SPRING 2020 â€¢ ISSUE 3
MAINTAINING MARINE OUTFALLS
COLOURLESS, ODOURLESS, TOXIC
THE CARBON MONOXIDE THREAT REAL JOBS IN THE REAL WORLD
IMPROVING MARINE STRUCTURES
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PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
EDITORIAL Publisher/Editor: Taira Caton email@example.com Tel: 0333 121 5474 Copy Editor/Contributor: John Hancock firstname.lastname@example.org CONTRIBUTORS Gavin Anthony, Nick Bailey, Esteban Marrufo, TMS Maritime, Martin Berry and BSAC ADVERTISEMENTS Call 0333 121 5474 email@example.com MAGAZINE PRODUCTION AND PRINTING Dean Cook, The Magazine Production Company, tel: 01273 467579 firstname.lastname@example.org Professional Diver is a magazine published by UK ADC Ltd PO Box 3138, Reading. RG1 9FN. UK Tel: 0333 121 5474 Registered in England and Wales, 10382894. Registered office: Sg House, 6, St Cross Road,
Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO23 9HX ©2020 UK ADC Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written consent of the Publishers. Great care is taken to ensure accuracy in the preparation of this publication, but neither UK ADC Ltd or the editor can be held responsible for its contents. The views expressed are those of the contributors and not necessarily those of the Publishers. UK ADC Ltd. DISCLAIMER: The Association of Diving Contractors (the “Association”) provides any information, education and advice in good faith to its members for their convenience and reference. The Association accepts no liability for anything contained in the information provided or for the consequences of using such information in commercial contracting or otherwise. The employees and agents of the Association, including without limitation the Association Secretary, are not responsible in any way for the commercial or business consequences of using any Association resources or information provided or received in Association materials or during Association events. If you are in any doubt about the commercial or legal effect of any action, please take independent legal advice.
PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
Welcome to the latest ‘Professional Diver’ in our 25th Anniversary Year. The world is currently facing a coronavirus pandemic which, for the diving industry, has meant only essential/critical work being carried out. Hopefully, that disruption will be temporary and the Inshore diving industry, resilient in the past, will get back to normal soon. Coronavirus is shaking up how we live and work but has revealed how important technology is and how much progress has been made to allow us to stay connected for work purposes and keeping in touch with friends and family. Many will be disappointed at the postponement of our Regional Meetings, in May and June, and Seawork which was due to take place in June. New dates will be issued soon. On a positive note, the ADC office is pretty much operating as normal and is available to invigilate online exams. Supervisors: take advantage of this opportunity to study and sit your ADC exams whilst you have time. This year’s AGM is planned for 17th and 18th November 2020. We still expect this to go ahead but will be reviewing over the next few months. Last year’s AGM was very successful with a higher number of members attending than previous years, plus valuable input and conversations over the two days. We had great Guest speakers including an update from HSE Inspector of Diving ‘Judith Tetlow’, Martin Berry from Royal Haskoning on Marine Outfalls, EON on their ‘Health & Safety approach’ plus member presentations from Namaka Subsea, JFD and Diving Equipment Services on ‘Servicing & Standards of Equipment’ We also issued a Supervisor Award for Outstanding Contribution to Industry Sector to ‘Pat Murray’ for his ‘Calm Leadership during a fire’. Looking forward to seeing members at our AGM. Enjoy our latest edition of Professional Diver and ‘STAY SAFE’.
CONTENTS 5 Marine Outfalls the Forgotten Assets Inspect and maintain critical infrastructure.
10 Carbon monoxide in diving Invisible, odourless and a danger in diving.
14 Maintaining maritime infrastructures
Preparing two key structures for future utility.
18 Diving in dark water
The challenges and risks of Public Safety Diving.
20 Immersion Pulmonary Oedema A growing interest in this factor in diving incidents.
22 A clean break from work
Diver welfare: breaks, washing and changing facilities.
COVER IMAGE Courtesy of Lloyd Blyth, Briggs Marine 3
Please welcome the following recent new members to the Association.
