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SPECIAL REPORT

Shooting Range and Military Training Facility Design and Construction Improving Training Through Simulation Modular Shooting Ranges Shooting Ranges – Capital Cost vs. Life-Cycle Cost Training and Education: The Ongoing Campaign of Learning Police Training for Public Order Duties: A Complex Issue Public Order Policing: Lessons from the “Arab Spring” Insights from the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) in Lebanon 2006

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Published by Global Business Media


Comprehensive training solutions when lives are on the line. MISSION CRITICAL PRODUCTS PRISim SUITE速

The Only Simulator that Shoots Back! PRISim Suite速 is a use-of-force training simulator, offering highly realistic video and CGI environments for all aspects of firearms training.

QUICKRANGE速

Award-Winning Modular Live Fire Ranges Complete fully-equipped, prefabricated shooting range that is expandable and customizable to meet the ever-changing training requirements.

FACILITIES DESIGN

Experienced Global Leader in Delivering World-Class Training Facilities

ADVANCED INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS A global provider of advanced technology-based training solutions for professionals in high-risk environments. AIS provides the most advanced and realistic indoor and outdoor firearms training systems that utilize both live fire and simulation for military and police qualification and judgment training. Serving your training needs in over 30 countries around the globe for nearly two decades.

Toll Free : 1-800-441-4487 Phone : 1-206-575-9797 info@ais-sim.com

Corporate Headquarters 665 Andover Park West Seatlle, WA 98188 Phone: 1-206-575-9797

Las Vegas 3885 Rockbottom Street North Las Vegas, NV 89030 Phone: 1-702-362-3623

Orlando 12001 Science Drive, Suite 125 Orlando, FL 32826 Phone: 1-407-736-0066

International Headquarters 3 Bridge Court, River Lane Wrecclesham Surrey, GU10 4QE Phone: +44 1252 725500

For more than two decades, our specialized team of designers, architects, project managers and engineers have continued to develop highly versatile outdoor and indoor training facilities for military, law enforcement and security forces in over 30 countries.

Singapore 138 Joo Seng Road #04-03 Singapore, 368361 Phone: 65 6841 8223

United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa Street Abu Dhabi Phone: +9712 627 5224

800-441-4487 | ais-sim.com


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

SPECIAL REPORT

Shooting Range and Military Training Facility Design and Construction

Contents

Improving Training Through Simulation Modular Shooting Ranges Shooting Ranges – Capital Cost vs. Life-Cycle Cost Training and Education: The Ongoing Campaign of Learning Police Training for Public Order Duties: A Complex Issue Public Order Policing: Lessons from the “Arab Spring” Insights from the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) in Lebanon 2006

Sponsored by

Foreword

2

Improving Training Through Simulation

3

Mary Dub, Editor Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc.

Safety is of Paramount Importance Consistency – a Key Element Laser-Based Weapons – A Compelling Solution Creating Realistic Scenarios Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc (AIS)

Published by Global Business Media

Modular Shooting Ranges

6

Published by Global Business Media

Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc.

Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom

A Multitude of Problems Face Shooting Ranges Shooting Ranges Face High Costs in Keeping up with Technology The Solution? – QuickRange – A Pre-Fabricated Modular Configuration

Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

© 2011. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Shooting Ranges – Capital Cost vs. Life-Cycle Cost Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc.

8

New Developments in Range Equipment? – No ‘Silver Bullet’ Training Benefits Must be Balanced Against Both Capital Cost and Life-Cycle Cost The Industry Leader in Range Facilities Design

Training and Education: The Ongoing Campaign of Learning Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

10

Features of the Future Operating Environment The Types of Enemy: Hybrid Wars The Most Likely Form of Conflict The Value of the Cohesive Team Full Spectrum Operations Achieving this State of Excellence

Police Training for Public Order Duties: A Complex Issue Meredith LLewelyn, Lead Contributor

12

The Centrality of Public Consent ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) Public Order Policing Guidelines The Civil Liberties Argument by Liberty The European Application of Human Rights Legislation Russian Rights to Freedom of Assembly Also Upheld

Public Order Policing: Lessons from the “Arab Spring” 14 Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

Insights from the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) in Lebanon 2006 Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

15

Israeli Perceptions of Future War pre-2006

References

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SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Foreword

P

recise and safe training of armies, police, para-military and Special Forces has never been more important. The events of the ‘Arab Spring’ in the Middle East underline the critical role of principled policing based on public consent, the rule of law and human rights legislation.

operating environment, the armed forces have not only the training but the cultural understanding to make the fine judgments required in a split second to distinguish between causing unnecessary civilian deaths or carrying out a lawful killing. Police and riot squad training is the subject of the fifth section. No area has been more controversial

In this wide-ranging Special Report, some of the

in the last few months in Europe and the Middle

issues around excellence in training and education

East than the style and management of public order

for armies are considered.

policing. This article looks at some of the underlying

The Report opens with an article on the development of training through simulation. It

principles that any police trainer or trainee should consider when looking at public order policing.

