinsku, zadužbinu Svetog Vladimira. Pored navedenih članaka, u ovom broju ćete pronaći sadržaje i poruke poslovnih prijatelja koji su vjetar u jedra časopisu Renome i bez kojih ne bi mogli predstaviti ove divne priče vama, čitaocima.

Izdavač/ Publisher: NVO KULTURNI TURIZAM Novaka Miloševa 26. Podgorica, Crna Gora Tel: 00 382 67 523 951 E-mail:office@renome.me www.renome.me Direktor i glavni i odgovorni urednik/ Director, Editor in Chief: Radmila Krgović E-mail: radmila.krgovic@gmail.com Lektura/ Editing: Danilo Leković Grafički dizajn i prelom/ Layout and prepress: Branko Balšić Prevod na engleski/ Translation into English: Dragana Petronijević Lektura prevoda/ Lecturer of translation: Tracy Janjević Naslovna strana/ Home page: Đurovo oko, Lazar Pejović

Uživajte u sadržaju i ovog broja. Radmila Krgović

Fotografija urednice/ Editor in Chief photo: Zoran Fatić

Editor’s Introduction Distinguished readers, lovers of tradition and both tangible and intangible cultural heritage, this issue of RENOME includes among other things: the history of Montenegrin national costume; an interview with Vojo Stanic, Small is Beautiful, an interview with Janko and Caroline Jovicevic, Branka Bogavac, in the interview, From Despair to Hope, The Electric Power Company of Montenegro Museum (EPCG), recounts the phenomenon of electricity in Montenegro and the electrification of Cetinje; in Economy of Culture and Culture of Economy; in The heart of the City’s Culture, we appreciate the role 50 years of the “Budo Tomovic” Cultural and Information Centre; The Energy of the Himalayas, conveys the experiences of the women’s team, “Women’s Expedition – the Himalayas 2015” and the Holy Mountain of Zeta recalls memories of the Virgin of Krajina and the endowment of St. Vladimir. In addition to the aforementioned articles, in this issue you will find content and messages relating to business friends, who are the wind in the sails of the RENOME magazine, and without whom these wonderful stories could not be presented to you, the readers. Enjoy the contents of this issue. 

Radmila Krgovic

Za časopis pišu/ Write for the magazine: mr Svetlana Perović, grad. eng. archit., Podgorica Milan Radović, Podgorica mr Zorica Mrvaljević, Podgorica mr Olivera Doklestić, grad. eng., Herceg Novi Vlasta Mandić, grad.eng. archit., Kotor Nataša Đurić, Belgrade, Isidora Injac, Belgrade Monika Galović, grad. eng. archit., Zagreb Izabela Galović Ninić, grad. eng. archit., Zagreb Eleonora Belobrk, grad. eng. archit., Paris Štampa/Printing: Publikum d.o.o. Beograd

Upis u registar o Evidenciji medija Ministarstva kulture, sporta i medija Republike Crne Gore N° 592

CIP-Katalogizacija u publikaciji Centralna narodna biblioteka Crne Gore, Cetinje 3/9 RENOME / Urednik: Radmila Krgović. - God. 7, br. 9 (2017) - Podgorica (Novaka Miloševa 6): NVO KULTURNI TURIZAM (Publikum, Beograd) ISSN 1800-8054 = Renome (Podgorica) COBISS.CG-ID15517968


mr Zorica Mrvaljević Iz knjige - Crnogorska narodna nošnja Fotografije: Lazar Pejović

Kulturno NASLJEĐE

Crnogorska narodna nošnja (...nastavak iz prethodnog broja)

Dinastija Crnojevića je izražen politički faktor u Zeti više od sto godina, a svoju državu imaju oko pedeset godina, pa je sasvim logično zaključiti da su imali i svoju nošnju kao jedan od dokaza samostalnosti i samosvojnosti. Jedan od indikatora može biti i činjenica da na veoma suženom prostoru Stare Crne Gore i primorja imamo danas čitav

Osnovno pitanje koje se nameće jeste: ako crnogorska nošnja nije formirana u vrijeme Petra I i Petra II Petrovića Njegoša, kada je? Drugo pitanje je: s obzirom da su krojevi svečane i suknene ženske i muške nošnje gotovo istovjetni, a nazivi pojedinačnih djelova isti, koja je prva nastala? Logično, na to se nadovezuju i pitanja iz domena evolucije odijevanja, kombinacija nošnji, turskih i drugih uticaja. Nakon studioznog proučavanja navedene literature, pisanih i likovnih izvora, muzejskih predmeta i dokumentacije, došlo se do ubjeđenja da se formiranje svečane crnogorske nošnje može locirati u vrijeme dinastije Crnojevića, ili još preciznije u vrijeme Stefana (Stefanice) Crnojevića kada je došlo do učvršćenja i širenja njegove države, priznanja i podrške od strane Mletačke Republike, Kotor - Gravira iz druge polovine XII vijeka (G. Rozačo) Kotor - An engraving from the second half of 12th century (G.Rosaccio) tj. sredinom XV vijeka. Ona je prvobitno bila nošnja Crnojevića i najbliže vlastele, da bi niz luksuznih nošnji, crnogorsku dobrotsku, paštrovsku, kasnije, u vrijeme slabljenja države, bila i risansku, itd. koje, najvjerovatnije, predstavljaju svojevrstan nošnja imućnijih ljudi, naročito istaknutih odraz nošnji ugledne zetske vlastele iz doba Balšića i boraca, a nakon pada Crnojevića postaje nakon njih. Međutim, još uvijek se ne može konstatovati jedan od simbola samosvojnosti i da je nošnja Crnojevića, i po kroju i po broju djelova, u nezavisnosti Crnogoraca u borbi za potpunosti odgovarala onome što već znamo iz vremena opstanak. S tim u vezi, smatramo Njegoša i danas. da je crnogorska muška i ženska suknena nošnja morala nastati Kako nošnju određuje više faktora, kao što su kroj, materijal kasnije, postupno, kao odraz od koje se izrađuje, način ukrašavanja, za forme i krojeve određenih istorijskih i ekonomskih pojedinih djelova možemo praviti paralele sa određenim faktora koji su prisiljavali kulturnim fragmentima iz mnogo dublje prošlosti. Pišući Crnogorce na prilagođavanja. o kapama, Mitar Vlahović okruglu plitku kapu, čijem tipu Pri tome, veoma je važno pripada i crnogorska, nalazi čak na ženskoj figuri iz srednjeg istaći i nije teško dokazati da bronzanog doba (1500-1000 god. p.n.e), poznatoj kao crnogorska svečana nošnja kličevački idol1. »Mnogo više predhrišćanskoga nego što nije mogla nastati u jednom mi možemo da dokažemo« u kroju crnogorske nošnje veoma dugom periodu zapazio je i putopisac Johan Kol (1808-1878) koji je posjetio crnogorske istorije, od Crnu Goru u vrijeme Njegoševo. U svom putopisu »Put u pada Crnojevića pa do Istru, Dalmaciju i Crnu Goru«, štampanom u Drezdenu Napoleonovih ratova 1851. god, pravi poređenje bareljefnih predstava tj. u toku više od sarkofaga iz Efesa koji se čuva u Ambroskoj zbirci u Beču, trista godina. i može poslužiti kao jedan od najstarijih likovnih izvora

1 M. Vlahović, O najstarijoj kapi kod Jugoslovena s obzirom na zbirku kapa Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu, ZEM, Beograd, 1901-1951.

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Paja Jovanović - Vraćanje Crnogoraca iz boja Paja Jovanović - The return of the Montenegrins from a fight

za izučavanje kroja nošnje uopšte, sa dolamom muške svečane nošnje. U Kotorskom policijskom arhivu, čuva se jedan izvještaj o Crnogorcima upućen od tadašnjeg kotorskog podestata Spiridona Sutovića, u kojem kaže da Crnogorci imaju odijelo kroja starih Sarmata2.

Istorijske okolnosti i činjenice Neophodno je koncentrisati pažnju na XV vijek i na one kulturno-istorijske procese koji direktno imaju odraza na odijevanje stanovništva ovog područja i ukazuju na porijeklo, pa i formiranje crnogorskih nošnji. Jedna od bitnih ocjena je da su u Zeti toga vremena prisutni gotovo svi civilizacijski tokovi tada razvijenog svijeta i da zetska vlastela aktivno učestvuje u tim procesima. Stvaranje niza manjih država na širem prostoru Balkana i njihovi izraženi napori da se identifikuju i učvrste, u vrijeme kada otomanska Turska postepeno osvaja i drastično mijenja društvene prilike u pojedinim područjima, u Zeti izaziva potrebu da se traži sve veći oslonac na Mletačku Republiku, tada jednu od najrazvijenijih država u svijetu. Međutim, pravoslavna religija i njene kulturne manifestacije imaju izražen

uticaj u kontinentalnom dijelu Zete, naročito u državi Crnojevića. Treba imati u vidu da je tokom XV vijeka renesansa duboko prodrla u sve pore društvenog života, pogotovo u kulturi primorja, ali i bliže unutrašnjosti Zete. Nažalost, te civilizacijske tekovine, ogromnog značaja za Evropu, suočavaju se u ovom području sa izuzetno agresivnom najezdom osmanlija i njihove orijentalne kulture, što će dovesti do izraženih retrogradnih kretanja i teškog istorijskog perioda borbe za opstanak. Srećna okolnost bila je da su Mletačka Republika i Dubrovnik dosta uspješno odolijevali tom osmanlijskom nadiranju, pa je i veći dio Zetskog primorja ostao pod njihovom kontrolom, sa razvojem koji je održao renesansne tekovine i kulturu slobodne Evrope, naročito u Kotoru i Boki Kotorskoj uopšte. U Ulcinju, Baru i Budvi, elementi rane renesanse javljaju se relativno brzo nakon njenog ispoljavanja u italijanskim gradovima, naročito u Veneciji sa kojom Zeta održava intenzivnu trgovinu. Može se reći da Zeta iz doba Balšića i naročito Crnojevića, ne zaostaje mnogo u sveukupnom društvenom razvoju, od tada najrazvijenijih područja Evrope, među kojima prednjači

2 Zapisi, XV, Cetinje, 1936, 59


Cetinjski Manastir Cetinje Manastery

Mletačka Republika. To potvrđuju brojni arhivski podaci o trgovini, ali i materijalni dokazi na spomenicima kulture koji su se očuvali do danas. Tako, na primjer, elemente rane renesanse na spomenicima kulture u primorju, od Ulcinja do Kotora, zapažamo mahom kao aplikacije na kasnogotičkim građevinama. Sudeći po gotičko-renesansnim vratima palate Bizanti u Kotoru, umjetnost građenja i dekorisanja na ovim prostorima ne zaostaje za najboljim primjerima na jadranskoj obali. Isto tako, sudeći po čuvenom Raspeću u riznici kotorske katedrale, gotičko-renesansna djela u drvetu imala su sve karakteristike najvišeg umjetničkog dometa toga vremena. Kotoranin Andrija Paltašić, Podgoričanin Božidar Vuković, Đurađ Crnojević i Makarije, štampajući misale i knjige humanizma najvećih štamparskih i umjetničkih kvaliteta, najbolje su potvrde kulturnog i intelektualnog dometa koji je imala tadašnja Zeta i šire područje primorja. Dvorac i manastir koje je Ivan Crnojević u zadnjim decenijama XV vijeka podigao na Cetinju, najljepši su primjeri i dokazi renesansnog prodora i u bližu unutrašnjost zemlje.Inkunabule cetinjske

štamparije obiluju najvećim dometima renesansnog štamparstva toga vremena. To se može jasno uočiti na gravirama Sabor Jovana Preteče i Tri crkvena meloda u cetinjskom Oktoihu iz 1494. Analizirajući Renesansu u Crnoj Gori Pavle Mijović pored ostalog ističe: »Ma koliko skromna po broju očuvanih djela, renesansa u Crnoj Gori zaslužuje da, svojim visokim dometom, bude unijeta u preglede evropske istorije umjetnosti«3. Sredinom XV vijeka Mletačka Republika je pravi pomorski, proizvodni i trgovački gigant. Na primjer, 1436. godine ona je imala 3300 trgovačkih brodova, od čega 300 brodova nosivosti preko 120 tona, zatim 45 galija (ratnih brodova) kao i svoja uporišta širom Mediterana. Kontrolisala je čitavo današnje crnogorsko primorje, pa i Skadar do njegovog pada, sedamdesetih godina XV vijeka. U njenim radionicama svile, sukna i porheta, radilo je 16.000 radnika, a za potrebe trgovine nabavljalo se iz ostalih italijanskih gradova još 90.000 peča sukna i porheta, kao i velike količine flamanske, francuske i engleske tkanine koje su se prodavale širom Sredozemlja i Istoka, pa i u Zeti.

3 P. Mijović, Umjetničko blago Crne Gore, Jugoslovenska revija, Beograd, 171

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Ferdo Kikerec - Crnogorci u pokretu Ferdo Kikerec - Montenegrins on the move


Author: Ms. Zorica Mrvaljević Photos: Lazar Pejović Translation: Full professor Dr. Janko Andrijašević

CULTURAL HERITAGE

The National Costume Of Montenegro

Feliks Kanic - Rijeka Crnojevića 1858. godine. Feliks Kanic - Rijeka Crnojevica in 1858

The main question we can pose here is the following: if the Montenegrin costume was not yet designed in the time of Petar I and Petar II Petrović Njegoš, when was it created?! The second question is: considering the fact that the designs of both the festive and the woollen men’s and women’s costumes are almost identical, and the names of certain garments are identical, which one appeared first? Logically, these questions are followed by the ones concerning the evolution of clothing, the combination of costumes, the Turkish and other influences. After the detailed study of the mentioned literature, written and visual sources, museum artefacts and various documents, we came to believe that the origin

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of the Montenegrin festive costume dates back to the times of the Crnojević dynasty, or more precisely to the time of Stefan (Stefanica) Crnojević, when his country was established and enlarged and when it was recognized and supported by the Venetian Republic. All this took place in mid-fifteenth century. At first, the costume was worn only by the Crnojević dynasty and the highest aristocrats, but later, when the state got weaker, prosperous people also started to wear it, especially outstanding fighters, and after the fall of the Crnojević dynasty it became one of the symbols of autochthony and independence of the Montenegrins in their struggle for survival. Hence, we consider that the Montenegrin men’s and women’s woollen costume probably appeared later and gradually, as


an expression of certain historical and economic factors which forced Montenegrins to adapt to new circumstances. Thereby, it is very important to point out and quite easy to prove that the Montenegrin festive costume could not have appeared in a rather long period of Montenegrin history, i.e. between the fall of the Crnojević dynasty and Napoleon wars, which spans over three hundred years. The Crnojević dynasty represented a strong political factor in Zeta for over a century, while they ruled the country for about fifty years, so it is quite logical to conclude that they also had their own costume as one of the symbols of independence and self-identity. Another indicator is also the fact that in the very small area of Old Montenegro and the seaside today we have a great number of luxurious costumes (Montenegrin, Dobrota, Paštrovići, Risan costumes, etc.), which, most likely, represent certain variants of the costumes worn by the Zeta aristocrats from the time of the Balšić dynasty and later. However, it is still not possible to say that the Crnojević costume is identical by both the design and the number of garments with what we know from Njegoš’s time and afterwards. Since a national costume is of composite nature, consisting of design, material it is made of, ornamentation, etc., we can compare elements of design with some cultural fragments from an even remoter past. Writing about caps, Mitar Vlahović discovered the round, shallow cap (the Montenegrin cap belongs to this type) on a female statue dating back to the middle-bronze age (1500-1000 B.C), known as the Idol of Kličevo.1 Johann Kohl (1808-1878), a travel writer who visited Montenegro in Njegoš’s time, noted »much more pre-Christian elements than we can prove« in the design of the Montenegrin costume. In his book »A Journey to Istria, Dalmatia and Montenegro«, published in Dresden in 1851, he compares the festive dolama jacket with the relief figures on sarcophaguses from Ephesus, which are kept in the Ambrosian Collection in Vienna, and which can be taken as one of the oldest artistic sources for the study of national costumes in general. The Kotor police archive preserves a report on Montenegrins, written by the then deputy governor of Kotor Spiridon Sutović, in which he says that the Montenegrins have their costume designed like the traditional clothes of old Sarmatians.2

Historical Circumstances and Facts We need to concentrate on the fifteenth century and those cultural and historical processes which had direct influence on the way of dressing of the population from these parts, and which point to the origin and development of the Montenegrin national costume. One of the relevant facts is that in the medieval Zeta was affected by almost all civilizational streams of the then developed world and

that the aristocracy from Zeta took active part in these processes. The creation of a series of smaller states in the larger Balkan region and their expressed efforts to develop distinct identities and to unite in the time when the Ottoman Turkey gradually conquered and drastically changed social circumstances in some areas, made Zeta seek after ever growing support of the Venetian Republic, which was at that time one of the best developed countries in the world. However, the Orthodox religion and its cultural manifestations had a predominant influence in the continental part of Zeta, especially in the state of the Crnojevićs. We should bear in mind that during the fifteenth century renaissance got deep into all spheres of social life, particularly in the coastal culture, but also in the continental parts of Zeta close to the sea. Unfortunately, these civilizational achievements, of huge importance for the whole of Europe, were faced in these parts with an extremely aggressive invasion of the Ottoman Turks and their oriental culture, which brought about strong retrograde movements and an extremely difficult historical period of struggle for survival began. The favourable thing was that the Venetian Republic and Dubrovnik rejected Ottoman invasion quite successfully, and so a greater part of the Zeta coast remained under their control, developing in the spirit of renaissance and the culture of free Europe, particularly the town of Kotor and Boka Kotorska in general. In the towns of Ulcinj, Bar and Budva, the elements of early renaissance started to show relatively soon after their appearance in Italian cities, particularly in Venice, with which Zeta kept intensive trade relations. It can be concluded that in the period of the Balšić and especially the Crnojević dynasties Zeta did not tarry far behind in the overall social development in comparison with the then most developed regions in Europe, led by the Venetian Republic. This can be proved by many archive documents of trade activities, but also by material remnants and cultural monuments which have been preserved so far. Thus, for example, we can observe elements of early renaissance in the cultural monuments at

1 M. Vlahović, On the Oldest Cap among the Yugoslav Peoples In the Collection of Caps of the Ethngraphicall Museum in Belgrade, ZEM, Belgrade, pp. 1901-1951. 2 Notes, XV, Cetinje, 1936, p. 59.

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M. Valnej - Knjaz dijeli pravdu M. Valnej - The Prince passes verdicts

the seaside, from Ulcinj to Kotor, primarily in form of applications on late-Gothic buildings. Judging by the Gothic-Renaissance door of the palace Bizanti in Kotor, the architecture and the art of ornamentation in these parts did not leg behind the best examples which can be found in other places along the Adriatic coast. In the same way, based on the famous rood in the treasury of the Kotor cathedral, the Gothic-Renaissance works of art in wood had all characteristics of the highest artistic attainments of that time. For their involvement in printing missals and humanism-spirited books with the characteristics of the highest printing and artistic attainments of the period, Andrija Paltašić from Kotor, Božidar Vuković from Podgorica, Đurađ Crnojević and Makarije are the best representatives of the cultural and intellectual accomplishments to be found in old Zeta and the wider coastal region. The castle and the monastery built by Ivan Crnojević in the last decades of the fifteenth century in Cetinje represent the most beautiful examples and proofs of the renaissance influences even in the continental parts of the country lying close to the coast. The incunabula printed in the Cetinje printing house abound in highest-quality examples of renaissance printing in those days. This can be observed quite clearly in the two itching illustrations

called “The Assembly of Jovan Preteča” and “The Three Ecclesiastical Composers” in the book Oktoih printed in Cetinje in 1494. In his study analysis of renaissance in Montenegro, Pavle Mijović wrote the following: »However modest in the number of preserved works of art, Montenegrin renaissance deserves to be represented in books of European art history due to their high artistic value.«3 In mid-fifteenth century the Venetian Republic was a real navigating, industrial and trade giant. For example, it owned 3.300 trade ships in 1436, out of which 300 ships had the carrying capacity of over 120 tons, 45 of them were galleys (war ships). Venice also possessed its strongholds throughout the Mediterranean. It controlled the complete coast which belongs to Montenegro today, including the town of Skadar until its fall in the 1670s. About 16.000 workers worked in its factories of silk, woollen fabric and porhet (type of thick fabric). For its trade purposes, Venice purchased from other Italian cities another 90.000 pečas (a measure for fabric) of wool and porhet, as well as large quantities of Flemish, French and English fabric which they sold throughout the East and the Mediterranean, including Zeta. 3 P. Mijović, The Art Heritage of Montenegro, Yugoslav Review, Belgrade, p. 171.

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Kulturno-informativni centar „Budo Tomović“

KULTURA

Foto: Arhiva Renome

SRCE KULTURE PODGORICE

mr Snežana Burzan, direktorica KIC-a

Kulturno-informativni centar „Budo Tomović“ je prošle godine proslavio pedeset godina postojanja. Pola vijeka ova institucija je oblikovala kulturni život građana Glavnog grada Crne Gore. Budo Tomović je ostavio pjesnički i pripovjedački trag u stvaralaštvu Crne Gore XX vijeka. Volio je Crnu Goru ljubavlju, znanjem, pjesmama, stvaralaštvom, idejama, hrabrošću, mladošću i životom. Nekada Dom omladine „Budo Tomović“ a danas Kulturno – informativni centar „Budo Tomović“ baštini kulturu Crne Gore i njenih stvaralaca, sa posebnim pijetetom za mlade stvaraoce, pune elana i želje za izazovima. Izuzetno je lako kritikovati i naći desetine mana ovoj instituciji, no na kraju bi opet ostala istina koju je davne 1980. godine u Omladinskom pokretu zabilježio Zoran Ljumović: „Kada se ništa ne događa u Domu omladine, ništa se i ne mijenja u kulturnom i zabavnom životu mladih Titograda“. To što je nekada Dom omladine a danas KIC, na svakom stepeniku ličio najviše na one koji su rukovodili njime, manje ili više spretno, bilo je za očekivati. Jer teško popustljive karike unaprijed naslijeđene matrice, podređenost politici i finansijska zavisnost, ištu zaista volšebno umijeće i volju svih angažovanih u instituciji, od vratara na ulazu do samog uredništva i rukovodilaca. Srećom, među njima je bilo i vrlo darovitih i sposobnih ljudi, navodi se u Monografiji

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povodom pedesetogodišnjice ove institucije. Mijenjali su se mnogi rukovodioci donoseći svoje sposobnosti i znanje u srce ove institucije. Danas je na čelu KIC-a istrajna, obrazovana, sposobna i sa velikim srcem posvećena svom radu, mr Snežana Burzan, koja je svoje srce ujedinila sa KIC-om i tako KIC danas ima dva srca, kako kažu ljubitelji kulture, zabave i sadržaja koje baštini ovaj hram kulture. Teško je uskladiti kvalitet programa sa ograničenim budžetom, ali Snežana svojim prodornim naporima i bogatim poznanstvima, znanjem i umijećem uspijeva mnogo više od mnogih njenih prethodnika, u svom drugom mandatu, da obogati sadržaj i pruži šansu svim stvaraocima a posebno mladima, da se predstave publici u KIC-u. Danas, kada smo svjedoci inertnosti institucija prema stvarnosti i reagovanju na promjene, pravo je osvježenje kada vidite koliko pojedinci urade. Ne vjerujem u kolektivni duh, kolektivni preporod, kolektivni napredak. Vjerujem u duh pojedinca, njegov lični preporod i napredak. A kada imamo više pojedinaca koji stvaraju, razvijaju sebe i kao takvi mijenjaju okruženje. Uslovi za rad i razvoj trebaju biti bolji od strane organizovanog sistema. A te uslove opet stvaraju pojedinci koji vide dalje - iza horizonta masa koje predvode. Evolucija kulture nam je potrebna. Bez većeg i organizovanijem ulaganja na polju kulture, neće se mnogo napraviti u izgradnji kulturnog identiteta zemlje.


i gradimo u vrijeme u kojem živimo. Kroz jedan serijal fotografija predstavljamo KIC nekad i danas, a za sve ljubitelje istraživanja na temu razvoja kulture u Podgorici i KIC-u, prostora za rad ima i na pretek. Kulturno-informativni centar „Budo Tomović“ prva je javna ustanova u Crnoj Gori, dobitnik nagrade Iskra za Filantropiju, odnosno Specijalnog priznanja za doprinos opštem dobru, koje dodjeljuje Fond za aktivno građanstvo. Foto: Arhiva KIC

Ono što nije zapisano kao da se nije ni dogodilo. Tako je Snežana uspjela da sačuva za buduće generacije, napore i svjedočanstva razvoja Kulturno-informativnog centra „Budo Tomović“ od njegovih početaka do danas i da to ukoriči u kvalitetno monografsko svjedočanstvo „SEMPER IUVENIS“ povodom pedesetogodišnjice rada ove institucije. Svjedoci smo prethodnih generacija i vjekova unazad, nepostojanja tragova pisanih izvora u pojedinim vjekovima, što prekida sjećanja i opominje na odgovornost prema tradiciji i kulturi koju stvaramo

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Cultural and Information Centre “Budo Tomovic” By: Radmila Krgovic

CULTURE

THE HEART OF PODGORICA CULTURE Photo: Renome archive

The Cultural and Information Centre, “Budo Tomovic” celebrated its fiftieth anniversary last year. For half a century this institution has shaped the cultural life of the citizens of the Capital City of Montenegro. Budo Tomovic left a poetic and narrative mark on the creative, twentieth century works of Montenegro. He loved Montenegro, love itself, knowledge, poems, creativity, ideas, courage, youth and life. Once known as the Budo Tomovic Youth Centre and nowadays as the Budo Tomovic Cultural and Information Centre, it cherishes the cultural heritage of Montenegro and its creators, with special reverence for young artists, who are full of enthusiasm and a desire for challenges. It is very easy to criticize and to find dozens of shortcomings with this institution, and yet the truth, as documented by Zoran Ljumovic in the Youth Movement back in 1980, still stands: “When nothing is happening in the Youth Centre, nothing is changing in the cultural and entertainment lives of young people in Titograd.” It was only to be expected that the former Youth Centre, now the Cultural and Information Centre, would, in the main, reflect those who managed it. Some managed better than others. It is difficult to break ties and to advance the legacy of the matrix. There remains subordination to politics and financial dependency, which require truly magical skills and the will of everyone involved in the institution, from the doorman to the editorial board and managers. Fortunately, according to a monograph published on the fiftieth anniversary of this institution, there were some very talented and capable people among them. Many executives have changed, bringing their skills and knowledge to the heart of this institution. Today, the Cultural and Information Centre is headed up by Ms. Snezana Burzan M.A, a persistent, educated, and capable person, who is dedicated to her work and has a good heart. The culture and entertainment fans who revere this “Temple of Culture”, say that Snezana united her own heart with that of the Centre, resulting in the Cultural and Information Centre having two hearts today. It is hard to arrange quality programs on a limited budget, and yet now in her second term, down to her keen efforts and abundance of acquaintances, knowledge and skills, Snezana manages to achieve

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Ms. Snezana Burzan M.A

much more than many of her predecessors, to enrich the content and give a chance to all creators, especially young people, to present their work to the audience at the Centre. These days, when we are witnessing the inertia of institutions towards reality and responding to change, it is really refreshing to see how much some individuals can achieve. I do not believe in a collective spirit, collective revival, and collective progress. I believe in the spirit of the individual, one’s personal revival and progress. When there are more individuals who create, they develop themselves and in doing


Photos: KIC archive

so, change the environment. The conditions for work and development ought to be better. There needs to be a more organized system. Such conditions will then create individuals who see beyond - beyond the mass led horizon. This is the evolution of culture that we need. Without a larger and more organized investment in the field of culture, little will be done to develop the cultural identity of the country. What is not written is as if it has never happened. Snezana has thus managed to preserve, for future generations, the efforts, testimonies and development history of the Budo Tomovic Cultural and Information Centre, from the very beginning to the present day. To

commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the institution, she had it all bound together in a high-quality monographic testimony, entitled “SEMPER IUVENIS�. We are the witnesses of previous generations and past centuries. Over the generations, there has been a lack of written evidence, which interrupts memories and warns of the responsibility we have to protect the tradition and culture that we create and build, in the period in which we live. The past and present Cultural and Information Centre is shown through a series of photographs, and there is still more than enough room for all lovers of research to work on and explore the development of culture in Podgorica and the Cultural and Information Centre.

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Najbolji hotel u 2014. godini

Hotel Hemera

Porodični lanac hotela Astorija počeo je otvaranjem prvog hotela u Starom gradu u Budvi, zatim u Kotoru i u Podgorici 2013. godine. U okviru kompanije posluju i kafe Astorija u Delta sitiju, Astorija Beach na Ričardovoj glavi i restoran La Boka na Slovenskoj plaži. Povod našeg razgovora sa direktom kompanije Nikolom Perovićem, u vezi je sa priznanjem koje je hotel „Hemera“ iz Podgorice dobio za najbolji hotel u 2014. godini. „Porodično se bavimo ugostiteljstvom. Pored hotela i restorana, imamo sopstvenu proizvodnju kolača, sladoleda, peciva i hljebova u Lastvi Grbaljskoj, a unazad nekoliko mjeseci smo počeli i sa organskom proizvodnjom u Danilovgradu. Nagrada za hotel „Hemeru“ nagrada je svim zaposlenim, a na ličnom nivou me veoma raduje da smo uložili rad u nešto kvalitetno i, da imamo podsticaj za budućnost, da još investiramo, da širimo naše poslovanje i nadamo se da cemo uspjeti u tome. Enterijere naših hotela radila je arhitektica iz Grčke. Njena vizija spaja staru grčku kulturu sa modernim eneterijerom. Što se tiče saradnje kulture i turizma, to je neophodno. Mi smo, kad je u pitanju hotel Hemera, radili različite promocije serija i filmova sa Mimom Karadžićem i treba još više raditi u tom pravcu. U Bokeškoj ulici je prošle godine organizovan festival koji je trajao par dana, mislim da bi saradnja sa opštinom ili državom, kad govorimo o Podgorici, mogla da doprinese dosta sadržaju za

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goste koji borave u hotelima, tako da se segmentira u više djelova grada, kako bi podigli tu svijest i usmjerili je više prema kulturi. Gosti koji duže ostaju u Podgorici primjećuju taj manjak sadržaja u gradu. Recimo Stara Varoš je 500m od centra, mislim da su i naše nove generacije iz Podgorice potpuno izgubile osjećaj za neki od važnijih kulturnih lokaliteta u gradu. To je veliki nedostatak. Preduzetnici mogu dosta toga da pokrenu, ali bez podrške Glavnog grada i države to je teško. Mladi preduzetnici koji započinju biznis moraju prije svega biti uporni. Sigurno će imati dosta opstrukcija, dosta barijera, svih vrsta, i od konkurencije i od strane države, i koliko god puta da padnu, treba da ustanu i da nastave dalje i ja mislim da je to recept za uspjeh. Što se tiče proizvodnje, tu je kvalitet na prvom mjestu i mislim da su naši ljudi sposobni da odgovore kvalitetom. Ali, da bi došli do tog kvaliteta, moraju dosta da ulože i ta cijena nije konkurentna u odnosu na masovnu proizvodnju drugih zemalja. Tu je država ključna, da prepozna taj segment kao što su prepoznali turizam, i da proizvođače jače podrži. Mi smo država sa zanemarljivom industrijom, i nama ostaju turizam i poljoprivreda. Mladi ljudi treba da se više uključe. Oni bi svi da rade u državnim institucijama, treba više da imaju neke svoje biznis ideje. Velika prepreka kod mladih ljudi je strah od neuspjeha, i to što u Crnoj Gori, jedan veliki broj mladih ljudi ne želi da radi“, ističe Nikola Perović.


THE BEST HOTEL in 2014

Hotel Hemera The family hotel chain, Astoria began with the opening of its first hotel in the Old Town of Budva, then in Kotor and then Podgorica in 2013. The Company operates CafĂŠ Astoria in Delta City, Astoria Beach at Ricardova Glava Beach and La Boka restaurant at Slovenska Plaza. Our interview with Mr. Nikola Perovic, Company Director, was prompted by the recognition awarded to the hotel Hemera, Podgorica, as the best hotel in 2014. “Catering is our family business. In addition to hotels and restaurants, we have our own production line for cakes, ice cream, pastries and bread in Lastva Grbaljska, and a few months ago we started organic production in Danilovgrad. The award which was given to the hotel Hemera is an award for all of our employees, and I am personally very pleased that we have invested in a high-quality project and that we have an incentive to invest more in the future and expand our business. We hope that we shall succeed in doing so. The hotel interiors were designed by an architect from Greece. Her vision combines old Greek culture with modern interior design. With regards to cooperation between culture and tourism, this is essential. When it comes to hotel Hemera, we have organized a series of television and movie promotions with Mima Karadzic, and intend to do even more in that direction. Last year a festival, which lasted a few days, was organized in Bokeska Street and I believe that cooperation from the Municipality of Podgorica or the State could make a significant contribution to the variety of content on offer for hotel guests. It should be segmented and arranged in various parts of the city, in order to raise awareness and focus it more on culture. The longer-staying guests in Podgorica notice the lack of cultural content in the city. For example, the Old Town (Stara Varos) is 500 m from the city centre, and I believe that even the new generation of Podgorica has completely lost all feeling for some of the most important cultural sites in the city. This is a major drawback. Entrepreneurs may have a lot to offer at the outset but without the support of the Capital City and State, it is difficult. Young entrepreneurs starting a business must first and foremost be persistent. They are sure to face a lot of obstruction, a lot of barriers of all kinds, both from the competition and the State, and yet no matter how many times one falls, one needs to get up and carry on. I believe that is the recipe for success. As for production, quality comes first here, and I believe that our people are able to respond with quality. Nevertheless, to achieve such quality a lot has to be invested, and the price is not competitive with the mass production of other countries. The participation of the State is crucial here, to recognize that segment in the same way as it has recognized tourism, and to provide

more support to the producers. Industry is negligible in our country, but what we do have is tourism and agriculture. Young people need to get more involved. They would all prefer to work in State institutions when more of them should have their own business ideas. Fear of failure is a major obstacle for young people, in addition to having a large number of young people who simply do not want to work in Montenegro,� concludes Nikola Perovic.

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Nagrađeni najbolji u turizmu i ugostiteljstvu Podgorice Ovogodišnja, 34. dodjela priznanja najboljima u turizmu i ugostiteljstvu Glavnog grada Podgorica za 2016.godinu, upriličena je 13.decembra u restoranu „Elit“, u Capital plazi.

Otvarajući manifestaciju zamjenik gradonačelnika Podgorice, Časlav Vešović, istakao je da Glavni grad kao administrativni, privredni, kulturni i finansijski centar

„Na bazi osmišljene strategije evidentan je progres broja dolazaka i noćenja gostiju, a Podgorica u protekle dvije godine bilježi dvocifrene stope rasta u tim parametrima“, istakao je Vešović. On je podsjetio na činjenicu da je Podgorica nedavno dobila vrijedno priznanje za razvoj turizma i održivog razvoja iz Brisela, a sa otvaranjem tri renomirana hotelska brenda, u samo jednom mjesecu, na vrlo kreativan i konkretan način daje doprinos stvaranju bolje

države ima sve preduslove da pruži ukupno bogatiji i kvalitetniji turistički proizvod i samim tim da veći doprinos ukupnom turističkom proizvodu Crne Gore.

turističke ponude Podgorice i Crne Gore. „Uvjeren sam da su nagrade, kao i prethodnih godina, zasluženo otišle u prave ruke i iskoristio bih priliku da sve prisutne pozovem da zajedno sa upravom grada i sa nadležnim državnim institucijama i u narednom periodu doprinose saržajnijem turističkom imidžu Podgorice, kako bi ona bila prepoznatljiva tačka na turističkoj mapi regiona i Evrope“, zaključio je Vešović.


Direktorka TO Podgorice, Tatjana Popović, čestitala je svim dobitnicima priznanja i ujedno izrazila za-

dovoljstvo zbog postojanja kompanija i kolektiva, koji svojim angažovanjem čine turističku ponudu

sadržajnijom, te na taj način doprinose da se Podgorica razvija kao kvalitetna turistička destinacija. „Posebnu zahvalnost dugujemo pojedincima, koji su učinili da svaki gost i turista ponese lijepe utiske iz našeg grada, a mi ćemo se i dalje truditi da to prepoznamo i nagradimo. Vjerujemo da će sljedeća godina biti još

uspješnija, kada je riječ o razvoju turizma u Glavnom gradu, a tome će, sigurna sam, umnogome doprinjeti skoro otvaranje novih hotelskih i ugostiljskih objekata, te postojanje svjetskihhotelskih brendova u Podgorici, koji već daju zavidne rezultate u svom poslovanju“, zaključila je Popović.

U kategoriji „Najbolje kompanije i institucije“ priznanja uloviću, kuvarici Slađani Šoć, konobaru Cvetku Bjelosu dobili: kompanija „Čelebić“, hotel „Ziya“ (kategori- brkoviću, recepcionerki Milici Mihailović, slastičarki je 5 zvjezdica), mali hotel „Philia“ (kategorije Ivani Jovović, novinaru Miomiru Marošu, te ko4 zvjezdice), restoran „Elit – Lounge bar“, munalnim radnicima Draganu Vojinovićui kafe bar „Culture club Štrudla“, picerija Gašiju Bajramu. „Lanterna“, turistička agencija „Grand“, turističko-izletničko mjesto „Imanje KnTuristička organizacija Podgorice, više jaz“, turistička manifestacija „Vikend u od tri decenije, nagrađuje pojedince i Titogradu“ i časopis „Caffe Montenegro kolektive koji su svojim radom doprinjeli Magazine“. obogaćivanju turističke ponude Glavnog GLAVNI GRAD PODGORICA grada, te podstiče i ostale da unapređuju, Kada je riječ o najboljim pojedincima, kako svoje poslovanje, tako i lične, profesiopriznanja su uručena: menadžeru Rajku Radnalne vještine.


rist Agency Tou


Adventure park Gorica Placed nearby Podgorica city center, it is an ideal place for pastime and recreation, equally interesting for children as well as adults, individuals and groups, sportists and amateurs. If You have fear of heights, you will overcome it through a lot of excitement and fun.

Adventure park basically represents an activity which is based on personal achievements with the purpose to face their own fears. Challenges can be physical and psychical. In certain cases, when we organize teambuilding, they include development of technical skills in order to solve the safty of other participants who pass the obstacles. These situations often include trust, good leadership and coaching skills, and the main aim is to realize the level of team interaction, the way of solving the problem and the question of leadership. The most mentioned results are: • • • • •

Strengthening the self-confidence Taking the risk in a positive way Better collaboration Making a decision in a better way Better connection

• • • • •

Trust Better leadership Setting a goal in a better manner Better team work And of course spending time in a fresh air with different physical activities.

CLIMBING WALL Beside the tracks in the Adventure park we also offer artificial clibing wall for all those who wants to try another adventure. For all ages from 4 to 70 years.

Podgorica Phone: +382 (0)20 673 645

infogorica@avanturistickipark.com www.avanturistickipark.com


Tekst i fotografije: EPCG

KOMERCIJALNA Reportaža

MUZEJ ELEKTRO PRIVREDE CRNE GORE NA CETINJU Cetinje – Grad Muzej na svakom koraku domaćim i inostranim turistima nudi veliki broj Muzeja u kojima je pohranjena istorija crnogorskog naroda i države. Muzeji: Dvor kralja Nikole, Biljarda, Cetinjski manastir, Etnografski muzej, Umjetnički muzej… iz godine u godinu bilježe sve veći broj posjetilaca. Tu je i muzej EPCG ili Tehnički muzej, smješten u zgradi prve centrale na dizel gorivo iz 1910. godine. Autentična oprema i mašina iz koje su prvi kilovat sati električne energije osvijetlili prijestoničku glavnu ulicu i crnogorski dvor, eksponati su koji svjedoče o bogatoj istoriji i razvoju elektroprivredne djelatnosti u Crnoj Gori. Svjetlost plinskih lampi ustupa mjesto električnim sijalicama Krajem XIX vijeka na Cetinju, kao i u drugim većim varošima u Crnoj Gori, ulice je osvjetljavala žmirkava svjetlost fenjera, koji su početkom XX vijeka zamijenjeni plinskim lampama. Osvetljenje koje su proizvodile ove lampe bilo je regulisano posebnim pravilnikom i trajalo je obično po nekoliko sati. Gradska rasvjeta u većini slučajeva koristila se u čast nekog događaja, a stanovništvo je o tome bilo obavještavano putem novina. Od plinskih lampi korišćene su lampe »Aladin« i »Auto-Lux«, koje su se pokazale kao izuzetno dobre

za tu namjenu. Sa ovim lampama koje su davale vrlo lijepu i prijatnu svjetlost bio je osvijetljen prostor oko Vlaške crkve. Nakon ove probe Uprava varoši Cetinja, 31. decembra 1909. godine, donosi odluku da se grad bolje osvijetli, tim prije jer se približavao veliki jubilej - 50 godina vladavine Knjaza Nikole koji je trebalo proslaviti sljedeće 1910. godine. Veoma brzo u zvaničnom listu knjaževine Crne Gore, „Glas Crnogorca”, raspisan je poziv firmama da najkasnije do februara 1910. godine podnesu ponude za osvetljenje Cetinja. U pozivu, radi primamljivosti istog, naglašeno je da će i druge varoši u Crnoj Gori uvesti isti tip osvetljenja. Javile su se dvije firme, jedna iz Njemačke, a druga iz Češke, ali pregovori sa njima nijesu urodili plodom. Radilo se o kratkom roku, jer čitav proces instaliranja osvetljenja trebalo je da bude završen do početka avgusta.