APEX DIVING & MARINE (UK)
SUBSERVICES SL (GRAN CANARIA)
MSDS MARINE LTD (UK)
SMARTDIVES LLC (DUBAI)
FULL MEMBER FULL MEMBER
INSPIRE STRUCTURES LTD (UK) FULL MEMBER
HUGHES SUBSEA SERVICES LTD (UK) FULL MEMBER
ROCKSALT SUBSEA LTD (UK) FULL MEMBER
TIDAL PORTS & MARINE CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTING LLC (DUBAI) CORRESPONDING MEMBER
CORRESPONDING MEMBER CORRESPONDING MEMBER
TRITON GREY LTD (UK) ASSOCIATE MEMBER
ISUBC DIVING EQUIPMENT LTD (UK) ASSOCIATE MEMBER
NAMAKA SUBEA (UK) ASSOCIATE MEMBER
JW AUTOMARINE (UK) ASSOCIATE MEMBER
Members contact details new and old can be found on the ADC website. Click on the Members name to obtain full contact details and access to the Members Company Website.
ADC Information Notes & Safety Alerts Issued since previous edition
IN-01/19 ADC Updated First Aid List IN-01/20 Composite Cylinders IN-02/20 Commercial Shellfish Diving Consultation IN-03/20 DVIS 8 IN-04/20 COVID-19 IN-05/20 Diver Medic Cert (COVID-19) IN-06/20 Diver Medicals (COVID-19) IN-07/20 Guidance COVID-19 ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
SAFETY ALERTS Safety Alert 01/19 Safety Alert 02/19 Safety Alert 03/19 Safety Alert 04/19 Safety Alert 05/19 Safety Alert 06/19 Safety Alert 07/19 Safety Alert 08/19 Safety Alert 09/19 Safety Alert 10/19 Safety Alert 11/19 Safety Alert 12/19 Safety Alert 13/19 Safety Alert 01/20 Safety Alert 02/20 Safety Alert 03/20 Safety Alert 04/20 Safety Alert 05/20 Safety Alert 06/20 Safety Alert 07/20 Safety Alert 08/20
IMCA Safety Flash – High potential near miss IMCA Safety Flash – Tight Gas IMCA Safety Flash – PPE Violation Electrical Incident leading to a diving near miss IMCA Safety Flash – Damaged high-pressure content gauge hoses on bail outs. IMCA Safety Flash – Use of power tools, wear and care of safety helmets IMCA Safety Flash – Hand Injuries, Confined spaces IMCA Safety Flash – Fire IMCA Safety Flash – Cutting Injury, Man overboard fatality IMCA Safety Flash – Dropped Objects IMCA Safety Flash – Near Miss Fire IMCA Safety Flash – Divers Umbilical Trapped IMCA Safety Flash – Davit Failures, Fatal fall from height IMCA Safety Flash – Man overboard, explosion & Fire IMCA Safety Flash – Dropped Object, Lifting Operations IMCA Safety Flash – Failure of Pressure Test Equipment IMCA Safety Flash – Dropped Objects, Near Miss IMCA Safety Flash – IMO/WHO COVID-19 statements IMCA Safety Flash – Lifting failures IMCA COVID-19 Update IMCA Safety Flash – Fall from Height
MEMBERS CAN FIND ALL SAFETY ALERTS & INFORMATION NOTES IN THE MEMBERS SECTION WHEN LOGGING INTO THE ADC WEBSITE 4
PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
The Forgotten Assets
Martin Berry details the need for development, maintenance and replacement programmes with these forgotten assets.
e see them along estuaries and at the coast; in harbour walls and even on beaches. In fact they are so familiar as to have become almost invisible, but outfalls, especially marine outfalls, serve an important purpose with which comes significant responsibilities.
A marine outfall’s purpose is described as: ‘a pipeline, tunnel or structure that discharges a wastewater to the marine environment to utilise the assimilative capacity for further PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
treatment’. Outfalls are often associated with water companies, industrial and power facilities and, while they might be quite lengthy, most of the pipes are usually buried so that we are only aware of the physical length of pipe that protrudes into the open and above MHWS (Mean High Water Springs).