highlights the shortcomings of force on force training

The fourth principle enshrined by the founder of

both as regards consistency and cost, and points

the British Metropolitan Police, Sir Robert Peel in

out the advantages of laser-based simulation as

1829, namely that “The degree of co-operation

an efficient precursor to basic live fire training. The

of the public that can be secured diminishes

second article examines the problems encountered

proportionately to the necessity of the use of

by shooting ranges, which result in stringent

physical force” is discussed in the sixth article, in

restrictions facing range owners and operators, both

light of police and army control of events in Tunisia

military and civilian. It goes on to describe a cutting-

and Egypt earlier this year. The decision by the Army

edge solution to these problems – a prefabricated

in Egypt to exercise restraint underlines the counter

modular configuration, which has advantages

intuitive argument against the use lethal force.

over conventional ranges in terms of safety, cost, versatility, longevity and erection time.

The end piece of this issue is thought-provoking. It is drawn from a Rand report on the ‘lessons learned’

The need to balance the capital cost of ranges

by the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) in the aftermath

against the life cycle cost is covered in the third

of the 2006 Lebanon campaign. The ‘lesson learned’

piece. The attrition through use and the high cost

here is that even highly trained and elite armed

of maintenance over a 25 year period must be taken

forces can make the mistake of not preparing for

into account when looking at the relative cost of

the full spectrum of operations and prepare for the

building a new range.

most immediate threat or for the last war but not the

In the fourth piece, there is a discussion on how

next. A salutary lesson!

TRADOC, the United States Army’s Training and Doctrine Command, weighs up not only the good basic training of soldiers, but the importance of education as well. This ensures that, in a complex

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager. Focused by a Masters in War Studies from King’s College, London, she annotates and highlights the interplay of armies, governments and industry.

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SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Improving Training Through Simulation

PRISim SUITE® The Only Simulator that Shoots Back!

Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc.

In today’s austere budget environment, both military and civilian range operators and trainers are squeezed by the ever increasing pressures of the economic downturn. Military operations in multiple theatres have limited the availability of training rounds (ammunition) and reduced the ability to train.

PRISim Suite® is a use-of-force training simulator, offering highly realistic video and CGI environments for all aspects of firearms handling. • Marksmanship and Judgment Training • Patented Shootback Cannon • Situation Activated with Extensive Scenario Library • Local Language Content End-User Interface

H

ISTORICALLY, FIREARMS related training has been conducted on conventional outdoor military ranges, with limited complexity, using standard pop-up targets. That practice may have been acceptable until our battles began to take place in urban environments. Training and techniques for GWOT differ greatly from the requirements of H ISTO R I CA L c onve n tion a l wa r f a re. Weapons handling and tactics have changed dramatically, and now more closely resemble that of police or paramilitary operations. The wide variety of weapons employed by our fighting forces, including handguns, rifles, lights, night vision and non-lethal devices, forces us to conduct more complex training to ensure proper tactics, judgment, movement and marksmanship.

With so many troops deployed due to numerous and widespread ongoing military operations, venue and training time are critical issues. The inability to do little more than shoot for qualification has led to diminished firearms and weapons handling skills. It is well known that firearms proficiency is a perishable skill - without constant training those skills quickly decline. How do we take time from operational responsibilities to satisfy our training needs?

• Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons • Recoil Training Options • Premium HD Content on Multiscreens

Safety is of Paramount Importance New technologies such as force on force training using marking cartridges has been a great addition to the military’s training capabilities, yet it comes with a high cost in manpower and equipment. Training safety and consistency are two problems associated with force on force using simunitions. Safety is always paramount in

800-441-4487 ais-sim.com Comprehensive Training Solutions When Lives are on the Line.

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 3


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

New technologies such as force on force training using marking cartridges has been a great addition to the military’s training capabilities, yet it comes with a high cost in manpower and equipment.

any firearms related training exercise. Regardless of how often we warn and prohibit live fire weapons and live ammo from the training venue, invariably someone will accidentally mistake a live fire weapon for a training gun, and/or insert live ammo instead of simunitions. The result: injury or death. Other factors to consider when using force on force are cost of props, renting venues, and providing safety equipment. Manpower is considerable, including trainees, instructors, safety officers and role players. It is a major production, the scale of which prevents this type of training from being held on a regular basis.

Consistency – a Key Element In addition to manpower and equipment cost, another significant issue related to force on force is consistency. It is imperative that each training scenario be conducted in exactly the same manner. That means role players must follow the script during each rotation giving the trainees the same look and feel. Why? Because as trainers, we must see how our soldiers react to certain behaviors, danger signs, and stressors. Without each scenario being exactly alike, we cannot see what training deficiencies need to be addressed nor can we objectively evaluate the trainees.