Osvjetljenje Cetinja Nakon dobijanja negativnih odgovora od firmi koje su se prijavile po pozivu, Uprava varoši se našla na velikoj muci, jer sve je ukazivalo na to, da od realizacije čitavog projekta neće biti ništa. Međutim, krajem marta stigla je ponuda od Italijana Emauela Krausa iz Trsta za uvođenje električnog osvetljenja. Kako je bio nepoznat crnogorskoj javnosti, Ministarstvo inostranih djela, od austrougarskog poslanstva na Cetinju zatražilo je informacije o njemu. Nakon provjera, uslijedila je preporuka crnogorskoj strani da je Emauel Kraus ozbiljan poslovni čovjek, koji je sa svojim bratom Oskarom, vlasnik firme „Emanuele Kraus – Trieste/ Ufficio tehnico industriale” koja se bavila nabavkom i montažom industrijske opreme i motora.

Formiranje Crnogorskog akcionarskog društva za elektriku Krajem aprila uslijedili su pregovori, da bi 18. maja 1910. godine bio potpisan Ugovor kojim se Uprava varoši Cetinja obavezala da preduzeću »Emanuele

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Kraus« ustupi koncesiju za izgradnju i rad električne centrale na Cetinju, u trajanju od 30 godina, kao i da se u tom periodu ne dozvoli nijednom drugom preduzeću da ovu djelatnost obavlja na Cetinju. Preduzeće „Emanuele Kraus” je trebalo da formira „Crnogorsko akcionarsko društvo za elektriku” koje se obavezalo da najkasnije do 20. avgusta instalira postrojenje, osvijetli glavnu gradsku ulicu, dvor, dom knjaza Mirka, Vladin dom, Ministarstvo vojno, Vojni stan, Zetski dom i Djevojački institut, a da u roku od šest mjeseci nakon toga, svi ostali potrošači dobiju struju i da varoš potpuno bude osvijetljena. Emanuel Kraus je nakon potpisivanja Ugovora izvršio nabavku dizel-motora, generatora i druge opreme u Beču i Gracu. U Gracu su kupljena dva dizel-motora od po 60 KS i dva generatora od po 55 KWA i za period od dva mjeseca uspio je da instalira postrojenje za električnu centralu i uvede osvetljenje u kraljev Dvor, dvije glavne ulice i još neke državne zgrade. U članku koji je objavljen u „Glasu Crnogorca” javnost je upoznata da je u subotu, 14. avgusta u 21 čas, počelo osvetljenje varoši. Tada je počela sa radom prva električna centrala na Cetinju, odnosno „Crnogorsko poduzeće za elektriku”.

Iskorak Crne Gore u novo doba Početkom rada električne centrale, dan prije održavanja proslave, pedesetogodišnje vladavine knjaza Nikole, najveće javne manifestacije do tada u Crnoj Gori, kada je došlo do promjene državne i vladarske titulacije – Knjaževina Crna Gora proglašena je Kraljevinom, a knjaz Nikola je dobio titulu kralja uz učešće italijanskog kralja Viktora, bugarskog cara Ferdinanda sa prijestolonasljednikom Borisom, srpskog prijestolonasljednika Aleksandra, grčkog prijestolonasljednika Konstatina...

Crna Gora je zakoračila u novo doba. Početak rada prve centrale ozvaničio je crnogorski suveren Nikola I 19. avgusta 1910. godine. Taj datum uzet je i za dan nastanka Elektroprivrede Crne Gore. Avgusta 2010. na svečanosti povodom vijeka postojanja i razvoja crnogorske nacionalne elektroenergetske kompanije prva mašina je na trenutak proradila i proizvodila električnu energiju. Time je simbolično ukazano na pređeni put u razvoju crnogorske elektroenergetske djelatnosti i države u cjelini.

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Text and photography: EPCG

Commercial reportage

THE MONTENEGRIN MUSEUM OF ELECTRICAL POWER IN CETINJE Cetinje is a town with a large number of museums to offer both local and foreign tourists. There is something at every step. These museums store the history of the Montenegrin people and the state. Year after year, King Nikola’s Palace, the Billiard House, Cetinje Monastery, the Ethnographic Museum, the Museum of Art, etc. have recorded an increasing number of visitors. There is also the Montenegrin Museum of Electrical Power (EPCG) or the Technical Museum, which is housed in the same building as the first diesel-fuelled power plant, dating back to 1910. Here one can see authentic equipment and the original plant machinery that generated the first kilowatt-hours of electricity, which illuminated the capital’s main street and the Montenegrin Royal Palace. This exhibit testifies to the rich history and development of the electric power industry in Montenegro.

Gas Lighting Gives Way to Electric Lighting At the end of the nineteenth century, the streets of Cetinje as well as those of other major towns in Montenegro were illuminated by the flickering light of lanterns, which were replaced by gas lamps at the beginning of the twentieth century. The light generated by these lamps, which usually lasted for several hours, was governed by special regulations. The town lights were mainly used to celebrate special occasions, which citizens were advised of in the newspaper. ‘Aladdin’ and ‘Autolux’ gas lamps served the purpose, offering

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very pleasant ambient lighting to the area surrounding the church of Vlaška. Following a trial run, on 31 December 1909, the Cetinje administration decided that the lighting in the town should be improved. This was largely due to the fact that the following year, 1910, they were to celebrate a great jubilee – the 50year reign of Prince Nikola. Shortly after, companies were invited, via the official gazette of the Principality of Montenegro „Glas Crnogorca” to submit their bids for the illumination of Cetinje, by no later than February of 1910. To make the invitation sound more attractive, the announcement pointed out that other towns in


Montenegro would also implement the same type of lightning. Two companies applied, one from Germany and the other from the Czech Republic. However, negotiations failed. The deadline was too short, given that the entire lighting installation would have to have been completed by the beginning of August.

Public Lighting in Cetinje Upon receiving retractions from those companies that had applied, the town’s administration had a big problem because it seemed that the project was going to fail. However, in late March, they received a bid from an Italian, Emanuel Kraus from Trieste, to install electric lighting. Given that he was not known to the Montenegrin public, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs requested information about him from the AustroHungarian Embassy in Cetinje. Once checks had been made, it was established that Emanuel Kraus was a serious businessman, who together with his brother Oskar, owned the company, Emanuele Kraus-Trieste/ Ufficio tehnico industriale. He dealt in the supply and installation of industrial equipment and engines.

Incorporation of the Montenegrin Electric Power Company

Montenegro enters a New Era Coinciding with the start of the power plant operation was the biggest public event to take place in Montenegro at that time. One day prior to the celebration of the 50-year reign of King Nikola, there was a change of government, the Principality of Montenegro became the Kingdom of Montenegro and Prince Nikola became King. Participants at the event included, the Italian King Vittorio, King Ferdinand of Bulgaria with Crown Prince Boris, Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia and Crown Prince Constantine of Greece. Montenegro had entered a new era. The Montenegrin sovereign, Nikola I, officially commissioned the first electric power plant on 19th August 1910. This date is considered to be the day The Montenegrin Electricity Enterprise (Elektroprivreda Crne Gore) was established. In August 2010, in a celebration marking the centennial anniversary of the Montenegrin National Power Company and its development, the original plant was briefly re-activated and it generated electricity. This action symbolically demonstrated how far Montenegro had progressed in terms of electric power development and as a state.

Negotiations took place at the end of April, followed by the signing of the agreement on 18th May 1910, which bound the Cetinje administration to give authority to Emanuel Kraus’s company to construct and operate a power plant in Cetinje for 30 years, thus prohibiting any other company from performing this activity in Cetinje during the period in question. Emanuel Kraus established the shareholding company, The Montenegrin Electric Power Shareholding Company (Crnogorsko akcionarsko društvo za elektriku), which committed to installing the plant by 20th August, providing lighting to the the town’s main street, King Nikola’s Palace, the House of the Duke Mirko, Vladin Dom (Government House), Ministarstvo Vojno (the War Ministry), Zetski Dom (the Royal Theatre) and the Institute for Noble Maidens, and within the following six months, providing all other consumers with electricity and completely illuminating the town. After signing the agreement, Emanuel Kraus purchased diesel engines, generators and other equipment in Vienna and Graz. Two 60hp diesel engines were purchased in Graz, as well as two 55kW generators. Within two months, he had succeeded in installing the power plant and in lighting up King Nikola’s Palace, two main streets and some government buildings. According to an article published in „Glas Crnogorca”, the public were informed that on 14th August at 9 pm, the town’s lights were switched on. That is when Cetinje’s first electric power plant, The Montenegrin Electric Power Company (Crnogorsko preduzeće za elektriku), came to life.

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POLARNA SVJEŽINA I ČISTOĆA

HEMIJSKA ČISTIONA PINGVIN Edita Klein

Budva, BSP poslovni centar (Iza TQ PLAZA) Tel: 033 454 111 Mob: 069 021 154

PODGORICA, Blok V Tel: 020 218 001 Mob: 069 021 154 pingvin.d.c@t-com.me

BAR, J. Stojanovića 10 Tel: 030 318 335 Mob: 069 426 720


DR Trade d.o.o. Cetinjski put bb, Donja Gorica, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro +382 20 261 072 +382 20 260 574 +382 69 031 071 dr@t-com.me www.drtrade.me

DR-trade GDJE JE UDOBNOST JEDNAKA DIZAJNU

Kada bismo morali u jednoj rečenici da vam kažemo čime se naša kompanija bavi, ona bi glasila ovako “Vi samo sjedite i radite svoj posao, a mi cemo se postarati da vam bude udobno.” Sigurni smo da ste u nekom trenutku čuli da je DR-trade ovlašćeni zastupnik nekih od vrhunskih proizvođača kancelarijskog namještaja i opreme. To znači da vam nudimo njnoviji asortiman za ergonomski prilagođen, dinamičan i isplativ enterijer. Takođe, u našoj kompaniji možete potražiti sigurnog partnera, budući da se oslanjamo na iskustvo, znanje, osluškujući potrebe preko 4000 klijenata tokom 25 godina od osnivanja. Naši najjaci aduti u tržišnoj utakmici jesu: visoki i stabilni profesionalni standardi, etičnost u poslovanju, jedinstvena poslovna kultura, odgovornost prema klijentima kao i profesionalno i ljubazno osoblje.

DR-trade kao neiscrpni izvor ideja i vaša potreba za jednostavnošću u svom asortimanu obuhvata: •

Kancelarijske stolove (Frezza Italija, LAS Italija, Colombini San Marino, Alias Italija) • Kancelarijske stolice i radne fotelje (Vitra Švajcarska, Herman Miller USA, Sitland Italija, Luxy Italija) • komadni kancelarijski namještaj i ostalu opremu za uređivanje poslovnih prostora • opremu za banke • dekorativnu rasvjetu • podne obloge (Object Carpet Njemacka) • program za kafice i restorane Takođe, DR-trade nudi servisiranje radnih fotelja i stolica. Realizujmo zajedno dobre ideje. DR-trade, udobno i lijepo kao preduslov za uspjeh.


Intervju: Vojo Stanić, slikar Razgovarala: Radmila Krgović Fotografije reprodukcija: Duško MIljanić

SLIKARSTVO

VOLIM ŽIVOT

Identitet jednog naroda je – kulturni identitet. Nema drugog identiteta

Vojo Stanić je rođen 1924. godine u Podgorici. Djetinjstvo provodi u Nikšiću i Šavniku. Osnovnu školu i gimnaziju završava u Nikšiću. Diplomirao je 1951. godine na Akademiji likovnih umjetnosti u Beogradu – vajarski odsjek u klasi prof. Alojza Dolinara. Nastanio se u Herceg Novom i počeo je raditi kao profesor u Školi za umjetničke zanate. Od 1952. godine je član Udruženja likovnih umjetnika Crne Gore. Oženio se vajarkom Nadom, rodom Marović, iz Luštice. Rađa im se sin Tomo, pijanist. Godine 1958. studijski boravi u Parizu gdje se upoznaje s nasljeđem nadrealista i s djelima velikih majstora. Najviše vremena provodi u Luvru. Nastavlja da se bavi pedagoškim radom u svojstvu profesora Više pedagoške škole na Odsjeku za likovno obrazovanje u Herceg Novom. 1968. po drugi put je dobitnik Trinaestojulske nagrade. Dva puta boravi u Norveškoj (1966/68). Ugledni brodovlasnik Skaugen u svoju ploveću galeriju uključuje trinaest njegovih slika, uz djela Braka, Tuluza - Lotreka, Hartunga i drugih. 1973/74. Boravi u Rimu. Izlaže u galeriji Giulia. 1956. Prve slike portrete i pejzaže izlaže u Titogradu i Beogradu. 1997. godine Vojo Stanić predstavlja Crnu Goru na XLVII Venecijanskom bijenalu. Profesor Robert Bojers Univerziteta u Saratoga Springsu, nedaleko od Njujorka upućuje mu poziv za gostovanje. 2004. godine prihvata poziv profesora Roberta Bojersa i prvi put boravi u SAD. Na Skidmor Koledžu (Saratoga Springs) održana je samostalna izložba njegovih slika. 2005. godine u umjetničkoj galeriji Zuraba Ceretelija u Moskvi otvorena je njegova samostalna izložba. 2007. godine Gayo Galerie u saradnji sa izdavačkom kućom Willson Publishers iz Londona izdala je monografiju Vojo Stanić /Jedrenje na snovima. 2012. godine izlaže u Kini u: Muzeju umjetnosti kineskog milenijumskog spomenika u Pekingu i umjetničkoj galeriji Lju Haisu u Šangaju. 2012.

Sunčani aprilski dan u Herceg Novom, bio je u skladu sa ljepotom koju živi Vojo Stanić u svojim slikama i sa svojim prijateljima. Imamo zakazan sastanak u prijepodnevnim satima. Spuštamo se skalinama ka moru. Na terasama ispred lokala ljudi sjede i ispijaju svoje piće pored mora, ispred Vojove kuće. U lijepo zdanje se penjemo skalinama gdje nas dočekuje sa osmijehom naš domaćin Vojo. Toplina ambijenta i pozitivan duh umjetnika nije svakidašnji događaj. Razgovarali smo na više tema. Kod Voja je sve lako, spontano, prirodno. Sa toliko skromnosti koja može svakoga ganuti i podstaći da

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preminula je njegova muza - životna saputnica Nada Marović Stanić ugledna crnogorska vajarka. Dobitnik je mnogih nagrada i priznanja. 1960 Trinaestojulska nagrada za slikarstvo, Titograd 2014. godine, dobitnik je Trineastojulske nagrade za životno djelo.

bude bolji, plemenitiji i radosniji kada se vrati sebi i životu. Ovakve ljude trebamo svakodnevno citirati, pa ćemo i mi sami biti bolji i lakše nositi snove stazom života.

Riječi su kao trešnje „Kad je radio samnom intervju jedan novinar, prepravio je moju izjavu. Prvo, razočaran sam s onim što sam ja rekao, a još više sa onim što je onaj poslije to prepravio. U jednom razgovoru ja sam rekao: ‘Centar je svijeta - đe si ti’ misleći na svakog od nas kao pojedinca. Je li tako?


A on, u nekoj najboljoj namjeri da mi pomogne, stavio je: ‘Centar je svijeta - đe smo mi’ a to je baš suprotno od onoga što sam htio da kažem. Jer, mi smo svi, pošto je svaki čovjek unikat, i svaki živi u svom svijetu, mislio sam na to. Ali on, znači, to nije razumio. I samo je to prepravio, a one gluposti koje sam rekao ostale, to nije. A onda, intervju kad se pravi, to je razgovor. Razgovor je uvijek na nivou ograničenijega, jer ako ’oćeš i glupljega. Je li tako? Jer, on ne može da prelazi tu svoju granicu. S obzirom da ne može praviti razgovor, recimo o ma čemu. U matematici, recimo, ako ne znaš da računaš dalje od stotinu, onda ne možemo sprovoditi razgovor na milion, s obzirom da se zaustaviš tu. Je li..? A onda intervju, to sam isto rekao nekim gospođama što su dolazile da prave intervju: ‘Ako razgovaraš s nekim čovjekom koji je dosadan, dosadna si i t’. Znači,onaj ko pravi intervju, on treba da animira sagovornika, jer nemaš volju sa svakim da razgovaraš ono što možeš. Ima jedna italijanska poslovica koja kaže: ‘Riječi su kao trešnje. Jedna vuče drugu’, znači, razgovor je takav. Mi nikad ne znamo đe će se završiti razgovor koji je započet. Je li tako?”

prije: grb, himna i ona je dala nove udžbenike, nova imena ulica, novi junaci, nova istorija, i ona je trajala dvadeset godina pa je došla komunistička Jugoslavija. Ona je, takođe, negirala sve što je bilo prije. Znači: nove ulice, nova imena, novi udžbenici, nova istorija, novi heroji, novi spomenici. Pa je propala i ona, takođe. I, šta se dogodilo? Svaki put smo počinjali u prvi razred. Svaki put počinjemo kao da smo tek nastali. Nemamo kontinuitet, što je najveća vrijednost Evrope. Tamo nije bilo revolucija. Taj kontinuitet koji tamo traje hiljadu godina je najvrijedniji. Ne bavim se politikom, ali ja glasam za Vladu, nije važno kakva je, samo neka traje. Neka nešto traje kod nas. Da se jedanput zaustavimo. Da se bavimo stvarno razvojem. Je li tako?

Umjetnost

Dječije igre Rođen sam u Podgorici. „Nije mi se sviđela“ . Moji su se preselili u Nikšić kada sam imao godinu dana. Živio sam prvih dvadeset godina u Nikšiću a ostalo vrijeme ođe u Herceg Novom. I vazda sam govorio, a i sada kažem da sam Nikšićanin, iako se nijasam rodio tamo ni ja ni otac mi, ni majka. Razmišljam na nikšićki način, ali onoga vremena, ne današnjeg. Mi smo igrali one obične, bezazlene đečje igre. Jer danas je sofisticirano i to đetinjstvo. Recimo, sad vidim dijete od osam- devet godina – zna više nego ja. Imao je internet i umjesto da to slaže u glavu on to slaže u džep, onaj internet. To je greška. Bile su one obične đečje igre koje smo sami iznalazili da se igramo. Đetinjstvo je vrlo važno. Baš! Tada se formira čovjek. I đeca se druže. Ona se druže i s onom generacijom s kojom su i odrasla na kraju. I tu se formira i ona svijest.

Razlika između tadašnjeg i današnjeg vremena u razmišljanju Ogromna je to razlika. Totalno se promijenio svijet. U našoj Crnoj Gori, a i u ostalim republikama pretpostavljam, ali govorim ođe, đe znam, tu sam živio, tu se dogodilo nekoliko revolucija koje su porazne. Revolucija inače znači – prevrat, kad se prevede na naš jezik. Je li tako? Revoluciju možeš dignut, recimo, možemo se noćas dogovoriti, zauzeti televiziju i Vladu i promijeni se vlast. Je li? Promijeniti samo vlast a ništa drugo. U kulturi ne postoji revolucija. Ne možeš preko noći postati kulturan, ali preko noći možeš srušiti državu. Kod nas je bila prvo Kraljevina Crna Gora, onda je došla Kraljevina Jugoslavija, ona je negirala sve što je bilo

Pjesnik

Recimo, postoji nekoliko gradacija saznavanja. Postoji na primjer matematika, filozofija, i tako dalje, ali poslije dođe umjetnost iznad svega toga. Sva saznavanja, svi poduhvati se baziraju na razumu. Dok se umjetnost bazira na intuiciji. To je nešto što je iznad inteligencije. To je nešto spontano i tu se najviše izražava ljudsko biće, ono što je on, što je svaki od nas. Jer, svaki čovjek ima svoj identitet. Mi kažemo, borimo se za identitet države, ali, čovjek ima identitet. Ukoliko ga ima, i koliko je kultivisaniji toliko je i jači identitet. Identitet jednog naroda je – kulturni identitet. Jer, nema drugoga identiteta. Recimo, Italija može nestati ali italijanski identitet će biti vječan zato što postoji duhovni identitet. To je bitno. A umjetnost je - kultivisanje Boga. Slikam ono što vidim svaki dan. Inače, da živim na

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Fotograf reprodukcije: Duško Miljanić

Bez naziva

Žabljaku, onda bih slikao ono što je tamo. To je prirodno. Svukuda je život interesantan. To je kao i svaka umjetnost, kao i svaki ljudski rad, on zrači onom energijom koja je unesena u njega. Ako je neko recimo za pola sata napravio sliku. Tu sliku ne možeš gledati pola sata, ni jedan minut. Ona treba da je rađena stotinu sati da bi je gledao jedan minut a ne obratno. Je li? Mislim, sve što vidimo da je neko stvorio, to je uvijek rezultat jedne energije, ništa drugo. Ja sam strašno lijen neki čovjek. Ja mislim da sam najlenjiji od svih ljudi koje sam poznavao. Ako se vajarstvo radi sa čekićem, macom, nekim kamenjem ili nekim drugim materijalom, onda ja shvatim da je slikarstvo mnogo lakše, jer mogu da radim sjedeći, da slušam muziku i da pričam. Da slušam radio. Čak slušam radio najviše. I mogu da vrlo pažljivo slušam a da nimalo ne gubim koncentraciju na ono što radim. Ja se odmaram kad radim. Jedan me u kafani pita, gdje svako jutro pijem kafu: „ti se odmaraš“ kao da naporno radim pa se odmaram, a ja velim: „Ja se odmaram kad

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radim“. Ja se, znači stalno odmaram, cijelog života.

Boja u slikarstvu Teško bih mogao da analiziram ono što radim. Ali, boja je u slikarstvu isto što je i riječ u literaturi. Recimo, jedna riječ ne znači ništa. Ona je samo neki pojam. Ali kad dodaš još jednu riječ, onda si već nešto rekao. Pa i kod boje je tako. Boja ništa ne znači, sama za sebe. Boje su čak najljepše kad ih kupiš u tubi. Jer cijelo vrijeme kad slikaš, čuvaš da ne pokvariš onu boju koja je odlična kad si je kupio. Boja je najbolja tada. Znači, upotreba boje je važna. Boja je odnos, jedna boja ne znači ništa, ali dvije-tri boje već nešto govore. To je harmonija. Kao što je ton u muzici. Ton nema kvalitet. Ton je kad udariš čekićem u neku bačvu dobićeš ton, koji može da bude vrlo muzikalan ako se upotrijebi u muzici. Dosta spontano ja radim, bez mnogo razmišljanja. Razmišljanje je dekadentno a umjetnost je antiintelektualna. To je neka umjetnost koja je bazirana na osnovi filozofije ili neke poruke, to je već destrukt same umjetnosti. Jednom me pitao neki tokom izložbe


Sve se ponavlja To ste dobro rekli – da se sve ponavlja. Umjetnost se neprekidno ponavlja. Niko nije izmislio ništa ali ono mijenja samo formu. I u književnosti, sve one priče su ispričane prije hiljadu godina. Ali je važno da je na način jednog ličnog doživljaja. Umjetnost je lični doživljaj. Recimo, ako bih sad slikalo nekoliko slikara ovaj prizor koji gledamo kroz prozor, svi bi ga različito naslikali. Ali svaka psiha djeluje drukčije, jer to nije dokument onoga koga vidimo, no dokument doživljaja. On slika svoj doživljaj onoga što vidi. To je bitno. Utoliko je interesantnije ukoliko je jača ličnost, jer slaba ličnost nema jak doživljaj. Je li tako? Od toga zavisi. Kroz umjetnost se izražava ličnost, jer to je nečiji vid.

Na čulo vida, na primjer. Jer tu imaš slične elemente. Recimo: kompozicija, sklad, harmonija, ritam, to ima i u muzici i u slikarstvu. Baš te glavne osobine koje su moć tih umjetnosti.

Učenici Umjetničke škole u Herceg Novom su bili jači od svojih profesora - reče jedan umjetnik Pa i ja sam to reka’. Ja velim, od mene nijesu naučili ništa. Ja sam nerado i bio profesor a moro sam od nečega živjeti i zaposlio sam se. Ja nijesam imao osjećaj da ja mogu nekoga išta da naučim. Nijesam Fotograf reprodukcije: Duško Miljanić

na Svetom Stefanu u galeriji: „Koja je tvoja poruka?“. A ja kažem: „Nikakva! Nema tu nikakve poruke, to su samo slike a ti se snalazi sam“...(smijeh). Na svakog čovjeka utiče sve. Recimo, na mene kao slikara utiču sve slike koje sam vidio, svi slikari, svi razgovori i sve što sam vidio, pročitao ili vidio na televiziji. To formira naš doživljaj svijeta. Je li tako?

Škola Ma, škola je... Mrzio sam školu strašno. Zbog majke sam je završio i jedva sam se provlačio, zato što mi je ona pomagala. Tako da sam uspio da svršim gimnaziju, a da ništa ne naučim. Iz škole sam izašao neoštećen... (smijeh). Ma svako je tle pogodno. To je jedna drama. One čuvene drame od Šekspira što se događaju; Hamlet se događa u Danskoj, u Mantovi i te sve drame koje je napisao Šekspir, mogao je napisati neko ko se rodio u najzabačenijem mjestu u Crnoj Gori, jer se te drame događaju svukuda. Je li tako? E, Hamlet, on se događa svukuda: i u Herceg Novom i u Baošićima i kojem god ’oćeš mjestu. One svukuda postoje. Je li? Umjetnost svukuda postoji. Jedna izreka kaže „Ništa ljudsko nije mi strano“ Znači, to je ljudsko svukuda đe gođ ima ljudi. To je velika mudrost.

Talenat i rad Pa ne znam. To je mnogo lakše nego što izgleda kad počnemo o tome filozofirati. Recimo, muzika je odlična umjetnost. Ona je spontana. Ona je najčistija umjetnost jer direktno djeluje na čulo. Za razliku od knjige, o knjizi moraš razmišljati, kad čitaš knjigu pomalo učestvuješ u svemu tome. Je li tako? Recimo, čitaš neki roman, onda zamišljaš likove i radnje, ambijent, koliko je pisac dobar da to opiše, toliko ti stvori neki konkretan lik, da vidiš nekog čoveka na ulici koji liči na nekog junaka, i dadeš mu taj lik, naslikaš ga. Znači, učestvuješ. Dokle u muzici nije tako. Muzika ulazi kroz uvo, giliće ti neko čulo i ti imaš lijep doživljaj. To je fantastično. A slikarstvo je nešto slično. Ono, takođe, djeluje na čulo.

Mjesec

bio siguran ni u ono što ja znam. Nijesam ni danas siguran. Tako da sam ja više naučio od đaka nego oni od mene, jer svaki đak je bio ličnost. Puno ličnosti kad upoznaš, to obogaćuje doživljaj. Od mene su, jedino naučili da puše, pošto pušim od kad sam se rodio.... (smijeh). Živko Nikolić je bio baš dobar đak. On je bio talenat. Bio je i odličan slikar. Čak i odličan glumac. Oni su davali ođe jedan komad u kome je on glumio. Umjetnička škola je bila nevjerovatno duhovita. I on je bio odličan glumac. Ne znam kako se zvao komad, zaboravio sam, ali sam zapamtio njegovu ulogu koju je on fantastično odglumio. Imao je taj umjetnički karakter. Ja sam predavao vajarstvo i morali su da rade jedino u ateljeu. Jer, slikari su izlazili, pravili akvarele okolo ali vajari nijesu niđe, jer nijesu mogli raditi vajarstvo na ulici. Kroz umjetnost se izražava ličnost. A ličnost je obogaćena svim što je čovjek doživio u svom životu.

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I ambijentom u kome živi. I ako se izražava, izražava se kroz to, ako je pisac, i ne vjerujem u umjetnost koja nije na taj način, koja je proizvod njegovog doživljaja života a život znači živjeti u nekom ambijentu, ambijentu ljudi i ambijentu podneblja. To je toliko bitno za svakoga čovjeka bez obzira da li se on bavio umjetnošću ili ma čime drugim. Ja nemam ni jedan pravac. Mnogi slikari govore o fazi, pa me pitajukoja je faza? A ja velim: „Kod mene je samo jedna faza“. Ja nemam tih faza. A slikam u stvari najbolje što umijem, bez obzira koliko je to možda sve loše... (smijeh).

Spontanost Čim radiš spontano, onda je to već lako. Znači da razvijaš ono za što imaš potrebu. I to je vrlo lako, bez obzira kakav je rezultat. Ne vjerujem u neki napor, kad neko kaže da se mnogo mučio, ja bi mu odma rek’o – radi nešto drugo. Ako kaže mučio se da pravi izložbu. Ja mu reko’- radi nešto drugo. Šta ima, besmisleno je uopšte se mučiti. Je li tako? Umjetnost je način izražavanja. Slikarstvo kao i književnost i svaka druga umjetnost. Znači, čovjek se izražava. Ukoliko je bogatiji njegov duh, on ima šta i da reče. Izražavanje je način komunikacije. Ako se ostvaruje komunikacija, ako se ta slika koju je uradio slikar dopadne samo jednom čovjeku na ovome svijetu, ti si već nešto učinio. Znači, nekome si nešto rekao. I to može da nam bude dovoljno. I meni je to dovoljno.

Život je lijep Ja smatram da je život lijep. Čak i da te tuku svaki dan (smijeh). Interesantno je živjeti. Cijeli kosmos je star milijardu godina i ti imaš šansu da sve to vidiš i doživiš. Pa to je jedna velika stvar. Ja sam svjestan toga od kako sam se rodio. Slikarstvo a i druge umjetnosti, to je divljenje svijetu u kome živiš. Slikarstvo je oda ovom vizuelnom svijetu koji je lijep. Uvijek. Lijepo je vrijeme, lijepo je živjeti. Zato dugo i živim pošto volim život. Kažu – lijep dan. Ma, lijep je svaki dan. I čak kad je provala oblaka ili jaki jugo koji mlati ođe, to je jedna dinamičnost i priroda življenja. Nije statična. I to je lijepo. To obogaćuje život. Herceg Novi je jeko privlačan grad. On je udoban u svakom pogledu. U pogledu klime, izgleda prirode, to je prirodno i ljude privlači radi toga. Svako se sjeća nostalgije svoje mladosti. Prošlost je bila lijepa zato što smo bili mlađi pa nam je izgledalo iz tog doba sve lijepo. Sjećam se s nostalgijom vremena okupacije, ne zbog okupacije, nego što sam onda bio mlad. Čovjek kad je mlad onda uživa u svačemu. Kako su bile lijepe trešnje prije osamdeset godina, a? (smijeh)...

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Renome

Poruka mladim umjetnicima Ništa im ne bih preporučio. Ja nemam osjećaj da bih mogao ikome išta preporučiti. Svak’ živi svojim životom. Neka sluša samoga sebe. Nek se bavi sobom. Nek sluša svoj glas. Je li? Jer, njegove snage, snaga svakoga, je u onome što je on. Ono što smo maloprije rekli, čovjek kroz umjetnost izražava ličnost pa ukoliko je jača ličnost, njegov će izraz biti utoliko interesantniji. Znači, treba kultivisati ličnost. Da bi se bavio umjetnošću, njega treba da interesuje i muzika, književnost i pozorište i život uopšte. To je njegov kapital i bogatstvo. Govoriti o tome uopšteno je vrlo pogrešno. Treba da se shvati da je svaki čovjek unikat i drukčije ne može. Ima jedna latinska poslovica koja kaže: „Ako dvoje rade isto, to nije isto“. I to je tačno. To se upotrebljava u medicini, ali i u pravu i u umjetnosti. Ako su dva čovjeka bolesna od iste bolesti, to je druga bolest. Ne treba ga liječiti serijski, kao na traku. Je li? A duhovno i karakter čovjeka, što je njegovo pravo biće - on je potpuno unikat. Svaki čovjek je unikat izuzetni i zato treba cijeniti svakoga čovjeka, kojega možda ljudi gledaju kad prođe ulicom i izgleda ti beznačajan, ni u čemu se ne ističe, ali ti nemaš pojma da je njegov život možda mnogo bogatiji nego tvoj. Je li? Treba cijeniti čovjeka. Niko nije izmislio ništa. Da Arhimed nije izmislio Arhimedov zakon, ja bih ga izmislio. Svi su otkrili samo ono što već postoji. Oni su to otkrili a ne izmislili nešto što ne postoji. Niko nije kreirao ni jedan zakon u nauci. Čovjek je samo otkrio zakon prirode. Darvin je posmatrao prirodu i on je dokazao nešto što postoji a ne nešto što je on izmislio. Zakon evolucije nije on izmislio nego to već postoji. Pa sva nauka je takva.

Globalizacija Jedan američki filozof, negdje sam pročitao, kaže da za tri hiljade godina, ne samo što će svi ljudi govoriti istim jezikom, nego će svi ljudi jednako izgledati, toliko se izmiješao svijet. Tri hiljade godina je stvarno daleko, naročito za mene koji sam stariji od vas. Znači, odeš u Japan i nađeš čovjeka koji liči na tebe, k’o blizanac, potpuno isti. Onda će vjerovatno i jednako misliti. I više ti nije interesantan. Pa sam srećan što se nijesam rodio poslije tri iljade godina. Globalizacija je već u toku. Globalizacija mišljenja. Globalizacija je nešto vrlo opasno. Recimo zagađenost prirode, to je globalni problem, to se stvarno globalno može i riješiti. Ali, globalizacija ljudi - to je opasno. Tu se gubi onaj individualitet, jer svaki čovjek ima karakter, pa tako i svaki narod ima svoj karakter. Međutim, to se sve gubi. To se kod nas vrlo hitno i događa. Kod nas su vrlo brze


Fotograf reprodukcije: Duško Miljanić

Kompozicija

te promjene i to štrči i jako je upadljivo za svakoga ko nije baš totalno glup. Globalizacija, u stvari odgovara onima koji to vode da bi lakše vladali. I danas je to moćno. Prvo, mediji imaju ogromnu moć. Danas se strašno manipuliše s javnošću. Prvo, svako ima televizor, ma koliko da je siromašan u Crnoj Gori, svako ima neki televizor. I on sjedi tamo i satima visi. Onaj ga gleda pravo u oči i soli mu pamet. Što reče neko iz Beograda: „Ko nije dosad poludio, on je sto gradi lud.“ Sjedim u kafanu, pa dođe nečiji unuk ili sin i uzme telefon pa okreće umjesto da se igra. Već se on globalizira. Pa čak i ovi odrasli. Gledam, sjedimo nas pet-šest za stolom i svi izvade one telefone, to je elektronski neki mozak, pa kad hoće nešto da ti

dokaže, on citira i vadi iz njega umjesto da to ima u glavi, on to ima u džepu. Djeca se igraju bez toga. Oni razvijaju svoje prirodne sposobnosti. Ako upoznaje onu ostalu đecu, on upoznaje svijet u kojem će živjeti. I onda on ima inventivnost kako će se zabaviti bez nekih pomoćnih stvari. I umjesto toga, on sjedi i gleda u telefon. Gledam, on sjedi s nama, ali nas ne primjećuje. Poruči neki kolač pa ne primjećuje ni kad jede taj kolač. To je nevjerovatno.

Kultura je zanemarena Mi smo suviše mali da bismo imali otpor prema nečemu što je svjetski trend. Mi ne možemo tu ništa.

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čovjekom na svijetu, ako je vrijeme novac“ (smijeh)... I ona se vjerovatno vratila u Ameriku i nastavila da živi, bez obzira što ja to rekoh. Čerčil je toga dana otiš’o na Bermude, i tako se svi raštrkasmo.

Civilizacija Mi to nazivamo civilizacijom. Kinezi su kao najcivilizovaniji, ali, čovjek što je više civilizovan – manje je čovjek. Civilizovan čovek, on ostavlja utisak kad dođe, savršeno je obučen, savršeno se ponaša, ali to ne znači da je imalo kulturan. Civilizovan čovek ne znači da je kulturan čovek. On se ponaša po programu koji već postoji. To je upadljivo kod nas, jer mi živimo opušteno u cijeloj našoj istoriji. Uzmimo Herceg Novi koji se jako promijenio zadnjih 60-70 godina što ja Fotograf reprodukcije: Duško Miljanić

Zanemarena je kultura. Gledam na televiziji ili u štampi, kulturi daju samo pola jedne stranice. A recimo sport ima poseban dodatak. Ja sad prezirem taj sport. Mada smatram da je sport vrlo važan. Da sam Ministar sporta ne bih im dao ni jedan dinar, ni za vaterpolo ni za što, nego bih dao taj novac po školama neka naprave bazene da đeca razviju zdrav duh u zdravom tijelu. I ne znam zbog čega navijaš za neki tim? Jer, svaki taj igrač je roba. Može da ga kupi ko god ’oće. Znači, to nije više sport radi sporta - nego je to posao i to unosan i troše se ogromne pare za to. Recimo, u ljubavi između ljudi i žena, imamo ljubav za ljubav, ali, ljubav može i da se kupi. Ta ljubav za pare, ima svoje ime. Je li tako? Pa tako i taj sport za pare ima svoje ime. I zašto onda navijat’? Bila je jedna vaterpolo utakmica, mada ne pratim uopšte sport, u Italiji prije nekolike godine, ne znam da li je bio neki naš tim, uglavnom iz Jugoslavije, protiv Italijana. I izgubili su utakmicu. Sve golove su dali naši igrači u Italiji. Kako onda možeš navijat’? Umjetnost je igra. U Nikšiću neđe pročitah neki fudbalski klub štrajkuje. Pa kako štrajkuju ako je to igra? On igra za svoje zadovoljstvo. Zašto neko da ga finansira? Je li tako? Ali to odgovara svim vladama. Jer on kad dobije neki trofej, onda ga dočeka uprava države i onda se i oni ponašaju kao da su dali te golove. Kad slušam vijesti, i na kraju sport, njemu posvete toliko vremana koliko svemu ostalom. I ja to moram da trpim pošto me interesuje vremenska prognoza, zbog prozora gore i nekih papira, da li ću zatvoriti škure. I sad, onaj me davi po ure. I ja moram da ga trpim dok govori. Mada je davio duže nego ostale vijesti, onda na kraju reče: „Opširnije o ovome biće u deset sati.“ On smatra da nas je malo davio.

Amerika

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Amerika vodi riječ zato što je bogata. Amerika je rezultat cijelog svijeta. Neki najsposobniji ljudi su tamo pravili karijeru i tako su pokupili mudrost, a to se ne zna ko će u budućnosti voditi glavnu riječ. Sad se javljaju Kinezi i puno nekih naroda koji se pojavljuju kao neki faktori, pa onda Indija, Južna Amerika, isto neki veliki ljudski materijali koji će napraviti svoj proizvod. Je li tako?

Skalinada

Amerika je proizvod Evrope. U Americi je svaki čovjek odlično iskorišćen. Ja sam bio dva puta po petnaest dana i ne bih tamo živio nizašta. Bila je neka Amerikanka, novinarka, simpatično neko društvo i ja rekoh: „Oni se klanjaju zlatnom teletu“. Tamo je novac simbol uspjeha i zato su imućni jer imaju toga najviše. Ja sam bio tamo, tamo se ne možeš ni sa kim družiti, oni rade po cijeli dan a sa familijom jedan put u toku neđelje budu zajedno. Znači, on je prodao svoje vrijeme za novac. Za taj isti novac je prodao godinu dana svoga vremena, da bi od tog istog novca kupio dvadeset dana vremena za sebe. Onda ja rekoh toj Amerikanki: „Dohvatite me rukom“ – ona me dohvati, „E sad se možete hvaliti da ste bili sa najbogatijim

pratim. Onda je bio ljepši, ljepše je izgledao i bio je kulturniji grad sto puta nego sad. Sad imaš neko divlje ponašanje. Čak potomci njihovih kulturnih predaka, novskih starih familija, oni su nemuzikalni. Kad pjevaju oni nemaju sluha, oni se deru. Kulturniji su bili njihovi stari. Pa uzmimo za primjer arhitekturu, one stare građevine. To su gradili neki nepismeni ljudi, građevinari, jer tada nije bilo fakulteta. Onu građevinu u Firenci što je radio Đoto koji je bio čobanin, nije svršio nijedan fakultet te vrste, nikakvu školu, on je savršeno projektovao i danas stoji kao nešto najljepše. A danas se uništava svijet. I ne samo duhovno nego i materijalno. Recimo, resursi zemlje su ograničeni: tu ima toliko šuma; toliko slatke vode; svega toliko

Renome


koliko odgovara može bit’ jednom određenom broju ljudi koji se mogu začuditi koliko, jer ljudi danas ulaze, civilizuju se sad i oni, troše milijardu Kineza benzin i sve ostalo a resursi zemlje su ograničeni. Tako da je došlo vrijeme da je problem zrak, problem je voda, danas u Crnoj Gori moraš kupovati vodu da bi pio kod toliko vode da možeš snabdijevati cijelu Evropu.

Zagađenost prirode Civilizacija je prljava. Zbog čistoće živimo u zagađenom svijetu. Toliko deterdženata i svega trošimo. Da bih ja lično bio čist, ja zagadim ogromni prostor. I tako svi. Tako je zagađeno i more i priroda cijela. Čak i zrak, a sve zbog nekog egoizma. To je nešto što je došlo do plafona. Recimo, neka domaćica kad ode na pjacu, ona donese jednu plastičnu kesu, onda, svaka ta stvar je u posebnoj kesi, tako da se faktički skoro isto toliko u težini baci, i sve to stvara ogromni otpad. Prije 50 – 60 godina nije bilo čistača u Herceg Novom. Herceg Novi je bio vrlo čist grad. Tada, recimo odeš kod Boža Deronje, treba ti vino i on ti utoči vino u onu istu flašu koju imaš. Ta flaša je nešto što imaš. I ako nekad pa’ne, slomi se, smatra se da si oštećen. To je fantastičan program. Kad odem barkom, dvije tri milje daleko od obale, tamo plutaju plastične kese, svukuda i nije potrošač toliko kriv. On ne zna šta će s tim. Jer toliko ima tog otpada koji kupuje. Crna Gora je još ranjivija od ikoga, baš zato što nemamo kriterijume. Ja pošto imam sto godina, znam, prije rata u Nikšiću kada je bila ona pločica mastila koje kupiš i koja je koštala tri dinara, pa kad se potroši mastilo ne baciš onu bocu nego odeš i oni ti dopune onu istu i manje te košta. Nijesam nikako bacao tu bocu jedino ako mi pa’ne pa se slomi i to se smatralo da sam oštećen.