“A marine outfall’s purpose is described as: ‘a pipeline, tunnel or structure that discharges a wastewater to the marine environment to utilise the assimilative capacity for further treatment’.” 5
WATER AND WASTEWATER
The term ‘water and wastewater’ outfall includes contained rivers and as part of the ground (surface water) or sewerage (including treated
effluent) drainage systems, or to manage overflows (storm and flood). These pipelines and their outfalls are usually owned by water companies, local authorities or the Environment Agency (EA). As already mentioned, the idea is to use dispersal into the ocean as part of the disposal and treatment system and to achieve overall water quality standards. The first challenge is that, like any infrastructure, drainage systems and their marine outfalls deteriorate with age and most drainage systems are getting old which means reaching the end of their asset life. Many of the systems served by marine outfalls were built in the 19th century as part of the Victorian drive to improve public health or, for the more recent cases, were built to meet the requirements of the Bathing Water directive in the midnineteen-nineties. Given the different times of construction, materials used vary from cast iron, steel and concrete to polyethylene. In the UK, at present there will two or three longterm renewal or refurbishment projects a year underway. At that rate, given that, there are over 500 water outfalls in the UK, their replacement would take 250 years. PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
INDUSTRIAL AND POWER
With outfalls for industrial and power purposes, there is a difference inasmuch as there is sometimes also an input or intake pipeline as well as an outfall, and often these systems require significant quantities of water. In the case of cooling systems, the discharge at the outfall might well be warmer than would naturally be the case and the water used in a process might well include other constituents. Again, as with water and wastewater, the principle of dispersion and assimilation into the larger ocean is the basis on which the outfalls work.
Outfalls are often the forgotten components in a forgotten infrastructure. They are typically not visible and, with few moving parts, do not require daily or weekly maintenance. They are managed by the current owners of the infrastructure through process, network or plant operatives and those people usually lack any experience of infrastructure that interacts with the marine environment. Records of the assets will often not be up to twenty-first century requirements and the infrastructure in question might not even feature on GIS (Geographic Information System) systems or be registered as part of the sewer/drainage system. In short, they only get considered if there’s a problem or a failure.
THE CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE
However, forgotten or not, the consequences should one of these pipelines and marine outfalls fail will be significant on many levels. Any failure will almost certainly mean that the outfall is unable to discharge the required quantity which in turn is likely to impact on dispersion capabilities. Also, more often than not, there will be no alternative means of discharge which, for a process, means reducing the capacity or shutting it down and, for a wastewater outfall, will probably result in a reduction of water quality. Any nearby bathing beach could have to be closed or nearby shellfish beds might have to be closed. The loss of disposal capacity might also cause flooding in the upstream catchment
“…there is sometimes also an input or intake pipeline as well as an outfall, and often these systems require significant quantities of water.” that feeds the system, with all the social and financial consequences that can cause. It could result in restrictions at treatment works, process shutdown or power generation shutdown. The upshot of all that might well be fines, prosecution or even the loss of the operating license. There is rarely any quick fix available. In light of all this, there is a possible solution and that is regular inspection of marine pipelines and outfalls.
Inspection is a way to manage any facility or asset such as a pipeline and outfall.
Why should we inspect?
Like any process, there needs to be a business case for regular inspection of marine outfalls and their associated pipelines. Perhaps the first obvious one will be the potential consequences of failure outlined above. As Stelios Haji-loannou, founder of easyJet put it, “If you think safety is expensive, try an accident”. It is good practice to inspect assets in any environment but an environment such as the coast is dynamic and damage can occur. With regular inspections, condition can be assessed and graded against consistent criteria, and to measure any rate of deterioration. Water quality at the outfall can be ascertained and compared with regulatory change or changes in consent conditions to
“…the infrastructure in question might not even feature on GIS (Geographic Information System) systems or be registered as part of the sewer/drainage system.” PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
ensure compliance. Climate change is a big subject today and the consequent extreme weather events mean that storms are more likely and more severe than when the facility was originally designed. Using the information from inspections, owners can develop long- and short-term maintenance programmes and even develop a pipeline replacement strategy.