Laser-Based Weapons – A Compelling Solution Firearms simulation and scenario based training utilizing laser-based weapons has proven to be a compelling answer to many of the aforementioned 4 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

problems. Creating a companion laser-based training venue, in or adjacent to your range or in a classroom environment, is a solution that addresses multiple training requirements. Technology has advanced to the stage where it provides realistic state of the art training in a wide variety of simulated environments, focusing on basic through advanced skills which are required for military personnel armed with both lethal and less-lethal weapons. Laser-based training incorporates handguns, shoulder weapons and crew served weapons to replicate what soldiers employ on the field of battle. All simulated weapons are authentic, giving trainees the look, feel, and operation of the actual firearms used in battle. Simulation training provides a solution to problems of lack of ammunition, time, and venue. By having the ability to train in a simulated environment, troops maintain their edge and skills. Software allows customers to easily build their own qualification, practice, tactical and combat courses. The efficacy of using laser-based training is evidenced by the fact that the U.S. military can conduct quarterly qualifications on simulation systems.

Creating Realistic Scenarios By augmenting force on force training with laserbased simulators, manpower and budget issues are significantly reduced. The necessary stress of facing a ‘real’ adversary during simunition training is recreated using high definition video images and simulated real life scenarios. An AIS patented feature that is very attractive to military


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

trainers is our Integrated ShootBack® Cannon. By seamlessly creating hostile gun fire from the on-screen threat at the trainee, it has become one of the most immediate and effective training tools in the industry. Independent studies were able to quantify the amount of additional stress generated when incorporating a return fire system with simulation. Laser-based simulation systems are a proven and efficient precursor to basic live fire training while decreasing costs and improving effectiveness and throughput. Systems can be configured to provide far more advanced and varied scenario-based training. In other words, such systems provide the basis for all small weapons-based training in a wide variety of environments, from open terrain through MOUT, to address basic, judgmental, close quarter, advanced marksmanship and a full spectrum of TTPs.

Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc (AIS) Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc (AIS) is a leading provider of a wide range of advanced technology based training solutions. AIS products address small arms training needs. From basic marksmanship skills through the most advanced high fidelity close quarter simulation systems, with comprehensive After Action Reporting (AAR) capability. The AIS PRISim Suite platform features exceptionally realistic video and CGI environments for all aspects of firearms handling, including marksmanship, tactical strategies, observation skills, scene assessments, interactive dialog, problem solving, and decision-making. Contact AIS with any questions regarding this product through their website: http://ais-sim.com and speak with a representative who will further explain the capabilities of their simulation solutions.

The necessary stress of

PRISim SUITE®

facing a ‘real’ adversary

The Only Simulator that Shoots Back!

during simunition training is recreated using high definition video images and simulated real life scenarios.

PRISim Suite® is a use-of-force training simulator, offering highly realistic video and CGI environments for all aspects of firearms handling. • Marksmanship and Judgment Training • Patented Shootback Cannon • Situation Activated with Extensive Scenario Library • Local Language Content End-User Interface • Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons • Recoil Training Options • Premium HD Content on Multiscreens

800-441-4487 ais-sim.com Comprehensive Training Solutions When Lives are on the Line.

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Modular Shooting Ranges Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc.

Introducing QuickRange: Modular, expandable, self-contained and completely adaptable: QuickRange is the answer to the increasing number of problems facing today’s military and civilian shooting range owners, operators and users.

In the world of shooting range technology, the market is fluid and fast paced. This means that existing shooting ranges can rapidly become outdated as training requirements change or new techniques or equipment become available.

A

S POPULATION centers continue to expand closer and closer to both urban and suburban areas, the land space required to meet strict environmental and safety range design parameters is becoming more and more limited. This encroachment affects the military, law enforcement agencies and civilians alike. Existing shooting ranges are unable to expand into surrounding areas due to the size and magnitude of a standard outdoor shooting range template. Settlements continually encroach upon existing outdoor range safety zones. This problem does not just affect existing shooting ranges. When funding (government or otherwise) becomes available to build a new shooting range, the stakeholders’ options are often restricted in where and how they can build the range. This in turn has a significant impact on the quality, quantity, and types of training that can be offered. As a result, fewer numbers of students can be trained at the same time in what may be cramped conditions, which can prevent training to competent levels. Urban growth also increases safety concerns. As ranges are less likely to be in remote areas, the possibility of stray rounds escaping into non-restricted areas has become increasingly relevant.

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A Multitude of Problems Face Shooting Ranges Health and environmental impacts are other issues that shooting ranges contend with today. Air quality and the impact of air and soil-borne lead and lead particulate as well as noise pollution also contribute to the many restrictions now placed on range owners/operators. As an example - lead leaching into the soil and water supply creates a hazardous material site, introducing a number of issues including how to physically clean up and sanitize the environment, as well as the financial implications and responsibilities of resolving the matter. This difficulty is not unique to military ranges. Civilian ranges suffer the same consequences. There are countless instances where gun clubs have been closed due to the lead shot used at skeet ranges falling into water or wetlands. Noise pollution is another difficulty faced by range operators as more and more ranges are compelled to locate on the periphery of populated areas. This in turn can also introduce potential problems regarding protected wildlife. Another common concern is air quality. Studies have found that operators and instructors who, within ranges all day, are exposed to toxic levels of heavy metals and unburnt ammunition propellants, which can have


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

serious consequences on their long-term health and ultimately, life expectancy.