Stvaranje svijeta Ja mislim da je civilizacija došla do plafona. U Starom Zavjetu đe je opisano stvaranje svijeta, tu ima dosta simbolike. Recimo, tamo veli: „Svijet se toliko iskvario da je Bogu dojadilo i riješio je da ga uništi. Sve! Ostavio je samo po jedan par ljudi i životinja, da bi mogao da se nastavi“. Ali to me podsjeća na sadašnje vrijeme. To je bio potop. Ali pošto zemlja postoji milijardu godina, mi ne znamo civilizaciju dalje od pet – šest hiljada godina. Poslije je mrak totalni, ne znamo ništa. A za milion godina možda je bilo puno civilizacija koje su propale, možda isto u nekom atomskom ratu, možda je taj potop neko sjećanje koje vazda ostavi trag u ljudskim genima, možda je taj potop isto nekakva atomska katastrofa. Tako ja nalazim simboliku u tome. A priroda je neuništiva. Recimo na jedan hotel su bacili atomsku bombu, eksperimentalno, i tamo su bili neki miševi i neke sitne životinje i to je sve uništeno. I poslije dvadeset godina su došli tamo i našli su te iste životinje ali, mnogo rasnije jer prirodu ne možeš uništiti. Materiju ne možeš uništiti kako govore neki filozofi. Možeš ovo

sve zapaliti. Pretvori se ono u dim, u čađ i taj isti se materijal poslije reciklira. I ljude recikliraju.

Babu Maru sam najviše volio Albanci su jači od nas. Gledam italijansku televiziju (jer mogu dosta dobro da pratim italijanski jezik), i ima u Italiji kad su došli Turci, oni su većinom bili pravoslavci i danas ima najmanje katolika, najviše pravoslavaca ali su bliži grčkoj granici i kada su bježali od Turaka, prešli su u Italiju. Imaju albanske opštine i prikazano je jedno mjesto đe žive samo Albanci. Vidim crkvu koja je kao naša crkva, ikonostas, pop isto izgleda i ono nešto što „melje“ pošto ja ne razumijem ni našeg popa i nije mi neka razlika, ali kao da slušam našu liturgiju, ali oni su sačuvali svoj identitet. Ja sam zavolio Albaniju puno zato što mi je baba po majci Mara iz Skadra. Ona nije Albanka nego Crnogorka, to je stara familija iz Skadra i Mara je udata za moga đeda Neđeljka Ivanovića, porijeklom iz Kuča, koji je živio u Šavniku, držao svoju kafanu i bili su najimućnija porodica tada u Šavniku. I to mjesto strašno volim. Ali sam babu Maru više volio od ikoga. Ona je sa svojom sestrom govorila arbanaški, to joj je bio kao maternji jezik, i nju sam najviše volio. Što sam god htio, na primjer u ponoć priganice, ona bi ustala i napravila priganice, a onda kad odem da spavam, i baba Mara mi priča neke priče arbanaške na naški da bih ja zasp’o. Međutim, pošto je obično priča počinjala ovako: „Bio jedan kralj i imao tri šćeri...“ i ja se zainteresujem da to slušam a ona priča da bih ja zaspao. Međutim, njoj se drijema i ona zaspe u sred priče. A ja je budim da bi nastavila dalje. Umjesto da ona mene uspava, ona zaspe ...(smijeh). Pa sam je toliko volio i učio sam arbanaški jer sam bio ljubomoran što priča arbanaški sa sestrom. Bio sam naučio čak malo arbanaški pa od tada volim Albance

Nijesam vjernik ali jesam hrišćanin po shvatanju života Nijesam vjernik ali jesam hrišćanin po shvatanju života. U Bibliji piše cijela ideologija hrišćanstva i to mi se sviđa. Kad bi svi ljudi bili kao što je rečeno u „Besjedi na Gori“ koju je držao Isus, svijet bi bio srećan. Isus je bio ljevičar, socijalista. I u Svetom Pismu veli: „Nemoj misliti za śutrašnji dan, taj dan će misliti o tome“. Je li tako? Ne volim da znam što će biti śutra. Domaćica koja mi sprema je fantastična i svaki dan neko drugo jelo sprema, pa me pita - koje jelo da spremi za śutra - ja sam rek’o: „Ne volim da znam što ću da ručam“. Živimo u danu koji traje. Jer Njake, ona se śekira za nešto što će biti za deset dana. Pa nemoj se sad śekirat’. Ostavi to śekiranje za onda kad to bude, jer to možda neće ni bit’... (smijeh). Život je interesantan zato što ne znamo šta će bit’... baš interesantan. To je isto kao i roman koji se jedan put pročita drugi put će ti biti dosadan. A i život ima svoj tok i gledamo da uživamo u onom momentu koji traje.

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Interview: Vojo Stanic, painter Interviewed by: Radmila Krgovic Photos by: Dusko Miljanic

Painting

I LOVE LIFE The identity of a nation is a cultural identity. There is no other identity.

Vojo Stanic was born in 1924 in Podgorica. His spent his childhood in Niksic and Savnik. He completed his elementary and high school education in Niksic. In 1951, he graduated in Sculpture, from the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade. He was a student of Professor Alojz Dolinar. He settled in Herceg Novi and began working at the Art School as a professor. Since 1952, he has been a member of the Association of Artists of Montenegro. He married the sculptor Nada Marovic, from Lustica. They had a son, Tomo, who is a pianist. In 1958, he visited Paris and it was here that he became acquainted with the legacy of the Surrealists and the works of the great masters. He spent the majority of his time at the Louvre. He continued to teach as a professor at the School of Pedagogy, Department of Art Education in Herceg Novi. In 1968, he won the 13th July award for the second time.He visited Norway twice (once in 1966 and again in 1968). Thirteen of his paintings were displayed in the floating gallery of the renowned shipowner Skaugen, alongside works by Braque, Toulouse - Lautrec, Hartung and others. During 1973 and 1974 he resided in Rome and exhibited his work in the Villa Giulia art gallery. His first paintings, portraits and landscapes, were exhibited in Titograd and Belgrade in 1956. In 1997, Vojo Stanic represented Montenegro at the XLVII Venice Biennale. Robert Boyers, a University Professor from Saratoga Springs, Upstate New York, invited him to visit. In 2004, he accepted Professor Boyers’s invitation and visited the United States for the first time. A solo exhibition of his paintings was held at Skidmore College, (Saratoga Springs). In 2005, his solo exhibition opened at Zurab

A sunny April day in Herceg Novi, a day in perfect harmony with the beautiful way in which Vojo Stanic lives his life, with his paintings and his friends. We agreed to meet in the morning. We descended the steps to the sea. In front of Vojo’s home, on the terraces and in front of coffee shops, people were sitting, sipping their drinks by the sea. We climbed the stairs of a nice house and were greeted with a smile by our host, Vojo. It’s not every day you are received so warmly by an artist with such a positive spirit. We talked about numerous topics. With Vojo, conversation is easy, it flows spontaneously, naturally. One could be moved by such modesty and encouraged to be a better, more noble and more joyful person. Such people should be quoted on a daily basis, in order for us to better ourselves and realize our dreams.

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Tsereteli’s Art Gallery, in Moscow. In 2007, the Gayo Gallery, in cooperation with Wilson Publishers, London, issued a monograph entitled, Vojo Stanic – Sailing on Dreams. In 2012, he held exhibitions at the China Millennium Monument World Art Museum, Beijing, and at the Liu Haisu Art Museum, Shanghai. His muse and life partner, Nada Marovic Stanic, a prominent Montenegrin sculptress, passed away. He has received many awards and recognitions. In Titograd, in 1960, he won the 13th July Award for painting. In 2014, he was presented with the 13th July Lifetime Achievement Award.

Words are Like Cherries “Once when I was interviewed by a journalist, he corrected my statement. At first, I was disappointed with what I had said, and then even more so when he revised it. In the interview I said: ‘The centre of the world is where you are’, meaning each one of us, as individuals, isn’t that right? And he, in good faith to help me, rewrote it as ‘The centre of the world is where we are’, which was exactly the opposite of what I wanted to say. This is because ‘we’ stands for all of us, and each human being is unique, each person lives in their own world, which is what I meant. Therefore, he had not understood it. That was the only thing he rewrote, he did not rewrite the other nonsense I had said. When an interview takes place, it is actually a conversation. A conversation is always limited, blunt


even, isn’t that so? This is because its limit cannot be exceeded. One cannot have a conversation that goes beyond its limits. In mathematics, for example, if one cannot count beyond a hundred, there can be no conversation about a million, because it will stop there, don’t you agree? With regards to interviews, I said the same thing to some ladies, who came to interview me: ‘If you talk with a person who is boring, you will also become boring.’ An interviewee should be inspired by the interviewer, as one will not feel like sharing all that can be shared with everybody. To quote an Italian proverb ‘Words are like cherries. One pulls the other.’ This also applies to conversation. One never knows where a conversation will end once it has started.

Children’s Games I was born in Podgorica. I didn’t like it! So my family moved to Niksic when I was one year old. I lived there for the next twenty years. Since then, I have, for the majority of the time, lived in Herceg Novi. I have always claimed that I was from Niksic, even though neither I, nor my parents were born there. I think the way people in Niksic think, or rather the way they used to think back then, not today. We played those ordinary, harmless games that children play. Nowadays even childhood is sophisticated. For example, I see an eight or nine year old child, who knows more than I do. He has the internet and instead of storing knowledge in his head, he stores it in his pocket. This is a mistake. We played those ordinary children’s games, self-invented. Childhood is important. Very important! This is when one’s personality is formed. Kids hang out. They socialize with children of their own generation. These are the people they will ultimately grow up with. Their social awareness is also developed at this time.

The Difference between the Present and Past Way of Thinking There is a huge difference. The world has totally changed. This is the case in our Montenegro, and I believe it is the same in other republics. However, I am talking about the situation here, the one I know about, as I have lived here. Here there have been a few devastating revolutions. Revolution usually means an upheaval, when translated into our language, isn’t that right? A revolution can always be started. We could arrange it tonight, to seize the media and the Government, and the Government would be replaced. However, only the Government would change; nothing else. In culture, there is no revolution. One cannot become cultured overnight, but you can bring down a government overnight. First, there was the Kingdom of Montenegro, and then the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which denied everything that had existed before it, the coat of arms and the anthem. It introduced new textbooks, new street names, new

heroes, new history, and it lasted for twenty years before the communist Yugoslavia came. The latter also denied all that had gone before it. Therefore, once again, there were new streets, new names, new textbooks, new history, new heroes, and new monuments. It was disintegrated as well. So, what happened? Each time we started again from the beginning. Each time we started as though we had just been created. We have no continuity. Continuity is the highest European value. It has not experienced revolution. The continuity that has lasted there for a thousand years is priceless. I do not engage in politics, but I do vote for the Government, no matter what it is. I vote just to preserve it, to allow something of ours to last, to finally put a stop to these changes and to focus on real development.

Art There are, let’s say, varying degrees of knowledge. For example, we have mathematics, philosophy and then, above all, comes art. All knowledge and endeavours are based on reason. Art is different, art is based on intuition. This is something that is beyond intelligence. This is something spontaneous and expresses what individuals are, as human beings, their essence, the essence of everyone of us. Since each person has their own identity. We say let’sfight for the identity of a country, and yet a person has an identity. If that is so, the more cultivated the person, the stronger the identity. The identity of a nation is a cultural identity, because there is no other identity. Suppose Italy were to disappear, the Italian identity would live on, because aspiritual identity exists. This is essential. And art is, ‘the cultivation of God’. I paint what I see every day. Therefore, had I lived in Zabljak, I would have painted that area. It’s natural. Life is interesting everywhere. It is like any other art, like any human work, it radiates the energy that it has absorbed. For example, an artist takes half an hour to paint a picture and then that pictureis looked at for either half an hour or just one minute. The painting process should have taken a hundred hours, to be looked at for just one minute, not vice versa, isn’t that so? I mean, everything that we see, which has been created by someone, is the result of energy, nothing else. I have exhibited a lot. Considering my age, I have had a lot of exhibitions. One needs to do something to fill all these years. I am a terribly lazy man. I believe I am the laziest person I know.It takes a hammer, chisel and some stone or other material to make a sculpture.I realized that painting was much easier, because I could work whilstsitting, listening to music and talking. I could

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listen to the radio. I mostly listen to the radio. I am capable of listening carefully as well as concentrating on the work in hand.

strong experience, isn’t that that case? It depends on that. Art is an expression of personality, because it is one’s own vision.

I rest while I am working. In the café, where I have a cup of coffee every morning, I was asked ‘Are you having a rest?’ as though I had been working hard and needed a rest. I said: ‘I rest while I am working.’ This means that I have been constantly resting, my entire life.

School

Colour in Painting It’s hard to analyze what I do. However, a colour in painting is equal to a word in literature. That is to say, one word does not mean anything on its own. It is only a concept. But when you add another word, something has been said. The same applies to colours. A colour means nothing by itself. In fact, colours are at their most beautiful when first bought, still in the tube. Throughout the painting process, one tries to retain that perfect colour. The colour is best at that time. Therefore, the use of colour is important. Colour is relative. One colour on its own does not mean anything, but put two or three colours together and something is expressed. This is harmony. The same applies in music, to a musical tone. A single musical tone has no quality. If you were to hit a barrel with a hammer you would produce a sound. In a musical sense, that sound would be a tone. I work rather spontaneously, without much thought. Thinking is decadent and art is anti-intellectual. Art based on a philosophy or a message is destruction of art itself. Once I was asked, during an exhibition in the Sveti Stefan gallery: ‘What is your message?’ I said: None. There is no message, these are just paintings, you are on your own to work it out (laughing). All human beingsare influenced by everything. For example, me, as a painter, I was influenced by all the paintings I have seen, all the artists, all the conversations and everything I have seen, read or watched on television. This forms our perception of the world, isn’t that so?

Everything is Repeated Indeed, everythingis repeated. Art is constantly repeated. No one has invented anything new, only the form has changed. The same applies to literature; all the stories were told a thousand years ago. However, it is important that they are told from the point of view of personal experience. Art is a personal experience. For example, if several painters were looking out of the window, they would paint the same view differently. Each psyche works differently, because it is not about documenting what is seen, it is about documenting the experience, each one of them will paint their own interpretation of what they see. This is essential. The stronger the personality, the stronger the experience, since a weak personality will have no

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Well, school? I really hated school. I completed my education because of my mother. I scraped through because she helped me. In this way I managed to graduate from high school without learning anything. I got out unharmed (laughing). Oh, the same things happen everywhere. It is a drama. Shakespeare’s famous dramas happen everywhere; Hamlet is happening in Denmark and in Mantua. All the plays written by Shakespeare could have been written by someone born in the remotest place in Montenegro, because the same drama is happening everywhere, isn’t that right? Well, Hamlet happens everywhere, in Herceg Novi, Baosici, and everywhere else. Art is everywhere. There is a saying that “Nothing human is alien to me”. So, humanity will be found, wherever there are people. This is great wisdom.

Talent and Work Well, I do not know. This is much easier than it looks when we start to philosophize about it. Let’s say, music is a great art. It is spontaneous. It is the purest art form because it directly affects the senses, unlike a book which makes one think about it; when reading a book one has to participate a little in what is happening, isn’t that right? Suppose you read a novel, and then imagine the characters and action, the environment; when well-described by a writer, you may be able to imagine a specific character, see a man who looks like that character in the street and identify him with that character, in a sense you have painted him. So, you participate. This is not the case in music. Music enters through the ear, teases some of your senses and you have a nice experience. It is fantastic. And painting is something similar. It also affects the senses, the visual sense, for example. Similar elements are found there. For example, composition, accord, harmony and rhythm are shared both by music and painting. These are the main features, which make these types of art so powerful.

Students of Herceg Novi Art School were Stronger than Their Teachers, Said an Artist Well, I’ve said it too. I say, they have not learned anything from me. I was reluctant to be a teacher, but I had to make a living and I got a job. I did not feel I could teach anyone anything. I was not sure of what I know. I am not sure even today. So I learned more from the students than they did from me, because every student was a personality. When one meets many personalities, it enriches the experience. I would say, the only thing they learned from me, was to smoke,


Photographed by: Radmila Krgovic

Motive of Boka Bay

since I have smoked since I was born (laughing). Zivko Nikolic was a really good student. He was talented. He was an excellent artist and painter, as well as a great actor. There was a theatrical performance in which he starred. Art school was incredibly funny. He was a great actor. I do not remember the name of the piece, I’ve forgotten, but I remember his role because of the fantastic way in which he acted. He had an artistic character. I taught sculpture and students had to work in the studio. Painters used to go outside to do watercolours, but sculptors went nowhere, because sculpture could not be done in the street. Personality is expressed through art. A person is enriched by everything he experiences throughout his life, isn‘t that so? It is the environment in which a person lives. A writer, for example, when expressing himself, will express all of that. I believe that in art, it is the same. Art is the product of an artist’s life experience. Life means living in an environment, an environment consisting of people and natural settings. This is so

important for every person, regardless of whether they engage in art or not. I have no direction. Many painters speak of phases, and I get asked which phase I am in. I say: ‘For me there is only one phase.’ I do not have these phases. I paint the best I can no matter how bad it maybe (laughing).

Spontaneity When something is done spontaneously, it is easier. It means that one creates what one feels the urge to create. And it is very easy, regardless of the result. I do not believe in making an effort. If a person says that it is very hard for him to do something, I would immediately tell him to do something else. If he says that he has struggled to make an exhibition, I would tell him to do something else. What is the point? It is pointless to even bother, right? Art is a way of expression; painting, literature and any other art. That means that one is expressing oneself,

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isn’t that right? The richer one’s mind, the more one has to say. Expression is a way of communication. Even if only one person in the world likes a painting, the painter has achieved something. It means that the painter has communicated something to another person. And that, in itself, may be enough. It is enough for me.

Life is Beautiful I think that life is beautiful. Even if one is beaten every day (laughing). It is interesting to live. The entire universe is billions of years old and one has a chance to see and experience all of that. That is a big thing. I have been aware of that since I was born. Painting, like any other art, is admiring the world, in which one lives, isn’t that so? Painting is an ode to the visual world, which is always beautiful. All weather is beautiful; living is beautiful, isn’t it? I am living along life, because I love life. People say, ‘It’sa nice day’. Oh, every day is nice. Even when it’s raining cats and dogs, or when the local strong south-easterly wind “Jugo” blows it is the dynamic,nature of life. It is not static. And it’s nice. It enriches life. Herceg Novi is a very attractive town. It is comfortable in every way, in terms of climate and natural environment. It is natural and people are attracted to that. Everyone feels nostalgic, when remembering their youth. The past was nice because we were younger, so it just seemed that everything was nice. I remember with nostalgia the time of occupation, not because of the occupation, but because I was young then. A young person enjoys everything. The cherries were so beautiful eighty years ago, weren’t they (laughing)?

Message to Young Artists Well I have nothing to recommend them. I do not feel that I could recommend anything to anyone. Every man lives his life. One should listen to oneself. One should look after oneself. One should listen to one’s inner voice. Isn’t that so? This is because one’s strength, the strength of each person, is within them. As we have just said, an individual’s personality is expressed through art, the stronger the personality, the more interesting the expression. That means that personality should be nurtured. To engage in art, one should be interested in music, literature, theatre and life in general. This is one’s capital and wealth. Talking about this in general is very wrong, because it should be recognized that every person is unique and that there is no alternative to this. A Latin proverb saysthat: ‘If two people are doing the same thing, it is not the same thing’. And that is true. It applies in medicine, but also in law and in art. If two people have the same disease, it is a different disease. They should not be treated in succession, as though on a

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conveyor belt, should they? And spiritually, a person’s character, which is his real being, is completely unique. Each person is unique and exceptional,and therefore each person should be appreciated as such.We may see a man walking down the street, insignificant, not standing out in any way, and yet we have no idea about that person’s life. It may be much richer than our own. Each human being should be appreciated. No one has ever invented anything. Had Archimedes’ principle not been invented by Archimedes, I would have invented it. People have only ever discovered what already existed. They have discovered it rather than invented it. No law in science was designed by anyone. People only discovered the law of nature. Darwin observed nature and proved something that already existed, not something he invented. The law of evolution was not invented by him, it already existed. All science is like that.

Globalization I have read somewhere that an American philosopher once said, that in 3,000 years’ time, not only would everyone speak the same language, but they would also look the same, as the world would be so mixed up. Three thousand years is a long way off, especially for me being older than you are. So, you go to Japan and you discover a man just like you, like a twin, exactly the same. He will probably think in the same way as you too. It will no longer be interesting. So I am happy that I will not be around in three thousand years. Globalization is already underway; the globalization of thinking. Globalization is something very dangerous. Take for example, the pollution of nature; this is a global problem, and one that can be globally addressed. However, the globalization of people is dangerous. Individuality will be lost, because every person has his own character, and in the same way every nation has their own character. However, it is all disappearing. It is happening very fast here too. We undergo such changes very fast, and it stands out, it is very obvious to anyone, who is not totally stupid. Globalization, in fact suits those who rule. It makes ruling easier and it is very powerful these days. Firstly, the media have enormous power. The public is terribly manipulated nowadays. To start with, everyone has a television. Regardless of how poor a person in Montenegro may be, they have a TV. He sits in front of it and watches it for hours. His mind is being brainwashed by the one looking him straight in the eye from the other side. As someone from Belgrade once said ‘The one who has not gone crazy yet, was already one hundred percent crazy.’ I’m sitting in a cafe, and someone’s grandson or son comes in. He takes out a phone and keeps turning


Photographed by: Dusko Miljanic

it around instead of playing. He is already being globalized. Adults are the same. I watch them. Five to six of them are sitting at a table. All of them take their phones out. It is an electronic brain, and when they want to prove something to you, they take it and quote some facts from there. Instead of having those facts in their heads, they have them in their pockets. Children can play without it. They develop their natural abilities. In meeting other children, they are meeting the world in which they will live. They will then develop creativity, how to have fun with no supporting items. Instead of that, the child sits and stares at the phone. I watch him. He is sitting with us, but he does not notice us. He orders a cake, and even does not notice that he is eating the cake. That is incredible.

Culture is Ignored We are too small to oppose a worldwide trend. We can do nothing about it. Culture is ignored. Watching television or reading the newspapers, I can see that only half a page is devoted to culture and there is, for example, a special supplement in the newspaper for sports. I now despise sport, although I believe that sport is very important. Had I been the Minister of Sport, I would not have allocated a single penny to them, either for water polo or anything else. I would have given that money to schools to build swimming pools for the children to develop a healthy mind in a healthy body. I do not know why one would support a team? Every player is a product. He can be bought by

anyone who wants to do so. This means that no-one engages in sports for the sake of sports any longerbut it is a job, a very profitable job. Big bucks are spent there. Let‘s say that, in the love between men and women, love is exchanged for love. But love can also be purchased. Love that can be purchased has a name, doesn’t it? Likewise, sport that can be purchased has a name, and why would anyone be a supporter of that? Although I follow no sports at all, there was a water polo game in Italy a few years ago. I do not know whether anyone from this area was in the team, but basically the players were from Yugoslavia and played against the Italians. They lost the match. All goals were scored by our nationals playing in Italy. How can one support that? Art is a game. I read that a soccer team went on strike in Niksic. How can they go on strike if it is a game? They play for their own pleasure. Why should someone finance it? But it suits all governments. Because after winning a trophy, they are welcomed by members of the state administration who then act as if they have scored the goals themselves. When I listen to the news, and sports news at the end, time is equally divided between the sports news and everything else. I have to endure it because I want to hear the weather forecast, because of the windows and papers upstairs, to see if the shutters should be closed. And then I get pestered for half an hour. I have to put up with the speaker. Even though he has annoyed us for much longer than other news, finally he says, ‘More

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details about the sports will be provided at ten o’clock.’ He believes that we have not been bothered enough.

America The word is led by America because it is rich. America is the product of the whole world. Some of the most capable people are out there making a career and in doing so may pick up some wisdom, but it is not known who will be the leader in the future. The Chinese are coming forward now, as are a lot of other nations, including India and South America. They have large human resources in order to create their products as well. America is the product of Europe. In America, every person is perfectly used. I have been there twice, for fifteen days and I would never live there, no matter what. There was a lady, an American journalist, from a nice company, and I told her: ‘They worship the golden calf.’ Money is the symbol of success there, and they are rich because they have it in large quantities. I’ve been there. There is no one to socialize with there. One works all day long and enjoys some family time once a week. This means that one has sold one’s time for money. A man sells a year of his time for the same money that he will use to buy back twenty days for himself. Then I told the American lady ‘Touch my hand’. She touched me.‘ Now you can brag that you have been with the richest man in the world, if time is money’ (laughing). She probably went back to America and continued living, no matter what I said. (Churchill went to Bermuda on that day, so everyone went their own way, anyway.)

Civilization It is called civilization. The Chinese are the most civilized, and yet, the more civilized one is the less humane one gets. A civilized man will make an impression when he comes in perfectly dressed and perfectly behaved, which does not mean at all that he iscultured. It does not mean that a civilized man is a cultured man. He follows a program that already exists. It is noticeable in our region, because we have lived in a relaxed manner, throughout our history. For example, I have witnessed that Herceg Novi has changed a lot over the last 60-70 years. It used to be more beautiful. It looked more beautiful and was a hundred times morecultured than now. There is some wild behaviour now. Even the descendants of cultured ancestors, old families of Herceg Novi, are no longer skilled in music. When they sing they do not have a good ear, they shout. Their ancestors were more cultured. Let us take the example of architecture, old buildings. They were built by some illiterate people, builders, because there was no university back then. The building in Florence which was built by Giotto, a

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shepherd who graduated from no faculty of any kind, who had no formal education,was perfectly designed and still stands as the most beautiful building today. The world is being destroyed today, not only spiritually, but materially as well. Let’s just say, natural resources of the Earth are limited. Everything is limited, forests, fresh water and other resources, that may be adequate for a certain number of people but one may be surprised how many. Nowadays people are becoming increasingly civilized. Petrol and other consumables are consumed by a billion Chinese, and natural resources of the Earth are limited. The time of having air and water problems has arrived. One has to buy drinking water in Montenegro, which has so much water that it could supply the whole of Europe.

Nature Pollution Civilization is dirty. We live in a polluted world because of cleanliness. So many detergents are consumed. To keep myself clean, I contaminate a huge area. We all do the same. This is how the sea has been polluted and nature as a whole, even the air. All because of selfishness. This is something that has reached the limit. For example, when a housewife goes to the market, she brings a plastic bag home. Additionally, every item is in its own separate bag. In fact, there is almost the same weight in plastic bags, resulting in enormous waste. 50-60 years ago there was no cleaner in Herceg Novi. Herceg Novi was a very clean town. Back then, for example, one would go to Bozo Deronjato get an empty bottle refilled with wine. You owned the bottle. When the bottle was dropped and broken, it was considered damaged. This is a fantastic program. When I sail out by boat, two or three miles away from the coast, there are floating plastic bags everywhere. Consumers are not entirely to blame. They do not know what to do with them. So much waste is produced. Montenegro is more vulnerable than anywhere else, just because we have no rules. As I am one hundred years old, I can remember that, in Niksic before the war, one used to buy a bottle of ink. It cost three dinars. When the ink ran out, the bottle was not thrown away. The same bottle was refilled, and this ink used to cost less. I have never thrown a bottle away, only if it was dropped and broken, only if it was damaged.

Creation of the World I believe that civilization has reached a plateau. The Old Testament, where the creation of the world is described, contains a lot of symbolism. For example, it reads: ‘The world was so corrupted that God was tired and decided to destroy it as a whole. Only a single pair of humans and every kind of animal were saved


Nature is indestructible. Let us imagine that, as an experiment, an atomic bomb was dropped on a hotel. There were some mice and small animals there and everything was destroyed. After 20 years the same animals were found there, though much bigger, because nature could not be destroyed. Some philosophers say that matter cannot be destroyed. One could set fire to all of this. Everything would turn into smoke and soot.The same material is subsequently recycled. People are also recycled.

hearing the story and could not sleep. She was telling me the story to send me to sleep, however, she used to doze off herself and fall asleep mid-story. Then I used to wake her up to continue. Instead of making me go to sleep, she would fall asleep (laughing). I loved her so much that I learned Albanian because I was jealous when I heard her speaking Albanian with her sister. I learned some Albanian, and since then I have been very fond of the Albanians.

I’m a not a believer but I am a Christian who understands the meaning of life I am not a believer but I am a Christian who understands the meaning of life. The Bible reads in the same way to me, just as the whole ideology of Christianity, and I like that. If everyone behaved in the manner Jesus Photographed by: Dusko Miljanic

for the world to go on’. However, it reminds me of the present day. There was a great flood. Nevertheless, the Earth has existed for a billion years, which means that our knowledge of civilization reaches back only 5.000– 6.000 years. There is total darkness beyond that. We know nothing. Many civilizations could have collapsed in a million years, perhaps even an atomic war. Perhaps the great flood is a memory that has always left a mark in human genes. The great flood could have been some sort of a nuclear catastrophe. This is my way of interpreting the symbolism.

I Loved Granny Marathe Most Albanians are stronger than us. I watch Italian television, as I can follow the Italian language pretty well. There is a place in Albania which was occupied by the Turks. Mostly Orthodox Christians lived there. Even today there are few Catholics. The population is mainly Orthodox, living close to the Greek border. Fleeing from the Turks, they moved to Italy and formed Albanian counties. A place populated only by Albanians was shown in the programme. I could see a church, which looked just like our church, iconostasis. The priest looked the same and was “mumbling” something. As I do not understand our priests either, I didn’t notice any difference. It was like listening to our liturgy. However, they preserve their identity. Temple

I grew very fond of Albania because my maternal grandmother Mara was from Shkodra. She was not an Albanian. She was Montenegrin. Her family was an old family from Shkodra and Mara was married to my grandfather Nedjeljko Ivanovic, originally from Kuci, who lived in Savnik. He had a tavern. They were the richest family in Savnik back then. I love this place dearly. But I loved grandmother Mara more than anyone else. She spoke Albanian with her sister. It was her mother tongue. I loved her the most. She used to make whatever I wanted. For example, she made fritters at midnight. She used to get up and make fritters. When I used to go to sleep at night, granny Mara used to tell me some Albanian stories in the local language so that I would fall asleep. However, since the story usually used to begin with: “There was a king and he had three daughters...” I would get interested in

preached in ‘The Sermon on the Mount,’ the world would be a happy place. Jesus was a leftist, a socialist. The Holy Scripture also reads: ‘Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself’. I do not like to know what tomorrow will bring. My housekeeper is a fantastic cook and she prepares a different dish every day. When she asked me which dish I wanted her to prepare, I said: ‘I do not like to know what I’m going to have for lunch.’ We live for today. Njake used to worry about things ten days in advance. Well, do not worry now. Leave the worrying for when it happens, because it might not even happen (laughing). Life is interesting because we do not know what is around the corner. It’s really interesting. It is the same as reading a novel. It would be boring if we read it a second time. Life follows its own course, and every moment should be enjoyed while it lasts.”

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Prevodilac sa engleskog jezika: Danilo Leković Stručni saradnik na prevodu: Borislav Vukićević Razgovarala: Radmila Krgović

KULTURNO NASLJEĐE

MALO JE LIJEPO

“Ako ne poštujemo prošlost, izgubićemo budućnost. Ako uništimo naše korijenje, nećemo moći da rastemo.”  Friedensreich Hundertwasser Janko i Kerolajn (Caroline) Jovićević, kao aktivni građani, volonteri i donatori, dali su značajan doprinos Crnoj Gori i nastavljaju da daju primjer šta mogu postići posvećeni i pasionirani pojedinci koji se bore za cilj u koji vjeruju. Donijeli nove standarde

Fotografija: Srećko Krasan

Janko je rođen na Cetinju. Kada je imao 18 godina otišao je iz Cetinja. U Beogradu je završio studije,

Kada su se upoznali u Los Anđelesu, između ove dvije neobične individue formirane u različitim sredinama, na različitim iskustvima desila se jaka veza i ljubav. Kvaliteti koje su odmah prepoznali kao zajedničke

Ljudi koji vide dalje

zaposlio se i oženio. Napustio je Beograd u vrijeme rata 1991. godine i otišao u Sjedinjene Američke Države da otpočne novi život. Kerolajn je rođena u Zimbabveu, odrasla je u Tanzaniji i Keniji, završila je studije u Ujedinjenom kraljevstvu i proputovala svijet.

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bili su hrabrost, strast da pozitivno doprinose, visoki standardi i ljubav prema avanturi i netaknutoj prirodi. Janko i Kerolajn nijesu planirali da grade kuću kada su 2003. godine došli u Crnu Goru da posjete Jankovu porodicu, ali su se zaljubili u Skadarsko jezero.


Fotografija: Lazar Pejović

Stražarska ribarska kućica u potpunosti pripada okruženju

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Fotografija: Arhiva Renome

Svjedočanstvo duge borbe: Zavjet Jovićevića urezan u čeliku 2010. (prije zvanične zaštite 2015.)

Može li se desiti jaka veza i ljubav između Slijedi priča o Janku i Kerolajn Jovićević i njihovoj čovjeka i kuće, odnosno mjesta? velikoj ljubavi prema mjestima u Karučkom zalivu koja Željela sam da saznam šta ih je navelo da sagrade njihovu jedinstvenu kuću na veoma izolovanom mjestu na obali Skadarskog jezera, u Nacionalnom parku Skadarsko jezero. Zajednički su i harmonično stvorili mjesto za sebe i svoj jedinstveni dom u prirodi, gdje slijede stil života koji je u saglasju sa postojećim ekosistemom. Ne samo da su sagradili svoj dom, već su i ulagali velike napore, vrlo uporno, da se zaštiti jedna naročita građevina, Stražarska ribarska kućica. Uz to, u području u kojem žive uspješno su realizovali deset projekata koji se odnose na zaštitu životne sredine od bespravne gradnje i eksploatacije. Kao aktivni građani, volonteri i donatori, dali su značajan doprinos Crnoj Gori i nastavljaju da daju primjer šta mogu postići posvećeni i pasionirani pojedinci, koji se bore za cilj u koji vjeruju. Jovićevići su bili pozvani da panelom fotografija predstave svoju kuću na Beogradskoj internacionalnoj nedelji arhitekture (BINA 2010), pored ostalih objekata koji su predstavljali Crnu Goru. Kuća Jovićevića je dobila odlične kritike. Imala sam čast da posjetim njihovu jedinstvenu kuću. Tu priliku su takođe imali istaknuti profesori arhitekture, antropologije i sociologije iz Vašingtona, Berlina, Londona, Ljubljane i Beograda.

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su odabrali i prihvatili kao svoja, koja štite i o kojima brinu. Ta strastvena ljubav inspiriše njihovu sagu i daje im snagu da se bore protiv neznanja, zlog vremena i pohlepnih ljudi kojima je na umu samo da okrenu brze pare na račun prirode. „Sa profitom kao mantrom, ti ljudi nesvjesno i nepopravljivo oštećuju kulturno i prirodno nasljeđe i jedino što ostavljaju je grdilo”.

Instant hemija između Jovićevića i Stražarske ribarske kućice „U suštini, to je vrlo slično ljubavi na prvi pogled prema osobi“, kažu Jovićevići. „To vam je instanthemija. Prepoznajete to mjesto kao prijatelja i odmah uspostavljate čvrstu vezu. Znate da ćete učiniti sve da budete blizu tog mjesta i da ćete čuvati to mjesto. Prva intuitivna posvećenost dolazi pravo iz srca i često nije logična. Ali nakon toga počinjete da koristite um i razumijevanje kako biste racionalizovali odnos i utemeljili ga u praktičnoj stvarnosti. Došli smo čamcem sa Karuča i čim smo obišli Karučki krš i ušli u Kaluđerovo oko i Đurovo oko, vidjeli smo malu kamenu kuću ugniježđenu u stijeni poput neke male jezerske ptice koja je tu našla leglo. Toliko je potpuno i autentično pripadala okolini. Njeni zidovi od sivog kamena sa lica mjesta i trošni krov od kanalice stopili su se sa tom stijenom. Imala je tako prirodan i


Fotografija: Lazar Pejović

nepretenciozan integritet. Jednostavno nas je ostavila bez daha. To je stvarno bila ljubav na prvi pogled. Dva prozora sa plavim ramovima izgledaju kao dva budna oka. Stražar bi, kroz te prozore, nadgledao Kaluđerovo oko sa lijeve i Đurovo oko sa desne strane, pazeći oka od krivolovaca. (Oka su izvori na dnu jezera iz kojih izbija čista voda. Riba se skuplja na tim mjestima). Okrenuta je ka jugu zbog sunca. Podignuta je dovoljno visoko iznad jezera da bi se izbjeglo da bude poplavljena. Od vjetra je štite vrbe na ostrvu u obliku polumjeseca, koje se nalazi ispred i koje se naziva Osredak, a štiti je i tvrdi krš koji se oštro uzdiže u pozadini“, kažu Jovićevići.

Borba za Stražarsku ribarsku kućicu Janko i Kerolajn se nikada nijesu pitali da li je kućica vrijedna zaštite. Od početka su i osjećali i znali da je to izuzetno važna i vrijedna građevina. Kerolajn je napisala nekoliko novinskih članaka o tome u „Vijestima”, kao i jedan članak u „Monitoru”. Stav Jovićevića je rezultirao podnošenjem službenog Zahtjeva tadašnjem Republičkom zavodu za zaštitu spomenika kulture Crne Gore da se kućica registruje kao zaštićeni objekat. Bilo je potrebno 11 godina da se to konačno desi. Stražarska ribarska kućica je zaštićena 27. marta 2015, nakon što je zakon promijenjen kako bi to bilo omogućeno. Prije toga su Jovićevići sačuvali kućicu od nekih ljudi koji su željeli da odnesu njen crijep i kamen, a kada je jedna moćna osoba poželjela da je sruši i na njenom mjestu izgradi vikendicu, okupili su veliki broj poznatih ljudi (arhitekte, slikare, profesore, advokate i druge) da podrže njihovu inicijativu kako bi je zaštitili. Borili su se da vlasništvo nad kućicom dobije Prijestonica Cetinje, kako je razni špekulanti ne bi dalje uzurpirali, kao što je bio slučaj sa nekima od 16 drugih stražarskih ribarskih kućica na Skadarskom jezeru. Bila je to vrlo uporna borba. Pitanje je, zapravo: što je tu borbu činilo vrijednom truda?

Nakon 11 godina rada i truda Jovićevića, Stražarska ribarska kućica 2015. godine konačno dobija “status nepokretnog kulturnog dobra od lokalnog značaja.” „Kućica posjeduje kulturnu, istorijsku, arhitektonsku, estetsku i turističku (ekonomsku) vrijednost“, kažu Jovićevići, „a vrijedna je i kao dio ekologije Karučkog zaliva. Ovo su neki od razloga zašto je bilo vrijedno boriti se. Stražarska kućica je polazna tačka od koje bi se mogla reinterpretirati istorija ribarske kulture na jezeru. Zbog toga posjeduje vrijednost za turizam, kao mjesto koje porodice mogu posjećivati i uživati u kupanju, pikniku ili u odmoru nakon veslanja. To je odlično mjesto za posmatranje ptica i za uživanje

Nacionalno blago ovog vremena: moderna kuća u tradicionalnom stilu savršeno ukorijenjena u ambijent. “Kuća Jovićevića daje potpuno funkcionalan i jedinstven crnogorski model najboljih praksi za održivu gradnju”. Hauard Patrik Beri, američki arhitekta

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Fotografija: Lazar Pejović

Stražarska ribarska kućica i Kuća Jovićevića: Braća po kamenu

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u prirodi. Takođe, primjer je prikladne arhitekture u prirodnom ambijentu. Nažalost, postoji mnogo nelegalnih, loše izgrađenih i neprikladnih objekata na obali Skadarskog jezera. Kućica - i naš dom - su izuzeci od ovog negativnog trenda koji bude nadu. Odmah smo razumjeli čovjeka koji je izgradio kućicu prije oko sedamdeset godina. Poštovali smo ga. Divili smo se njegovoj diskretnosti i instinktu za arhitektonsku prikladnost. Gradio je da zadovolji potrebe stražara i uzeo je iz prirode samo onoliko koliko je bilo potrebno za postizanje tog cilja: napravio je dovoljno prostora za ležaj, sto, stolicu i šporet. Shvatili smo da ova kućica može biti primjer za one što ih ego i pohlepa podstiču da grade zgrade koje su isuviše velike i nametljive da bi bile ugodne za boravak; za one koji koriste materijale i boje što su u sukobu sa okolinom; za one koji zagađuju i uništavaju prirodu bez milosti.

Učešće na Beogradskoj internacionalnoj nedelji arhitekture (BINA 2010) BINA je omogućila ljudima da vide ono što su Jovićevići postigli. Ljudi iz regiona i iz daleka bili su impresionirani. Nekoliko ljudi koji su vidjeli panel fotografija u Beogradu posjetilo je kasnije kuću i svi su bili oduševljeni. Kada su ubrzo nakon završetka radova Jovićevići otvorili kuću za javnost, u edukativne svrhe, vrlo malo ljudi iz Crne Gore je prihvatilo poziv da posjete kuću. To je bilo razočaravajuće, jer Jovićevići smatraju da kuća daje prijeko potreban primjer za Crnogorce, posebno, o tome kako na prihvatljiv način graditi na jezeru i u Nacionalnom parku.