How do we inspect?
There are a variety of inspection methods available depending on the type and location of the outfall. A bathymetric survey would provide information about the nature of the seabed around a marine outfall while a topographic survey would help to understand its relationship to the surrounding area. Sonar, and sea bed (SB) profiling and even magnetometry will give more information about the outfall and its environs while inter-tidal surveys and diver surveys will allow the inspection to consider in closer detail any specific issue that arises. In some cases, an ROV (remotely operated vehicle) might be able to offer better sight of the internal pipework and/ or of the water near the outfall. Diver surveys are also undertaken as they can provide valuable
first-hand information on the pipeline condition and operational status. With any of the above, careful account has to be taken of the weather and tides to ensure optimum safety. Whatever method is used, the results need to be processed properly.
PROFESSIONAL DIVER â€˘ SPRING 2020
“Using the information from inspections, owners can develop long- and short-term maintenance programmes and even develop a pipeline replacement strategy.” REGULATORY BODIES AND CHANGES
There are different regulatory bodies in each of the UK’s devolved nations… • In England – the Environment Agency (EA). • In Wales – Natural Resources Wales (NRW). • In Scotland – the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). • In Northern Ireland – the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), the Water Utility Regulation Group (WURG) and the Northern Ireland Water Limited (for Wastewater Treatment Works). Plus, the overall UK regulator for marine environments… • Marine Management Organisation (MMO) Regulation is not static but has to react to changing understanding of the marine environment and to the understood causes of any incidents.
Marine pipelines should not be forgotten assets because, if they’re not properly inspected and maintained, the consequence of failure can be significant. Owners of pipelines and outfalls should undertake more inspections and repairs to… • Develop and implement an inspection and maintenance programme for marine outfalls. • Develop a programme of future replacement to allow investment to be planned. One other outcome will be to retain the skills and expertise needed to ensure that pipelines and outfalls continue to operate at their optimum capacity and with optimum safety. Altogether this will deliver benefits to the business and to communities with improved water quality and better management of what are high value capital expenditure assets. PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
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Carbon monoxide in diving Unfortunately, diving incidents, some fatal, are still being caused by carbon monoxide toxicity from contaminated breathing gas, as Gavin Anthony explains
arbon monoxide (expressed chemically as CO) is a colourless and odourless gas that is highly toxic. Toxicity primarily results from low oxygen levels in the cells, also known as cellular hypoxia. Carbon monoxide has a nominally 300 times greater affinity for binding to haemoglobin in red blood cells than oxygen. This means that the blood is less able to transport oxygen, around the body. The body is further starved of oxygen because, once it is bound to carbon monoxide, the haemoglobin molecule changes shape and it releases oxygen much less readily. At a cellular level there are additional toxic mechanisms, especially those affecting the circulation and the nervous system. As a result, subsequent to the initial hypoxia, longer term complications can occur such as dementia and symptoms like Parkinsonâ€™s disease. 10
CARBON MONOXODE TOXICITY
The level of carbon monoxide toxicity is normally expressed in terms of both the concentration of carbon monoxide, as inhaled, and the percentage of haemoglobin carrier sites that are bound with monoxide. An inhaled concentration (at atmospheric pressure) of 200 ppm (parts per million) or 0.02 %, may result in 15-20 % of haemoglobin sites being bound; at this level, clinical symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, nausea and dizziness would start to occur. Active smokers may inhale carbon monoxide levels up to 60 ppm and have 10 % or more of their haemoglobin bound with carbon monoxide. In the UK the current occupational exposure limit (HSE EH 40) for carbon monoxide breathed at the surface (i.e. atmospheric pressure) is 20 ppm. When considering the toxic effect of gases Image courtesy of MMC Diving Services during diving, it is the partial pressure of the PROFESSIONAL DIVER â€˘ SPRING 2020
“An inhaled concentration (at atmospheric pressure) of 200 ppm (parts per million) or 0.02 %, may result in 15-20 % of haemoglobin sites being bound; at this level, clinical symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, nausea and dizziness would start to occur.” gas, rather than the fraction or percentage that should be considered. An air dive to 50 m (6 bar) will expose the diver to a total gas pressure six times that at the surface, thus breathing a carbon monoxide level of 20 ppm at 50 m could be considered clinically equivalent to breathing 120 ppm at atmospheric pressure (1 bar), a level which would cause severe symptoms. As depth increases so does the inspired partial pressure of oxygen, offering some mitigation against the affinity of carbon monoxide over oxygen to bind to haemoglobin. However, as a diver ascends the partial pressure of oxygen reduces, but the carbon monoxide remains bound to the haemoglobin, so amplifying its toxic effects.