Shooting Ranges Face High Costs in Keeping up with Technology In the world of shooting range technology, the market is fluid and fast paced. This means that existing shooting ranges can rapidly become outdated as training requirements change or new techniques or equipment become available. The cost of keeping up to date with changing technology can be significant. Finally, facility down-time as well as manpower and material expenses required to properly maintain ranges is a further challenge to range owners. We all know that it does not take long for a heavily used range to fall into a state of disrepair and, in some cases, become dangerous to operate.

The Solution? – QuickRange – A Pre-Fabricated Modular Configuration Advanced Interactive Systems (AIS) has the solution to all of these issues. AIS created their cutting edge QuickRange as a prefabricated modular configuration allowing the customer to design a facility to meet their particular, customized needs. QuickRange is a complete, self-contained, shooting range in a bulletproof module, complete with shooting stalls, target retrieval systems, bullet traps, lighting and HVAC systems. Our modules can be connected together in length to accommodate full qualification firing distances and in width to the number of lanes desired. To gain the maximum training benefit from the QuickRange, AIS allows you the flexibility of incorporating our patented PRISim Suite® LiveFire Trainer™. This advanced training system allows you to build your own

qualification courses, tactical courses, and judgmental training scenarios – all fired using the shooters’ own weapons. The AIS QuickRange has the flexibility to suit the training requirements of any shooting range. QR will provide exciting and innovative training options that cannot normally be incorporated into a traditional range, thereby offering greater capabilities to both the trainer and the user. The QuickRange has a ZERO SDZ (danger area) and so eradicates the problem of limited space as a result of urban growth – the customer can modify their QuickRange to fit into any space available. AIS builds the QuickRange to meet each specific customer’s needs and requirements, and there is a vast array of equipment and configuration options available. Classrooms, gun cleaning areas, sniper lanes and laser-based modules are just a few of the add-ons that can be incorporated into any QuickRange. The prefabricated modular ranges take a fraction of the time to manufacture and commission in comparison to standard, traditional indoor brick and mortar shooting ranges. A complete QuickRange can be built, shipped and installed within 180-210 days. The environmental and safety issues associated with traditional and aging shooting ranges are eliminated with a QuickRange. The AIS bullet proof modular range uses the latest technology to guarantee that rounds are contained within the bullet trap and even stray rounds cannot escape. In addition, the QuickRange is designed to eliminate all noise and air pollution through state of the art soundproofing and ventilation systems. Contact AIS with any questions regarding this revolutionary product through their website: http://ais-sim.com and speak with a representative who will further explain the capabilities of the innovative QuickRange. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Shooting Ranges – Capital Cost vs. Life-Cycle Cost Advanced Interactive Systems, Inc

Are range owners and operators aware of the balance between a tight budget during the initial build stage in comparison with total operating cost over the life-cycle of the facility? – how can this dichotomy be resolved?

Every year the range equipment suppliers develop and market new materials and equipment claiming to help the range owner and tempt him to make an investment in their particular product.

S

HOOTING RANGES are unique in that, from the day they are built, the users of the facility are relentless in attempting to destroy them in one way or another. Due to the very nature of the activity taking place within the range, from the day training begins, elements of the buildings and equipment are on the inevitable road to destruction. Bullets impact on steel, rubber and wood, which dents, shreds, splinters and tears apart the finished product in which owners have invested valuable public or private funds. Over time, as the finished product degrades, the potential hazards mount and begin to manifest themselves. The protective anti-ricochet material is progressively destroyed, evoking the hazards of ricocheting bullets and backsplash. The hardened steel will dimple and pit until it is finally defeated, allowing rounds to escape with potentially fatal consequences. Lead particles and unburnt ammunition propellants enter the air and deposit themselves within the walls, floors and other seams in the structure, as well as clogging the ventilation systems. The heavy metals and phosphates from the propellants build up in the range facility, exposing range participants, and especially range operators, to toxic doses of poisonous substances. Even traditional outdoor ranges suffer the consequences of lead contamination leaching into groundwater and long term impact damage to berms and protective baffles.

New Developments in Range Equipment? – No ‘Silver Bullet’ Every year the range equipment suppliers develop and market new materials and equipment claiming to help the range owner and tempt him to make an investment in their particular product. Each firm, in their own words, states that they have a revolutionary new system or a tried and true product that is changing the range facilities marketplace. Despite all of the claims made in every corner of the market, experience 8 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

dictates the true reality; there is no ‘silver bullet’ in providing a timely, safe and cost-effective range facility that can stand the test of time and heavy usage. Designers and contractors without real-world experience and knowledge create long term problems for range owners and operators around the world who are left with facilities that are inefficient, unsafe and a hazard to their users, and sometimes the surrounding community. Of course, by that time the designers and the builders are long gone - probably with no recognized liability for the mess they leave behind. Range owners are put in a position where further capital expenditures are required to bring the range up to standard, or in extreme circumstances, they may need to close the range entirely well before the structure’s planned obsolescence. At the design concept stage there is an inevitable pressure on range owners to minimize capital costs. There may be a defined and limited budget and the designers are, naturally, trying to squeeze the most out of every cent. However, saving money at the construction stage can lead to significantly higher life -cycle costs. For instance, in a heavily used range, saving initial construction costs on an apparently cheaper type of bullet trap may mean that the range has to be


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

closed for maintenance of the trap for one day a week; it may need a major refurbishment every year; and you will need a team of maintenance staff on a regular basis to keep the range operational. What is the relative cost of all that over a 25 year period in relation to the initial cost of the trap? Similar arguments apply to the choice of wall, floor and ceiling protection in both shoothouses and indoor small arms ranges.