Vizija izgradnje njihovog doma „Intenzivno smo istraživali jezero i vidjeli smo mnogo primjera kako je čovjek poremetio i uništio prirodu. Đurovo oko, mjesto gdje smo mi odlučili da gradimo, bilo je jedno od malobrojnih mjesta, u tradicionalno Fotografija: Janko Jovićević

Vratili smo se da temeljnije istražimo područje i pronašli smo prekrasnu lokaciju nedaleko od stražarske kućice. Na lokaciji se već nalazila ruševina kamene ribarske kućice u privatnom vlasništvu, što je bio uslov koji nam je omogućio da dobijemo građevinsku dozvolu i da baš tu legalno sagradimo naš dom i da dobijemo upotrebnu dozvolu po okončanju radova. Počeli smo zapravo da razmišljamo o gradnji kuće koja bi se upotpunjavala sa stražarskom kućicom i uklapala u prirodno okruženje. Naš plan je uključivao iste one čvrste principe na kojima je počivala gradnja kućice, a

dodali smo i nekoliko naših principa. Koristili smo, na primjer, reciklirane materijale za stvaranje autentičnog utiska o dugoj izloženosti kuće vremenskim prilikama. Ugradili smo ekološki sistem filtriranja otpadne vode iz domaćinstva, kako ta voda ne bi zagađivala jezero. Postavili smo i švedski toalet koji podrazumijeva kompostiranje kao čistu alternativu septičkoj jami, koja bi se mogla izliti u jezero.“

Ljubav prema prirodi prelazi na sljedeću generaciju

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Fotografija: Lazar Pejović

Đurovo oko i Kaluđerovo oko: Nenadmašna ljepota

naseljenim područjima na obali jezera, koje niko nije dirao. Naša vizija je bila da zaštitimo cijelo područje oko kuće i Stražarsku kućicu, i da dato područje očuvamo netaknuto, u mjeri u kojoj je to moguće, za nas same i za sve one koji žele da uživaju u njemu. Građenjem na ovom mjestu, Jovićevići su na neki način postali čuvari tog područja baš kao i stražar prije nas. Naša vizija je bila da stvorimo dom koji se uklapa u prirodni ambijent i dopunjava postojeću ekologiju ovog kraja. Željeli smo da kuća izgleda kao da je tamo već dvije stotine godina. Željeli smo da je napravimo da traje, tako da mnoge generacije ljudi koji će voljeti prirodu kao što je mi volimo, mogu da uživaju u njoj kad mi odemo. Izabrali smo izolovani dio Nacionalnog parka, tako da nema puta do našeg doma. Tokom te dvije godine, koliko je bilo potrebno da se sagradi kuća, sav material i radnike smo prebacivali čamcem sa Karuča. Ovo je bio ogroman logistički poduhvat ali se uklapao u našu viziju minimiziranja štete po okolinu i poštovanja zakona Nacionalnog parka. Naš smo ekološki otisak držali na minimumu. Kasnije smo kupili mali komad zemlje oko kuće za povrtnjak i cvijeće, jer smo željeli da barem dio naših potreba za povrćem i voćem zadovoljavamo sami. Ribu, sir, vino i med kupujemo od naših susjeda i

na taj način doprinosimo lokalnoj ekonomiji. Kada se vraćamo iz kupovine u Podgorici, do kuće se spuštamo stjenovitom kozjom stazom noseći samo onoliko namirnica koliko možemo ponijeti – i ništa više. Sada jako dobro umijemo da procijenimo koliko nam je dovoljno. Kad smo shvatili koliko nam je potrebno, kad smo postali svjesni te – dovoljnosti – da tako kažem, to je postala naša životna filozofija.“

Usamljeni u ideji očuvanja kulturne baštine i okoline „Morate spoznati vrijednost neke stvari prije nego što postanete inspirisani da se njome bavite“, nastavljaju Jovićevići. „Mora postojati poriv iznutra. Ne možete natjerati ljude da nešto učine dok nijesu spremni da to učine. Osjećaj mora biti autentičan. Mislimo da je nastupio pravi trenutak za podizanje svijesti o potrebi zaštite prirode i naše kulturne baštine. Nekoliko posljednjih generacija Crnogoraca, privučeno svijetlima velikih gradova, jedva je čekalo da napusti selo. Biće potrebno vrijeme prije nego što se vratimo istorijskim građevinama u ruralnim područjima, tradicionalnim zanatima, bogatoj kulturnoj baštini, prije nego što budemo spremni da na te stvari gledamo u

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svjetlu novih spoznaja, pa čak i sa divljenjem. U ovom trenutku to jednostavno nije ono što većina ljudi u Crnoj Gori nalazi za interesantno.

nekoj ideji u intelektualnom i teorijskom smislu, ali ljudi žele da tu ideju u njihovo ime neko drugi sprovede u djelo.

Čini se i da većina mladih ljudi, koji su odrasli u gradovima i koji su naši budući lideri, ima druge stvari na pameti: hodanje trotoarima sa slušalicama u ušima, slanje poruka, razmišljanje o narednom sastanku ili o kafi sa prijateljima. Oni jednostavno neće primijetiti prekrasne oronule kule pored kojih prolaze ili leptira koji je upravo sletio na njihovu cipelu! Većina ljudi iz grada sa kojima smo razgovarali nikada nijesu krenuli na taj put od 25 minuta vožnje, od Podgorice do Skadarskog jezera, kako bi kroz vlastito iskustvo doživjeli prirodu, stare građevine i ruralnu kulturu koja je zapravo njihova najvrijednija baština.“

Naravno, novac je još jedna stvar koja motiviše ljude da razgovaraju o uvođenju promjena. Ako Evropska unija daje novac Crnoj Gori za program zaštite naše kulturne baštine, ministri i oni koji donose odluke počinju u jedan glas i sa oduševljenjem da govore o toj temi. Ali naše iskustvo govori da je potrebna prava ljubav za ovaj posao da bi se ostvario uspjeh. Ono što je potrebno jesu istinska vizija i istinska strast, što će ostati čak i kada novac ne bude više pristizao. Jovićevići su, na primjer, uložili 5.000 eura za obnavljanje Stražarske kućice – za popravku krova, zamjenu prozora i vrata, kao i za popravku stepenica i platoa ispred kuće. Zato što je naša strast za zaštitu ovog objekta istinska, mi smo jedini koji ga povremeno obilaze, održavaju ga čistim, otvaramo vrata i prozore tokom sunčanih dana da bi se prostor provjetrio.

Motivacija za suživot sa okruženjem „Ljudi postaju motivisani kada su dirnuti direktnim iskustvom kroz koje su sami prošli, ili kada su pod utiskom dobro ispričane priče, koja ih nadahnjuje da preduzmu akciju, koja im donosi iskustvo koje će zauvijek promijeniti način na koji razmišljaju. Možda će upravo ova priča koju mi sada pričamo inspirisati ljude koji je čitaju. To je u stvari razlog zbog kojega smo otvorili kuću za javnost. Mislili smo da bi bilo korisno i inspirativno za ljude da čuju našu priču i da vide šta smo napravili, vođeni našom strašću da zaštitimo prirodu i kulturnu baštinu ovog područja.“

Prepoznavanje naše baštine samo je jedna strana jednačine; zaštita je druga strana, održavanje je treća strana. Ni jedan od ova tri koraka neće biti održiv ako onima koji donose odluke stvarno nije stalo do naše kulturne i prirodne baštine u dovoljnoj mjeri da bi donosili odgovorne i dalekovide političke odluke i da bi osigurali da se te odluke sprovode i pomno prate. Nije dovoljno započeti nešto, neko vrijeme ulagati novac u to, a zatim dići ruke i pustiti da to propadne.“

Kulturni i sportski turizam kao pravci razvoja

Zainteresovati ljude za kulturno i prirodno „U ministarstvima su nam potrebni lideri sa vizijom, strašću, beskompromisnom energijom i strpljenjem, nasljeđe „Mislimo da treba da izvedete ljude napolje, u prirodu“, insistiraju Jovićevići, „da ih potaknete da se popnu do građevine koju želite da zaštitite i da čuju priču o njoj; potaknite ih da dožive zanate, ili bilo koju aktivnost ili šta god da je to što bi im pomoglo da ostvare vezu, da kroz vlastito iskustvo osjete ljepotu i da shvate o čemu se tu radi. Lokalna vlast, fakulteti i škole, mogu mnogo da doprinesu organizovanjem zajedničkih izleta i za odrasle ljude i za studente i za djecu, kako bi se razne generacije zajedno suočile sa svojom kulturnom i prirodnom baštinom. Pripremu za tako nešto trebalo bi sprovesti na fakultetima i u školama, kao i posredstvom medija. Osoba koja vodi grupu mora da izgara od strasti po pitanju same teme i rezultata koje treba postići. Neće bilo koji nastavnik ili vodič obaviti posao na zadovoljavajući način. Nažalost, istinska strast, u kombinaciji sa samopouzdanjem i harizmom, što je neophodno da bi se inspirisala promjena u načinu na koji ljudi razmišljaju, rijetka je i među političarima i kod ljudi na vodećim pozicijama i kod profesora i kod nastavnika. Tačno je da većina ljudi voli da razgovara o

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lideri koji će se potruditi da otputuju van Crne Gore da bi vidjeli kako se projekti zaštite uspješno realizuju drugdje, lideri koji zaista žele da Crna Gora uspije na isti način“, sugerišu Jovićevići.

„Postoji mnogo mogućnosti za kulturni i sportski turizam u Crnoj Gori. To nije problem. Problem je nedostatak jedinstvene vizije, planiranja i istinske saradnje između ministarstava, lokalne uprave, nacionalnih parkova i aktivnih građana. Bespravna gradnja je već uništila mnogo potencijala za turizam u mnogim mjestima, kao što je, na primjer, Karuč. Kula Svetog Petra na Karuču je sada usamljena relikvija okružena nelegalnim objektima. Malo guvno, uz vodu, koje su seljani zvali “Trpeza Svetoga Petra”, više ne postoji i njegova priča je izgubljena. Savršena sportska i kulturna turistička kombinacija kao što je planinarska i biciklistička tura između Kule Svetog Petra na Karuču, objekta koji pripada kulturnoj baštini, i poznatih drušićkih vinograda – sa pauzom u Stražarskoj kućici na pola puta – sada je nemoguća, jer je markirana staza koja povezuje dva sela blokirana nelegalnim objektom. Uprkos našim dvogodišnjim


naporima da se zaustavi nelegalna gradnja tog objekta i da se zaštiti ova staza – koja je ustanovljena i označena zahvaljujući ulaganju Vlade Njemačke i Vlade Austrije – moćni investitor uspio je da završi svoj nelegalni objekat. Nameće se pitanje koje vapi za odgovorom: zašto je investitoru dozvoljeno da završi svoj nelegalni objekat? Pa zato što ga nadležni organi nijesu spriječili u tome, uprkos hronolgiji cijelog slučaja koju je nadležnim organima predočila porodica Jovićević, hronologiji koju čini 179 stranica dokumenata i fotografija. Očigledno je da nadležni nijesu dovoljno vrijednovali potencijal kulturnog i sportskog turizma ovog područja.

Izbor za budućnost: Zaštititi ili uništiti?

Evo još jedan primjer: kajakaštvo na dobro planiranim vodenim stazama na Skadarskom jezeru bio je jedan od uzbudljivih sportskih turističkih projekata koji je na naše oči cvjetao pod stranom investicijom i upravljanjem. Vidjeli smo i kako taj projekat zamire zbog birokratije, miješanja i nedostatka podrške od strane lokalne uprave. Strani preduzetnici, energični mladi ljudi, koji su uložili svoju strast i novac u ovaj projekat u međuvremenu su napustili Crnu Goru i pronašli zemlju u kojoj nadležni imaju više razmijevanja za direktne investicije.“

„Govoreći iz iskustva, kao aktivni građani koji su neumorno radili na zaštiti Karučkog zaliva, (čak smo uspjeli da dovedemo do rušenja jedne nelegalne građevine), sve dobre ideje na svijetu ne mogu uspjeti dok Vlada i većina građana u Crnoj Gori ne počnu da sarađuju kako bi se zaustavila korupcija. Jedini način da Crnogorci pristanu na akciju bio bi, naravno, ako bismo svi učestvovali u definisanju višeg cilja i stvaranju nepokolebljive vizije od koje bi i naša zemlja i svi mi imali koristi i ako bismo radili na podsticanju stavova i kreiranju javnih politika koje će donijeti dobro i sadašnjim i budućim generacijama.“

Želje za očuvanje Đurovog i Kaluđerovog oka u Skadarskom jezeru „Kao što je Luiz Vejs mudro istakla: ‘Istorija ide naprijed i ono što je juče bilo nemoguće biće moguće sjutra’. Nadamo se da će pametni ljudi iz Uprave za zaštitu kulturnih dobara, Prijestonice Cetinje i NP Skadarsko jezero posmatrati Stražarsku ribarsku kućicu i Kuću Jovićevića u kontekstu čitavog područja i da će odlučiti da zaštite ovaj dio NP Skadarsko jezero kao drevni raj za ljude, ptice i floru za sva vremena.Jovićevići neće živjeti na Đurovom oku zauvijek. Nadamo se da ćemo jednog dana predati naš dom ljudima koji razumiju koja je to privilegija živjeti na obali jezera u NP Skadarsko jezero, udisati čisti vazduh i piti izvorsku vodu. Nadamo se da će sljedeći vlasnici biti ljudi kojima se sviđa ideja da zaspu pod zvjezdanim nebom uz serenade u izvedbi hora žaba i povremenim hukom sove. Ljudi koji će se

Fotografija: Adis Ramović

Zajedničkim snagama do održivosti

svakodnevno radovati pogledu na blještavo Skadarsko jezero ispred sebe kad se probude.“

Kvalitet savremene gradnje nije dugoročan „Često zaboravljamo da se građevine koje su predodređene da u budućnosti postanu dio naše nacionalne baštine, moraju graditi sada. Ovo je posebno važno. Malo je građevina podignutih u posljednje vrijeme u Crnoj Gori koje su napravljene da traju. Malo je među građevinama koje se sada grade u Crnoj Gori, onih koje u samom srcu procesa izgradnje i u svojoj funkciji imaju integritet. Nadamo se da će Stražarska ribarska kućica i Kuća Jovićevića biti prepoznate po kvalitetima što ih obje potvrđuju. Nadamo se da su obje predodređene da postanu građevine koje iskreno i skromno predstavljaju ono što moramo naučiti da cijenimo u domenima naše kulturne i prirodne baštine. Nadamo se da će se Crnogorci uzidići i da će jednoga dana zavoljeti Stražarsku ribarsku kućicu i Kuću Jovićevića, kao što ih mi volimo, i da će željeti da obje zaštite na uživanje i na dobrobit generacija koje dolaze“ zaključuju Jovićevići.

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Interviewed by: Radmila Krgovic

Cultural heritage

SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL “If we do not honour our past, we lose our future. If we destroy our roots, we cannot grow.”  Friedensreich Hundertwasser

As active civilians, volunteers and donators Janko and Caroline Jovicevic have made a significant contribution to Montenegro and continue to set an example of what can be achieved by committed, passionate individuals who are willing to fight for a cause they believe in. Creating new standards

Photo: Srecko Krasan

Janko was born in Cetinje. When he was 18, he left his hometown to attend university in Belgrade, where he subsequently worked and married. During the war in 1991, he left Belgrade to start a new life in USA. Caroline was born in Zimbabwe, grew up in Tanzania and Kenya, was educated in UK and travelled the world. When they met in Los Angeles, the bond was immediate between these two unusual individuals from such different backgrounds. Qualities they immediately recognized they had in common were courage, passion for making a positive contribution, high standards and a love of adventure and wild places. When Janko and Caroline came to Montenegro for a family visit in 2003, they had no plans to build a home here but they fell in love with Skadar Lake.

They were invited to exhibit a panel of photographs of their house at the Belgrade International Week of Architecture (BINA 2010) alongside other buildings representing Montenegro. The Jovicevic House received rave reviews. I am one of a few fortunate people who has visited their extraordinary house, along with professors of architecture, anthropology and sociology from Washington DC, Berlin, London, Belgrade and Ljubljana who have also had that privilege.

Far-sighted people

Is it possible for a person to feel an immediate bond with a building or a place? I wanted to find out what made them decide to build their unique house in a very isolated spot on the shore of Skadar lake in Skadar Lake National Park. They

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harmoniously created a place for themselves and their unique home in the landscape and followed a lifestyle that was in balance with the existing ecosystem. Not only did they build their home, but they also made a relentless effort to protect one special building, the Watchman’s Hut as well as successfully completing ten projects to protect the environment in the immediate area from illegal building and exploitation. As active civilians, volunteers and donators, they have made a significant contribution to Montenegro and continue to set an example of what can be achieved by committed, passionate individuals who are willing to fight for a cause they believe in.

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What follows is the story of Janko and Caroline Jovicevic and their great love for the places they chose to protect and cherish in the Karuc area. It is this passionate love that inspires their saga and has given them the strength to battle the ignorance, bad times and greedy people whose agenda is to turn a quick buck at nature’s expense. With profit as their mantra, these people unwittingly but irrevocably damage our natural and cultural heritage and bequeath only ugliness to the future.

Instant chemistry between Janko Caroline and the Watchman’s Hut

and

“Of course. It’s very like falling in love at first sight with


Photo: Lazar Pejovic

The watchman’s view

a person”, was the unhesitating reply to my question. “There is instant chemistry. You recognize that place as a friend and bond with it instantly. You know that you would do anything to be close to it and take care of it. The first intuitive commitment comes straight from the heart and is often not logical. But after that you start to use reason and understanding to rationalize the relationship and to ground it in practical reality. We came from Karuc by boat and when we rounded Karucki krs into Kaludjerovo oko and Djurovo oko, we saw a little stone building nestled into the rock like a small lake bird that had settled there to roost. It belonged completely and authentically to the environment. Its local greystone walls and weathered tile roof blended with the surrounding rock. It had such a natural, unpretentious integrity. It simply took our breath away. It really was love at first sight. Two blue-framed windows look out like watchful eyes. The watchman would have looked out of these to protect Kaludjerovo oko to the left and Djurovo oko to the right from poachers. (The “okos” - which translates as eyes - are places on the lakebed where freshwater springs bubble up. The fish love to congregate there). It faces South to catch the sun. It is built high enough above the lake to avoid flooding. It is shielded from the wind by willow trees on the crescent island of Osredak

in front and protected by the rugged karst which rises sharply behind.”

The battle to protect the Watchman’s Hut Janko and Caroline never questioned whether or not the Watchman’s Hut was worth protecting. Right away they felt and knew that it was a uniquely important and valuable building. Caroline wrote several newspaper articles about it in Vijesti and a magazine article in Monitor. The stand taken by the Jovicevics resulted in it being registered as a building of local cultural significance by the Directorate for the Protection of Cultural Property. It took 11 years to get the building protected. It was finally officially protected on 27th March, 2015, after the law had changed to allow this. Before that the Jovicevics saved it from some people who wanted to make use of its tiles and stone, and when a powerful person wanted to knock it down and build a weekend house on the site, they rallied well-known figures (architects, artists, university professors, lawyers and others) to support their initiative to protect it. They battled to get its ownership registered in the name of City Hall Cetinje so that it would not be usurped by speculators, which has been the fate of many of the 16 other watchmen’s huts on Skadar Lake. It has been a constant battle. What made it worth such a fight?

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Photo: Srecko Krasan

are so many illegal, badly built and inappropriate buildings on the shore of Skadar Lake. The Watchman’s Hut - and our home - are refreshing exceptions to this negative trend.

The Watchman’s Hut looks like a small lake bird that has settled on the rock to roost

After 11 years of work and struggle by the Jovicevics, the Watchman’s Hut finally received official recognition as “a building of local cultural significance” in 2015.

We came back to explore the area further and found a beautiful site not far from the Watchman’s Hut. It already had a broken-down fisherman’s house on it, which set the precedent for us to build our home legally in that location and to obtain a use permit upon completion. We started to think about building a home that would complement the Watchman’s Hut and fit in with the natural surroundings. Our plan incorporated all the same sound principles that were applied in the Watchman’s Hut and included more of our own. For example, we used recycled materials to create an authentic, weathered look. We built an ecological grey water filtration system for the household water that does not pollute the lake and we installed a Swedish composting toilet so that we did not need to dig a septic field that might seep into the lake.”

Photo: Vladimir Vojvodic

“The Watchman’s Hut has cultural, historical, aesthetic, architectural and touristic (economic) value,” assert the Jovicevics “and it is valuable as part of the ecology of the Karuc lagoon. These are some of the reasons it was worth fighting for. The Watchman’s Hut is a starting point from which to recount the historical story of the fishing culture on the lake. It has a value for tourism because of this and as a place for families to come and enjoy a day out swimming and having a picnic or to rest after kayaking. It is a great place from which to watch birds and enjoy nature. And it is an example of appropriate architecture in a natural setting. Unfortunately, there

We immediately understood and respected the person who had built the Watchman’s Hut around seventy years ago. We admired his discretion and instinct for architectural appropriateness. He built to meet the watchman’s needs and took just enough from nature to achieve that end: he made a place big enough for a cot, table, chair and stove. We thought about the example this building could set for those whose ego drives them to build buildings that are too big and too ostentatious for human comfort; who use materials and colors that clash with the natural surroundings; who pollute and devastate nature without a care.

The Watchman’s Hut and the Jovicevic House: Brothers in stone

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Photo: Vladimir Vojvodic

Participation in the Belgrade International Week of Architecture (BINA 2010) “BINA opened people’s eyes to what we had achieved. People from this region and abroad were impressed. Several people who saw the panel of photographs in Belgrade later visited the house and were delighted. When we opened the house to the public, for educational reasons, soon after completing it, very few people from Montenegro accepted our invitation. That was disappointing, as the house does set a muchneeded example, for Montenegrins in particular, about how to build appropriately on the lake and in a national park.”

The vision for building their home “We explored the lake extensively and we saw too many examples of nature disturbed and destroyed by man. Djurovo oko, where we decided to build, was one of the very few traditionally inhabited areas on the lakeshore which had not been tampered with. Our vision was to protect the whole area around the house as well as the Watchman’s Hut and keep it as pristine as possible for ourselves and others to enjoy. In a way, by building in that place, we too became custodians of the area like the watchman was before us. Our vision was to create a home that fitted into the natural environment and that complemented the existing ecology of the area. We wanted it to look as if it had been there for two hundred years. We wanted to build it to last so that many generations of people who love nature like us could enjoy it after we left. We chose an isolated part of the National Park, so there is no road to our home. During the two years it took to build the house, we transported all materials and workers by boat from Karuc. This was a huge logistical enterprise, but it fit in with our vision of minimizing damage to the environment and respecting the laws of the National Park. We kept our footprint to a minimum. Later, we bought just a small piece of land around the house for a flower and vegetable garden so that we could be at least partially self-sufficient in vegetables and fruit. We buy fish, cheese, wine and honey from our neighbours and contribute to the local economy. When we go shopping in Podgorica, we walk home down a rocky goats’ trail to the house, carrying just as many groceries as we can manage - and no more. We have got very good at estimating how much is enough. It has become a philosophy of life.”

Out on a limb with the idea of protecting the cultural heritage and environment “You have to recognize the value of a thing before you get inspired to take care of it,” the Jovicevics continue. “There has to be a response from within. You cannot

The Jovicevic House: A uniquely Montenegrin model of best practices for sustainable building

make people do anything until they are ready to do it. The feeling has to be authentic. We think the timing is good just now for raising awareness about protecting nature and our cultural heritage because the last couple of generations of Montenegrins have gladly left the village behind, attracted by the allure of the big city. It will take time before they turn back to the historical buildings in rural areas, the traditional crafts, the rich cultural heritage and are ready to look at them with fresh understanding and even admiration. Right now that’s just not what most people in Montenegro seem to be interested in. Most city-bred young people, who are our future leaders, seem to have other things on their minds: walking on pavement with earplugs in, texting, thinking about the next meeting or coffee with friends, they are simply not going to notice the beautiful, crumbling tower they are walking past or even the butterfly that just landed on their shoe! Most city people we talk to have never even made the 20-minute journey from Podgorica to Skadar Lake to experience for themselves the nature, old buildings and rural culture that is their richest heritage.”

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Motivation for living in harmony with the environment “People become motivated when they are touched by a direct experience they have for themselves or when they are moved by a well-told story that inspires them to take the action that brings them the experience that will change the way they think for ever. Maybe this story that we are telling now will inspire the people who read it. That was why we opened the Jovicevic House to the public. We thought it would be helpful and inspiring to people to hear our story and see what we had made because of our passion for protecting nature and the cultural heritage of this area.”

How to interest people in our cultural and natural heritage

Photo: Janko Jovicevic

“We think you have to get people out into nature,” the Jovicevics insist, “get them climbing about in the

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Of course, money is another thing that motivates people to talk about making changes. If the European Union gives money to Montenegro for a program to protect our cultural heritage, ministers and decisionmakers all start talking enthusiastically about this subject. But our experience shows that it takes a real love for this job to make a success of it. What is needed is a real vision and a real passion that will last even when the money runs out. For example, it was us, the Jovicevics, who invested euro 5,000 to restore the Watchman’s Hut and to repair the roof and replace the windows and door, fix the steps and plateau. Because our passion to protect this building is real, we are also the ones who check on the building periodically, clean it, open the doors and windows on sunny days to air it. Recognizing our heritage is just one part of the equation; protecting it is another part and maintaining it is another part. None of these three steps will ever be sustainable unless decision-makers really care enough about our cultural and natural heritage to make responsible and far-sighted policy decisions and make sure they are carried out and monitored. It is not good enough to start something, throw money at it for a while and then leave it to rot.”

Cultural and sports tourism as a direction for development

A love of nature passed on to the next generation

“We need leaders in the Ministries with vision, passion, relentless energy and patience who have made the effort to travel outside of Montenegro to see how projects are done successfully elsewhere and who really want Montenegro to succeed in the same way,” suggest the Jovicevics. “There are plenty of opportunities for cultural and sports tourism in Montenegro. That’s not the problem.

building you want to protect and hearing its story; get them experiencing the craft, the activity or whatever it is to help them make the connections, feel the beauty and understand for themselves. City halls, universities and schools could do a lot by putting together field trips for adults and kids to bring people face to face with their cultural and natural heritage. The preparation for this endeavor would need to be carried out by universities, schools and the media.

The problem is the lack of a unified vision, planning and genuine cooperation between Ministries, City Halls, national parks and active civilians. Illegal building has already destroyed much of the potential for tourism in many places, like Karuc. The tower of Prince-Bishop Petar I in Karuc is now a lonely relic surrounded by illegal buildings. It’s small stone meeting circle on the water’s edge, which the locals used to call, ”St. Peter’s Dining Table” no longer exists and its story is lost to us.

The person leading the group has to be on fire with passion for their subject. Not just any teacher or guide will do the job satisfactorily. Unfortunately, genuine passion combined with the confidence and charisma needed to inspire change in the way people think are rare in politicians, professors, teachers and others in positions of leadership. Most people like to talk around an idea intellectually and theoretically but want someone else to carry it out for them in practice.

The perfect sports and cultural tourism combination of walking and mountain biking tours between the heritage building, The tower of Prince-Bishop Petar I in Karuc and the wine-growing area of Drusici - with a rest at the Watchman’s Hut halfway - is now impossible because the marked trail connecting the two villages has been blocked by an illegal building.

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Despite our best efforts for two years to stop the illegal


Photo: Srecko Krasan

building and protect this trail - which was selected and marked thanks to investment from the German and Austrian governments - the powerful investor succeeded in completing his illegal building. The question begs to be asked: Why was he allowed to complete his illegal building? Because those in the administration did not stop him despite 179 pages of documentation and photographs submitted by the Jovicevics. Obviously they did not value the cultural and sports tourism potential of this area enough. Here’s another example: kayaking on well-planned water trails on Skadar Lake was one of the exciting sports tourism projects that we watched bloom under foreign investment and management. We also watched it die because of bureaucracy, interference and lack of support from local administration. The energetic, young foreign entrepreneurs who put their energy and money into this project have since left Montenegro to find a more welcoming country to invest in.”

Working together towards sustainability “Speaking from experience, as active civilians who have worked tirelessly to protect the Karuc lagoon, (we even succeeded in getting one illegal building knocked down), all the good ideas in the world cannot succeed until the government and the majority of citizens in Montenegro cooperate to stop corruption. Montenegrins would only agree to this, of course, if we all decided to develop an unshakeable vision for the higher good of our country and work to encourage attitudes and create policies that will benefit both present and future generations.”

The desire to protect Skadar Lake’s lagoons: Djurovo oko and Kaludjerovo oko “As Louise Weiss wisely pointed out: ‘History advances and what was impossible yesterday will be possible tomorrow.’ We hope that the smart people in the Directorate for the Protection of Cultural Property, City Hall Cetinje and NP Skadar Lake look at the Watchman’s Hut and the Jovicevic House in the context of the whole area and choose to protect this corner of the national park in perpetuity as a pristine haven for people, birdlife and flora. The Jovicevics will not live at Djurovo oko forever. One day, we hope to pass on our home for people who understand what a privilege it is to live on the lakeshore in a national park with clean air to breathe and spring water to drink. We hope the next owners will be people who love the idea of falling asleep under a star-studded sky serenaded by a chorus of frogs and the occasional hooting of an owl. People who will rejoice every day when they wake to the view of Skadar Lake shimmering in front of them.”

Djurovo oko: Unparalleled beauty

The quality of current building is not designed to last “We often forget that buildings that are destined to become a part of our national heritage in future have to be built now.” The Jovicevics make an important point. “Few buildings being built these days in Montenegro are built to last. Few buildings being built now in Montenegro are made with integrity at the very heart of their construction and their function. We hope that the Watchman’s Hut and the Jovicevic House will be recognized for those qualities, which they both exemplify. We hope that they are both destined to become buildings that honestly and humbly represent what we must learn to value in our cultural and natural heritage. We hope that Montenegrins will grow to love them as we do and will want to protect them both for the enjoyment and benefit of future generations.”

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U dUhU mora

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Spirit of the Sea

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Intervju: Branka Bogavac Razgovarala: Radmila Krgović

OD BEZNAĐA DO NADE Branka Bogavac, Crnogorka koja „dragulje” kulture sakuplja i čuva od zaborava Najnovija knjiga Branke Bogavac „Od beznađa do nade - Razgovori u Parizu“ u izdanju Kulturnog centra iz Bara (2015), predstavlja trideset intervjua sa raznim umjetnicima sa raznih meridijana. „Treba uzeti slobodu u svoje ruke, jer se ona ne dobija od drugih. Zato što nije besplatna. Ako si slobodan duh,uzmi svoju slobodu u svoje ruke,“ kaže kineski nobelovac Gao Singđijan. „Ako ne volimo ne možemo pisati,“ izjavljuje Adonis, arapski i svjetski pjesnik koji je rođen u Siriji. I za kraj razgovora kaže:„Ovo je epoha protiv ljudskog bića. I ovdje na Zapadu vlada Saudijska Arabija koja je za vrijeme rata u Jugoslaviji dovela džihadiste u Bosnu. Povratak religija i njenih ekstremnih varijanti ne obećava ništa dobro. Skrećem pažnju svim ljudima dobre volje da na to pripaze.“ Svjedoci smo danas situacije na koju upozorava Adonis, kao prorok i sijač sumnje. “Čovjek koji može brzo da se zaplače. To je dokaz ljubavi. A ljubav je glavna pokretačka snaga. Ako čovjek ne voli, on ništa ne može da uradi,“ izjavljuje Mihail Konstatinovič Anikušin, veliki ruski skulptor i genijalni umjetnik. Svaka saga u ovoj knjizi je izvajana životom umjetnika, kojeg je Branka birala u različitim vremenskim razmacima i svaka na svoj način donosi nešto drugačije u odnosu na ostale. Izborom svojih sagovornika u knjizi Od beznađa do nade Branka Bogavac odgovara na mnoga pitanja, a šta ona o tim i drugim pitanjima ima da kaže, piše u redovima koji slijede. To je knjiga simboličke veze sa epohom, prožimanja autora između sebe, koji su, većina njih, u životu prolazili kroz dvije životne krajnosti – beznađa i nade, ali i onog što se nalazi u posveti mom bratu Dušanu Bogavcu koji je bio borac za neki bolji svijet koji on nije dočekao pošto je uslijedio građanski rat i on nestao. A sve zajedno, to je povijest XX vijeka, njegovih tragedija i iluzija, ali i nade koja se uvijek rađala iz pepela. Dok sam radila na knjizi, birajući od mnoštva razgovora, nekako se njen profil ocrtavao sam od sebe, kao i naslov. Jer iz njih, iz neke dubine, govori ona nada iz naslova knjige. Ti razgovori su i ogromno uživanje u ljepoti umjetnosti, čak i onda kada se priča o strahotama. Da, umjetnost je uvijek lijepa, i to je ono što sam tražila i nalazila kod mojih sagovornika. I naravno, ono zrnce pojedinačne

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Branka Bogavac

Branka Bogavac je rođena 1937. godine u Virpazaru, na Skadarskom jezeru. Gimnaziju je završila u Beranama, a romansku grupu jezika na Filološkom fakultetu u Beogradu 1964. godine. Na Sorboni je završila slavistiku 1968. godine, gdje je i magistrirala. U zvanju docenta (chargée de cours) predavala je srpskohrvatski jezik na Sorboni, Pariz-VIII, 1977/78. godine. Dvadeset godina je bila profesor u Jugoslovenskoj dopunskoj školi i na Radničkom Univerzitetu u Parizu. Kao publicista, decenijama je objavljivala intervjue na cijelom jugoslovenskom prostoru sa najvećim piscima i umjetnicima svijeta. Prevela je pjesme Alena Boskea, Žan Klod Renara, i Mari Kler Bankar. U Pariz, gdje i danas živi, došla je 1964. godine, kao stipendista kulturnih razmjena Jugoslavije i Francuske. Do sada je objavila sljedeće knjige: Razgovori u Parizu I (1990), Razgovori u Parizu II (1997), Razgovori sa Dadom (2001), Razgovori u Parizu III (2002), Slikarstvo kao neracionalna sreća (2004), Pariski razgovori IV (2004), Crna Gora u Parizu, Razgovori i susreti sa umjetnicima (2007), Razgovori u Parizu V (2008), Razgovori sa Dadom, drugo izdanje (2013). Bila je direktor Kulturnog centra Srbije i Crne Gore u Parizu od 2004-2006. godine. Dobila je priznanje od Skupštine Opštine Berane, Nagrada 21 jul (2008). Za svoj publicistički rad na planu afirmisanja francuskojugoslovenske kulture i angažmana na istom polju, kao direktora Kulturnog centra, Francuska ju je odlikovala Ordenom Viteza umjetnosti i književnosti 2013. godine, i za sada je jedini nosilac tog priznanja u Crnoj Gori, poslije Dada Đurića i Danila Kiša.


sudbine, ono nešto neponovljivo što samo život može da pruži, svaki život, i u bilo kojim okolnostima. A ima tu, sigurno i onoga čega nijesam svjesna, jer ne mislim da se može, niti da je neophodno, da se sve objasni.

O Branki Bogavac “Branka Bogavac je rijetka Crnogorka koja na dostojan način predstavlja Crnu Goru i njenu kulturu. Žena koja je čitav svoj radni vijek u istoj kondiciji i sa istom ljubavlju radila, i danas radi, da nam  približi tokove svjetske literature, politike i kulture kroz brojne intrevjue sa poznatim  ličnostima dvadesetog i sa početka 21. vijeka. Poliglota, ličnost širokih  vidika, sa izrazitom intelektualnom konturom, prijatelj svih ljudi dobre volje, širokog srca kao crnogorske planine, bistrog oka kao naše rijeke... Samosvojna, sa stavom. Uvijek spremna da pomogne. Sve ovo i više od ovoga - jeste i znači Branka Bogavac. Privilegovana sam što je poznajem, što mogu u rukopisu da čitam njene knjige, što smo istinski prijatelji kada je u vijeku i svijetu malo  prijateljstva i poštenja. Branku Bogavac krase sve vrline koje je mogla dostići jedna Crnogorka», zaključuje Miraš Martinović, književnik.

Sagovornici Našla sam se, takođe, i pred Borhesom koga je Žan d’Omerson, član Francuske akademije, pozdravio ovim riječima: „Ko je Borhes? Najslavniji, najznamenitiji, univerzalno najpoznatiji među metafizičkim i poetskim tajnama. Vi nijeste samo sfinga današnje literature – VI STE ŽIVI MIT... čije knjige gutaju u tišini desetine hiljada obožavalaca po cijelom svijetu. Homer je bio veliki pjesnik – Borhes takođe. Vi ste jedan od najvećih, ako ne i najveći pjesnik ovoga doba.” Razgovarala sam, takođe, i sa Kunderom na vrhuncu njegove slave koji me je primio nekoliko puta u svom stanu da bismo obavili razgovor koji je (maja 1980) uzbudio čak i Centralni komitet u Beogradu do te mjere da su hitno sazvali vanrednu sjednicu da bi se pitali: „Ko je ta žena koja nam čita lekciju preko Milana Kundere?“ i stavili me na crnu listu koja se tada zvala Bijela knjiga. Razgovor se završio jednim prijateljskim ručkom. Tu je i razgovor sa Joneskom čiji su pozorišni komadi igrani širom svijeta, a u Parizu se neprekidno prikazuje Ćelava pjevačica već tri generacije glumaca. Među mojim sagovornicima ima više od deset nobelovaca. Ali i onih koji nijesu dobili to priznanje, ali čiji je renome daleko prevazilazi, kao na primjer Umberto Eko ili Margerit Duras. Cijelo jedno veče u Moskvi, kao gost velike pjesnikinje Bele Ahmaduljine i njenog muža Borisa Mesera, slikara i scenografa, provela sam sa njima u divnom i otvorenom razgovoru. U Kanadi, u Montrealu, žena-pisac i dramaturg, oduševljeno uzvikuje svojoj prijateljici: „Ova žena je došla sa kraja svijeta, iz Crne Gore, da mi postavi pitanje koje nijedan kanadski novinar nije umio da smisli...“ Nemoguće je ovdje poređati sve moje neobične i fantastične susrete koji su me svakako obilježili.

Izbor sagovornika Razgovor sa Borhesom

Možda bi i izbor mojih sagovornika upotpunio i dao moj najvjerniji portret. Zato ću i ovog puta pribjeći Mirašu Martinoviću koji je na prvom predstavljanju moje knjige 1999. godine u Andrićevoj kući u Herceg Novom, rekao: „...Nije zasigurno bilo lako biti oči u oči sa Sioranom. Izazvati ga na duhovni dvoboj. Njega, koji je sve izazivao redom. Ah, taj fascinantni Sioran! Taj Heraklit mračni dvadesetog vijeka! Prometej prepušten orlu, mislilac kojeg razjeda sopstvena misao... Zamislite tog mračnog Siorana, koji daleko od očiju javnosti, u svom pariskom potkrovlju, kao u nekom nebeskom gnijezdu, smišlja silogizme razarajuće poput groma i blistave poput munje, i ne dâ nikome da mu se približi. U to gnijezdo, i pred takvim čovjekom, staje ova žena. I gleda demona s anđeoskim likom. Počinje razgovor. Bio je to izazov, svakako! Posebnih dimenzija!...“

Da bi se napravio vrijedan razgovor treba da postoji izvjestan afinitet onoga ko postavlja pitanja i onoga kome se obraća, a koji može da se odnosi na njegovo djelo i na samu ličnost. Svakako da nas više privlače ljudi koji su u svom stvaralaštvu dotakli neku našu osjetljivu strunu. Zato ćemo sa više zanimanja i elana prići takvim knjigama koje nas vode k njima. I najviše ćemo nastojati da dobijemo odgovore na ono što nas lično osobito zanima. Evo jedne male ilustracije kako se doživljava knjiga. Pozajmila sam Zlatnu bilježnicu od Doris Lesing prijateljici. Kad mi je vratila, rekla je: „Nijesam znala koliko si tragična ličnost prema onome šta si podvlačila.“ (Ovo se svakako odnosi na moj biografski dio zbog oca koji je nestao u ratu u njemačkom logoru. Čitala sam je 1975. godine kada nije bilo pomena o Nobelovoj nagradi. Zanimljivo je da sam na knjizi zapisala: „Hvala ti Doris, ljubim ti ruke za patnju tvoje duše.“). A kad sam pitala Umberta Eka da li

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Nobelovac Vargas Ljosa

je našao dio sebe u jednom piscu, on mi je odgovorio: „Da, to je ono što uvijek tražimo kod jednog pisca.“ Mene su osobito obilježile žene, među kojima su Doris Lesing sa Zlatnom bilježnicom, Anais Nin sa njenim dnevnicima, a Margerit Diras sa njenim tragedijama. Ove dvije prve dame su bile presudne da se odlučim da se bavim susretima sa stvaraocima. Imala sam sreću što sam bila slobodna da sama biram svoje sagovornike upravo po pomenutom afinitetu, pa sam mogla da udovoljavam svojoj radoznalosti i postavljam sva pitanja koja su me zanimala. Naravno, i ona koja zahtijevaju ta djela da bi se mogla bolje razumjeti. Nijesam zavisila ni od kakvog medija koji bi mi nametao ili ograničavao izbor.

Intervju kao književni izraz Ozbiljno obavljen intervju zaista poprima književni oblik posebne vrste. U njemu se prepliću pitanja sa živim riječima umjetnika u zajedničkom nastojanju da se postigne vrhunski odgovor. Sanja Domazet u Danasu piše o mom načinu rada: “ Ako se složimo sa Sioranovim postulatom da je pisanje beskrajno istraživanje samog sebe ili pak sa Joneskovom formulacijom književnosti kao dešifrovanju neizrecivog, postavlja se pitanje u kojoj mjeri i kada intervju prerasta iz razgovora u kreaciju, iz odgovorâ i pitanjâ u uzajamnu strast traganja, iz nizanja rečenica u potpuno novu formu umjetnosti u kojoj dva bića, kao da su sama na svijetu, poput dvije Šeherzade, ponovo (re)kreiraju zadati nam život i svijet? Iz godine u

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godinu na sva ova i mnoga druga pitanja pokušava da odgovori Branka Bogavac.“ Intervju se vjerovatno nije pojavio slučajno kao način izraza u ovo vrijeme opšte komunikacije. On se vremenom mijenjao, usložnjavao i sticao sve više značaja na svom putu do te mjere da je zaista postao književni rod, te je prošle godine, sa Svetlanom Aleksijevič, „uzdignut“ na nivo Nobelove nagrade. Nakon svakog odgovora slijedi novo pitanje. Samo u pitanju je mudrost. To su znali već i najstariji mislioci čovječanstva. To nesumnjivo osjećaju i svi moji sagovornici. Njihovi odgovori su samo jedna drugačija forma pitanja koja im je postavljao njihov život. Sa završenim razgovorom ne prestaje moje interesovanje za nekog sagovornika. Jer njegovi odgovori su me potakli na nova i složenija pitanja i razmišljanja. I ta veza traje u beskraj.

Merci Paris Pariz je druga forma tog istog preplitanja, tog obavijanja oko misterije života i čovjeka. Mnogo puta sam se uvjerila da u Parizu postoji sve što čovjekova mašta može da zamisli u svakom pogledu. On je postao dio mene ili ja njega, to je velika privilegija koju osjećam. Nema nijednog svjetskog umjetnika koji se tu ne pojavi, bilo da je neki pisac, slikar, slavni tenor, ili koreograf… Svi žele da pokažu Parizu svoje tvorevine. To je mjesto susretanja, ukrštanja, to je svemirsko Ušće, ali ne dvije rijeke, već bezbrojnih rijeka koje dolaze


sa svih strana i razlivaju se na sve strane. Mnogi veliki strani pisci postali su to zahvaljujući Parizu. Među njima je čarobni Vargas Ljosa. Za ovih pedeset godina pratila sam kako se ovaj grad mijenjao, ali i kako je zadržavao neki svoj specifičan duh bez koga ne bi bio to što jeste. Vidjelo se to i kod ovih nedavnih atentata kada je svijet uopšte fantastično reagovao na tragediju Pariza, jer ju je osjećao kao svoju, ličnu. Ta svjetska solidarnost i reagovanje pokazali su šta Pariz znači ljudima. Ipak je to najposjećeniji grad na svijetu. Trg Republike je spontano postao mjesto gdje ljudi sa svih strana dolaze da se poklone nevinim žrtvama atentata. Danas je to možda mjesto gdje će se roditi novi, idealniji politički sistem. Taj grad mi je pružio velike radosti na planu kulture i prijateljstva. On mi je dao biblioteke, pozorišta, svoju ljepotu i ove moje susrete.Tu sam srela čovjeka mog života, stekla porodicu, djecu, unuke. I tu sam obavila većinu mojih razgovora. To je dovoljno ne za jedan ljudski vijek, već najmanje za dva. Merci Paris. Ono što mislim i iskreno osjećam prema Parizu najbolje je izrazio Viktor Igo: «Pariz je glavni grad civilizacije koji nije ni kraljevina ni imperija, on je čitav ljudski rod u njegovoj prošlosti i budućnosti… Pariz je sam centar čovječanstva. Pariz je sveti grad… Ko napada Pariz, napada cio ljudski rod. Spasiti Pariz, to je više nego spasiti Francusku, to je spasiti svijet.» Taj Pariz ja volim i moje se zanimanje kreće u tom domenu!

O prostoru i vremenu Ovo pitanje je za filozofe, a ne za mene. Naravno, oba ova pojma se prepliću. Svaki prostor gdje se nalazim pokušavam da sebi prilagodim ili sebe njemu da bih ga osećala kao nešto svoje. Što se vremena tiče, ne živim od nostalgije (osim za Jugoslavijom), niti za budućnost, već od sadašnjosti i njoj se radujem. Moj omiljeni pisac Kami je rekao: «Jedini način da se bude srećan je da se uhvatimo za sadašnji trenutak.» To je ono što primjenjujem, moja najvažnija crta, moj duboki optimizam. Ni prostor ni vrijeme nijesu za mene neko ograničenje niti izvor problema. Da bi se čovjek prijatno osjećao u nekoj sredini treba u njoj da nađe ono što ga zanima, što će se na njega pozitivno odraziti. Dobra volja je veliki adut u pronalaženju vrijednosti. Vrijeme je vrhunski majstor koji nas cijelog života modeluje, prati blagonaklono, ako prihvatamo njegove zahtjeve. U krajnjem slučaju, ono nas dočekuje i ispraća.

Branka u Crnoj Gori nasuprot Branke u Parizu Tačno je da živim u dvjema zemljama, da su obje u meni i da pripadam njihovim kulturama i svaka djeluje na specifičan način. Moj odnos prema Crnoj Gori se sastoji u snažnoj sentimentalnoj privrženosti. U njoj ima nešto što mi grije dušu, vjerovatno je to moja ljubav prema njoj, i kako sam rekla na večeri u

Narodnoj biblioteci u Podgorici, svaki put kad dođem u moju zemlju osjećam se kao odiva koja se vraća u svoj rod. U Francuskoj se osjećam više racionalno, jer se u njoj odvija moj realni i svakodnevni život. A moja zemlja je više u mašti zbog rastojanja. Međutim, ta mi dvojnost nikada nije smetala. Pripadam onoj zemlji u zavisnosti od jezika kojim se služim u nekom trenutku. Ako čitam našu štampu na internetu, ja sam u Crnoj Gori, pa se sjekiram ili radujem. A u Francuskoj sam stalno u toku svega što se dešava preko tolikih medija. Ipak, ista sam osoba u obje zemlje, uvijek bogatija i za ono drugo što je sastavni dio njihovih identiteta. Nema tu ništa što je nasuprot, nešto drugačije, to je samo obogaćenje, dopunjavanje… Kako je rekao protjerani Eshil, Grčka je gdje sam ja, a ja mislim da je Crna Gora uvijek u meni, bilo gdje da sam. Kamen sa Lovćena koji je u mojoj vitrini u salonu i cvijet sa Durmitora pored njega, simbolično predstavljaju na domak ruke moju malu voljenu zemlju. Tu su takođe, slike, skulpture, knjige i fotografije.

Orden Viteza umjetnosti i književnosti To priznanje je kruna moga rada. Ono je dokaz da je vrijeđelo preći taj ogromni put, ne samo od Crne Gore do Francuske, već onaj lični put usavršavanja, onih pitanja koja čovjek sebi stalno postavlja i o kojima je bilo riječi. Za mene je to priznanje ogromno. Veliko kao planeta zato što dolazi od Francuske, zemlje koju sam odabrala zbog njene kulture. Imala sam sreće, jer ima toliko zaslužnih ljudi koji ga nijesu dobili. Francuska je zemlja širom otvorena. Vjerujem da zaslužujem to odlikovanje prema mom radu, ali i po tome što su moji tekstovi objavljivani bez nadoknade u mojoj zemlji, što od mojih knjiga nije bilo nikakve materijalne koristi, ako nije bilo i mog važnijeg ulaganja. Zato imam utisak da je Francuska nagradila i tu i takvu moju ljubav prema mojoj zemlji. To odlikovanje je ponos zbog moje porodice, mog oca, moje majke, mog brata, muža, moje djece, to je ponos zbog moga kraja – Bora i Bihora za koji sam osobito vezana i koji želi da me proglasi za prvog počasnog građanina. Živeći u inostranstvu nijesam znala kakav utisak ostavlja na ljude to što ja pišem. Pa se radujem tom odlikovanju i zbog onih koje ne poznajem, a koji su našli načina da mi posvjedoče šta im je značilo to što sam tako dugo i uporno slala iz Pariza za našu štampu. Na račun toga sam jednom dobila veliku pohvalu od Milovana Vitezovića, pjesnika, pisca i bivšeg urednika Televizije Beograd koji je pred više desetina ljudi u Kulturnom centru Srbije u Parizu javno rekao šta su za njega i one koje on poznaje značili moji tekstovi i razgovori koje sam objavljivala, evo već pola vijeka. To je potkrijepio konkretno riječima: “Da nije bilo tekstova Branke Bogavac, ne bih napisao ovu knjigu o Miodragu Bulatoviću koju večeras predstavljamo.” Davno sam počela i pisala za mnoge listove u Jugoslaviji

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postojana potreba za preciznim odgovorima, strahom od sumnje, strahom od svih teškoća: ništa nije sigurno, čovjek se sâm lakše prevari, dok neko ko je iznad nas kad govori neku istinu, oni drugi ne moraju time da se bave, da razmišljaju, pošto neko za njih misli, on nam kaže našu istinu koja je jedina i mi tako mirno živimo i slušamo. U tom slučaju ne postoji ona žeđ za znanjem o kojoj smo govorili, nemamo potrebe za ironijom. Fašizam je oblik lijenjosti duha koji se rodio u našem vijeku u tom obliku, a druge forme su postojale u drugim vremenima, tako što su to bili religiozni predikatori koji su imali istu diktatorsku funkciju.” Odgovorila sam: “Hvala Vam na objašnjenju, sad mi je jasniji fenomen fašizma.” A on je na to odgovorio: “Vidite pravu funkciju dobrog intervjua: ovo mi je prvi put da mi takva misao padne na um (smijeh). A nacionalizam je drugi oblik istog osjećanja…” Veoma kratko vremena poslije ove izjave napisao je veliki esej – UR FAŠIZAM. Tako smo oboje bili na dobitku. Svaki put kad uzmem moje knjige, podvlačim ih kao da se prvi put srećem s tim umjetnicima, jer ih ponovo doživljavam kao čitalac, ne više kao sagovornik, i stalno otkrivam nešto novo. Tako ne osjećam samo ja već i mnogi prijatelji s kojima sam o tome razgovarala, jer te rečenice, više ne pripadaju njihovom autoru, nego postaju blago čovječanstva, svjetsko kulturno nasljeđe. Radi se o biserima ljudske mudrosti. Zato mi je teško da ih izdvajam, to je jedno saglasje, idealni hor koji pjeva jednu pjesmu. Pjesmu ljubavi i ljubavi prema umjetnosti.

Tradicija i kultura kao stubovi jedne zemlje Dadom Đurić pred svojom slikom

i ove političke promjene ne mogu da izbrišu ljude s kojima sam sarađivala. Ovo priznanje ima posebnu vrijednost i zato što podrazumijeva da sam gradila most između Francuske i moje zemlje, između dvije kulture, ili više kultura. Posebna mi je čast što su me svrstali uz velika imena naših stvaralaca kao što su Dado i Danilo. U stvari, to priznanje je dobilo veći značaj za mene upravo i zato što su ga oni dobili. To je uvećalo moju radost, ponos i osjećaj ispunjenja zbog onoga što sam radila cijeloga života.

Umberto Eko i drugi sagovornici Sagovornici su brojni, pa je teško da nekog posebno odabarem. Navešću samo primjer sa Umbertom Ekom i postavljenim pitanjem: “Gospodine Eko, rekli ste na Vašem posljednjem času u Kolež de Frans: “Smatram da je pravi kriminal odgovarati na pitanja koja nijesu iz domena čovjeka koji se pita”. Moje se pitanje odnosi na Fukoovo Klatno u kome je riječ o “vječitom fašizmu”. Pošto je taj fenomen sasvim aktuelan, hoćete li mi dati objašnjenje njegove ponovne pojave?“ Mislim da je fašizam, koji može biti nacizam i staljinizam, postojana težnja povezana za zebnju nad životom,

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Ova mondijalizacija, kako je zovu, osjeća se i u velikim sredinama kao što je Pariz. I kao i svugdje, ima tu loših i dobrih stvari. Ono što je specifično za cijelu Francusku, ne samo za Pariz, jeste da je značaj kulture veći nego igdje drugdje. To se nije promijenilo, iako se možda ponegdje smanjuje zbog budžetskih razloga. Ali, globalno, to je još uvijek mjesto gdje umjetnik ima neko dostojanstvo, da ne kažem auru, kojih na mnogim mjestima ili nema ili ima veoma malo. Može Pariz da živi i od „stare slave“, kako ste rekli, ali on je i moderan grad koji se razvija na moderan način. Meni ne smetaju ni turisti. Utoliko bolje. Ali ako pogledate kakva se sve kulturna bogatstva skrivaju u tom gradu, zastaje dah. Za nas je važno da znamo da čak i jedna tako velika i uticajna kultura mora stalno da se bori da očuva te stubove o kojima govorite. Što znači da one male kulture to moraju da čine mnogo više, jer su im i stubovi manji. Ja se još uvijek divim toj zemlji kolika sredstva ulaže u kulturu i ako sam tu već pet decenija. Samo kada se pogleda koliko značajnih izložbi se prikaže u toj zemlji to je da čovjeku stane pamet, a sve to mnogo košta.

Razgovori sa crnogorskim umjetnicima Razgovori sa našim slikarima objavljenim u knjizi


”Crna Gora u Parizu” i susreti s njima obavljali su se u drugačijoj atmosferi u odnosu na strance. Mi Crnogorci smo zaista poseban narod po nekoj međusobnoj bliskosti i srodnosti, što ne postoji kod drugih naroda, vjerovatno zato što smo malobrojni, pa se među sobom osjećamo kao rođaci ili poznanici, ali gdje vlada savršeno poštovanje. Zato su ti razgovori vođeni u prijateljskoj atmosferi. Crna Gora je čudesna zemlja po pitanju slikarstva, jer se u njoj rađa veliki broj svojevrsnih, izuzetno talentovanih umjetnika. Tako nešto ne postoji u svijetu, po čemu ona prednjači. Veoma je rijetko da dobar skulptor bude i dobar slikar. Ali kad gledam Vojove divne skulpture, pa onda njegove nevjerovatne slike, divim se umjetniku i pitam se kako je sve to tako stalo u jednom čovjeku? A ko se ne bi divio pred djelima tih ljudi koje je sama zemlja obdarila talentom i koja ih zatim inspiriše svojom ljepotom da bi stvarali svoja izuzetna djela? Pred neobično bogatim svjetovima i gradovima Ratka Odalovića zastajem u čudu: otkuda tolika mašta? Pred Todorovim slikama se nalazim kao pred veličanstvenim freskama u vidu slapova Nijagare ili boja na Carevom Lazu. Nema veze gdje neko živi ako iz njega progovara ono što je autentično. Razlika je samo u socijalnom i kulturnom kontekstu, koji nekad može da znači sudbinski mnogo, ali ako bi on sve određivao, onda ne bi bilo ni Dada Đurica, ali ni Markesa i tolikih drugih. Jer i umjetnost je jedno poprište, jedan megdan gdje snaga ličnosti, rada i volje kao i talenta, daju neviđene rezultate i mogu da probiju kontekst koji smo pominjali.

Dvije domovine To je bogatstvo posebne vrste. Ja se odlično osjećam u obje sredine. U Francuskoj se osjećam skoro kao kod kuce, a u mojoj zemlji sasvim kao kod kuće. Ne vidim to u kategorijama koje se na neki način isključuju, ili su isključive same po sebi. Potrebno je da čovjek u sebi nosi tu prirodnu otvorenost, da se trudi da prihvati ono što je najbolje iz obje kulture. To je opet ono preplitanje koje u ovom slučaju može da se shvati i kao usavršavanje, kao dopuna, kao izvjesna prednost. Bogatstvo je kad prihvatite ono najvrednije kulturno nasljeđe iz oba svijeta, ali tako da među njima dođe do sklada i čak nečeg sasvim novog i neponovljivog. Tome i sama težim u svemu što radim. To je teško ostvariti, ali je to izazov više nego preimućstvo samo po sebi.

Jedina porodična slika sa ocem prije rata

Pored ovog zapažanja ima u toj mojoj Crnoj Gori jedna izuzetno svijetla tačka, jedno čarobno dejstvovanje, a to je Festival Grad Teatar Budva, u Budvi. Njegovo duhovno bogatstvo i umjetnička ljepota ukrašavaju svake godine moj ljetnji boravak u domovini. Tu srijećem veliki broj umjetnika iz zemlje i Evrope. Duboko doživljavam njihova umjetnička ostvarenja. To je takođe vrijeme kada se viđam sa mojim brojnim, dragim i dragocjenim prijateljima u mojoj domovini. To je za mene duhovno i duševno osvježenje koje me drži sve do sljedeće godine.

Pogled na Crnu Goru danas i nekada

Planovi

Kada sam bila učenica u gimnaziji u Beranama postojale su pozorišne smotre na kojima su nagrađivane najbolje trupe. To je bilo nešto najčarobnije što se moglo pružiti građanima. U gradu i okolini su postojale mnoge fabrike i tada nije bilo ni nezaposlenih ni siromašnih. Danas nema tragova tih fabrika, a velika je nezaposlenost. Zbunjena sam i veoma nesrećna pred takvim činjenicama.

Radim na nečemu što je drugačije, lično. To je veliki izazov za mene, ali i neka vrsta moralne obaveze. Jer je svaki čovjek svjedok, neponovljivi svjedok ne samo velikih, već i onih malih stvari. Ali, to je neki prirodni nastavak prethodne knjige koja je jedno posebno svjedočanstvo. Radi se o mom malom pečatu koji želim da ostavim. Drugačije i intimnije nego do sada.

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Interview: Branka Bogavac Interviewed by: Radmila Krgović

Intervju

FROM DESPAIR TO HOPE Branka Bogavac, a Montenegrin who collects “jewels” of culture and preserves them from oblivion

Branka at her home

The latest book by Branka Bogavac, “From Despair to Hope, Conversations in Paris”, issued by the Cultural Center of Bar (2015), comprises thirty interviews with various artists from different meridians. “Freedom should be taken into one’s hands, because it is not gained from others. Because it is not cost-free. If you are a free spirit, take your freedom into your hands” says Chinese Nobel Prize winner Gao Xingjian. “If we do not love, we cannot write,” says Adonis, an Arab and world renowned poet, who was born in Syria, and on concluding the interview he said, “This is an epoch against human beings. Saudi Arabia, which brought jihadists to Bosnia during the war in Yugoslavia, reigns

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Branka Bogavac was born in 1937 in Virpazar, on Skadar Lake. She graduated from high school in Berane, and from the Romanesque language group at the Faculty of Philology in Belgrade in 1964. At the Sorbonne she graduated from Slavic studies in 1968 and received her master’s degree. As an associate professor (chargée de cours), she taught Serbo-Croatian language at the Sorbonne, Paris-VIII, in 1977-1978. For twenty years she has been a teacher at the Yugoslav Supplementary School and the School for Workers in Paris. As a publicist, for decades, she has published interviews in the whole Yugoslav region. She translated the poems of Alain Bosquet, Jean-Claude Renard, and Marie Claire Banker. She came to Paris, where she still lives, back in 1964, as a fellowship holder in cultural exchange programs between Yugoslavia and France. She has published the following books: Interviews in Paris I (1990); Interviews in Paris II (1997); Interviews with Dado (2001); Interviewsin Paris III (2002); Painting as Irrational Happiness (2004); Interviews in Paris IV (2004), Montenegro in Paris, Interviews and Encounters with Artists (2007); Interviews in Paris V (2008); Interviews with Dado, second edition (2013). She received the recognition of the Municipal Assembly of Berane, July 21 Award (2008). She was the Director of the Cultural Center of Serbia and Montenegro in Paris in the period 2004-2006. For her work as a publicist affirming the Franco-Yugoslav culture and engagement in the same field, in 2013, as the Director of the Cultural Centre, she was honored with the French Order of the Knight of Arts and Letters, and for the time being she is the only holder of the recognition in Montenegro, after Dado Djuric and Danilo Kis.

both here and in the West. The return of religion and its extremist versions promises nothing good. I draw the attention of all people of good will to keep an eye on it.” Today we are witnessing the situation that Adonis, as a prophet and doubt sower, warned us about. “A person who is able to spontaneously burst into tears. This is proof of love. And love is the main driving force. Without love one can do nothing,” says Mikhail Konstantinovitch Anikushin, a famous Russian sculptor and a brilliant artist. Every saga in this book is shaped by the lives of the artists, which Branka selected at different times and, each in their own way, brings something different then the others. In From despair to Hope, Branka


Bogavac, answers many questions about choosing her interviewees, and what she has to say about that and other issues, is captured in the text below. “This book is not just a symbolic link with the epoch, weaving between authors themselves, who have, most of them, experienced two extremes in their lives - hopelessness and hope, but is also a link to what is written in the dedication to my brother Dusan Bogavac, who was a victim, a fighter for a better world (which he did not live to see) because of the subsequent civil war. Combined, it is the history of the twentieth century, its tragedies and illusions, but also of the hope that is always born from the ashes. Whilst I was working on the book, choosing from a variety of interviews, its profile somehow emerged by itself, as well as the title. This is due to the fact that deep down, the interviewees all radiated that same hope as the title of the book itself. During those dialogues the beauty of art is enjoyed immensely, even when horrors are talked about. Yes, art is always beautiful, and that is what I was looking for and found in my interviewees. There is certainly a touch of individual destiny, which is unique and can be presented only by life, every life, and in any circumstance. Undoubtedly, there is that which I am not aware of, as I do not think that one can be aware of everything, or that it is necessary to explain everything.”

About Branka Bogavac Branka Bogavac is a rare Montenegrin who worthily represents Montenegro and its culture. She is a woman who has devoted her entire working life to her work, constantly striving, with the same passion, to bring us closer to the developments in world literature, politics and culture through numerous interviews with celebrities of the twentieth and the early twenty-first century. She is a polyglot, an open-minded person, with a distinct intellectual profile, a friend of all people of goodwill, as wholehearted as the mountains of Montenegro, and with eyes as clear as our rivers unique, and has an attitude. She is always ready to help. All of this and more - is and means Branka Bogavac. I have the privilege of knowing her, of reading her books in manuscript, and that we are true friends when there is little friendship and honesty in the world and during our lifetime. Branka Bogavac has all the virtues that a Montenegrin woman could attain,” concludes Miras Martinovic, writer. Perhaps the choice of my interviewees would complete and provide my most faithful portrait. Therefore, once again, I resort to quoting Miras Martinovic who, at the first presentation of my book in 1999, in the House of Ivo Andric in Herceg Novi, said, “It certainly was not easy to face Cioran, challenging him to a spiritual duel. He, who has challenged everyone. Ah, this fascinating Cioran! That Heraclitus the Obscure of the twentieth century! Prometheus left to the eagle, the thinker who

is eroded by his own thought. Imagine this obscure Cioran, who far from the public eye, in his Paris attic, like a celestial nest, devises syllogisms as devastating as thunder and as dazzling as lightning, not letting anyone approach him. In this nest, facing such a man, stands this woman. And she faces a demon looking like an angel. The conversation starts. It was a challenge, certainly! Of a special dimension.”

Interviewees “I also met Borges, who Jean d’Omerson, a member of the French Academy welcomed by asking: ‘Who is Borges? The most famous, honorable and universally known among the metaphysical and poetic secrets. You are not only the Sphinx of today’s literature - YOU ARE A LIVING MYTH, whose books are page-turners, read in silence by tens of thousands of fans all over the world. Homer was a great poet - Borges also. You are among the greatest, if not the greatest poet of the age.’ I spoke with Kundera as well, at the height of his fame in May 1980. I went to visit him at his apartment several times to have an interview that excited even the Central Committee in Belgrade, to the extent that they urgently convened an extraordinary session to find out: ‘Who is this woman who teaches us a lesson through Milan Kundera?’ And I was then blacklisted, in what was called The White Book at the time. The interview was concluded over a friendly lunch. There was also an interview with Ionesco, whose plays were performed in theatres around the world. In Paris, The Bald Soprano has been continuously performed already by three generations of actors. More than ten Nobel Prize winners were amongst my interviewees. There are also those who were not awarded the Nobel Prize, but whose reputation reaches far beyond, such as Umberto Eco or Marguerite Duras. I spent an entire evening in Moscow, having a wonderful and open conversation with the great poet Bela Ahmadulina and her husband Boris Messer, a painter and stage designer. In Canada, in Montreal, a woman-writer and playwright, whilst speaking to her friend, cried out enthusiastically, ‘This woman came from the end of the world, from Montenegro, to ask me a question that no Canadian journalist could even think of.’ It is impossible to list here all the exceptional and fantastic encounters that have definitely left their mark on me.”

Choice of Interviewees To make a valuable interview, a certain affinity has to exist between the interviewer and the interviewee, which may relate to their work and personality itself. We are certainly more attracted to people whose creativity touches a nerve in us. Therefore, we are going to approach those books, that lead us to them, with more interest and enthusiasm. One will also make more effort to find the answers to issues of particular personal interest. Here is a small illustration to show

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Interview with Nobel Prize winner Gao Xingjian

how one can feel about a book. I lent The Golden Notebook by Doris Lessing to a friend. When she returned it to me, she said, ‘I did not know that you were such a tragic figure, judging by what you underlined.’ (This is certainly related to my life story and is because of my father, who disappeared during the war in a German concentration camp. I read it back in 1975, when there was no mention of the Nobel Prize. It is interesting that I had written in the book: ‘Thank you, Doris, I kiss your hand for the suffering of your soul.’) And when I asked Umberto Eco whether he had found a piece of himself in a writer, he replied, ‘Yes, that is what we always look for in a writer.’ I was particularly touched by women writers, including Doris Lessing with The Golden Notebook, Anais Nin with her journals, and Marguerite Duras with her tragedies. The first two ladies were crucial in my decision to pursue encounters with artists. I was lucky, I was free to choose my interviewees precisely by following the aforementioned affinity, so I could indulge my curiosity and ask any questions that interested me. Naturally, this is in addition to any questions that were required by the literary work, in order for it to be better understood. I didn’t depend on media that would impose on or limit my choice.

The Interview as a Literary Expression A seriously conducted interview takes a literary form of a special kind indeed. It combines questions and the artist’s live words in a joint effort to achieve the ultimate answer. Sanja Domazet, in the daily newspaper, Danas,

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writes about the way in which Branka Bogavac works, ‘If we agree with Cioran’s postulate that writing is an endless research of oneself, or with Ionesco’s formulation of literature as deciphering the ineffable, the question is to what extent and when does the interview turn form a conversation into a creation, from the answers and questions into the mutual passion of searching, from a string of sentences into a completely new form of art in which two beings, as if they were alone in the world, like two Scheherazades, (re)create our defined life and the world?’ The interview as a form par excellence has probably not appeared by accident at this time of communication. It has changed and become more complex, increasingly acquiring importance as it has evolved, to the point of really becoming a literary genre, in order to be “elevated” to the level of the Nobel Prize last year, with Svetlana Alexievich. The response is followed by a new question. This is all about wisdom. The most ancient thinkers of humanity already knew this. This is undoubtedly felt by all my interviewees. Their answers are just a different form of the questions they have encountered during their lives. My interest in an interviewee does not stop after the end of the interview. This is because their answers encourage me to explore some new and more complex issues and thinking. And this relationship lasts forever.

Merci Paris Paris is another form of the same interweaving, entwining the mysteries of life and man. Many times


I have been convinced that everything that could possibly be conceived by the human imagination existed in Paris, in every respect. It became a part of me, and I became a part of it, which I feel is a great privilege. There is no world artist who has not appeared there, whether as a writer, painter, famous tenor, or choreographer. They all want to show their works of art to Paris. It is a meeting place, a crossing point, the Mouth of the universe, not a confluence of two rivers, but of countless rivers that flow in from all sides and overflow in all directions. Many great foreign authors have become great thanks to Paris. The Magical Vargas Llosa is among them. Over the last fifty years I have followed how the city has changed, but also kept its specific spirit, without which it would not be what it is. This was evident during the recent assassinations when the world in general reacted in a fantastic way to the tragedy of Paris, because everyone felt as if it were their own, personal tragedy. That global solidarity and response showed what Paris meant to people. It is still the most visited city in the world. The Republic Square has instantly become a place where people from all over come to pay their respects to the innocent victims of assassination. The city has given me great joy in the field of culture and friendship. It has given me libraries, theatres, its beauty and my encounters. There I met the love of my life and have raised my family, children and grandchildren. It is there that most of my interviews have been conducted. That is not only enough for one lifetime, but at least for two. Merci Paris. The way I think and honestly feel deep down about Paris is best expressed by Victor Hugo, ‘Paris is the capital of civilization that is neither a kingdom nor an empire, it is comprised of the whole human race, its past and future. Paris is the centre of humanity. Paris is the holy city. Those who attack Paris, attack the entire human race. Saving Paris is more than saving France, it means saving the world.’ That is the Paris that I love and where my interests lie!

About Space and Time This is a question for philosophers, not for mortals like me. Certainly, both of these concepts are intertwined. I attempt to adapt to every place that I find myself in, or the other way around, to feel as though it is something that belongs to me. As for time, I neither live out of nostalgia (except for Yugoslavia), nor for the future, but for the present. My favorite writer Camus said, ‘The only way to be happy is to capture the present moment.’ This is what I apply; it is my most important trait, my profound optimism. Neither space nor time is a limit or a source of difficulty to me. To feel comfortable in an environment, people should look for things which interest them, which will make a positive impact on them. Goodwill is a great asset in finding value. Time is the ultimate master that shapes us throughout our lives. If we accept its demands it will lead us along favorably.

At the very least, it welcomes us and bids us farewell.

Branka in Montenegro versus Branka in Paris It is true that I live in two countries, belong to their cultures, and hold two countries within me, each one of them playing a specific role. My attitude towards Montenegro is more sentimental. It has something that warms my soul, which is probably the love of my country. As I said during dinner at the National Library in Podgorica, every time I come to this country I feel like a married woman who is returning to her family of origin. In France, I feel more rational, because my real and daily life is there. However, this duality has never bothered me. I belong to the country whose language I use at any given moment. Whilst reading our national press on the internet, I am in Montenegro, and I worry or rejoice as such. In France, I am constantly kept up to date via extensive media. However, I am the same person in both countries, always richer for the other segment constituting an integral part of their respective identities. There is nothing opposite or completely different there, it is just as enriching, complementary, encompassing, settling. But it is all to do with my previously-mentioned optimism. I see things in that way, and therefore it also becomes reality for me. For the opposite of this to happen, one has to carry an inner conflict, embarrassment, something that will feed on the fact that one lives in two places, has an original and a new chosen identity. I have not brought that with me, and therefore I have not found it here. As Aeschylus said, when he was expelled, Greece was where he was; I also believe that Montenegro is where I am. It is always within me, no matter where I am. My country is symbolically represented by a stone from Lovcen in my china cabinet in the living room, and there is a flower from Durmitor beside it. So it is present in that way too.

Order of the Knight of Arts and Letters This award is the crown of my work. It is proof that the long journey was worthwhile, not only from Montenegro to France, but also the personal journey of advanced study and the constant self-questioning that I have already mentioned. For me this is an enormous recognition. It is as large as a planet because it comes from France, the country I chose because of its culture. I was lucky, as there are so many deserving people who have not been awarded. France is a wide open country. I believe I deserve this reward for my work, but also because my texts wouldn’t have been published in my country or generated any material benefit without significant investment on my part. That is why I have the impression that France has rewarded me for the love of my country. The award makes me proud because of my family, my father, mother, brother, husband, and children, I feel proud because of my homeland - Bor and Bihor - to which I am especially attached, and because the French

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Umberto Eco

With Danilo Kis

have expressed a wish to declare me their first honorary citizen. Living abroad, I could never tell what kind of impression my work made on people. The reward also makes me pleased for those who I never met, but who found ways to express how they felt about items I persistently sent from Paris to our national newspaper for a long time. On account of that I once received great praise from Milovan Vitezovic, a poet, writer and former editor of Television Belgrade, who publicly stated, in front of dozens of people in the Serbian Cultural Center in Paris, what my texts and interviews, published there for half a century, meant to him and those he knew. This was particularly corroborated by his words: ‘Had there been no texts by Branka Bogavac, I would not have written this book about Miodrag Bulatovic.’ I started a long time ago and wrote for many newspapers in Yugoslavia, and no political changes can erase the memory of the people with whom I worked. This award has a special value also because it implies that I was building a bridge between France and my country, between two or more cultures. It is a special honour to be ranked among the great names of our artists such as Dado and Danilo. In fact, this award has even greater significance for me, because they received it as well. It has increased my joy, pride and a sense of fulfillment because it is what I have being doing all my life.

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There have been many interviewees, and it is difficult to differentiate them. This time, let me give you an example about Umberto Eco and the question I asked him, ‘Mr. Eco, you have recently told your class at the College de France: I believe that it is a real crime to answer questions that are not related to the specialty of the person asked. My question relates to the Foucault pendulum discussing ‘eternal fascism’. Since this phenomenon is quite up to date, will you give me an explanation of its recurrence?’ He replied, ‘I believe that fascism, which may be both Nazism and Stalinism, is a persistent tendency related to anxiety over life, the constant need for precise answers, the fear of doubt, the fear of all difficulties: nothing is certain, an individual can make a mistake more easily, and when someone is above us - when he speaks a truth, the others do not have to become engaged, or think, because someone thinks instead of them. He will tell us our truth which is the only one and that way we quietly live and listen. In this case there is no thirst for knowledge that we have talked about, we have no need for irony. Fascism is a form of laziness of the spirit that was born in our century in that form, and other forms existed at other times, when those were religious predicates who had the same dictatorial function.’ I replied, ‘Thank you for the explanation, now the phenomenon of fascism is clearer to me.’ And he responded, ‘You see that’s the real purpose of a good interview: this is the first time that such a thought has crossed my mind (laughs). And nationalism is another form of the same sentiment.’ Very shortly after this statement he wrote a great essay: ETERNAL FASCISM. Therefore, we were both winners. Every time I reach for my books, I underline them as if I am meeting those artists for the first time, because I experience them again as a reader, not as an interviewer, and I’m constantly discovering something new. In this way those sentences are not felt only by me, but also by my close friends with whom I have shared them. They no longer belong to their author, but become a treasure of humanity, the world’s cultural heritage. They are the pearls of human wisdom. Therefore, I find it hard to distinguish them; it is a harmony, an ideal choir that sings a song. A song of love and a love of art.

Tradition and Culture as Pillars of a Country This globalisation, as it is called, is also felt in large communities such as Paris. And like everywhere else, there are good and bad things about it. What is specific for France as a whole, not only in Paris, is the increasing importance of culture, more so than anywhere else. That has not changed, although it may be sometimes reduced for budgetary reasons. And yet globally, it is still a place where the artist has dignity, not to say an aura, which in many places does not exist or is minimal. Paris may still live on “old glory”, but it is also a modern


city developing in a modern way. I do not mind tourists either, the more the better. And yet, it is breathtaking to see what cultural treasures the city hides. For us it is important to know that even such a large and influential culture must continually fight to preserve those pillars that you talk about. This means that smaller cultures have to do much more, because their pillars are smaller. Even though I have been there for five decades, I still admire the amount of investment in culture made by that country. The number of important exhibitions that are displayed in the country alone is astonishing, and all this costs a lot.

Interviews with Montenegrin Artists Interviews with national painters published in the book Montenegro in Paris, Interviews and Encounters with Artists, were conducted in a different atmosphere compared to those with foreigners. We Montenegrins are a really special nation known for a mutual closeness and kinship, which is not found in other nations, probably because we are few in number, so we commonly feel like cousins, but there is a perfect respect as well. Therefore, these interviews were conducted in a friendly atmosphere. Montenegro is a wonderland in terms of painting, because a large number of special, very talented artists have been born there. There is nothing in the world that beats this. It is very rare that a good sculptor is also a good painter, and yet looking at Vojo’s beautiful sculptures, and then at his amazing pictures, I admire the artist and wonder how this could come from a single man. And who could not admire the work of those people whose talents have been bestowed upon them by their native land, the beauty of which then inspires them to create their outstanding works of art? The unusually rich worlds and cities of Ratko Odalovic make me pause in wonder: what is the origin of so much imagination? I stand before Todor’s paintings as if I am standing before magnificent frescoes in the form of Niagara Falls or Carev Laz. It matters not where one lives, if authenticity speaks through him. The difference is only in the social and cultural context, which may sometimes mean a lot in terms of destiny, and yet there would have been no Dado Djuric, or Marquez and many others, had it determined everything. Because art is a battleground, a duel; strength of personality and the will may, as well as talent, break through the mentioned context.

to take the best from both cultures. This is again the interweaving, which in this case can be understood as an improvement, as a complement, as a certain advantage. Wealth is when one accepts the most valuable cultural heritage of both worlds, but in a way that brings them together in mutual harmony or even in something completely new and unique. It is difficult to achieve, but this is a challenge rather than an asset in itself.

View of Montenegro Today and Before When I was a student in high school in Berane there were theatre festivals at which the best companies of performers were awarded. That was one of the most magical events that could be organized for the local inhabitants. There were many factories in the town and its surroundings and no one was unemployed or poor. Today there is no trace of these factories, and unemployment rates are high. Such facts confuse me. This observation aside, there is a shining light in my Montenegro, a magical enterprise, which is the Theatre City Festival in Budva. Every year, my summer stay at home is brightened by its spiritual richness and the beauty of art. I meet many artists from all parts of the country and Europe there. My experience of their artistic achievements is intensive. It is also an opportunity

Cetinje, 1982.

to see many of my dear and precious friends from my country. For me, it is spiritual refreshment that nourishes me until the following year. I endeavor to just see what is nice because I feel strongly about what is not good. And yet I do not judge anyone, especially not my native land. I feel the same about France.

Two Homelands

Plans

This is a special kind of wealth. I feel great in both environments. In France, I feel almost at home, and in my country quite “my own boss”. I do not see them as mutually exclusive categories in any way, or as being individually exclusive. One can live in the two or three most beautiful places in the world without being beautified and purified by them. One has to have a natural openness that is inherent, and make an effort

I am working on something that is different, personal. This is a big challenge for me, but also a kind of moral obligation. Because every person is a witness, a unique witness, not only of large, but also of little things. Still it is a natural extension of the previous book, which is a special testimony. It is about my little mark that I wish to leave behind. It is different and more intimate than ever before.

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Piše: Prof. dr Božo Mihailović Razgovarala: Radmila Krgović

EKONOMIJA i kultura

Ekonomija kulture i kultura ekonomije Istraživanjem tematike - Valorizovanje kulturne baštine Crne Gore, došli smo do podataka nepovezanosti institucija i nedostatka njihove saradnje, u domenu poboljšanja ukupnog stanja u državi. Iz ugla nauke, to je sledeća faza koja nas čeka u procesima koji slijede, na putu ka Evropskoj Uniji. Loša ili nedovoljna primjena zakonskih normi u realnom životu, je kamen spoticanja, loših navika, koje ćemo, prije ili kasnije morati da promijenimo, ukoliko želimo da unaprijedimo postojeće stanje u kulturi i privredi uopšte. U razgovoru sa profesorom dr Božom Mihailovićem, redovnim profesorom na Ekonomskom fakultetu, Univerziteta Crne Gore, otkrivamo uzroke loših navika, lošeg odnosa prema kulturnoj i prirodnoj baštini Crne Gore, sa ciljem traženja adekvatnih rješenja, kako izaći iz takvog stanja. Da bismo unaprijedili stanje u kulturi, neophodni su obrazovani kadrovi, koji poznaju specifičnosti kulturne baštine sa jedne, a sa druge, imaju znanja i vještine iz ekonomskih disciplina, kako da te vrijednosti učine održivim. Evidentno je, da su menadžeri u kulturi deficitaran kadar savremenog obrazovanja. Kako to sve poboljšati, iz domena nauke i struke, saznaćete u nastavku priče.

Prof. dr Božo Mihailović je redovni professor za naučnu oblast – Marketing, na Ekonomskom fakultetu, Univerziteta Crne Gore. Bio je asistent, prodekan, dekan, direktor Fonda za razvoj RCG, rukovodilac doktorskih studija, rukovodilac magistarskih studija “Marketing i Biznis”, član senata UCG, predsjednik Komisije za doktorske studije, predsjednik Upravnih odbora više preduzeća (Rudnik Uglja Pljevlja, Kolari...) Predavanja na raznim nivoima u zemlji i inostranstvu, mentorstvo na magistarskim i doktorskim disertacijama. Autor Metodologije za izradu biznis planova. Bio predsjednik odbora direktora više kompanija u Crnoj Gori. Sa petnaest objavljenih knjiga iz oblasti marketinga, tranzicije, menadžmenta i preduzetništva. Učestvovao je na mnogim naučnim skupovima u zemlji i inostranstvu. Član je više profesionalnih organizacija i asocijacija. Objavio je više naučnih radova u stručnim časopisima u zemlji i svijetu. Pored navedenog učestvovao u izradi ili bio rukovodilac oko 40 stručnih i naučnih projekata, koje je radio Ekonomski fakultet i Centar za privatizaciju i investicije - Podgorica i podnio više referata na skupovima jugoslovenskih ekonomista. Autor je većeg broja prikaza u raznim naučno-stručnim časopisima. Međunarodni je konsultant za TAM I BAS programe.