Training Benefits Must be Balanced Against Both Capital Cost and Life-Cycle Cost How can a range owner avoid the pitfalls described above? Firstly, it is vital that the range concept is properly defined and documented by an experienced professional team. Ask the hard questions at the outset about usage of the range, location, longevity, throughput, weapons and ammunition - and be prepared to substantiate your findings and demonstrate that all options have been fully explored. From that, develop a budget which balances the training benefits against both capital cost and life-cycle cost. Fully analyze the cost of running the facility in terms of power usage, personnel costs, day to day maintenance and planned replacement of critical equipment and materials. Enlightened range owners worldwide have come to realize that a most cost effective way of ensuring their ranges are built with a long term budget in mind is to select one company to be responsible in entirety for the design of the facility, the equipment and materials used therein, and the day to day maintenance for a period of several years after the range is commissioned. In that way, the customer guarantees that there is a balance between capital and long term costs, since it is also in the contractor’s best interests

to ensure this is the case. The customer can then properly compare the real cost of different approaches and solutions from different companies when they are initially bidding for the project. Of course it is crucial that the companies invited to participate in such an exercise must demonstrate extensive real life experience in all aspects of design, construction, integration and long term maintenance of high quality shooting ranges.

The Industry Leader in Range Facilities Design With more than 25 years in the range business, Advanced Interactive Systems (AIS) are the industry leader in range facilities design, integration and maintenance. AIS have designed, installed and maintained range facilities in 30 countries world-wide. AIS currently performs long term maintenance contracts on three separate continents for military, police and privately owned range facilities. AIS has the know-how and experience required to develop innovative range concepts, bringing detailed designs through to fruition and ensuring your range facility can be operated economically and safely throughout its planned lifespan. Contact AIS through their website: http://ais-sim.com/ or via phone and speak with a representative.

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Training and Education: The Ongoing Campaign of Learning Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

“The next 20 years of transition toward a new international system are fraught with risks to include the growing prospect of a nuclear arms race in the Middle East and possible interstate conflicts over resources. The breadth of transnational issues requiring attention is increasing to include issues connected with resource constraints in energy, food, and water, and worries about climate change… The rapidly changing international order increases the likelihood of discontinuities, shocks, and surprises. No single outcome seems preordained.” National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World

A balance between education and training is always seen as a goal; one of the best countermeasures against the uncertainty of the future operational environment is a welleducated cadre of Army leaders.

T

HE UNITED States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) have published the reasoning and assumptions behind their most recent thinking about the breadth of basic and more advanced training for the ordinary soldier and their commanders.1 Their carefully marshaled arguments and assumptions about the current future nature of conflict throughout the world are a useful reminder of what any nation looking at the requirements for basic training of their armed forces needs to consider. These are the assumptions behind their operating environment, that is, the threat they are preparing to fight: “It is important to begin with a consideration of the range of threats to U.S. vital interests as well as key environmental factors.” In addition: “Conventional modernization goals must be tied to the actual and prospective capabilities of future adversaries.”

Features of the Future Operating Environment The operating environment is marked by key features: • Increasing uncertainty as “political, economic, informational, and cultural systems become more complex and interconnected.” • Adversaries will be able to achieve tactical, operational, and strategic surprise based on rapid application of available and emerging technologies in both manned and unmanned systems. • Land, air, space, maritime and cyberspace superiority is increasingly contested by an ever-

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widening set of state and non-state actors with sophisticated capabilities. • Forces will face increasing anti-access and area denial challenges due to strategic preclusion, operational denial, and tactical overmatch. It notes other risks: individuals motivated by extremist ideologies, overpopulated megacities in which a growing pool of youth is willing to engage in violence to achieve their goals, and water, food, and fuel shortages. They also note the consequences of the decreasing cost of technology and increasing threat of WMD and improvised explosive devices (IED). As the section concludes: “Conflict waged as a result of these drivers is not easily categorized. It will evolve over time, provide a wide range of geographical and cultural considerations, and involve a range of threats that will be difficult to characterize, let alone define”. An uncertain challenge to train for.

The Types of Enemy: Hybrid Wars The nature of the enemy is equally uncertain. There are, of course “existing military powers with advanced technical capabilities”, but also “terrorist groups, insurgents, militias, drug cartels, and less advanced militaries that will likely focus on irregular warfare operations, terrorism, and information campaigns.” There is also the unknown “emerging military powers and advanced non-state entities that can impose costs and undermine U.S. resolve through irregular warfare.” Frank Hoffman takes these categories forward by talking about “hybrid wars” where irregular warfare can transition into hybrid warfare, where a non-state actor engaged


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

in an asymmetric conflict gains the support of a state structure. He uses the example of Hizbollah supported by Iran.3

The Most Likely Form of Conflict In the opinion of the US Army, the most likely threat is ‘violent extremism’. And possibly the most dangerous threat: “A nation state possessing both conventional and WMD capabilities with the intent to use against U.S. interests. In the worst case, adversaries will seek to wage ‘wars of exhaustion’, while preserving their WMD capability as a final deterrent.” All these examples provide useful scenarios to prepare for in other regions of the world, where the financial capabilities of a super power are not available, but the threats from regional or indigenous conflicts are very real and potentially immediate, if uncertain. So how should a country prepare? The type of fighting capability required is complex. The US army postulates “the idea of Army forces capable of combined arms maneuver and wide area security within the context of joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational efforts.” But the fighting unit itself, the soldiers, must be “cohesive”. “Cohesion is the unity that binds individual soldiers toward a common purpose and creates the will to succeed. It is built on a sense of belonging and purpose, good morale, and discipline. How soldiers are trained, educated, and led are critical determinants of success. Disciplined leaders and soldiers instilled with the professional military ethic and bonded into a cohesive team form the foundation for combat effectiveness.”

The Value of the Cohesive Team The training of men is critical: “The Army must build cohesive teams and prepare soldiers to withstand the demands of combat. Leaders must prepare their units to fight and adapt under conditions of uncertainty, and during the conduct of operations, must also ensure moral conduct while making critical time-sensitive decisions under pressure. Tough realistic training builds confidence and cohesion that serve as psychological protection against fear and stress in battle. In this context, applied

ethics education is necessary but not sufficient to completely steel Soldiers and units against the disintegration that can occur under the stress of combat.” There are several key thoughts here that need to be integrated into any training plan for the future. The complexity of the operational environment, in perhaps a decentralized unit in a megacity creates high levels of uncertainty and the likelihood of poor communication. It is in these circumstances that a good balance between training and education and discipline together with high morale combine to allow soldiers and their commanders to take good decisions in the “critical time sensitive” situations that are vital to prevail in modern combat.

Full Spectrum Operations 21st century warfare is multi-faceted: Army forces must conduct “offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support operations simultaneously to defeat enemies and secure populations.” Units require a high degree of agility to move fast, respond to intelligence and changing circumstances, engage in a psychological contest of wills, while also “gaining advantages in the cyberspace domain and electromagnetic spectrum, maintaining those advantages, and denying the same to enemies.”

Achieving this State of Excellence A balance between education and training is always seen as a goal; one of the best countermeasures against the uncertainty of the future operational environment is a well-educated cadre of Army leaders. Learning is a continuous and life-long process that builds upon formal professional military education, experience, and personal self-study. In addition, “leaders must strive to reduce uncertainty through tough, realistic training that builds cohesion, confidence, and mutual trust. In addition, all soldiers must understand and apply the essential tenets of jus in bello, discrimination (between combatants and noncombatants), and proportionality in the use of force, measured against the necessity of military operations.”

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SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Police Training for Public Order Duties: A Complex Issue Meredith LLewelyn, Lead Contributor

“The next 20 years of transition toward a new international system are fraught with risks to include the growing prospect of a nuclear arms race in the Middle East and possible interstate conflicts over resources. The breadth of transnational issues requiring attention is increasing to include issues connected with resource constraints in energy, food, and water, and worries about climate change… The rapidly changing international order increases the likelihood of discontinuities, shocks, and surprises. No single outcome seems preordained.” National Intelligence Council, Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World

The importance of training and educating the forces is demonstrated not only in procedures on the ground but in the law.

T

HE CONTROVERSIES around policing in an advanced democratic country like the United Kingdom highlight the complexity and subtlety of achieving high levels of police training in societies with different attitudes towards authoritarian government and human rights. In Britain, the death of Ian Tomlinson, a newspaper seller, who was hit by the police while walking past a group of protesters against the G20 talks in the City of London in 2009, highlights the importance of training guidelines for police on public order duties. Denis O’Connor, Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary, in an inquiry into the method and style of policing at the protest, made a number of trenchant criticisms about current British police training. In the process he raised a range of universal issues, which should be integrated into all police training curricula.

The Centrality of Public Consent O’Connor said all policing should be “anchored in public consent”4 and put forward an ideal of public policing based on “approachability, impartiality, accountability and… minimum force”. He criticised the way officers were trained for the use of force, saying they wrongly believed “proportionality” means “reciprocity”. Through the ranks, there was a failure to understand the law on policing protests. He feared that the British model of policing by consent had been subject to drift and needed to return to the original principles advanced by Sir Robert Peel. There are nine principles attributed to Peel on policing. Perhaps the most relevant to this issue is the fourth principle: “The degree of co-operation 12 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force”.

ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) Public Order Policing Guidelines The British Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) in 2010 issued guidelines on public order policing5, a ‘Manual of Guidance on Keeping the Peace.’ It reiterates the principle of “policing by consent”. The manual draws attention to the key area of proportionate response and makes the following points: “Commanders should be able to demonstrate consideration and application of relevant human rights principles; Police powers should be used appropriately and proportionately; Commanders should consider use of force implications within the public order context, planning for minimum use of force.” Again, the importance of training and educating the forces is demonstrated not only in procedures on the ground but in the law. The police have important but complex legal guidance to follow from the House of Lords and other European courts on public order policing. The methods used by the British police to manage protesters have been challenged in the law courts with revealing outcomes. In one case, on 1 May 2001, there was a protest by a group opposed to capitalism and globalization in central London. On three occasions within the previous two years, the theme of protests against capitalism and


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

globalization by a similar group had resulted in very serious breakdowns in public order. On 1 May a group of protesters were “kettled” that is, held within a cordon and not allowed to leave for a number of hours without food, water or use of toilets, to prevent the group breaking up and potentially causing disruption or breach of the peace elsewhere in several different places. One protester with a baby being held for her in a crèche was unable to leave the “kettle” and challenged her deprivation of liberty in the courts and finally brought the case to the House of Lords. The lawyers for the woman who had been held in the street argued that Article 5(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights provided that ‘no one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the cases which that article specifies’. However the judge’s findings were that “the sole purpose of the cordon was to maintain public order, that it was proportionate to that need and that those within the cordon were not deprived of their freedom of movement arbitrarily.” But despite the ruling by Lord Hope of Craighead, the challenge under the Human Rights legislation in Europe resulted in debate about how police officers should hold peaceful protesters.

The Civil Liberties Argument by Liberty Liberty, the civil rights group, presented arguments against Lord Craighead: “Liberty believes that the reasoning behind the judgment was deeply flawed. In reaching the decision that there had been no deprivation of liberty, their Lordships held that the purpose behind the police ‘kettling’ should be taken into account.” Liberty asserted that: “The Human Rights Act 1998 requires all public authorities, including the police and the police authorities, to act in a way which is compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)6. Further, under Article 11 ECHR, there are both negative and positive duties on the police: the negative duty means that the police must not prevent, hinder or restrict peaceful assembly except to the extent allowed by ECHR Article 11 (2). The positive duty means that, in certain circumstances, the police are under a duty to take reasonable steps to protect those who want to exercise their rights peacefully.”7

“The Human Rights Act 1998 requires all public authorities, including the police and the police authorities, to act in a way which is compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).

The ruling was: “A demonstration may annoy or give offence to persons opposed to the ideas or claims that it is seeking to promote. The participants must, however, be able to hold the demonstration without having to fear that they will be subjected to physical violence by their opponents; such a fear would be liable to deter associations or other groups supporting common ideas or interests from openly expressing their opinions on highly controversial issues affecting the community”.

Russian Rights to Freedom of Assembly Also Upheld In Makhmudov v Russia, the Court held that where a State withdraws permission for an approved public assembly, it must substantiate its reasons for doing so or explain why those reasons cannot be substantiated. Where a State fails to do so, the interference with the right to peaceful assembly will be considered arbitrary and unjustified.

The European Application of Human Rights Legislation In a landmark ruling in Austria, Plattform “Ärzte für das Leben” v. Austria, a similar and related right of unopposed protest was asserted, in this case in the controversial area of the right of women to obtain an abortion. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 13


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Public Order Policing: Lessons from the “Arab Spring” Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

As events were to prove in both Tunisia and Egypt, it is the decision to use lethal force against the people that breaks popular trust in the government and delegitimizes the regime.

“P

OLICING BY consent” is such a basic precept that it is enshrined in many authoritarian regimes penal codes. But as events in Tunisia and other countries have shown in 2011, threatened authoritarian regimes frequently override these principles. Tunisia was the first Arab country to experience the popular protest on the streets that marked the beginning of what has become to be known as the ‘Arab Spring’. As Amnesty International describes it, the first protests were socio-economic; “While the protests initially surfaced in central Tunisia and focused on socioeconomic demands, they quickly spread to other parts of the country and metamorphosed into demands for freedom and the expression of wider grievances against the authorities, popularly seen as corrupt and responsible for poverty and unemployment.”8 But it was the change in police tactics from policing by consent to the use of “lethal force” that changed the nature of the protest and made the peaceful emonstrations much more powerful. “At first the security forces did not respond to demonstrations by using lethal force. The turning point came on 24 December when security forces fired live ammunition at protesters in Manzel Bouzayane, a small town in the province of Sidi Bouzid, killing 18-year-old Mohamed Ammari and 44-year-old Chaouki Belhoussine El Hadri. Protests spread like wildfire to Tunis; cities in the country’s interior, including Kasserine, Thala and Regueb; and coastal areas from the north to the south-east, including Bizerte, Hammamet, Nabeul and Sfax.” Contravening Tunisia’s own penal code and human rights framework, as Amnesty International reported: “In policing protests and responding to the unrest that shook Tunisia between late December and mid-January, Tunisian security forces used