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Reforma obrazovnog sistema i prilagođavanje standardima Evrope

Saradnja Univerziteta Crne Gore sa Zavodom za zapošljavanje i privredom

Reforma školstva mora biti jedan stalan proces, stalan zadatak. Mi smo obično navikli da krenemo u neku reformu, pa da onda prođe nekoliko vremena. Nijesmo shvatili da je reforma jedna kvantitativna promjena, da je u pitanju evolucija, nego smo više skloni, kako se to kaže – revolucionarnim promjenama. Te revolucionarne promjene nijesu dobre. Šta treba izmijeniti da bi se uskladile teorija i praksa? Treba mnogo toga izmijeniti. Veoma je teško odgovoriti, u jednom ovakvom intervjuu, na to. U svakom slučaju, mora školstvo, odnosno obrazovni sistem, biti prilagođen budućim potrebama privrede i društva Crne Gore. Inače, malo bih Vas korigovao u vašem pitanju. Nijesu ni zapadne zemlje u situaciji da se studenti odmah nauče. Oni jesu, možda djelimično, više naučeni, što se tiče prakse, nego što su naši studenti. Ali, i kod njih se ipak, polazi od osnovne teze, da kroz praksu treba da se usavršavaju. Nije napamet rečeno – čovjek se uči dok je živ. Naš školski obrazovni sistem je dosta ekstreman. Neću pretjerati ako kažem, da su nama najviše opterećeni osnovci, zatim srednjoškolci, a mnogo su manje opterećeni studenti. Dakle, ako pogledate jednog osnovca i, ako govorimo o školskom sistemu kao cjelini. Koliko mu je teška torba? Koliko kilograma ima? Koliko ima zadataka? Koliko ima knjiga? A nama često studenti dođu na predavanje, noseći od čitavog pribora, samo mobilni telefon. I na pola časa, vrlo često igraju igrice. Mislim da školski sistem u cjelini, ne samo kod nas, nego i mnogo šire, je veoma složen sistem. Sistem koji podrazumijeva više karika međusobno povezanih i, te karike koliko budu funkcionisale, toliko će školski sistem kao cjelina funkcionisati. Mi danas imamo pad kvaliteta, na različitim nivoima obrazovanja, što je vaoma loše. Posebno je prisutan pad kvaliteta visokog obrazovanja. U tom smislu, studenti jednostavno očekuju da manje uče i manje rade, umjesto da sve više i više rade. To je jedan paradoks koji postoji između nekih naših navika i ponašanja. Svi profesori koji insistiraju na povećanoj količini rada i odgovornosti, jednostavno su ekstremni slučajevi.

To je vrlo složeno operativno pitanje, koliko sarađuje Univerzitet Crne Gore sa Zavodom za zapošljavanje. Zavod za zapošljavanje je institucija koja predstavlja spoj između ponude i tražnje na tržištu rada. Što se tiče edukacije svršenih srednjoškolaca, tu je jedan problem, rekao bih dugoročno prisutan. Roditelji smatraju da njihova djeca ne treba da se bave zanatskim poslovima, odnosno, da djeca treba da se školuju za takozvane „papirnate“ poslove.

Uči sine da ne bi morao da radiš

Mi danas u Crnoj Gori, na žalost, nemamo deficitarnog zanimanja. Sva su zanimanja suficitarna, počev od ljekara pa dalje. To je jedan veliki problem. Imamo oko trideset pet hiljada nezaposlenih lica a u tome su mladi ljudi u jednom veoma velikom procentu. To se mijenja, iz dana u dan, iz mjeseca u mjesec ali, to je jedna opšta ocjena. U kontekstu toga šta je deficitarno, šta je suficitarno, imamo mnogo magistara, čak i doktora nauka na Birou rada. Imamo svih zanimanja, inženjera, menadžera, ekonomista i tako dalje. I čak, da imaju ne znam koliko veće znanje, oni nijesu u prilici da mogu da nađu zaposlenje. Mi još uvijek nijesmo došli do te faze iako na sva zvona vičemo: da jačamo preduzetništvo; da jačamo biznis; da jačamo tu mogućnost da sami

To je bilo dosta prisutno u našem sistemu, u našem društvu. I jedno vrijeme ta teza je mogla imati i neko opravdanje prije trideset, četrdeset godina. Mogu vam reći da sam i ja slušao tu tezu od mojih roditelja, svojedobno. Međutim, ja sam došao do zaključka da, kako je vrijeme prolazilo, ja sam sve više i više učio a sve više i više sam morao da radim. Dakle, bilo je potpuno obrnuto u odnosu na to pravilo. Danas su se vremena sasvim promijenila i mislim da smo mi počeli da shvatamo, da se mora više učiti da bi se više radilo i više stvaralo u odnosu na period od prije tridesetak godina.

Više puta sam bio u prilici, da savjetujem neke roditelje, za njihovu djecu koja su bila vrlo loši osnovci ili srednjoškolci. Ako uzmemo srednju školu kao predmet analize, savjetovao sam da se ta djeca upišu na takozvana - proizvodna zanimanja. Kao što su kuvari, konobari ili drugi zanati u oblasti građevinske struke. U devedeset od sto slučajeva, ti roditelji me nijesu poslušali, nego su pokušali da upišu djecu u neke škole, misleći da njihova djeca imaju veće sposobnosti nego što faktički imaju. I šta se onda desilo? Desilo se da su oni školovani za Biro rada. Mislim da se u tom smislu nešto mijenja, ali vrlo sporo. Smatram da država jednostavno mora da kaže – ovo su naše potrebe, pogotovu na nivou srednje škole a i šire, da ima jedan okvir i da se u tom okviru svako može kretati, s obzirom na to da država troši sredstva u sistemu obrazovanja svih građana. Prema tome, država ima pravo da „uzme stvar u svoje ruke“ i da ona odredi koliko će biti školovano pojedinih profila, makar u grubo. Ja razumijem teoriju koja glasi – sloboda izbora. Ne može slobodu izbora da ima jedan osnovac od petnaest godina u smislu njegovih shvatanja da on može da odluči koje će zanimanje da odabere. Rekao bih čak i jedan svršeni srednjoškolac sa osamnaest godina ne može da ima slobodu izbora. Ako se svi vratimo na taj period i vidimo koliko smo tada znali, biće vam jasno, koliko i kako nam je bila neophodna pomoć, od strane pojedinaca, organizacija ili institucija u cjelini.

Primjena stečenih znanja u praksi

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Profesorica Vesna Karadžić sa studentima na predavanju

nalazimo posao i da sami krećemo u određene aktivnosti...

Proaktivno zapošljavanje... Jeste, ali mi do toga još nijesmo stigli. Što se tiče diplomiranih manadžera nakon odslušane teorije, oni sigurno nijesu dovoljno osposobljeni za praktičan rad. Već sam rekao, da se čovjek uči dok je živ i svakako da bi i mi na univerzitetu morali da imamo mnogo više kejsova odnosno, mnogo više studija slučaja. Mi se na Ekonomskom fakultetu pripremamo za reakreditaciju u sklopu Univerziteta Crne Gore, pa je ideja bila da se uvede kao poseban predmet – praksa. Ja sam se tome suprotstavio i rekao da je to nonsens. Svi u okviru svojih predmeta moramo, u zavisnosti od specifičnosti da uvedemo što je više praktičnog rada sa studentima, što više kejsova, što više primjera. Na žalost, nemamo ih mnogo u našoj sredini ali imamo oko nas. Zahvaljujući Internetu danas je veoma lako i brzo doći do takvih slučajeva i njih kao takve ugraditi u našu platformu. Dakle, ako hoćete odgovor na to pitanje onda bi on bio da naš menadžer, ne samo sa naših fakulteta nego i sa drugih fakulteta i univerziteta, nije dovoljno osposobljen da može da rešava probleme. Važno je da je on dovoljno teorijski „potkovan“, pa će ti mladi ljudi u nekom kratkom vremenskom periodu biti u prilici da mogu, ako imaju dovoljno teoretskog obrazovanje, da apsorbuju i da jednostavno upiju praktična znanja kada imaju za to mogućnost. Ali, u svakom slučaju, na nama je, na univerzitetu, da ih mnogo više osposobljavamo i da ih mnogo više angažujemo kroz praktične primjere i kroz rješavanje Studija slučajeva.

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Kriza socijalizma u susret krizi kapitalizma To je vrlo složeno pitanje. Na žalost, socijalizam ima značajne elemente krize i kao sistem je, na žalost makar moju, a vjerujem i velikog broja ljudi, doživio jedan, moglo bi se reći krah, nadam se da će doživjeti i neki svoj kambek. Međutim, vidjelo se da i kapitalizam ima mnogo kriznih elementa. Kriza kapitalizma je danas veoma prisutna. Ja ću kao ekonomista da vas podsjetim, da je ova velika ekonomska kriza koja traje od 2008. godine, još uvijek u toku i da će ona još trajati, na ovaj ili na onaj način. Savremeni svijet nema lijeka i nije našao ekonomske mjere i mehanizme kojima može da krizu zaustavi i da je eliminiše. Sve što se dešava sada, u smislu demografskih procesa u Evropi, dodatno potvrđuje i dodatno otežava situaciju, tako da mogu da kažem, da je danas svijet u jednoj izuzetno velikoj krizi. Možda nije pretjerano reć i u najvećoj krizi u njegovoj istoriji. Demografske promjene koje se sada odvijaju će imati vrlo negativne posledice i na te zemlje iz kojih dolazi stanovništvo i na zemlje u koje ide. Vidite što se dešava sa zemljama Evropske unije. Jednostavno, iako je Evropska Unija kao cjelina, oni se između sebe „svađaju“ jer svako želi da prebaci taj problem u tuđe dvorište. Dakle, taj problem je izuzetno složen. U kontekstu kultura i prestrojavanja u kulturi, kultura je, jedan sekundarni segment, ne po važnosti, nego u odnosu na privredne tokove. Jer kultura, naravno, jeste i trošak društvenog proizvoda ali, kultura daje i neke multiplikativne efekte u dugom roku. Prema tome, ne možemo kulturu posmatrati nezavisno, od privrednih i


društvenih tokova. Čak bi se moglo reći da je kultura segment kroz koji se prelama sve to što se u društvu događa, na način na koji ona pokazuje sve promjene i teškoće u koje se društvo nalazi. Kultura registruje društvene promjene. Možda najbolje registruje i promjene i probleme i kao takvu je treba shvatiti. Jer, kulturne institucije, naučne institucije i sve institucije skupa, treba da doprinose privrednom i društvenom razvoju. Ali, istovremeno, one ne mogu da se „otrgnu“ od tog privrednog i društvenog razvoja nego ih treba posmatrati kao jedan sistem spojenih sudova.

Ulaganje u kulturu kao investicija u kvalitetniji turistički proizvod Ono što treba načelno konstatovati i reći, jeste da mi trebamo mnogo više naše kulturno nasljeđe da koristimo u funkciji turizma i našeg turističkog proizvoda. Crna Gora kao relativno stara država ima svoju bogatu tradiciju i istoriju, ima svoje kulturnoistorijske spomenike i mi to u cjelini posmatrano, sa stanovišta jedne generalne ocjene, nedovoljno koristimo. To mnogo više koriste druge zemlje. Ja sam bio svjedok za vrijeme raznih boravaka u inostranstvu, na raznim specijalizacijama. Kada sam boravio u SAD-u više puta na više univerziteta u više gradova i u tim mjestima u kojima sam boravio, ti spomenici kulture koji su mnogo mlađi od naših spomenika kulture, mnogo više su korišćeni i iskorišćeni razni proizvodi koji su bili u funkciju života ljudi. Mogu da navedem primjer Pitsburga u kojem sam bio svojedobno, i duže boravio na Pitsburškom univerzitetu, vidio sam u njihovom muzeju da su uložena ogromna sredstva, istorijski je prikupljeno sve to što je bilo u funkciji čovjeka. Između ostalog, oni naši pržulini za kafu, pegle koje su bile na čvrsta goriva i mnogi drugi proizvodi, razni šporeti i td. To se kod nas rijetko nalazi. To se može vidjeti kod nekih ljudi koji su zaljubljenici istorije u restoranima i td. Ali, mi kao društvo ne čuvamo tradiciju. Kao društvo ne čuvamo naše nasljeđe, čak ni porodično. Dosta ima ljudi koji više znaju o pedigreu nekog svoga psa, nego o „pedigreu“ svoje porodice. Na žalost, ovo je dosta teška ocjena i ja sam svjestan nje, ali je u praksi to tako. Mora čovjek da zna od koga potiče, ko mu je bio i đed i prađed i u kojim je uslovima živio. Ne u smislu robovanja tome, nego unapređenja svega toga što je bilo u njegovoj porodici, da to čuva i da se prema toj istorijskoj dimenziji odnosi na jedan korektan i ljudski način.

brojki. Nijesam siguran da je bilo pametno da Crna Gora ima baš sve fakultete iz oblasti kulture, kulturnog stvaralaštva u najširem smislu te riječi. Predajem na jednom fakultetu gdje imam tri studenta na četvrtoj godini. Vrlo je to neracionalno i ja prosto ne umijem da predajem u sali sa tri studenta. Navikao sam da predajem studentima tamo gdje je njihov veći broj. Potpuno je to različito. Naravno, ja uvažavam sve te specifičnosti, ali, imamo fakultete koji školuju kadar za tu oblast u okviru Univerziteta Crne Gore. Sada pokušavaju i neki privatni univerziteti da organizuju pojedine specijalističke studije u tom pravcu. Međutim, to sve nije dovoljno i mislim da moramo mnogo više da se osvrnemo na te specifičnosti crnogorske kulturne baštine, njenog istorijskog konteksta koje i danas postoje i sve specifičnosti koje će biti prisutne u budućem vremenskom periodu razvoja Crne Gore.

Renesansa kadrova i institucija na putu pridruživanja Evropskoj Uniji Svuda su, rekao bih, veliki problemi. Jedan opšti crnogorski problem koji moram da istaknem a što

Menadžeri u kulturi nedostajuća radna snaga Menadžeri u kulturi jesu nedostajuća radna snaga, istovremeno, te specifičnosti koje se tiču primjene menadžmenta u kulturi moraju mnogo više da dođu do izražaja u Crnoj Gori. Crna Gora je vrlo malo područje i mi moramo da se naviknemo na jezik malih

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čujemo svaki dan „mi smo donijeli dobre zakone, ali, ti zakoni se ne implementiraju u praksi“. Implementacija nije dobra, kako se to obično čuje, ta nova riječ, koju ja baš mnogo ne volim „implementacija“ znači primjena. Da pojednostavimo da narod zna o čemu se radi, da ne zbunjujemo narod. Nikad nije dobro da se zakon donese a da se ne vidi njegova primjena. Neophodno je simulirati njegova rješenja, i ni jedan zakon nije dobar koji se ne primjenjuje. To je neko opšte pravilo koje ne važi samo za kulturu nego mora da važi svuda. Što se tiče kulture i toga da li smo zreli za renesansu, nije to samo renesansa nego je to, da kažem nešto bitno drugačije u odnosu na naše dosadašnje ponašanje, naravno, trebaće za sve to vremena. Sada ću saopštiti jednu tezu koja nije samo moja - da je ljude najteže promijeniti u glavi. Promjene u glavi su najteže i najsloženije. Možete ga i obući, obuti, možete mu i odijelo dati, ali promjene u glavi čovjeka su teške. Kompletna situacija na nacionalnom nivou je takva, da će se od nas zahtijevati mnogo toga drugačijeg u tom procesu pregovaranja i pristupa Evropskoj Uniji. Mi jesmo otvorili dosta poglavlja ali to dosta sporo ide. Sve ove ocjene koje stižu iz Evrope, otprilike glase ovako: „Jeste, vi ste napravili značajan korak, vi ste donijeli zakone, vi ste učinili mnogo toga, ALI...“, i ono „ali“ „znate, mi hoćemo rezultate“, hoćemo, da i ja tu riječ upotrijebim ponovo – „hoćemo implemantaciju i sve to što iza toga slijedi“. To će biti posebno interesantno za oblast kulture a bogami i mnogo šire.

Ekonomski lijek za neefikasan birokratski sistem Mi dvadeset pet godina pričamo o tome da je neophodna racionalizacija u okviru državnog aparata. Međutim, ne samo da nijesmo učinili neke zaokrete u tom pravcu, nego je taj aparat znatno vremenom povećan. To je objektivna i neosporna činjenica. To su podaci koji pokazuju da je danas veoma veliki broj zaposlenih u državnm organima i po statistici svaki četvrti zaposleni građanin, zaposlen je u državnim organima. To je veoma veliki broj. Ja znam, i mogu pojedinačno da navedem neka ministarstva u kojima je prije dvadeset i pet godina bilo tri do četiri puta manje zaposlenih nego što je to danas. I to je u svakom slučaju znatan teret za državu i građane u cjelini. Sve to treba izdržavati. Postoji jedan sociološki zakon birokratije, da se ona umnožava sama od sebe i da se vremenom značajno uvećava. Mi smo svjedoci svega toga kod nas i to je nešto što je stalno prisutno u Crnoj Gori. Kakav je ekonomski lijek za to? Ekonomski lijek je veoma složen, veoma težak i veoma bolan. Ta ista država mora da kaže – „izvinite, mi ne možemo da podnesemo ovoliki broj ljudi koje imamo, koje izdržava država“. Ali, tim ljudima se mora ponuditi alternativa. Šta je alternativa? Alternativa je mogućnost

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za privatni biznis po ekstremno dobrim uslovima. Što podrazumijeva ekstremno niske kamatne stope kredita i moraju se ljudi prekvalifikovati i obrazovati kao i edukovati za sve to a to je jedan veoma spor i dugoročan proces u što smo se i do sada mogli uvjeriti. To je neminovnost koju Crna Gora mora da obavi, a s druge strane vrlo, vrlo težak, spor i dugoročan proces.

Opasnost prelaska profesora sa državnog na privatne univerzitete Nije veliki broj profesora otišao da predaje na privatnim univerzitetima, prema podacima koje ja imam. Jedan broj je otišao a jedan broj je „proizveden” na tim privatnim univerzitetima. Privatni univerziteti imaju iste ili slične organe upravljanja i rukovođenja kao što to ima državni univerzitet i to su neki ljudi koji su doktorirali na državnom univerzitetu i onda su se zaposlili na te privatne univerzitete gdje su ostvarili svoj izbor u skladu sa Zakonom o visokom obrazovanju. Prema tome, nije to neki poseban problem za sada, što ne znači da neće biti kasnije. Državni univerzitet ima mnogo drugih i težih problema od te komponente. Ti drugi problemi su vrlo, vrlo razgranati i vrlo široke prirode. Oni proizilaze i iz sistema finansiranja i iz sistema upravljanja i nešto što se u tom smislu zaista mora drugačije postaviti i drugačije mijenjati. Državni univerzitet je mnogo manje sredstava zadnjih nekoliko godina dobijao nego prije, recimo sedamosam godina. Kako brojke govore, to je bilo prvo sedamnaest, pa četrnaest miliona eura budžeta. I državni Univerzitet Crne Gore je, rekao bih, prevazišao granice crnogorskih statističkih pokazatelja, broja stanovnika i td. Veliki je broj fakulteta. Pitanje je, kako su ti fakulteti razvijani? Kako su nastajali? Univerzitet je zapao u jedan značajan deficit sa stanovišta funkcionisanja. I šta se desilo? Tada je Uprava univerziteta poslije Zakona o visokom obrazovanju i izmjena najnovijih rukovodioca obrazovnog sistema, za tili čas promijenila Statut Univerziteta Crne gore a da univerzitetske jedinice nijesu učestvovale u svemu tome. Od svih prihoda koje imaju fakulteti, uzimao je univerzitet, apriori, četrdeset pet od sto. Ekonomski fakultet je za prošlu godinu dao univerzitetu 855 hiljada eura a od države je dobio oko 615 hiljada eura. To su podaci iz Bilansa Ekonomskog fakulteta. Opravdano se postavlja pitanje – Šta Ekonomski fakultet dobija od univerziteta a šta daje univerzitetu? Zašto je to urađeno? Imamo neke fakultete kod kojih je broj profesora veći od broja studenata i to treba finansirati, to treba izdržavati. Sada je nezadovoljstvo na Ekonomskom fakultetu, gdje je pet do deset puta veći broj studenata nego na nekim drugim univerzitetskim jedinicama. To jednostavno tako ne može. Taj jedan mehanički, rekao bih, mehanicistički pristup ne može da opstaje u dugom roku.


Bolonjski proces kod nas u odnosu na Evropu Bolonjska deklaracija, Bolonjska konvencija, bolonjski proces je imao jedan osnovni cilj – kontinuirani rad studenta i profesora na univerzitetu. Drgi cilj je bio da se proces obrazovanja nikada ne završava, nego da napreduje na više nivoa i svakome da pruži šansu usavršavanja. Mi smo na našem univerzitetu, jer je on bio jedini kada je Bolonjski proces započeo, to prihvatili dosta mehanički kao što i mnoge druge stvari prihvatamo tako. Meni dođe student i kaže: „Profesore, meni fale tri poena“. Ja to ne mogu da shvatim, pa ja njemu kažem: „Meni fale pedeset sedam poena da biste Vi položili ispit“. Dakle, šta hoću tim primjerom da kažem? Da smo mi tim mehaničkim prihvatanjem stvorili jedan sistem koji je u nekim elementima gori od onog starog sistema. Ispit koji student polaže predstavlja cjelinu i ja studentima kažem: „Izvinite, ako ste kupili motor, mjenjač i školjku automobila – nemate automobil“. Dakle, jeste potreban kontinuirani rad, jeste sve to neophodno usklađivati sa promjenama koje se dešavaju u svijetu, ne može Crna Gora biti mimo njih. Ali taj naš mehanički pristup je dao znatne negativne efekte u ovoj oblasti. Inače, sistem obrazovanja nikad nije završen. To čujemo u kontaktu od ljudi sa univerziteta iz drugih zemalja iz okruženja, Evropske Unije i šire. Prema tome, neke se stvari tu, rekao bih prepravljaju, ali mi u našim uslovima smo neke stvari počeli drugačije da shvatamo i moraćemo mnogo brže da radimo nego što smo radili do sada i moraćemo da shvatimo u okviru svega toga i na našem univerzitetu, različitost pojedinih nauka i specijalnosti u tom smislu.

Ne može biti isti princip za ekonomske ili za tehničke nauke, za ekonomske ili biološke nauke, a mi hoćemo sve to da podvedemo pod jednu kapu, pod jednu šapu. To tako ne može.

Upravljanje ugledom jednog mjesta, grada, države... To je jedno vrlo seriozno pitanje – ko upravlja ugledom? Rekao bih u najširem smislu riječi, ugledom upravlja svaki građanin. To je jedan građanski odgovor. Ugledom treba da upravlja svako, zavisno od svoje nadležnosti, svojih obaveza i svoje odgovornosti. Ja sam mnogo puta kazao i sada ću to ponoviti: „najbolja je ona država u kojoj svako radi svoj posao“. Ako čistač ulica radi svoj posao, vozač kamiona svoj, učitelj, ljekar, predsjednjik vlade ili predsjednik države kada radi svoj posao. Dakle, svako od njih, svaki građanin, jer svaki građanin je neophodan našem društvu, našoj državi, upravlja ugledom iz svog ugla odgovornosti. Međutim, kada govorite o nacionalnom ugledu, najviše nacionalnim ugledom treba da upravlja onaj koji je najviše odgovran. Što je bilo koji pojedinac na većem nivou ljestvice u društvenoj hijerarhiji, to on ima veće obaveze i veću odgovornost da upravlja nacionalnim ugledom. Ni jedan ugled se ne stiče preko noći. Za svaki ugled je potrebno vrijeme. Ugled se teško stiče ali se lako gubi. Dakle, u mjesnoj zajednici, opštini kao lokalnoj samoupravi i u nekoj destinaciji u cjelini, tim ugledom trebaju da upravljaju oni ljudi koji su za to zaduženi, koji od ove države i od građana dobijaju preko poreza sredstva, imaju obavezu da ta sredstva opravdaju kroz svoju aktivnost i svoj rad.

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Evropska prijestonica kulture Ponoviću, da je svijest ljudi najveći problem. Najteže je ljude promijeniti u glavama. Što se tiče vodećih ljudi u institucijama, oni moraju da shvate da bez postojanja tih institucija oni ne bi imali ni sopstvenu egzistenciju. Pozicija koja proizilazi iz nekog nivoa koji neko ima u pomenutoj hijerarhiji mora da bude prikladna njegovoj odgovornosti i da se on na taj način ponaša. Primjećujem neke pozitivne promjene ali u svakom slučlaju one nijesu dovoljne u odnosu na ono čemu Crna Gora kao samostalna suverena država treba da teži. I sjutra u kontekstu svih integracija, pogotovo, rekao bih Glavni grad, mora da bude promoter i mora da bude grad za primjer drugim manjim gradovima, manjim mjestima, da on u tom smislu bude - Spiritus Movens, odnosno, pokretačka snaga. Ako uzmete Podgoricu sa okolinom, ona ima vrlo veliku kulturnu baštinu, veliku tradiciju, i mislim da ta tradicija mora biti korišćena, mora biti obnavljana, ponavljana i stavljena u funkciju i kulture i privrednog razvoja kao cjeline. Moramo da učimo od drugih, moramo da vidimo kako drugi svoje istorijsko kulturno nasljeđe koriste za promociju kulturnog turizma, promociju privrednog razvoja, i konačno, promociju u funkciji povećanja društvenog blagostanja.

Nacionalni park Žabljak i Ulcinj kao dio Svjetske kulturne i prirodne Baštine Tu smo dosta zakasnili i kod jednog i kod drugog, ali, po onoj narodnoj – što je tu je. Moramo se okrenuti onome što treba da učinimo u tom pravcu. Rekao bih da su to potpuno različite stvari. Za Nacionalni park Žabljak, u odnosu na Ulcinj u širem kontekstu uključujući i proctor Solane. Što se tiče Nacionalnog parka Žabljak smatram da ga treba čuvati na neki način i da sve to što je priroda dala čovjek sad treba da održava. i mislim da je dobro sve ovo što se radi sa ulaznicama i sa prihodima koje on donosi, ali može to mnogo bolje i više. Nacionalni park Žabljak treba da bude jedno dobro u koje niko ne smije da dirne više u odnosu na ono što država treba da propiše, što država treba da reguliše. Mislim to, prije svega u pogledu prostora i pojedinih autohtonih sorti biljaka, životinja i td. A sve to što se bude odvijalo, sve što se bude radilo oko njega, mora biti organizovano od strane društva kao cjeline. Ne može ni jedan pojedinac da bilo šta tu učini na štetu društva. Što se tiče Ulcinja i tog prostora, rekao bih da su to dvije različite stvari. Jedan je ta gradska zona Ulcinja i svega što se tiče nasljeđa, a drugi je ovo šire područje vezano za prostor kojim gazduje Solana. Mislim da je umjetnost da Crna Gora nema preduzeće koje proizvodi so maker za svoje potrebe i da to preduzeće ne ostvaruje dobit. Mi smo inače, “umjetnici” u mnogim stvarima pa i u tome. Jer smo prepustili mnoga preduzeća da njima gazduju ljudi koji ne razumiju preduzeće i ne razumiju problem preduzeća. Ja kao građanin smatram, što se tiče turizma, treba ga razvijati izvan tog prostora na

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kome je Solana a tu treba preko ljeta proizvoditi so a preko zime razvijati turizam koji će proučavati razvoj i održavanje ptica, njihov boravak I tako dalje. Bilo kakvi pojedinačni interesi ne mogu da nadvladaju nacionalne interese niti kada je u pitanju Nacionalni park Žabljak niti kada je u pitanju ova sredina, kao i drugi nacionalni parkovi koje, hvala Bogu Crna Gora ima.

Intelektualna elita u Crnoj Gori Ova pitanja, dobro ste primijetili, su za više okruglih stolova, više naučnih skupova. Prvo – Šta se desilo sa intelektualnom elitom u Crnoj Gori? Ja bih rekao da je ona urnisana i da je sve više i više potisnuta. Različiti su razlozi za to. Treba postaviti pitanje, recimo – Zbog čega ljudi sa univerziteta u množini, ne djeluju kao organizovane društvene grupe koje bi trebale da predvode na određeni način crnogorsko društvo? Došlo se do neke situacije, makar ja to tako doživljavam u razgovaru sa ljudima, da se oni mnogo plaše. Ne znam čega se plaše. Ja nijesam od tih ljudi. Govorim javno i na fakultetu i šire. Drugo, ljudi razmišljaju prevashodno o nekom ličnom interesu. Došlo je vrijeme kad je njihov lični interes iznad interesa koji ima sredina u kojoj žive. Treće, došlo je do narušavanja nekih odnosa pa su ljudi koji ni po čemu ne zaslužuju došli do velike svote novca i do velikog bogatstva na ovaj ili onaj način i onda ljudi koji su, da kažem u toj intelektualnoj sferi, sve to posmatraju, gledaju i ja sam primijetio jedno kolektivno razočarenje. Kako to promijeniti? Veoma teško. Veoma će dugi vremenski period biti potreban, da se sve to uradi, da se sve to završi. Nijesam optimista da će se to u nekom vremenskom periodu od pet do deset godina uraditi. Ja bih volio da nijesam u pravu. Volio bih da mnoge moje ocjene nijesu tačne koje sam ovdje izrekao, ali evo, vrijeme je majstorsko rešeto pa ćemo vidjeti šta će ono pokazati. Takav odnos gazdovanja određenim preduzećima, trebala su da spriječe zakonska rješenja i odgovarajuće institucije koje su za to zadužene. Ali, kao što ranije rekoh, mi zakonske norme u praksi ne sprovodimo. To je jedan veliki začarani krug. Ja sam u vremenu od 1995 - 1999. godine bio vodeći čovjek za proces privatizacije u Crnoj Gori i po svoj prilici, kako je vrijeme prošlo, ja sam imao sreću sa svojim intelektualnim i drugim gabaritima što više nijesam u tom procesu. Sa druge strane sam svojim shvatanjima smetao pa su neki željeli da budem što prije uklonjen i to je odlično bilo i za njih i za mene.

Unuk koji troši đedovu imovinu Ekonomski fakultet je u sve težoj i složenijoj situaciji. On još uvijek, drži neko svoje mjesto ali, sam rekao na sjednici Vijeća fakulteta pa ću ponoviti i za širu javnost - on danas liči na unuka koji troši đedovu imovinu. Lijek je radikalni zaokret u tom pogledu i neka poštovani mladi kolege to shvate i učine odgovarajuće korake.


Interview: Professor Bozo Mihailovic, phD. Interviewed by: Radmila Krgovic

ECONOMY and CULTURE

Economy of Culture and Culture of Economy Research into the topic – An Evaluation of the Cultural Heritage of Montenegro, resulted in the conclusion that there was of a lack of coherence and cooperation among the institutions with respect to improving the overall situation in the country. This is the next phase that awaits us on the road to the European Union. A minimal or insufficient application of legal norms in real life is a stumbling block, a bad habit, which will sooner or later have to change if we want to improve the existing situation in culture and the economy in general. An interview with Professor Bozo Mihailovic, PhD, a professor at the Faculty of Economics, University of Montenegro, uncovers the causes of bad habits and attitudes towards the cultural and natural heritage of Montenegro, with a view to seeking appropriate solutions to rectify the situation. In order to improve the situation in the field of culture, it is necessary to have trained staff who, on one hand, know the specifics of cultural heritage and on the other hand, have the knowledge and skills in economic disciplines and know-how to make these values more sustainable. It is evident that managers in culture are scarce in modern education. Ways to improve all of that, in the field of science and practice, will be discussed below.

Professor Bozo Mihailovic, phD.

Educational Reform and Alignment with European Standards “School reform has to be a continuous process, an ongoing task,” explains Professor Bozo Mihailovic, phD. “We are typically used to initiating a reform, and then letting time go by. We have not realized that reform is a quantitative change, an evolution. We are more inclined towards, as they say, revolutionary changes. These revolutionary changes are not good.” What changes need to be made in order to suit both theory

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and practice? “Much needs to be be changed. It is very difficult to answer such a question in a single interview. In any case, the school system, or the educational system has to be adapted to meet the future needs of the economy and Montenegrin society. Anyway, please let me go deeper into your question. Western countries are also not in a position where their students become instantly learned. They are, perhaps in part, more learned when it comes to practice, than our students. And yet, even they start from the basic thesis that they should improve through practice. Learning


is a lifelong process, is not an unjustified saying. Our school education system is quite unbalanced. I am not exaggerating when I say that our primary school children are the most burdened. High school students are less burdened and university students, the least. Just take a look at a primary school pupil and, speaking of the school system as a whole, observe how heavy his or her school bag is. How much does it weigh? How many tasks does he have? How many books is he carrying? Our university students often come to class carrying all of their “essentials“- just a mobile phone, and they very often spend half the lesson time playing games. I believe that the school system as a whole, not only here, but also globally, is a very complex system. The school system consists of a number of important and interconnected links, and it will function as a whole only providing those links function. Nowadays, we have experienced a drop in quality at different levels of education, which is very bad. In particular we have seen a decline in the quality of higher education. In this sense, students simply expect to learn and work less, instead of working more and more.There is a disparity between some of our habits and behaviours and our expected outcomes. Those professors who insist on increasing the amount of work and responsibility are few and far between.

Study, my son, so that you will not have to work This aphorism has been very much present in our system, in our society. And for a while, perhaps thirty or forty years ago, this theory could have been justified. I can tell you that at one time I would hear the same thesis from my parents. Nevertheless, I have come to the conclusion that, as time went by, I learned more and more and had to work more and more. So it was in fact quite the opposite in relation to this rule. Today times have changed completely and I believe that we are beginning to understand that one needs to learn more in order to work more and create more compared to thirty years ago.

Cooperation between the University of Montenegro, the Employment Office and the Economy The level of cooperation between the University of Montenegro and the Employment Office is a very complex operational issue. The Employment Office is an institution that represents a connection between supply and demand in the labor market. As for the education of high school graduates, there is a problem, which I would say has been present for a long time. Parents believe that their children should not do trades, or that children should be educated for the so-called “paper” jobs. Several times I have been in a position to advise some parents on their children who were very poor elementary school

students or high school students. Taking high school students as an example, I advised them to enroll their children in the so-called production occupations, such as, cooks, waiters and other trades in the field of civil engineering. In ninety percent of cases, these parents did not listen to me, but tried to enroll their children in other schools, believing that their children had a greater ability than was actually the case. And then what happened? What happened was that they were trained to register with the Employment Office. I believe that something is changing in this regard, but very slowly. I believe that the State simply has to say - these are our requirements, especially at the secondary school level and beyond, and have a framework where everyone can find their place. Since the education system for all citizens is largely financed by the State, the State should have this authority. Therefore, the State has the right to “take matters into their own hands” and specify the approximate number of students for each educational profile. I understand a theory that is prevalent, and that is - freedom of choice. At the age of fifteen, a primary school pupil is not capable of exercising freedom of choice, in terms of comprehension, to be able to decide about his or her future profession. I would say that the same is valid even for high school graduates at the age of eighteen. If we all go back to that period and think about how much we knew back then, everyone will understand how much and in which way we needed help from individuals, organizations or institutions in general.

Practical Application of Knowledge Nowadays in Montenegro, unfortunately, there are no deficit occupations. There is a surplus of applicants for all occupations, even doctors and so on. This is a big problem. There are about thirty-five thousand unemployed persons including a very large percentage of young people. Certainly, this is changing on a daily and monthly basis, but it is a general assessment. In the context of what is undersupplied or oversupplied, there are many holders of master’s degrees, even PhDs on record at the Employment Office. All professions are represented, engineers, managers, economists and so on. Moreover, even if they are highly qualified and capable, they are still not in a position to find employment. Although we shout from the rooftops

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that entrepreneurship should be strengthened, along with business and opportunities to find a job independently, we have not reached that stage yet nor are we capable of self-initiating certain activities.

Proactive Employment We have not got there yet either. With regards to management graduates, after completing theory courses, they are certainly not sufficiently trained for practical work. As I have already said, learning is a lifelong process, and certainly, at the university, practical training has to be ever more present. We need many more case studies. The Faculty of Economics is preparing for re-accreditation within the University of Montenegro, and the idea was to introduce a specific course – practical training. I opposed it and said that it was nonsense. All of us, as part of our courses, depending on the specifics, have to introduce practical work with students, case studies and examples, to the greatest degree possible. Unfortunately, we do not have a lot of them in our country, but they are close to hand. Thanks to the Internet, it is very easy to find such case studies nowadays, and to incorporate them into our platform. Therefore, an answer to this question would be that our managers, who graduated not only from a national faculty, but also from other colleges and universities, are not trained sufficiently to be able to solve problems. It is important that they become “well versed” in theory, and then these young people with sufficient theoretical knowledge, will be able to take in and easily absorb practical knowledge in a short period of time, when the opportunity arises. Nevertheless, it is up to us at the university, to train and engage them much more through practical examples and case studies.

A Crisis of Socialism becoming a Crisis of Capitalism This is a very complex issue. Unfortunately, socialism contributes some significant elements to the crisis. As a system, to my regret and I believe to the regret of a large number of people, it has experienced, what one might call, a crash and I hope it will experience some kind of a comeback. However, it is clear that capitalism also exhibits many elements of crisis. The crisis of capitalism is very present-day. Please allow me, as an economist, to remind you that this major economic crisis, which has lasted since 2008, is still in progress and that it will still continue in one way or another. The modern world has no cure. No economic measures or mechanisms to stop and eliminate the crisis have been identified. All that is happening now, in terms of demographic processes in Europe, further confirms this and makes the situation worse, and therefore I can say that the world is in a very big crisis today. Perhaps it is no exaggeration to say, that this is the biggest crisis in history. The current demographic changes will have

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very negative consequences, both for the countries of origin and destination of human migration. You see what is happening in the EU countries. Simply, although the European Union is united, countries “fight” amongst themselves because they want to transfer the problem to somebody else’s backyard. Therefore, the problem is extremely complex. In the context of culture and realignment of culture, culture is a secondary segment, not in order of importance but in relation to economic trends. Certainly, culture is a cost in the domestic product and yet it has some multiplier effects in the long run. Therefore, culture cannot be considered separately from economic and social trends. One could even say that culture is a segment which reflects everything that happens in a society, considering the way in which it shows all the changes and difficulties faced by the society. Social changes are registered by culture. Perhaps it best registers the changes and problems, and is to be understood as such. For this reason, cultural institutions, scientific institutions and all the institutions together should contribute to both economic and social development. However, at the same time, one cannot “break away” from this economic and social development, but should view it as a single system of communicating vessels.

Investing in Culture as Investment in a High-Quality Tourism Product What should in principle be concluded and stated is that we definitely need to make better use of our


cultural heritage when it comes to tourism and our tourist product. Montenegro, as a relatively old state, has a rich tradition and history, with its cultural and historical monuments, which as an overall assessment, generally speaking, is not used sufficiently. Other countries use this resource much more. I have been witness to this during various visits abroad for various reasons. For example, I have been to the United States several times, to several universities in several different cities. In those places that I visited, the cultural monuments, although much more recent than our monuments were being used and exploited more. In addition, various items which had functioned in people’s everyday lives were collected and displayed. Let me take Pittsburgh as an example, where I once stayed for a longer visit to the University of Pittsburgh. I saw that their museum was investing enormous resources to collect all items that had historically been used by mankind. Inter alia, there were ancient coffee roasters, irons filled with hot coals, and many other items, such as various stoves and so forth. This is rarely found in our country. Such items are kept by history lovers and can be seen in restaurants, and the like. And yet, tradition is not preserved by our society. As a society, we keep no legacy, not even family heritage. There are many people who know more about the pedigree of their dog than the history of their family. This is quite a severe judgment. I am aware of that, but it is confirmed in practice. People have to know about their ancestors, who their grandfathers and greatgrandfathers were, and what circumstances they used

to live in. Not in the sense of being a slave to one’s own past, but to improve and preserve everything that existed in one’s family; to treat the historical dimension in a fair and human way.

Lack of Managers in Culture There is a lack of managers in culture and consequently, the specifics concerning the application of management in culture, must become a lot more prevalent in Montenegro. Montenegro is a very small area, and we have to get used to talking in small numbers. I am not sure it was wise for Montenegro to have literally every faculty in the field of culture and cultural creativity in the broadest sense of the word. I teach at a university where I have three students in the fourth year. It is very irrational, and I simply do not know how to teach in a room with three students. I am used to giving lectures to a larger number of students. This is completely different. Certainly, I appreciate all the specificities, but there are faculties training professionals in that area, as part of the University of Montenegro. Efforts are also currently being made by some private universities to organize certain specialized studies in this direction. Nonetheless, all of this is not enough, and I believe that a lot more attention must be paid to the specifics of the cultural heritage of Montenegro and its historical context, as well as those which are present today, and all the elements that will appear in the future period of Montenegro’s development.

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Piše: mr Magdalena Radunović konzervator-savjetnik

KULTURNa BAŠTINA

ZETSKA SVETA GORA Foto: TO Bar

Stvaranje prvih vjerskih kulturnih centara na ovim prostorima ojačalo je nacionalno osjećanje i zajedničke crte jedinstva u borbi sa Vizantijom a kasnije i sa Mlecima i Turcima, što je uslovilo nezavisnost i osamostaljivanje

Ostaci crkve Prečiste Krajinske

Kulturno-istorijsko nasleđe basena Skadarskog jezera zastupljeno je sa veoma širokom lepezom objekata različitih kategorija i iz različitih vremenskih perioda, od paleolitskih staništa, tumula i gradina, helenističkih i rimskih lokaliteta do srednjevjekovnih manastirskih kompleksa, crkvi i utvrđenja.