14 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

excessive force, in contravention of international standards, most notably the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, and Tunisia’s Law 69-4 of January 1969.” Sir Robert Peel’s fourth principle has enormous resonance: “The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force”. Indeed, as events were to prove in both Tunisia and Egypt, it is the decision to use lethal force against the people that breaks popular trust in the government and delegitimizes the regime. To highlight this point, it was the return to peaceful policing of the protesters by the army and police in Egypt that led to the peaceful departure of Mubarak and the subsequent emergence of the Army council as the arm of government to restore law and order and deliver the protesters’ demands for movement towards democratic government. “Read on state television by an army spokesman, the communiqué declared that the military – not Mr. Mubarak, Mr. Suleiman or any other civilian authority – would ensure the amendment of the Constitution to conduct free and fair presidential elections.” “The armed forces are committed to sponsor the legitimate demands of the people,” the statement declared, and the military promised to ensure the fulfillment of its promises “within defined time frames” until authority could be passed to a “free democratic community that the people aspire to.” It pledged to remove the reviled “emergency law,” which allows the government to detain anyone without charges or trial, “as soon as the current circumstances are over” and further promised immunity from prosecution for the protesters, whom it called “the honest people who refused the corruption and demanded reforms.”9


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Insights from the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) in Lebanon 2006 Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

O

NE OF the dangers of any army training itself for war is recognizing who its enemy is and acknowledging that the enemy will always seek to find vulnerabilities by taking on conflict in the areas for which a country is least prepared. In a thoughtful account of the lessons learned by the IDF, Johnson10 notes that: The IDF Before the 2006 Second Lebanon War prepared for full spectrum operations, what it called the “rainbow of conflict,” which includes low-intensity conflict (LIC), mainly focused on the West Bank and Gaza; high-intensity conflict (HIC) against contiguous states, most notably Syria (and now Lebanon); and “states without common borders, ”specifically, Iran.

Israeli Perceptions o f Future War pre-2006 Three events affected Israeli perceptions about future warfare prior to the 2006 Second Lebanon War. First, the 1999 war in Kosovo, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) spurred a belief in the Israeli defense establishment that standoff attack by fires (principally by air power) was an effective means to affect the will of the adversary and determine conflict outcomes. Secondly, the second al-Aqsa intifada, which began in late 2000, forced the

Israeli Army to focus on operations to stop terrorist attacks inside Israel. Thirdly, the U.S. presence in Iraq following OIF, coupled with low threats from neighbors except Syria, encouraged a belief that Israel was beyond the era of a major war and that the primary role of ground forces was LIC. The result of this over focus on LIC capabilities was that the Israeli military was largely incapable of joint combined arms fire and maneuver. This resulted in: “Heavy units (tank and mechanized infantry) played little, if any, role in these operations. Armored unit training was neglected, because they were deemed largely irrelevant in LIC. Furthermore, training and exercises for division and higher units were infrequent. Additionally, the IDF posted the best brigade commanders to deal with LIC threats (further incentivizing the focus on LIC). Finally, Air Force tactical air control capabilities were pulled out of ground brigades. This is particularly important in the IDF, because the Israeli Air Force owns almost all fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft; the Israeli Army has only small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).” Even finely honed experienced military states like Israel with an admired military tradition can make errors of judgment in training and educating – the lessons of 2006 are worth noting for all militaries.

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


SPECIAL REPORT: SHOOTING RANGE AND MILITARY TRAINING FACILITY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

References: 1

The United States Army Operating Concept pdf 2016-28

2

See U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication 3-0: Joint Operations, Washington, D.C., 2008, p. GL-16, where irregular warfare is defined as “A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population. Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capacities, in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will.”

3

Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, Frank Hoffman

4

Sir Denis O’Connor Adapting to Protest http://www.hmic.gov.uk/sitecollectiondocuments/ppr/ppr_20090706.pdf

5

NPIA( National Policing Improvement Agency) Manual of Guidance on Keeping the Peace issued by the Association of Chief Police Officers 2010

6

Liberty’s response to the Joint Committee on Human Rights: “Demonstrating Respect for Rights? A Human Rights Approach to Policing Protest”

7

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt200809/jtselect/jtrights/47/47i.pdf

8

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE30/011/2011/en/e991941e-ccee-498b-a7ce-39e594c9d10a/mde300112011en.pdf February 2011 Tunisia in revolt STATE VIOLENCE DURING ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS

9

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/12/world/middleeast/12egypt.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1 Egypt Erupts in Jubilation as Mubarak Steps Down By DAVID D. KIRKPATRICK February 11, 2011

10

Military Capabilities for Hybrid War Insights from the Israel Defense Forces in Lebanon and Gaza David E. Johnson Prepared for the United States Army

16 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM


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