• tumuli: Drume, Vuksanlekići, tumul kod Drača, Kodrae Burtit, Gornji Vukovci, Palićeva gomila, Debele rudine; • gradine: Ljuteza (Ponari), Mali Besac, Gradište (Livari), Samobor, Oblun; • utvrđene aglomeracije: Mataguži

U prostornim i hronološkim okvirima jezerske regije nalazi se najdragoceniji dio spomeničkog nasljeđa Crne Gore. Ostaci arhitektonskog nasljeđa, različitih stilova, vrste i namjene, na ovoj teritoriji, vidljivi su svjedoci bogate kulturno istorijske prošlosti. Kulturnu baštinu Skadarskog jezera čine objekti i /ili graditeljski ostaci iz nekoliko etapa:

Praistorija

• paleolitska staništa: Vezačka pećina i Dujevska pećina;

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Antički period

• nekropole: Gostilj i Kuti (Godinje); • aglomeracije: Ploča, Mala Mrka, Durovina;

Srednjevjekovni period

• nekropole: Škuri (Šinđon) i Mijele; • nekropole sa crkvama: Plavnica i Grabe, • sakralni spomenici: crkve (Sv. Luke, Sv. Petka, Sv. Trojice, Skupo, Jeksa, Kosmača, Sv. Nikole, Maskiš), manastiri (Ćelije, Kom, Prečista Krajinska), utvrđeni


Period novog vijeka

• profani objekti: Danilov most i kuća Sv. Petra (Rijeka Crnojevića), Kula vladike Petra I (Karuč), aglomeracija kuća Lekovića (Godinje); • urbane aglomeracije: Rijeka Crnojevića i Virpazar • utvrđenja: Lesendro, Grmožur i Tophala ( na istoimenim ostrvima), Besac (Virpazar), Kulica (Vranjina), Balšin grad (iznad Ponara), Oblun (Vukovci);

Ruralna naselja

• Vranjina, Podgrađe Žabljak Crnojevića, Dodoši, Karuč, Rogani, Bazagur, Prevlaka, Šinđon, Riječani, Dujeva, Čukovići, Poseljani, Godinje, Seoca (Raduš i Pristan Dabanovićki), Krnjice (Brod i Liman), Donji Murići, Besi, Bobovište i Ckla.

nastaju novi gradovi i grade sakralni objekti od kojih se po značaju izdvajaju manastirski kompleksi Prečiste krajinske, Vranjina a na Krajinskom arhipelagu utvrđeni manastir Beška, Starčevo i Moračnik iz vremena Balšića i manastir Kom iz vremena Crnojevića. Ovi spomenici kulture naše prošlosti predstavljaju izvanredan primjer samosvojne arhitekture karakteristične za prostor Skadarskog jezera.

Manastir Prečista Krajinska Najstarije manastirsko središte na obali Skadarskog jezera, kod sela Ostrosa, poznato je pod imenom Prečista Krajinska. Pominje se u XI vijeku a zadužbina je Kosare, makedonske princeze, udovice zetskog kneza Vladimira, koji je ubijen u Prespi 1016. godine. Idilična ljubav Kosare, kćerke makedonskog cara Samuila i Vladimira kneza tadašnje Zete, bila je nadahnuće mnogim pokoljenjima i istorijsko – umjetničkim naracijama. Krajem XIV vijeka na ovom Foto: Arhiva Renome

manastiri (Starčevo, Sv. Bogorodice i Sv. Đorđa – Beška, Moračnik); • utvrđenja: Lesendro, Grmožur i Tophala (na istoimenim ostrvima), Besac (Virpazar), Kulica (Vranjina), Balšin grad (iznad Ponara), Oblun (Vukovci);

Ovaj prostor, gotovo svih pet vjekova, od doba Vojislavljevića do Crnojevića, bio je centar njihovog ekonomskog i kulturnog uspona. Stvaranje prvih vjerskih kulturnih centara na ovim prostorima ojačalo je nacionalno osjećanje i zajedničke crte jedinstva u borbi sa Vizantijom, a kasnije i sa Mlecima i Turcima, što je uslovilo nezavisnost i osamostaljivanje. Razuđena obala s nizom prelijepih plaža, zaliva, poluostrva i ostrva čiji arhipelag čini najveću čar i ljepotu jezera. Mještani ih nazivaju goricama, a ima ih pedesetak i na mnogima od njih su bile sagrađene crkve, manastirski kompleksi ili fortifikacioni objekti Shodno ovome, ne čudi što ovaj kraj zovu “Zetska Sveta Gora”.

Ilirsko pleme Labeati Na ovoj akvatoriji baštini se kulturno naslijeđe koje je nastajalo od vremena formiranja prvih ljudskih zajednica do današnjih dana. O početnom procesu naseljavanja svjedoče ostaci materijalne kulture i mnoštvo toponima: gradine, tumuli, nalazi oruđa i keramike koji ukazuju na prisustvo stabilnih populacija. Pouzdano znamo, na osnovu pisanih izvora, da je ovaj prostor naseljavalo Ilirsko pleme Labeati. Ilirskorimskim ratovima u III i II v.n.e. propala je ilirska država i time je prekinut kontinuitet duhovne i materijalne kulture Labeata, a počinje period rimske dominacije koja nameće razdoblje visoke urbane civilizacije vezane za centre u Duklji i Skadru. Doseljavanjem Slovena, formira se u IX vijeku dukljanska država, u zajednici sa tadašnjim lokalnim, romanizovanim stanovništvom. Početkom 13. vijeka dukljanska država potpada pod vlast srpske dinastije Nemanjića a u vremenu ponovne vlasti crnogorskih dinastija, sada Balšića i Crnojevića, obnavljaju se i

mjestu je ustanovljeno sjedište Zetske Mitropolije. Tada je nastala potreba za proširenjem starog manastira i za gradnju novih objekata. “Ne zna se kada je porušen i ko ga je porušio, zna se samo to, da ga vrijeme nije rušilo, jer da ga je ono rušilo ne bi bio zaravnjen sa zemljom, nego bi mu ostaci bili vidni kao i manastirima na Moračniku, Beškoj i Starčevu, čiji se svodovi još drže.” Manastir Prečiste Krajinske danas leži u ruševinama u selu Ostrosu. Crkva Sv. Marije bila je duga oko 15 metara, a tolika je bila i kula koja se nastavila na crkvu. Kula je očuvana i visina je 12-14 metara, imala je četiri kata i na vrhu “teferidž”. Oko crkve se poznaju temelji mnogih kuća i groblje.” (A. Jovićević, Zapisi, Časopis za nauku i književnost, sveska 6, Beograd 1927. godine. str. 323).

Crkva posvećena Uspenju Bogorodice Glavna manastirska crkva koja je posvećena Uspenju Bogorodice nalazi se u centru nekadašnjeg kompleksa.

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Foto: Arhiva Renome

Kula crkve Prečiste Krajinske

U pitanju je građevina tipa trikonhosa sa pripratomnarteksom na zapadnoj i nešto dubljim oltarskim travejom na istočnoj strani, čime se hram razlikuje od ostalih sačuvanih trikonhosa Skadarskog jezera. Crkva je bila zasvođena poluobličastim svodom, dok je nad centralnim dijelom postavljena kupola koju su nosila četiri luka postavljena na pilastrima. Uz pripratu se nalazila izdužena pravougaona zgrada konaka ispred koje je bila podignuta petospratna kula. Na četvrtom spratu kule bila je mala kapela sa apsidom i poluobličastim svodom. O nekadašnjoj živopisanosti crkve svjedoče mnogi fragmenti fresaka sačuvani u coklu trikonhosa i narteksa.

da ova crkva nije rađena pod uticajem Moravske škole već arhitektura ovog manastira ima gotička stilska obilježja.

Svetogorska osnova crkve Kako je hram Prečiste Krajinske zidan sa spoljašnom pripratom i kulom zvonikom, koja ima gotička obilježja, nema sumnje da su podignuti krajem XIV ili u XV vijeku. Na Prečistoj Krajinskoj su se sabrale ideje graditeljstva različitog porijekla: svetogorska osnova

Po svom arhitektonskom sklopu, ovaj manastirski kompleks pripada grupi crkvica sa Starčeve Gorice, Beške i Moračnika. Kako je on od ovih mnogo većih razmjera i ima posebnu istorijsku vrijednost, može se sa pravom tvrditi da su crkvice sa pomenutih Gorica prema njemu i podignute. Kritičkom analizom i komparacijom svih arhitektonskih cjelina (sklopova) a naročito: spoljašnji izgled polukružne apside, kružne tambure i postamente kubeta, nedostajanje bočnih prislonjenih lukova, apsolutno odsustvo ornamentike, zidovi od kamena i kasnije priziđivanje narteksa, dolazimo do uvjerenja

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Osnova crkve Prečiste Krajinske


Foto: Arhiva Renome

Ostaci crkve Prečiste Krajinske

crkve, primorski način gradnje pritesanim kamenim kvadrima sa znacima gotičkog stila i starije raško naslijeđe u podizanju hramova. Balšići tada podižu male građevine ujednačenog arhitektonskog tipa, trolisne kupolne crkve koje se bitno razlikuju od onih iz prethodnog perioda. Pojava trikonhalnih crkvi u Zeti Balšića na Skadarskom jezeru bila je reafirmacija regionalne arhitektonske cjeline. Sličan oblik crkve poznat je i rasprostanjen na ovom području još od VI vijeka. Pored toga što se njihov način gradnje oslanja na lokalnu tradiciju, izražen u arhitekturi crkve Bogorodice Krajinske, graditeljsku realizaciju povjeravali su zidarima i klesarima sa Primorja, čime su balšićke crkve odjevene u zapadnjačko graditeljsko ruho sa puno romano-gotičkih stilskih elemenata. Danas se uobičajilo da se znamenita crkva u kojoj je po Ljetopisu bio sahranjen Sveti Jovan Vladimir a u čijoj je blizini bio i manastir, datuje u kraj XIV – XV vijeka. Shvatanje koje je utemeljio Đ. Bošković 1930, koji je tu vršio manja otkopavanja i zaključio da se radi o jednovremenoj crkvi. Aleksandar Deroko je uočio više faza gradnje ove crkve i zaključio da je prvobitna crkva iz 12. vijeka. Na fotografijama snimljenim od oltarske apside ka zapadu vidi se da je samo gornji dio zapadnog zida

crkve zidan redovima sitnog kamena na isti način kao i zvonik, što ukazuje na najmanje dvije građevinske faze. Nova istraživanja ove crkve nijesu objavljena a danas se vidi da je ovaj hram mnogo puta obnavljan i proširivan. Ova jednobrodna crkva sa bočnim prislonjenim apsidama, nalik je trikonhosima u Baru, Tepljuhu i Klisuri. Sama crkva je duga 18m i široka nešto više od 5m. Vjerovatno je na zapadnoj strani imala pripratu sa dvije manje bočne prostorije. Danas se uočavaju dvije veće pravougaone odaje, prislonjene uz bočne zidove odmah od apsida i obije veće od dijela crkve zapadno od apsida. Vršene su razne pregradnje čiji međusobni vremenski odnosi nijesu jasni. Pilastri koji su dozidani uz bočne apside, nose kupolu a zapadni dio je odvojen zidom sa vratima i na taj način je dobijena priprata pokrivena svodom. Okolnost da priprata nije imala vrata na zapadnom, već se ulaz nalazio na istočnom kraju sjevernog zida, ukazuje da se u priprati mogla nalaziti grobnica, odnosno, sarkofag Svetog Jovana Vladimira kao i grob njegove žene Kosare. Konzervacija ostataka crkve urađena je 1989. godine kao i djelimična konstruktivna sanacija zvonika, prema prethodno urađenoj projektnoj dokumentaciji.

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Author: Magdalena Radunović, M.A, Conservator-Adviser

Cultural Heritage

HOLY MOUNTAIN OF ZETA Photo: TO Bar

The creation of the first religious cultural centers in these areas strengthened national sentiment and common features of unity in the struggle against the Byzantines and later against the Venetians and Turks, which resulted in independence and self-sufficiency

Precista Krajinska

The cultural and historical heritage of Skadar Lake includes a very wide range of items of different categories and from different time periods, from the Palaeolithic habitat, tumuli and fortified towns, Hellenistic and Roman ruins to medieval monasteries, churches and fortifications. The spatial and chronological framework of the lake region includes the most valuable part of the monumental heritage of Montenegro. The remains of the architectural heritage, different styles, types and purposes, in this area, are visible witnesses to the rich cultural and historical past. The cultural heritage of Lake Skadar consists of structures and/or architectural remains dating from several periods:

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Prehistory

• Paleolithic habitat: the caves of Vezacka Pecina and Dujevska Pecina • Tumuli: Drume, Vuksanlekici, tumulus near Durres, Kodrali Burtit, Gornji Vukovci, Paliceva Gomila, Debele Rudine • Fortified towns: Ljuteza (Ponari), Mali Besac, Gradiste (Livari), Samobor, Oblun • Fortified agglomerations: Mataguzi

Ancient Period

• Necropolis: Gostilj and Kuti (Godinje) • Agglomerations: Ploca, Mala Mrka, Durovina

The Medieval Period

• Necropolis: Skuri (Sindjon) and Mijele


Photo: Arhiva Renome

• Necropolis with churches: Plavnica and Grabe • Sacral monuments: churches (St. Luka, St. Petka, St. Trojice, Skupo, Jeksa, Kosmaca, St. Nicholas, Maskis), monasteries (Ćelije, Kom, Precista Krajinska), fortified monasteries (Starcevo, Holy Mother of God and St. George – Beska, Moracnik) • Fortifications: Lesendro, Grmozur and Tophala (on islands of the same name), Besac (Virpazar), Kulica (Vranjina), Balsin Grad (above Ponari), Oblun (Vukovci)

Modern Age

• Secular structures: Danilo’s Bridge and St. Peter’s House (Rijeka Crnojevica), the Tower of Prince-Bishop Petar I (Karuc), Family Lekovic’s Agglomeration of Houses (Godinje) • Urban agglomerations: Rijeka Crnojevica and Virpazar

Rural Settlements

• Vranjina, Podgradje Zabljak Crnojevica, Dodosi, Karuc, Rogani, Bazagur, Prevlaka, Sindjon, Rijecani, Dujeva, Cukovici, Poseljani, Godinje, Seoca (Radus and Pristan Dabanovicki), Krnjice (Brod and Liman), Donji Murici, Besi, Boboviste and Ckla. This area was, for almost five centuries, from the time of the Vojislavljevics to the Crnojevics, the center of their economic and cultural prosperity. The creation of the first religious cultural centers in these areas strengthened the national sentiment and common features of unity in the struggle against the Byzantines and later the Venetians and Turks, which resulted in independence and self-sufficiency. There is a jagged coastline with a number of beautiful beaches, bays, peninsulas and islands which make up an archipelago which is the greatest charm and beauty of the lake. There are approximately fifty islands, called small mountains (Gorica) by the locals, and on many of them churches, monasteries and fortifications were built. Therefore, it is no surprise that this area is called “The Holy Mountain of Zeta”.

Illyrian Labeati Tribe This aquatic area includes cultural heritage created from the time the first human communities were formed up to the present day. The initial process of settlement is evident from the remains of material culture and many place names: ruins, tumuli, sites of tools and ceramics, which indicate the presence of stable populations. We know, based on written sources, that this area was inhabited by the Illyrian Labeati tribe. The Illyrian State collapsed after the Illyrian-Roman wars in the third and second century AD, and thus the continuity of the spiritual and material culture of the Labeati tribe was interrupted. This signified the start of the period of Roman domination, which imposed a period of high urban civilization- related centers in Doclea and Shkodra.

A detail of the tower

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With the settlement of Slavs along with the local Romanized population the State of Doclea was formed in the ninth century. At the beginning of the thirteenth century the State of Doclea fell under the rule of the Serbian Nemanjic dynasty and upon the return to power of Montenegrin dynasties, this time the Balsic and the Crnojevic, towns were redeveloped and new towns and sacred places were formed. The most significant are the Precista Krajinska and Vranjina monasteries, the Krajina Archipelago with the fortified monasteries of Beska, Starcevo and Moracnik from the Balsic period, and the Kom monastery from the Crnojevic period. These historical, national monuments are excellent examples of the distinctive architecture, typical of the Skadar Lake area.

The Precista Krajinska Monastery

The Church Dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary The main monastery church, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, is located in the centre of the former complex. It is a building with a trefoil floor plan, a narthex to the west and slightly deeper altar bay on the east side, which distinguishes the temple from the other surviving trefoil-narthexes of Skadar Lake. The church had an arched barrel vault, with a dome in the central part, supported by four arches placed on the pilasters. Along the narthex there was an elongated rectangular dormitory building in front of which a five-storey tower was erected. On the fourth floor of the tower there was a small chapel with an apse and barreled vault. It is evident from the many fragments of frescoes preserved in the socle of the triconchos and narthex that the church was once painted. In terms of architectural structures, the monastery belongs to a group of churches in Starcevo, Beska and Moracnik. As it is much larger and has a special historical value, it can be rightfully claimed that the churches on the aforementioned Gorica were later erected in the same style. A critical analysis, comparing Photo: Renome archive

The oldest monastic center on the shores of Lake Skadar, near the village of Ostrov, is known as Precista Krajinska. It was mentioned in the eleventh century as the endowment of Kosara, the Macedonian princess, widow of Prince Vladimir of Zeta, who was killed in Prespa in 1016. The idyllic love between Kosara, daughter of the Macedonian Tsar Samuil, and Vladimir, Prince of Zeta, was the inspiration for many generations and historical - artistic narratives. At the end of the fourteenth century, the Metropolitan residence of Zeta was founded there. It was at this time that it became necessary to expand the old monastery and erect new buildings. “It is not known when it was demolished and by whom. It is known only that it has not collapsed due to time, because had this been the case, it would not have been leveled to the ground, and the remains would still be visible like those of the monasteries in Moracnik, Beska

and Starcevo, whose vaults still hold”. The Monastery of Precista Krajinska today lies in ruins in the village of Ostros. The Church of St. Mary was approximately 15 meters long, with a house of the same length which was added on to the church. The 12-14 meters tall tower has been preserved, with four floors and ‘Teferidz’ on the top. Around the church the foundations of many houses and a cemetery can be seen.” A. Jovicevic, Notes, Journal of Science and Literature, vol 6, Belgrade, 1927, p.323.

Skadar Lake

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all architectural units (assemblies), and in particular the external appearance of a semicircular apse, circular drum and plinths of the dome, the absence of side rebated arches, absolute absence of ornamentation, the walls of stone and subsequently added narthex, leads us to believe that this church was not built under the influence of the Moravian school, but the monastery has the features of Gothic architecture.

The Holy Mountain Church Floor Plan

These days the famous church in which, according to the Chronicle, St. Jovan Vladimir was buried in close proximity to a monastery is commonly dated to the end of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century. This concept was put forward by Dj. Boskovic in 1930, who had undertaken some smallscale excavations and concluded that the church dated from a single period. Aleksandar Deroko noted several phases of construction of the church and concluded that the original church dated from the twelfth century. Photographs taken from the altar apse to the west show that only the upper part of the west wall of the church was built in rows of small stones, in the same way as the bell tower, which indicates at least two construction phases. There has been no recent research on the church, and today it is evident that the temple has been rebuilt and expanded many times. This single-nave church with side abutting apses is similar to the triconchos found in Bar, Tepljuh and Klisura. The church itself is 18m long and just over 5m wide. It is probable that on the west side there was a narthex with two smaller side rooms. Nowadays two large rectangular chambers can be identified, leaning against the side walls next to the apse, both larger than the church area west of the apse. There were various alterations whose mutual time relations are not

Holy Mountain Church Floor Plan Photo: Renome archive

As the church of Precista Krajinska was built with an external narthex and a bell tower of Gothic features, there is no doubt that those were built at the end of the fourteenth or in the fifteenth century. Precista Krajinska is a collection of building concepts of various origins: the Holy Mountain church floor plan, coastal building style with rough-cut stone blocks, with signs of the Gothic style and ancient Raska tradition of erecting temples. The Balsics used to build small structures of a uniform architectural type, trefoil, domed churches that were quite different from those of the previous period. The emergence of churches with a trefoil floor plan in Zeta Balsica on Skadar Lake was the reaffirmation of the regional architectural ensemble. A similar church form has been known and prevailed in the area since the sixth century. Although their building style relies on local tradition, as seen in the Virgin of Kranjska Church architecture, the Balsics churches were built by bricklayers and stonemasons from the coastal region, who dressed them in western attire with many architectural Romanesque-Gothic style elements.

Precista Krajinksa tower

clear. The dome is supported by pilasters which were added along the lateral apses, while the western part is separated by a wall with a door, and thus a vaulted narthex was created. The fact that the narthex had no door on the west, but the entrance was located at the eastern end of the north wall, indicates that the tomb or the sarcophagus of St. Jovan Vladimir, and the grave of his wife Kosara, could have been in the narthex. In 1989, conservation works were carried out to the remains of the church, in addition to partial structural repairs to the bell tower, in accordance with the previously detailed design documents.

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Autorka i članica ekspedicije: Radmila Krgović

EKSPEDICIJA

Odiseja na Himalajima Ženska ekspedicija 2015. preživjela zemljotres Planinarenje nije samo sport, samo aktivnost u planini. Planinarenje je pjesma duše, srca i radost pogleda sa novih visina. Usklađivanje sebe sa Univerzumom. Planinarenje je način života. Odnos prema sebi, drugima, planini, prirodi, izazovima i životu uopšte. Planina nas uči hrabrosti, istrajnosti, posvećenosti cilju i timskom duhu. Planina je prečica za samospoznaju

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Foto: Aleksandar RaĹĄin

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Nepal je država u južnoj Aziji. Graniči se na sjeveru sa Kinom a na jugu sa Indijom. Sjeverni dio Nepala zauzima Himalaja, najviši planinski lanac na svijetu, a njegov najviši vrh 8.850m Mont Everest na granici s Kinom je najviši vrh na planeti Zemlji. Od ukupno 14 svjetskih vrhova iznad 8.000m nadmorske visine, 8 se nalazi u Nepalu, računajući i Mon Everest. Od 2006. godine Nepal je sekularna država, a 2007. privremena Vlada je proglasila Nepal Demokratskom Saveznom Republikom, označivši time kraj 238 godina monarhije. Nepal ima 29,5 miliona stanovnika od kojih 88% živi na selu a samo 12% u gradu. Stanovnici Nepala pripadaju brojnim etničkim zajednicama od kojih su neke povezane sa tradicionalnim kastinskim sistemom. Najbrojniji su Chetri (trad. Kšatrije, oko 16%), Brahmani (oko 13%), Magar (7%) i Tharu (6,75%). Etnički Sherpe poznati kao vodiči alpinističkih ekspedicija čine 0,68% stanovništva. Hinduizam je najbrojnija religija (oko 80%), budizam (11%). Nepalskim govori oko polovine stanovništva. U vrijeme britanske kolonijalne vlasti u Indiji, Nepal je ostao nezavisan ali izolovan od svijeta platio je cijenu nerazvijenosti i privredne zaostalosti. Glavna privredna grana je poljoprivreda ali raste udio uslužnih djelatnosti (turizam).

Ženska ekspedicija Tharpu Chuli 5.663 mnm Tharpu Chuli (5.663m) vrh se nalazi u centralnom dijelu masiva Anapurna u Nepalu, okružen vrhovima od 6.000-8.000m sa koga se pruža pogled na jedan od deset najviših vrhova na svijetu Anapurna I (8.091m). Možda ne impresionira visinom, ali je tehnički vrlo zahtjevan sa dijelom od preko 400 m alpinističkog penjanja uz fiksno uže sa žimarom i cepinom. Podaci o Tharpu Chuliu su bili vrlo oskudni, jer je ovo prva ekspedicija sa ovih prostora koja je izvršila uspon na ovaj vrh, što daje dodatnu težinu ovoj cijeloj priči. Ženska ekspedicija „Himalaji 2015“ trajala je od 17. aprila do 02. maja 2015. godine. Nakon osamnaest mjeseci priprema i eliminacija, ekspedicija je krenula na dugo isčekivane Himalaje. Tim planinarki koje su sačinjavale ekspediciju bio je: Biljana Medenica (Crna Gora), Biljana Čegar, Jelena Ignjatijević, Branka Bradašević, Sonja Pavlović, Biljana Savković, Andrijana Miletić i Vesna Đoković (iz Srbije) koje su na pripremama izborile plasman da o trošku Planinarskog kluba „Extreme Summit Team“ iz Beograda odu na Himalaje i izvrše uspon na Tharpu Chuli (5.663mnm). Ja sam od početka bila sa njima na pripremama za Himalaje. Nijesam ušla u najuži krug, tako da sam se o svom trošku i uz podršku prijatelja sponzora: Fonda za razvoj Kuča, Skill Inženjering, Glavnog Grada Podgorice, restorana “Pod Volat” i Hemomonta, pridružila ekspediciji jer sam imala ogromnu želju da pođem u Nepal i doživim Himalaje iz prve ruke. Planinarenjem se bavim od 2012. godine. Mnogo sam o sebi i o drugima naučila

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Djeca iz Khatmandua Nepalska zastava jedina je zastava u svijetu koja nema pravougaoni oblik. Glavni Grad Nepala je milionski Khatmandu koji se nalazi na 1.400m nadmorske visine. Najrazvijeniji turistički regioni u Nepalu su Anapurna i region Everest zbog velikog broja planinara iz čitavog svijeta koji dolaze na Himalaje.

u planini. Prvi moj uspon bio je na Bobotov kuk na Durmitoru, zatim Prutaš, Mitikas na Olimpu, Midžor na Staroj planini, Musala na Rili u Bugarskoj, Šar planina u Makedoniji, Vasojevićki Kom, Grand Paradiso najviši vrh Italije, Mon Blan, najviši vrh Francuske i sve su to bile pripreme za Tharpu Chuli 5.663m na Himalajima. Na aerodromu su nas dočekali vodiči iz agencije. Dolazak u hotel u Kathmandu (glavni grad Nepala sa 3,5 miliona stanovnika) gdje smo se smjestili i sjutradan krenuli za Pokharu (grad sa oko 500.000 stanovnika) kombijem. Tokom šest sati vožnje doživjeli smo prelijepe predjele od pirinačnih polja, banana, raznih vrsta voća i lijepih restorana usput sa ljutom i začinjenom nepalskom hranom. Ali smo se vremenom navikli. Voda za piće im je veliki problem. Zato sa povećavanjem nadmorske visine raste i cijena vode. U Kathmanduu nemaju osnovnu infrastrukturu, pa se hotel gdje smo bili smješteni snabdijeva tehničkom vodom iz cistijerni koje su na vrhu hotela i slobodnim padom voda dolazi u sobe. Nemaju kontejnere i organizovani odvoz smeća. Mnogo je prašnjav grad i velika je vlažnost vazduha zbog monsuna. Ljudi su ljubazni. Govore engleski jezik i sobe su čiste i uredne. Hljeb se može kupiti samo u boljim hotelima i restoranima. Riža im je nezaobilazna u obrocima i jedu rukama.

Planina uspostavlja dijagnozu Ta iskustva su nevjerovatna. Hladnoća, mraz, kiša, spavanje u šatorima na dvadeset stepeni ispod nule. U planini sam bolje upoznala sebe i druge ljude. Kako


Članovi ekspedicije: Branka Bradašević, Biljana Čegar, Jelena Ignjatijević, Sonja Pavlović, Vesna Đoković, Biljana Medenica, Biljana Savković, Aleksandar Rašin, Andrijana Miletić i Radmila Krgović

reče organizator ove ekspedicije Dragan Jaćimović: „Planina nam uspostavlja dijagnozu i u planini imamo samo jedno lice – originalno“ pa ko želi da se suoči sa realnošću i poželi da se mijenja, ima pouzdanu dijagnozu planine. Smjenjivale su se razne emocije kao vrijeme na planini. Iskušenja je bilo mnogo a vremena malo. Svakodnevno smo planinarili sa rancima koji su znali biti teški i do dvadeset kilograma u prosjeku po deset sati i prelazili dnevno po hiljadu metara nadmorske visine. Imali smo vremena da doručkujemo, ručamo, večeramo, istuširamo se i spavamo. U Nepalu je prava monsunska klima sa suvim i kišnim periodima. Krenuli smo iz Pokhare (drugi grad po veličini u Nepalu) sa oko 700m nadmorske visine. Pokhara me uveče podsjetila na primorski grad sa mnogo prodavnica, hotela, restorana i stazom pored jezera Phewa Tal na kom je bilo mnogo čamaca, okruženo visokim vrhovima, izgledalo je čarobno. Pored jezera raste mnogo rijetkog drveća. Jedno od takvih je Pipal sa debelim stablom kao i Nepalski bor. Bokula, (ćara na nepalskom ptica) koja je smještena u krošnjama drveća i prelijepo pjeva. Preko dvije hiljade metara nadmorske visine organizam drugačije reaguje pa je bilo raznih situacija koje su nam otkrivale čari Himalaja. Usput su se smjenjivali lodževi (kuće) gdje smo pravili pauze za ručak i odmor i gdje smo spavali. Smjenjivale su se razne vegetacije i kroz pojedine predjele vidjeli smo majmune na drveću. Planinarska staza je napravljena od okolnog kamena i stepenice vode sve do ABC-a (Anapaurna Bazni Kamp, 4.130m). Penjemo se pa se spuštamo do rijeke i opet novi uspon. Brda su im kaskadno obrađena gdje sade

različite vrste povrća. Dinamika i količina pređenog puta, uslovila je da nas u AB kampu visinska bolest koju je pratila mučnina, glavobolja, otečenost, povraćanje, a kod mene i temperatura, skoro sve obori.

Visinska bolest Nijesam mogla da jedem. Snijeg je padao u AB kampu a sunce se samo na kratko pojavljivalo iza oblaka. Vrijeme je bilo jako loše tokom trajanja ekspedicije. Prije podne kiša, a poslije podne magla, a ponekad i jaki pljuskovi. Prognoza je bila nepovoljna za planinu. Šerpasi i vodiči su išli ispred nas da pripreme bazni kamp Tharpu Chuli na 4.560m. Od Anaprurna baznog kampa smo prelazili preko glečera kojim se tokom cijelog prelaza odranjalo kamenje. Iz glečera smo izašli uz fiksno uže. Naporna dionica ostala je za nama. Umor, teški ranci, porteri (nosači) i vodiči ispred nas su nam ulivali snagu sa teškim teretom koji su nosili i bez planinarske opreme u običnim patikama, često kvasnih nogu i uvijek nasmijani i uslužni. Uz jednu padinu nedaleko od visinskog kampa, na 4.500m dočekali su nas Šerpasi sa toplim čajem od đumbira i limunom. Nevjerovatno prijatno iznenađenje i ukus čaja koji vraća u život. Pomogli su nam da izađemo do kampa gdje su spremili obrok i šatore za spavanje. Malaksali i iscrpljeni od visinske bolesti i temperature stigli smo u Bazni kamp Tharpu Chuli. Presvukli smo se i okupili u šator gdje su nam kuvari spremili fantastičan ručak. Raša je pitao sve kako se osjećamo i uvijek je pratio ponašanje djevojaka. Pitao je ko može da izdrži do vrha da penje i da se vratimo do Anapurna baznog

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kampa, jer nema uslova da se pravi visinski kamp kako je bilo planirano. Otprilike nekih sedamnaest sati. Rekla sam da nijesam dobro i da mislim da ne mogu ići na uspon na vrh. Mislila sam da ćemo ih čekati u visinskom kampu. Međutim, Mladen, Marko Biljana Savković i ja smo se sa još dva portera i jednim Šerpasom koji nas je dopratio do silaska u glečer, uputili ka Anapurna baznom kampu.

Zemljotres na 4500m

U jednom momentu čovjek odozgo pita: “Šta vam treba?“. Ja kažem - “To je Jaćim”. I samo što sam to izgovorila, pomislim kako sam počela da haluciniram. Otkuda Jaćim sad baš na tom mjestu kada su oni ostali iza nas? Međutim, bio je i došli su da nas sretnu. Pomogli nam da nađemo put koji je zbog zemljotresa potpuno bio nevidljiv iz glečera. Kada mi je dodao ruku, rekao je: „Vidiš Radmila, i ovo su Himalaji“. Znam – odgovorila sam presrećna što su tu. Kompletna ekipa sa kojom je bio Jaćim se pobrinula u Anapurna baznom kampu da nam pomogne, da nas utople, zbrinu i tu smo saznali da je njih zemljotres zatekao kod Macha Puchare baznog kampa i da je lavina prošla deset metara od njih. Foto: Radmila Krgović

Usput na nekih 4.400-4.500m počelo je da trese tlo, a okolo su se čuli odroni. Zastali smo svi i pomislili da je krenula neka lavina sa vrha i da se od nje trese tlo. Ubrzo smo shvatili da je u pitanju zemljotres koji je

Ruka spasa

Kathmandu poslije katastrofalnog zemljotresa

trajao cijela dva minuta. Drugi jači potres nas je zadesio prilikom spuštanja u kuloar niz fiksno uže. Šerpas nam je pomogao dok smo se spustili i nastavili smo sa dva portera put ka AB kampu nesvjesni jačine i razorne moći zemljotresa koji je jučerašnji izgled kuloara promijenio. Tako da nijesmo uspjeli uopšte da pronađemo put kuda da izađemo iz glečera. Kuda su porteri govorili, bilo je jako rizično. Ako je pogrešan put,ne možemo se vratiti a svaki pogrešan korak može nekoga koštati života i zato smo tražili sigurniju varijantu i tako se vrtjeli cijeli dan u glečeru. U momentu kada smo odlučili da, ukoliko ne nađemo put za izlaz, jer je bila magla i slabo se vidjelo, da pronađemo sigurnije mjesto i da prespavamo u glečeru noć. Ubrzo nakon te odluke Marko je ugledao neke ljude gore iznad i onda smo svi počeli da vičemo za pomoć na našem i engleskom jeziku.

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Strašno je bilo. Prepričavali smo jedni drugima svoje iskustvo i saznali da je veliki broj zgrada porušen i da je jačina zemljotresa bila 7,9 stepeni Rihterove skale, da je mnogo zatrpanih u ruševinama i poginulih. To je bio najjači potres od 1934. kada je poginulo 8.000 ljudi i grad sravnjen sa zemljom. Strah je bio za ekipu koja je krenula ka vrhu. Nijesmo imali informacije o njima. Razmišljali smo kako su prošli. Sjutradan je opet potres u AB kampu bio jak da smo svi izašli napolje. Jaćim je poslao jednog Šerpasa da provjeri kako su oni u visinskom kampu i da im kaže da ne moraju da silaze isti dan nego da odmore pa sjutra. Isčekivanje da se čuju informacije o njima je bilo napeto. Jaćim je trebao sa tom ekipom da penje vrh, međutim, poslije zemljotresa je odustao. Isčekivanje njih sa vrha je bilo najteže. Smjenjivali smo se Mladen, Biljana, Marko i ja sa dvojicom portera koji su bili sa nama. Na smjene smo


Izlaz iz glečera

stražarili na mjestu izlaska iz glečera kako bi im pomogli da izađu. Konačno su stigli izmoreni, lica izgorjelog od sunca na vrhu, iscrpljeni i dočekali smo ih sa toplim čajem da se osvježe. Informacije su u medijima pošle da smo svi zatrpani na Himalajima i da ima stradalih. Mi smo se javili svojima da smo dobro i zdravo. Za dva dana smo stigli u Pokharu i sjutra za Kathmandu gdje je grad bio sablasan. Zgrade do hotela u koji smo bili smješteni kad smo došli, porušene su do temelja. Javna česma u gradu zatrpana. Prodavnice su zatvorene. Kolone auta su se kretale iz Kathmandua ka Pokhari i planinama. Pored puta je bilo tijelo motocikliste koji je stradao. U tom pravcu je trčalo više ljudi i to je jedna slika koja mi je ostala u sjećanju na njihovo zajedništvo. Velika tuga se osjećala u vazduhu. Stigli smo u Kathmandu i Jaćim je organizovao večeru u jednom hotelu odakle su uživo izvještavale svjetske agencije o stanju u Nepalu nakon zemljotresa. Oko 8.000 poginulih i preko 19.000 povrijeđenih osoba je u ovom razornom zemljotresu čiji je epicentar udaljen 80km od Kathmandua. Naporan uspon na vrh bio je u sjenci zemljotresa. Ekipa koja je popela vrh nije ni svjesna bila šta je izazvao zemljotres i njegovih posledica. Dvije večeri u Kathmanduu koje smo proveli su bile trusne i svako veče je bilo potresa koji su bili manjeg intenziteta.

odrađeno. Taj tim je jedna nova osoba koja raste i ja njih ne posmatram pojedinačno, interesuju me samo kao cjelina. Tako se i odnosim prema njima. Teško je napraviti tim i održati ga. Ova ideja je suprotna svemu onome što se kod nas dešava. Ko danas besplatno daje sve svoje znanje drugome? Vjerujem da sve što se iskreno daje, što ima neku dobru namjeru, mora kad-tad da procvjeta. Veoma je važan sopstveni mir i smirenost pri donošenju odluka u planini. Da bi čovjek došao na taj nivo treba mnogo vremena. Za mene je hrabrost u strpljenju i trajanju. Ti treba dva mjeseca da budeš strpljiv da bi popeo Mont Everest. Hrabrost je u ovome što sam ja započeo ovu priču sa ženskom ekspedicijom u ovom trenutku. To traje osamnaest mjeseci. I za to vrijeme imaš milion iskušenja kroz koja treba da prođeš a da ne odustaneš. To je hrabrost. To je velika razlika. A ludost? Svi možemo da budemo ludi“, ističe Jaćimović.

Katastrofalni zemljotres „U Nepalu se ne živi kao kod nas - dvoje-troje ljudi u jednom stanu, kod njih je petnaest – dvadeset ljudi u jednoj kući i kad se to sruši, ogroman broj njih pogine. I ono što je tuga velika, to su ova sveta mjesta hinduizma i budizma, što su sva porušena. Znam da će se to, pošto su pod zaštitom UNESCO-a ponovo obnoviti, ali to su ipak zgrade stare po 300-400 godina i to je žalosno. Da li znate da ovdje 75.000 djece uzrasta od jedne do pet godina umre svake godine? Tu cifru malo ko zna. Zato što je ovo ruralna sredina. Osim Kathmandua, nema mnogo gradova. Dosta ljudi

Organizator ekspedicije Razgovarala sam sa organizatorom ekspedicije Draganom Jaćimovićem po povratku u hotel u Kathmanduu gdje smo bili smješteni. „Tharpu Chuli je odabran baš zato što je tehnički težak, zahtjevan, donekle i opasan vrh. Nije mnogo visok ali simulira sve što se dešava na vrhu preko 8.000 metara. Namjerno sam ovu ekspediciju skratio vremenski i to je dodatno izazvalo napor zbog aklimatizacije. Htio sam da vidim šta će se desiti kad pođu u tako jedno veliko iskušenje. Prezadovoljan sam kako je sve

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Dragan Jaćimović


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Foto: Andrijana Miletić


živi po brdima i po selima. Nemaju zdravstvene zaštite i u principu ljudi vjeruju da ko preživi u takvim uslovima, spreman je da živi na Himalajima. To je prirodna selekcija i oni se ne uzbuđuju mnogo zbog toga. Kad upoređujemo cifre, mnogo više ljudi umre ovdje od zaraznih bolesti nego što je stradalo od zemljotresa. Njihova zajednica dobro funkcioniše i za razliku od nas koji smo otuđeni, oni su spojeni i žive život u velikoj porodici, zajednici i pomažu se. Vidjeli ste da su nasmijani i žive u skladu sa okruženjem, sa prirodom. Trideset šest naroda, odnosno kasti ima u Nepalu i 17 jezika kojima se govori, gdje je Nepali zvanični jezik. Ono što je zanimljivo za Nepal, je odnos i simbioza hinduizma i budizma, što rijetko gdje postoji da ne prave razlike. To je jedno. Budisti idu u Hindu hram i obrnuto. Ceremonije i praznici se miješaju, poštuju svi sve. Daleko od sukoba. Mir i poštovanje tradicija koje su i prije budizma tu postojale ima ih i dan danas.

Intuicija azbuka božija Jedna od mojih omiljenih izreka je: ’Čovjeka ne čine njegove mogućnosti već njegovi izbori’. To nije onaj potencijal što ti je Bogom dat, nego kako se ti realizuješ i kako reaguješ u određenim situacijama. Šta ti činiš, ti možeš da kažeš za sebe da si dobar čovjek, ali ne činiš dobra djela. Ono si što daješ. Kakve izbore praviš i to su te raskrsnice u životu na kojima ideš ovamo ili onamo. Ja pričam s ljudima da je cilj, ustvari, osvijestiti sebe. Da što manje nesvesnog ima. Čudni smo mi ljudi. Negdje sam pročitao, neko je to divno napisao ’Intuicija - azbuka božija’. Oni mnogo bolje osjećaju to i žive u skladu sa prirodom. Vjeruju da svaka planina ima svoju dušu, svoj karakter, svoje ime i tako se prema njima odnose, kao prema živim stvorovima, kao prema ljudima. Danas ljudi žive u potpuno jednom drugom okruženju i sistemu vrijednosti u strahu da daju. Ovdje govore sve jezike svijeta. To je nevjerovatno laka komunikacija, da se brzo razumijemo očima, pogledom, gestovima, riječima i to teško može da se ostvari kad odeš u neku zapadnu, civilizovanu i razvijenu zemlju. Ako ne znaš jezik, teško da će da te razumiju. Ja prosto fizički mir osjetim ovdje. Ne znam zašto baš Himalaji i zašto to osjećam ovdje, ali osećam i meni to prija. Ima jedna izreka koja kaže: “Čovjek u gradu ima hiljadu lica a u planini samo jedno”. Zato neko kaže da planine i Himalaji mijenjaju ljude. Ja bih rekao da nije baš tako. Planine samo postavljaju dijagnozu. Ti si uvijek to što jesi, samo se ovdje pokaže tvoje pravo lice. Da se vidi, da se otvori, da se kaže to si ti. Pitanje je kad se vidiš u tom ogledalu, kad se ogledaš ovdje u planinama to što vidiš da li će da te uplaši? Da li ćeš da prihvatiš to što jesi, da kažeš to ne valja, to trebam da mijenjam ili ćeš da zažmuriš i da kažeš - ma ne, nije to tačno i sl. Sve zavisi od nas samih da li ćemo nešto da mijenjamo“ zaključuje u razgovoru Dragan Jaćimović.

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Aleksandar Rašin, vođa ekspedicije

Lider ekspedicije Aleksandar Rašin vođa ženske ekspedicije „Himalaji 2015“ koji je od početka sa ekipom, uspio je da pored nesvakidašnjih iskušenja, povede djevojke do vrha i bezbjedno se vrate nazad. „Kad se radi nešto prvi put, uvijek je neizvjesno šta i kako će da bude. Nekako se, po difoltu podrazumijeva da su ekspedicije za muškarce. Bilo je ekpedicija u okruženju u kojima su učestvovale samo žene. Žene su podjednako dobri planinari kao i muškarci. Možda ne mogu sve u fizičkom smislu da podnesu kao i mi, ali mogu. To je bila ideja da pokažemo da planinarstvo ne mora da ima granica. Prosto, to je jedan svijet. Ovoga puta je Tharpu Chuli postavio nekoliko novih izazova, odnosno bilo je situacija koje se nijesu mogle predvidjeti. Visina od 4.000m zaista predstavlja neku granicu odakle počinje ozbiljno da se kod neaklimatizovanih osoba razvija visinska bolest. Ja sam pristalica prirodnog načina aklimatizacije, bez upotrebe dodatnih pomagala jer mislim da je bolje da se organizam sam navikava na neke promjene. Zemljotres na planini, na 4.600m koji traje dva minuta je bio nešto užasno. U prvom trenutku smo pomislili da je lavina i istrčali smo iz trpezarijskog šatora da vidimo sa koje strane dolazi i da potražimo neki zaklon. Međutim, ništa se nije vidjelo, mrak je već pao i samo tutnjava i podrhtavanje tla. Mi smo se u jednom trenutku svi okupili zajedno sa kuvarima, pomoćnicima u kuhinji, šerpasima, zagrlili se, pomolili se i sačekali da prođe.

Završni uspon Taj završni uspon je bio jako iscrpljujući zbog vremenskih uslova zbog kojih nijesmo mogli da postavimo visinski kamp, nego smo morali da penjemo iz baznog kampa. To je sa četiri ipo hiljade na 5.700 m skoro i nazad. To je jako, jako veliki uspon. Nije bilo vremena da se postavi visoki kamp i to je još jedna od onih teških odluka na ekspediciji. Ja nijesam bio siguran da sve djevojke mogu da izdrže takav vid napora na toj visini, ali prosto bilo je ili da krenemo odatle ili da ne krenemo. Opet jedna od onih odluka „da“ ili „ne“. To su odluke koje moraju da budu jako precizne. Nema


Fotografije: Aleksandar Rašin

Poslije povratka sa vrha, u šatoru sa Šerpasima

Na vrhu Tharpu Chuli, 5663m

Visinksi kamp Tharpu Chuli

one među zone... možda ovako, možda onako, nego ili ovako ili onako. Taj uspon je, da se vratimo ponovo jako dugačak, zato sam riješio da krenemo u jedan sat poslije pola noći da bi imali vremena da uhvatimo taj tvrđi snijeg do izlaska na vrh jer, treba se i vratiti sa vrha. Dakle,nije poenta samo popeti vrh, glavna stvar je povratak nazad u bazu koji je uvijek teži nego sam uspon. Dok idete ka vrhu prati vas i nalet adrenalina, ushićenje pred uspon,odmorni ste, puni snage, želje a kad dođete na vrh onda dosta ljudi napravi grešku i kaže: „E sad sam uspio; sad sam na vrhu“. I kada u povratku nestane tog uzbuđenja, adrenalina, vrijeme se kvari, snaga izdaje i to su momenti kada nažalost nastaju kobne greške. Ljudi precijene sebe. To je ono što se meni motalo po glavi i ja sam se bojao da ne precijenim djevojke.

fizički najzahtjevniji dio. Mnogo toga je išlo protiv nas. Prethodnih dana je palo tridesetak santimetara novog snijega koji je bio vrlo mekan i vrlo nepogodan za hodanje što je zaista bilo vrlo otežavajuće. Naši šerpasi su prethodnog dana postavili fiksno uže, ali onda kad smo mi došli na uspon oni su zbog uslova tog novog snijega morali da prave nova čvorišta i da na novim mjestima postavljaju osiguranja, tako da smo tu izgubili nekih četiri sata što je dodatno uticalo na pad raspoloženja i gubitak energije. Stajati četiri sata u snijegu na -21 stepen koliko je bilo, nije ni malo prijatno. Ipak se sve dobro završilo. Sve to je jedno veliko iskustvo i drago mi je da sam dio ovog tima i nadam se da ću nastaviti ovu priču sa djevojkama“ zaključuje Rašin, vođa ekspedicije.

Vjerovao sam da su spremne, ali psiha tu igra glavnu ulogu. Tako sam se na usponu više fokusirao na to da ih bodrim, da kad im naiđe kriza to vidim i da ih ohrabrim. Svako će prije ili kasnije imati krizu, samo je važno da umije tu krizu da prepozna kod sebe i kod drugih i da odreaguje na pravi način. Tokom uspona ka vrhu je bio jedan dio uz neki ice wall (ledeni zid) kako ga zovu, nešto oko 350-370m. To je jedna dosta zahtjevna dionica gdje je nagib bio od 45-60 stepeni. To je bio

Impresije učesnica ekspedicije Nakon povratka na sigurno u Pokharu, kada smo se smjestili u hotel, razgovarala sam sa djevojkama o njihovim utiscima koje u najkraćim crtama prenosimo. „Poprilično je bila neiskusna ekipa. Jako loše vrijeme. Loš snijeg koji je otežavao sve aktivnosti, od prostog kretanja preko abzajla, žimarenja, temperatura je bila niska... morali smo paziti na svaki korak neprekidno. Sve je trajalo mnogo duže nego što je trebalo da traje i

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sve je bilo mnogo teže nego što bi bilo da su vremenski uslovi bili drugačiji. Mislim da je bilo jako rizično i da su šerpasi, možda bili u pravu kada su predlagali da se ne penje vrh. Ali eto, rizik se isplatio ako je vrh bio cilj“, kaže Biljana Čegar. „Uvijek vam je drago kada ispunite neki cilj. Ali je ovo veliko životno iskustvo penjući Tharpu Chuli. Uz iskustvo Šerpasa i vodiča Aleksandra Rašina, uspjeli smo da savladamo te nepredviđene okolnosti. Kad smo se popeli na vrh nijesmo mogli da stanemo zato što je napadalo nenormalno mnogo snijega i to su neke stvari koje nijesmo očekivali. Zato i jeste ovo jedna velika avantura, ne samo planinarsko iskustvo. U više navrata je bilo vrlo rizično za cijelu ekipu. Pripreme od godinu dana napravile su tim jakim. Mislim da je to ono što je bilo presudno. Ljudi kažu kad jednom dođete u Himalaje, poželite da dođete opet bez obzira na sve što je bilo teško i naporno. Sigurno je da želimo da dođemo opet“, izjavljuje Jelena Ignjatijević. „Ako se čovjek bavi visokogorstvom, tehničko znanje je jako bitno. Ja sam i ranije bila u Himalajima i na više evropskih planina, ali nikad mi se u životu nije desilo da me na planini zatekne zemljotres. Jednostavno ne znate šta se dešava, ali sa ljudima koji su u tom trenutku tu, dišete kao jedno. Što se tiče samog uspona na vrh imali smo jako loše vremenske prilike. Nije samo uspon na vrh cilj. Bitno je da se vratite nazad, kako do baznog kampa, tako i još kamp niže i to je trajalo dva dana i bilo je jako uzbudljivo. U svakom trenu smo bili sigurni i hvala Bogu sve se završilo kako treba“, zadovoljno ističe Biljana Medenica. „Ja sam od onih disciplinovanih planinara koji se drže uvijek svoje grupe i planinarskih pravila, tako da uvijek osjećam da sam sigurna. Najteže od svega mi je bilo poslije zemljotresa kad smo čuli da su neke ružne vijesti procurile u našu zemlju. Vrlo sam ponosna što sam uspjela da izvršim uspon na taj vrh koji je meni lično najveći uspjeh do sada. Ponosna sam na sebe što sam baš ja ta koja će dići svoje društvo na jednu ljestvicu više i stvarno se trudim i volim da prenosim svoje znanje na druge. Osjećam se zrelijom nego kad sam došla ovdje i imam sasvim nove poglede na ljude, na civilizaciju, na život uopšte“, navodi Branka Bradašević. „Ovaj tim je uspio da izvede akciju „Himalaji 2015“. Ja sam lično imala manju povredu noge. Nije bilo toliko strašno. Kada je snijeg zaledio i kada se znalo da ćemo krenuti ka vrhu, više ništa nije bilo teško. Zemljotres na tolikoj visini je nešto nevjrovatno. Nepalci su rekli da nikada nijesu doživjeli zemljotres u planini a nas je bilo strah za dio tima koji je krenuo ka AB kampu. Do poslednjeg momenta se nije znalo ni da li će se krenuti na vrh zbog jako loših vremenskih uslova. Bila je magla kad smo bili na vrhu i ostaje taj nedorečeni momenat i osjećaj da nijesmo imali potpun doživljaj tog vrha i Himalaja uopšte“, kaže Sonja Pavlović.

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„Zbog prethodne visinske bolesti bila sam malaksala i sve mi je to teško palo. Još je ranac bio pretežak, cipele preteške. Osećala sam glad a nijesam mogla da jedem. Kad sam dobila potvrdni odgovor od Raše da se vraćamo u ABC u tom trenutku sam osjetila olakšanje jer nijesam bila u najboljem stanju, ali postojalo je i to očajanje kad su mi krenule suze i kad sam rekla ‘Ne! Zašto? Idem i ja gore’. Krivo mi je, naravno. Iznad je takođe mogla da se otkine lavina i da nas pokupi. Drugi zemljotres nas je sustigao pred sami abzajl. Izgubili smo se u magli nekih devet sati. Mogli smo da ostavimo život na glečeru i to je bilo pitanje kako ćemo prenoćiti ako ne pronađemo izlaz iz glečera. Ali eto, sve se sredilo na kraju. Glavni utisak je to da sam preživjela gubljenje u Anapurna regionu“, izjavljuje Biljana Savković. „Ka vrhu Tharpu Chuli smo krenuli iz visinskog kampa sa 4.600m. Sam taj odlazak na vrh i ove visine na kojima do sada nijesam bila su jedno novo iskustvo. Imala sam veliku podršku i pomoć iskusnih koleginica. One su nam pomagale svojim savjetima kao i vođa ekspedicije Raša. Sve je to išlo jednim tokom i eto, uspjeli smo da se domognemo vrha. Nosim kući jedno veliko iskustvo koje ću pokušati kao što je ideja ove priče da prenosim dalje. Nadam se da će biti još ovakvih iskustava. Impresije su velike. Dopala mi se cijela priča i sam izlazak na vrh, sve to novo što smo preživjeli“, navodi Andrijana Miletić. „Sve je ovo ogromno iskustvo. Kad smo mi možda sumnjali, a vjerujem da su i Šerpasi sumnjali da ćemo mi doći do vrha. Fiksno uže Šerpasi nijesu postavili na vrijeme nego tek onda kada mi treba da se penjemo uz njega. To je bio najveći problem i kad je Raša rekao da će uspon trajati osam sati. Žimarili smo i to nije bilo lako. Međutim, sva ta težina planinarenja za mene je nestala onog momenta kad sam saznala da je neko novinarima rekao da su četiri djevojke stradale u lavini od zemljotresa. Pomisao na moje i kako će reagovati je bilo za mene daleko najteže. Ipak su uspjeli da jave da smo svi dobro. Kada smo došli do Anapurna baznog kampa, sve mi je bilo lijepo. Svi su mi lijepi. To je ta neka ljubav koja se rodi u tom velikom naporu. Stvori to neko stanje da su mi svi mili kao rod najrođeniji. Kad smo došli u Pokharu, spustili se i nema više onog straha od zemljotresa, ja kažem - ide mi se na 8.000m. Kad sam ovo sve preživjela, sve ćemo preživjeti. Život je lijep“, zaključuje Vesna Đoković. Jedna ženska ekspedicija je uspješno završena i djevojke su do vrha uspjele da savladaju velika iskušenja. Zaista treba sve to doživjeti i pored svega pronaći snagu i izdržati do vrha i nazad u nimalo povoljnim vremenskim i vanrednim uslovima izazvanim zemljotresom. Ovu ekipu čeka neki novi vrh na Himalajima i sigurno je da će on biti iznad 8.000m. Život je lijep!


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Author: Radmila Krgovic

EXPEDITION

Himalayan Odyssey The Women’s Expedition, 2015 survives an earthquake Mountain climbing is not just a sport, not merely a mountain activity. Mountain climbing is the song of the soul and the heart. It is the joy of a view from new heights, aligning oneself with the universe. Mountain climbing is a way of life. It is the relationship between oneself, others, the mountain, nature, challenges and life in general. The mountain teaches us courage, perseverance, dedication to purpose and team spirit. The mountain is a short cut to self-realization

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Nepal has 29.5 million inhabitants, of which 88% live in rural areas and only 12% in the cities. The people of Nepal belong to numerous ethnic communities, some of which are associated with the traditional caste system. The majority are Chetri (traditionally Kshatriyas, about 16%), Brahmins (approximately 13%), Magar (7%) and Tharu (6.75%). Ethnic Sherpas, known for being climbing expedition guides, make up 0.68% of the population. Hinduism is the largest religion (80%), followed by Buddhism (11%). Nepali is spoken by approximately half the population. At the time of British colonial rule in India, Nepal remained independent and isolated from the world and paid the price of underdevelopment and economic backwardness.

The Women’s Tharpu Chuli Expedition: 5,663 metres above sea level Tharpu Chuli (5.663 m) peak is located in the central part of the Annapurna range, in Nepal. It is surrounded by peaks of up to 6.000–8.000 m, with a view of one of the ten highest peaks in the world, Annapurna I (8.091 m). Its height may not be impressive, however, it is technically very demanding, with a section of more than 400m of alpine climbing, where a fixed rope, hammer and ice pick are required. Data on Tharpu Chuli was very limited, as this was the first expedition from this region to make the climb to the summit. This added a certain challenge to this whole story. The Women’s Expedition “Himalaya 2015” took place between 17th April and 2nd May, 2015. After eighteen months of selection and preparation, the long-awaited expedition to the Himalayas began. The team of mountaineers that made up the expedition included, Biljana Medenica (Montenegro), Biljana Cegar, Jelena Ignjatijevic, Branka Bradasevic, Sonja Pavlovic, Biljana Savkovic, Andrijana Miletic and Vesna Djokovic (Serbia). All had qualified during the selection process to go to the Himalayas and climb Tharpu Chuli (5.663 m). The expedition was sponsored by the ”Extreme Summit Team”, a mountaineering club from Belgrade. I had been with them from the beginning, during all the preparations for the Himalayas. I had not been officially selected for the group, so had joined the

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Photo: Biljana Medenica

Nepal is a country in Southern Asia. It borders with China in the north and India to the south. The Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, extend to the northern part of Nepal. Mount Everest, with a height of 8.850 m, is not only its highest peak but also the highest peak on Earth. It is on the border of Nepal and China. Of around fourteen world-renowned peaks over 8.000 m, eight are in Nepal, including Mount Everest. Nepal was a secular state from 2006 to 2007, when the Democratic Federal Republic of Nepal was declared by the interim government, marking the end of 238 years of monarchy.

Women from Khatmandue The main industry is agriculture, but the service industry of tourism is developing. The Nepalese flag is the only flag in the world that does not have a rectangular shape. Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, with more than a million people, is located at 1.400 m above sea level. The Annapurna and Everest regions are the most developed tourist regions in Nepal, due to the large number of climbers from around the world, who come to the Himalayas.

expedition at my own expense and with the support and sponsorship of my sponsors: Kuci Development Fund, Skill Engineering, Podgorica Capital City, Restauran “Pod Volat” and the company “Hemomont”. I had a great desire to go to Nepal and experience the Himalayas first hand. I have been a mountaineer since 2012. I have learned a lot about myself, and other people, in the mountains. First I climbed Bobotov Kuk on Durmitor, then Prutas, Mitikas on Olympus, Midzor on Stara Planina, Musala in the Rila in Bulgaria, Shar Planina in Macedonia, Vasojevicki Kom, Grand Paradiso, Italy’s highest peak and Mont Blanc, the highest peak in France. These climbs were all in preparation for Tharpu Chuli at 5.663 m, in the Himalayas. Guides from the agency met us at the airport in Kathmandu (the capital city of Nepal with 3.5 million inhabitants). We arrived at the hotel accommodation and the following day we travelled to Pokhara (a city of around 500.000 inhabitants) by van. During the sixhour trip we witnessed the beautiful landscapes of rice fields, bananas, various fruits and enjoyed nice restaurants. We tasted the hot and spicy Nepalese food, which we eventually got used to. Drinking water was a big problem. Therefore, water prices rose with the increasing altitude. There was no basic infrastructure in Kathmandu, and free-flowing water was supplied to hotel rooms from cisterns installed on the hotel roof. There were no bins or garbage collection. The city was very dusty and humid due to the monsoon climate. The people were friendly, however. They spoke English and


Annapurna Base Camp: Biljana Medenica, Sonja Pavlovic, Jelena Ignjatijevic, Radmila Krgovic, Branka Bradasevic, Biljana Savkovic, Aleksandar Rasin, Biljana Cegar, Vesna Djokovic i Andrijana Miletic

the rooms were clean and tidy. Bread could be bought only in the high-class hotels and restaurants. Rice was the staple diet and was eaten with the hands.

Diagnosed by the Mountain

Many rare trees grow by the lake. Pipal trees, large in diameter, and Nepalese pines are among them. Chara, (Nepalese birds) sing beautifully in the trees. The body reacts differently at over two thousand metres above sea level, so there were situations that showed us the true magic of the Himalayas.

The experiences were incredible. Cold, cold rain and sleeping in tents at twenty degrees below zero and climbing for up to ten hours a day, every day, with backpacks which could weigh as much as twenty pounds. In the mountains, I got to know myself and the others much better. Dragan Jacimovic, the expedition organizer, said: “We are dictated to by the mountain, and we have only one identity on the mountain, the true one. Therefore, for those of us who want to face reality and change, the mountain will deliver a reliable diagnosis.“ Our emotions were changing like the mountain weather. The challenges were many and time was short. We hiked an average of ten hours a day, and climbed a thousand metres above sea level every day. We had time to have breakfast, lunch, dinner, take a shower and sleep.

Altitude Sickness

Nepal has a real tropical monsoon climate with dry and rainy seasons. We set off from Pokhara (the second largest city in Nepal), which is about 700 m above sea level. In the evening, Pokhara reminded me of a coastal city, with many shops, hotels, restaurants and the trail by Lake Phewa Tal, where there were a lot of boats. Pokhara is surrounded by high peaks. It is magical.

It was snowing in the AB camp and the sun appeared only briefly from behind the clouds. The weather was very bad during the expedition. There was rain in the morning and sometimes heavy rain and fog in the afternoon. The mountain weather forecast was unfavorable. The Sherpas and guides went ahead to prepare the Tharpu Chuli base camp, at 4.560 m. From

Dotted along the route were lodges, where we stopped to have a break for lunch and where we slept. The vegetation differed depending on the region, and in certain areas monkeys could be seen in the trees. The hiking trail was made of local stone, with stairs leading up to the ABC (Annapurna Base Camp, 4.130 m). We climbed, then descended to the river and then climbed again. A variety of vegetables were planted on the cascading, cultivated hillsides. Due to the pace and distance travelled, almost all of us reached the ABC with altitude sickness, accompanied by nausea, headache, swelling and vomiting. I also had a fever and could not eat.

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Photo: Aleksandar Rašin

Annapurna base camp, we crossed the glacier. Stones were falling the entire way. We used a fixed rope to exit the glaciers. We left the strenuous section behind us. Despite fatigue and our heavy backpacks, the porters (carriers) and guides who were leading us, gave us strength. They carried heavy loads and climbed without mountaineering equipment, in ordinary shoes, often with soaked feet, and they were always smiling and helpful. Up a slope, not far from the high-altitude camp, at 4.500 m, we were met by Sherpas offering hot ​​ginger and lemon tea. It was an incredibly pleasant surprise, and the tea revived us. They helped us to reach the camp, where food and tents were waiting for us. Languid and exhausted from the altitude sickness and fever, we arrived at base camp, Tharpu Chuli. We changed clothes and gathered in a tent where our chefs had prepared a fantastic lunch. Rasa asked how we all felt; he always cared about the women’s wellbeing. He asked who could withstand the climb to the summit and back to the Annapurna base camp, as due to the conditions, we were not required to do so, as first planned. It would take roughly seventeen hours. I said that I was not feeling well and I believed that I was not capable of climbing to the summit. I thought that we would wait for them at the camp. However, accompanied by the two porters and the Sherpa who

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had led us through the glacier, Mladen, Marko and Biljana Savkovic, set off to the Annapurna base camp.

Earthquake at 4.500 m On the way, some 4.400–4.500 m along the trail, the ground began to shake and landslides were heard all around. We stopped and everyone thought it was an avalanche descending from the summit, which had made the ground shake. We soon realized that it was an earthquake. It lasted for two whole minutes. Whilst lowering ourselves down to a passage, using a fixed rope, another strong earthquake struck. The Sherpa helped us to get down and with two porters we continued to the AB camp, unaware of the strength and destructive power of the earthquake that had changed the passage layout from the day before. We were not even able to find a way out of the glacier. The trail proposed by the porters was very risky. We could not return if we went in the wrong direction, and every misstep could cost someone’s life. For that reason we circled the glacier the whole day, looking for a safer option. We decided that should no way out be found, because of the fog and bad visibility, we would find a safer place and spend the night on the glacier. Shortly after the decision was made, Marko saw some people higher up, and we all started shouting for help, in both languages, our mother tongue and English.


The Hand of Salvation

Photo: Aleksandar Rašin

At one point a voice from above asked: “What do you need?”. “It is Jacim”, I said. And just as I said it, I thought I must be hallucinating. How exactly could Jacim be there, when we had left them behind? However, he was there and they came to meet us. They helped us find a path, which was completely invisible from the glacier, due to the earthquake. Extending his hand towards me, he said: “You see Radmila, these are the Himalayas”. “I know”, I answered. I was so happy to have him there. At Annapurna base camp, Jacim’s team did their best to help us, make us warm and take care of us.

It was reported in the media that we were all trapped in the Himalayas and that there were casualties. This caused panic and we informed the media that we were alive and well. Two days later we arrived in Pokhara, and the following day, in Kathmandu. The city was eerie. The buildings near the hotel, in which we had stayed when we arrived, had been demolished. A public fountain in the city was buried under rubble. Shops were closed. Lines of cars stretched from Kathmandu to Pokhara and the mountains. On the side of the road was the body of a motorcyclist, who had been killed. Several people were running in that direction. It is an image that has stayed with me, one of communal spirit. There

Dragan Jacimovic, Everest region

We learned that they had been at Macha Puchare base camp when the earthquake had struck, and that the avalanche had passed just ten feet from them. It was horrible. We recounted our experiences to each other and learned that a large number of buildings had been demolished, and that the earthquake intensity was 7.9 on the Richter scale. Many were dead and buried in the rubble. It was the strongest earthquake since the one in 1934, which killed 8.000 people and leveled the city to the ground. We feared for the team that had gone to the summit. We had no information about them. We wondered what had happened to them.

was an air of great sadness. We arrived in Kathmandu and Jacim organized a dinner at a hotel, from where news agencies were reporting live on the situation in Nepal, following the earthquake. There were around 8.000 dead and over 19.000 injured in the devastating earthquake, whose epicenter was located 80 km from Kathmandu. The strenuous climb to the summit now paled into insignificance. The team that had climbed to the summit was not even aware of what had caused the earthquake and its aftermath. We spent two unpredictable nights in Kathmandu, and every evening there were more earthquakes of a lower intensity.

The next day, there was another strong earthquake in ABC and we all went outside. Jacim sent a Sherpa to see the team members at the high-altitude camp and to tell them not to climb down that day, but to wait until the following day. It was tense, waiting to hear from them. Jacim was supposed to climb to the summit with that team, however, after the earthquake he had given up. Waiting for them to return from the summit was the hardest thing. We took turns keeping watch, Mladen, Biljana, Marko and I, with the two porters who were with us. When it was our turn, we waited at the exit from the glacier to help them come out. Finally they arrived, very tired, their faces burned from the sun at the summit, exhausted. We welcomed them with hot, refreshing tea.

The Expedition Organizer Upon returning to the hotel in Kathmandu, where we were staying, I spoke with the expedition organizer, Dragan Jacimovic. I asked him why he had chosen that particular peak, and he said: “Tharpu Chuli was chosen specifically because it was a technically difficult, demanding, and somewhat dangerous peak. It is not very high, but it is a good example of what happens on peaks of over 8.000 metres. I deliberately shortened the time of the expedition, which meant more effort would be required, due to acclimatization. I wanted to see what would happen when we were faced with such a great challenge. I am very pleased with the way it turned out.

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The team is a new person, who is growing. I do not see it as group of individuals.I am interested in them only as a whole. That is how I think of them. It’s hard to bring together and maintain a team. This idea is in complete contrast to what is happening in our country. Who gives all his knowledge to another person for free these days? I believe that everything that is given with sincerity, with good intentions, must sooner or later thrive. It is so important to have peace of mind and tranquility when making decisions on the mountain. It takes a long time for a person to reach that level. For me, it is all about courage, patience and endurance. One has to remain patient for two months,when climbing Mount Everest. It took courage to begin this adventure with the women’s expedition. It takes eighteen months to plan. During that time one has a million obstacles to overcome, without giving up. This is courage. It’s what makes the difference. A ridiculous idea? We can all be crazy sometimes,”says Jacimovic.

A Devastating Earthquake In Nepal, people do not live like back home, with two or three people in an apartment. There, fifteen to twenty people live in a house and when it collapses, an enormous number of them perish. And it is incredibly sad that the holy places of Hinduism and Buddhism were all destroyed. I know that they will be reconstructed again as they are under UNESCO protection. Nevertheless, the buildings are 300 to 400 years old, and it is sad. Did you know that 75.000 children, aged between one to five years old, die there every year? Hardly anyone knows that figure, because this is a rural area. Apart from Kathmandu, there are not many cities. Many people live in the hills and in the villages. They have no healthcare and in principle it is believed that those who can survive in such conditions, are equipped to live in the Himalayas. This is natural selection and they do not stress about it much. When comparing the figures, many more people die there from infectious diseases than from earthquakes. Their community functions well and, unlike us, who alienate ourselves, they are connected and live in large families, a community, and help each other out. One can see them smiling and living in harmony with the environment, with nature. There are thirty-six nations or castes in Nepal, speaking 17 languages, and the official language is Nepali. What is interesting about Nepal is the relationship and synergy between Hinduism and Buddhism, making no difference between the two, which is rarely found elsewhere. They are one. Buddhists go to a Hindu temple and vice versa. Ceremonies and holidays are mixed -all is followed by all. There is never any conflict. Peace and respect for traditions that existed there long before Buddhism have lasted to this day.

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Intuition is the Alphabet of God “One of my favorite sayings is: ‘Choices make a human being, not opportunities’. This is not about God-given potential; it is about how one uses it and reacts in certain situations. What one does with it. One may claim that he is a good person, although he does no good deeds. And yet, one is what one gives. One’s choices are the crossroads in life, leading to one place or another. I tell people that the aim is to become aware of one’s self, to minimize the unconscious. We human beings are strange. I read somewhere, that someone has formulated a wonderful phrase ‘Intuition isthe Alphabet of God’. The Nepalese feel this and live in harmony with nature. They believe that every mountain has its own soul, character, and name, and so they treat it like a living thing, a human being. Today people live in a completely different environment, with a very different set of values, fearing to give anything. All the languages of the world are spoken here. It is incredibly easy to communicate. People quickly understand each other using their eyes, looks, gestures and words. This would be difficult to achieve when visiting a western, civilized and developed country. There, one is not likely to be understood if they do not speak the language. I simply feel peace here, physically. I do not know why the Himalayas, and I do not know why I feel it here, but I do feel it and I like it. There is a proverb that says: ‘A person has a thousand faces, but only one face on the mountain’. Therefore, some say that the mountains and the Himalayas change people. I would say that is not the case. The mountains only determine who you are. One is always who he is, only one’s true face is shown here. It is to see, to open up and to say, it is you. The question is, when looking at oneself in the mirror,here in the mountains, will one be scared of one’s own reflection? Is one going to accept one’s self, agree that something is wrong and has to be changed, or close one’s eyes and say, ‘No, no, it is not true’. “Everything is up to us, whether we are prepared to change or not” Dragan Jacimovic concluded.

The Expedition Leader Aleksandar Rasin, leader of the Women’s Expedition Himalaya 2015, had been with the team since the beginning. Despite the unforeseen circumstances, he succeeded in leading the women safely to the peak and back. “When undertaking something for the first time, the outcome is always uncertain. Somehow, by default, it is believed that expeditions are only for men. There have been expeditions in the region where only women took part. Women are equally as good at mountaineering as men. Maybe they are not able to physically withstand each challenge like a man, but eventually they will master everything. The idea was to show that mountain climbing did not have to have a limit. Simply, it is a single world. This time, Tharpu Chuli set several new


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challenges; there were situations that could not have been foreseen. 4.000 m, is really the point beyond which an unacclimatized person will start to develop serious altitude sickness. I am a supporter of natural ways of acclimatization, without the use of additional assistance, because I believe that it is better to let the body self-adapt to changes.

The Final Climb The final climb was very exhausting due to weather conditions, meaning we could not put up the highaltitude camp, but instead had to climb from the base camp. It was from 4.500 m to almost 5.700 m and back. It was a very, very steep climb. There was no time to set up a high-altitude camp,which was another tough decision that had to be made. I was not sure that all the women could endure such an effort at that altitude, but it was simply the question of moving forward from there or not. It was again one of those “yes” or “no” decisions. Such decisions have to be very precise. There are no grey areas, no maybe this, maybe that, either this way or that way. The climb, let us go back to it, was very long, so I decided to start climbing at 1.00 AM,in order to be able to walk on hard snow before reaching the peak, because we also had to come back from the summit. Therefore, the point was not only to climb the peak, but more importantly to return to base, which is always more difficult than the climb itself. While climbing to the summit, one feels an adrenaline rush, excitement before the climb. One is well rested, full of energy and desire, and when they get to the

top a lot of people make the mistake of saying: ‘I have succeeded; I am at the top.’ On the way back, the excitement and adrenaline disappear, the weather gets worse, there is less strength, and these are the moments when unfortunately, fatal errors occur. People overestimate themselves. I was aware of that and I was careful not to overestimate the women. I believed that they were ready, but the psyche plays a major role. Therefore, climbing up, I was more focused on encouraging them, to notice when they encountered a crisis, and to encourage them again. Everyone will sooner or later have a crisis, but it is important to be able to recognize the crises in oneself and in others and to react in the right way. Climbing up to the top, we came across an ice wall section, of around 350 to 370 m. It was a demanding section where the slope was 45-60 degrees. It was physically the most demanding section. Many things went against us. In recent days a layer of thirty centimetres of new snow had been formed, very soft and very inconvenient for walking, which was really quite aggravating. The day before, our Sherpas had set a fixed rope, but when we got to the climb, because of the conditions of the new snow, they had to make additional knots and set up security in new places. Because of this we lost approximately four hours, which contributed to the decline in mood and energy. Standing for four hours in the snow at -21 degrees was not at all pleasant. However, all ended well. All of that was a great experience and I was glad to be part of the team and I hope to continue this story with the women.” Rasin, the expedition leader, concluded.

The Expedition Participant’s Impressions After returning safely to Pokhara, to the hotel accommodation, I talked to the women about their impressions. What they said is summarized below. “It was quite an inexperienced team. The weather was very bad. Heavy snow made all activities difficult, even the simple movements of rappelling and jamming. The temperature was low. We had to continuously pay attention to each step we took. Everything took much longer than it was supposed to and everything was much more difficult than it would have been, had the weather conditions been different. I think it was very risky and that the Sherpas were perhaps right to suggest not to climb the peak. And yet, the risk paid off, if the summit was the goal” - Biljana Cegar.

“We started climbing Tharpu Chuli peak from the camp at 4,600m above sea level. The climb to the summit and the height, at which I had never been before, were a new experience. I had a lot of support and help from my experienced colleagues. They helped us by giving their advice, like the expedition leader, Rasa. All went well, and we managed to reach the summit. I brought home memories of a great experience, one that I shall try to pass on, in the spirit of this story. I hope there will be more such experiences. My impressions are great. I enjoyed the whole adventure, climbing to the summit and all the new experiences that we survived.” - Andrijana Miletic.

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“One is always pleased when a goal is achieved. Certainly, climbing Tharpu Chuli was a great life experience. Thanks to the expertise of the Sherpas and our guide Aleksandar Rasin, we managed to overcome the unforeseen circumstances. When climbing, we could not stop because of excessive snowfall. This was totally unexpected. That is why it was a big adventure, not just a mountaineering experience. On several occasions, it was very risky for the whole team. A year of preparations had made the team strong. I think that was crucial. People say that once a person has been to the Himalayas, they will wish to return, no matter what, regardless of the difficulty and exhaustion. We definitely want to go back there” - Jelena Ignjatijevic.

“For a mountaineer, technical knowledge is very important. I had already visited the Himalayas and many European mountains, but I never experienced an earthquake in the mountains. One simply did not know what was going on, but at that moment all the people there were breathing as one. As for the climb to the summit, weather conditions were very bad. The goal was not only to climb to the summit, it was also important to return to the base camp, and another camp at a lower altitude. This took two days and was very exciting. We were safe and, thank God, everything ended as it should.” - Biljana Medenica.

“This team, Himalaya 2015, was able to successfully complete the challenge. I personally had a minor leg injury. It was not so bad. When the snow froze and it was decided that we would go to the summit, nothing was going to stop me. The earthquake, at such a height, was something incredible. The Nepalese said they had never experienced an earthquake in the mountains. We feared more for the part of the team that had gone to the AB camp. Right up until the last minute, it was not certain whether we would go to the summit, due to the very bad weather conditions. It was foggy when we reached the summit, and although no one said it, the general feeling was that we did not get to experience the peak and the Himalayas at their best.” - Sonja Pavlovic.

“Due to previous altitude sickness, I felt weak and found it all hard. In addition, my backpack was too heavy, as well as my shoes. I felt hungry and was not able to eat. The moment Rasa confirmed that we would return to ABC I felt relieved because I was not in the best condition, but there was also some despair. I had tears in my eyes when I said, “No! Why?I’m going up.” I was wrong, of course. An avalanche could have started above us as well, and covered us. The second earthquake took place just before the rappel. We lost some nine hours in the fog. We could have perished on the glacier and we had the issue of where we would spend the night if no way out of the glacier could be found. And yet, despite everything, all ended well. My main impression is that I survived getting lost in the Annapurna region.”Biljana Savkovic.

“I’m one of those disciplined hikers who always stick to their group and hiking rules, so that I always feel safe. The hardest thing of all for me was after the earthquake, when we heard that the media had released the bad news in our country. I am very proud that I was able to make it to the summit, which has been my biggest personal success so far. I’m proud of myself for being one of those who will make our society climb a rung on the ladder. I’m really doing my best, and I love passing my knowledge on to others. I feel more mature than when I came here and I have a completely new view of people, civilization, and life in general.” - Branka Bradasevic.

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“This was all a great experience. We doubted perhaps, and I believe that the Sherpas also doubted, that we would get to the summit. The fixed rope was not set up by the Sherpas on time, not until we had to climb it. That was the biggest problem, and also when Rasa said the ascent would take eight hours. We were jamming for 700-800 m, which was not easy. However, all the difficulties of the hike disappeared for me the moment I heard that someone had told reporters that four girls had been killed in an avalanche, caused by the earthquake. The thought of my family and how they would react was by far the most difficult thing for me. Yet they managed to confirm that we were all well. When we arrived back at Annapurna base camp, everything looked nice. Everything looked beautiful to me. Some kind of love is born from a great effort. A certain atmosphere is created where everyone is dear to me, like family members. When we arrived in Pokhara, at the foot of the mountain, and there was no more fear of earthquakes, I said ‘I wish we could go back up to eight thousand metres’. When I have survived all this, I can survive anything. Life is beautiful” Vesna Djokovic One female expedition was successfully completed and the women managed to overcome some major challenges on the way to the summit. They experienced everything, and in doing so, found the strength to endure the climb to the summit and back in unfavorable weather conditions and in emergency situations, caused by the earthquake. A new peak in the Himalayas awaits this team, and it will also certainly be over 8.000 m high. Life is beautiful.

Members of expedition with expedition leader and Sherpas in Annapurna Base Camp

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POliKliNiKA mercUr NerA

POlYcliNic mercUr NerA

dr Snežana Ćorac

Započeli smo sa radom 7. januara 1994. godine kao prva internistička ordinacija sa biohemijskom laboratorijom PZU Mercur Nera. Mercur Neru je 1994. godine osnovala dr Snežana Ćorac, internista hematolog. Od tada pa sve do danas, Mercur Nera je neprestano unaprijeđivala usluge kroz saradnju sa eminentnim ljekarima specijalistima i modernizaciju opreme. Nalazili smo se 19 godina u ulici Vuka Karadžica 2. Od aprila 2013. godine Mercur Nera je prerasla u PZU Polikliniku. Nalazimo se na novoj adresi-City kvart,ulica Vojvode Maša Đurovića 21.

We began providing services on 7 January 1994 as the first clinic for internal medicine and biochemistry named “Private Health Institution Mercur Nera”. Mercur Nera was founded in 1994 by Snežana Ćorac, MD, Internist and Hematologist. Since its establishment, Mercur Nera Polyclinic has been improving its services provided in cooperation with prominent specialists and use of most advanced equipment. For 19 years we operated at No. 2, Vuka Karadžica St. In April 2013 Mercur Nera was transformed into a private polyclinic. Currently it provides services at the new address - City Quarter, No. 21 Vojvode Maša Đurovića St. in Podgorica.

UslUge

services

Ambulantno liječenje Ginekologija sa akušerstvom Laboratorija Sistematski pregledi

Interna medicina Pedijatrija Mikrobiologija Konsultativni pregledi

Outpatient treatment Gynecology and obstetrics Laboratory Systematic examination

Podgorica, City kvart, Vojvode Maša Đurovića 21. e-mail: mercurnera@t-com.me

Internal medicine Pediatrics Microbiology Consultations

Tel: 020 230 300 Tel/fax: 020 230 330 Mob: 067 358 880

www.mercurnera.me


Dobrodošli u Eco Resort Podgorica Telefon/Fax:

+382 (0)20 443 700 +382 (0)20 443 701 +382 (0)20 443 702

ecoresort.plavnica@gmail.com www.plavnica.me

Ko samo jedanput dođe na Skadarsko jezero, obiđe ga i posjeti kompleks “Plavnicu”, više neće sanjati daleka i egzotična mjesta, jer sve što treba vidjeti i doživjeti, nalazi se baš ovdje, na dohvat ruke. Na samoj obali Skadarskog jezera, u prstenu živih voda, okružen bujnim zelenilom, smješten je reprezentativni turistički kompleks “Plavnica”. Kompleks obuhvata 20 hektara od čega je sedam hektara brižljivo uređenog prostora na kome se promišljeno prepliću i sadržajno dopunjuju brojna zdanja i objekti koji naprosto plijene svojom ljepotom i elegancijom. Kompleks „Plavnica“ ima posebno povoljan komunikacijski položaj: u neposrednoj je blizini magistralnog puta Podgorica – Petrovac, željezničke pruge Beograd – Bar i međunarodnog aerodroma „Podgorica“. U ovom jedinstvenom turističkom kompleksu posjetiocima i gostima na raspolaganju su dva ekskluzivna restorana, četiri prostrana i luksuzna apartmana, konferencijska sala, otvoreni bazen sa amfiteatrom, uređena šetališta, kao i čitav niz zanimljivih sadržaja koji će zagolicati maštu i natjerati vas da istražujete granice zadovoljstva i da se prepustite čarima boravka na Plavnici u prelijepom i jedinstvenom ambijentu na Skadarskom jezeru. U okviru kompleksa nalazi se i dobro opremljena marina sa 100 vezova, a “Plavnica” posjeduje i sopstveni panoramski brod dužine 40 m.


Welcome to Eco Resort Podgorica Phone/Fax: ecoresort.plavnica@gmail.com www.plavnica.me

+382 (0)20 443 700 +382 (0)20 443 701 +382 (0)20 443 702

Whoever comes to the Skadar Lake, at least once, whoever tours it and visits the Plavnica Complex, will stop dreaming about the far, exotic places as everything one would want to see and experience is to be found right here, at arm’s reach. On the very shore of the Skadar Lake, within the ring of the living waters, surrounded by luscious vegetation, a representative tourist complex Plavnica is located. The complex covers 20 hectares with the seven of them carefully landscaped, with numerous buildings and facilities cleverly intertwined, with their contents completing each other, attracting everybody with their beauty and elegance. The Plavnica Complex has an especially suitable communication location: it is in the immediate vicinity of the Podgorica – Petrovac thoroughfare, of the Belgrade – Bar railway line and the international Podgorica airport. In this unique tourist complex, visitors and guests have at their disposal two exclusive restaurants, four spacious, luxurious suites, conference hall, open-air swimming-pool with an amphitheater, ordered walkways as well as a number of interesting offers to tickle your imagination and force you to explore the limits of the pleasures and abandon yourself to the charms of the stay in Plavnica in the wondrous and unique ambiance like the Skadar Lake. A part of the complex is the well-equipped marina with a hundred ties. Plavnica has its own 40 meters long sightseeing boat.


Magazin Renome 9  

This issue of RENOME includes among other things: the history of Montenegrin national costume; an interview with Vojo Stanic, Small is Beaut...

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