Haemoglobin without any oxygen bound to it is blue in colour (hence cyanosis when someone is hypoxic), it turns red when oxygen is attached. When carbon monoxide is attached instead of oxygen it turns a bright (cherry) red.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR DIVERS
Traditionally divers have been taught to look out for symptoms such as cherry red face and lips; in reality this is very rarely seen. The symptoms of headaches, fatigue, dizziness and nausea are more common. In extreme cases carbon monoxide poisoning can cause unconsciousness, severe neurological symptoms, cardiac issues and even death. As
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ever with diving, these symptoms can also occur with other diving illnesses; anyone experiencing unusual symptoms during or post diving should seek medical advice. Fortunately, as with decompression illness, a treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning is to give the diver oxygen to breathe. In certain situations hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a compression chamber may be used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning. For air diving, it is typical to specify a maximum acceptable level of contaminants at a level considerably less than those acceptable at the surface. The current standard for compressed gas purity is BS EN 12021:2014 and in Table 1 it specifies 5 ppm as the maximum permitted level of carbon monoxide in compressed air. It also states (Para 6.1) that contaminants should be one sixth of the national exposure limit. Prior to 2018 the HSE EH 40 occupational limit (8 h TWA level) for carbon monoxide was 30 ppm. Applying a one sixth logic to the national exposure limit gives a diving adjusted limit of 5 ppm, i.e. no conflict with the Table. However, in 2018 EH40 was revised and the UK 8 h TWA level for carbon monoxide was reduced to 20 ppm. Applying the one sixth logic to the national exposure limit gives a diving adjusted limit of 3.33 ppm, i.e. the one sixth limit now conflicts with the 5 ppm limit in the table. This conflict is currently being addressed by BSi and it is expected that the UK National foreword to BS EN 12021 will be revised to state ‘If a gas or contaminant level is specified in a Table it should be applied and not one sixth of the national EH40 limit’. Thus if this is applied there will be no change in the operational requirement to provide compressed air containing no more than 5 ppm of carbon monoxide.
MINIMISING THE RISK OF CO CONTAMINATION
Carbon monoxide is produced as the result of an inefficient combustion of hydrocarbons; instead of being completely converted to carbon dioxide and water, the combustion also produces carbon monoxide and other chemical species. There are primarily two mechanisms by which an unacceptable level of carbon monoxide may end up compressed into diving cylinders. Probably the best understood is carbon monoxide being drawn into a compressor inlet from an external source such as a motor vehicle exhaust or other fossil fuel combustion e.g. gas heaters. A second, more subtle method is pyrolysis (chemical decomposition by heat), 12
which might occur when a compressor is hot, but not necessarily overheating. Pyrolysis may cause the lubricating oil in the compressor to break down releasing carbon monoxide, or other plastic/organic compounds in the system to decompose creating toxic chemical species. The risk of carbon monoxide poisoning as a result of either of these mechanisms may be reduced by correct compressor operation and maintenance such as: positioning of the inlet away from and upstream of exhaust fumes, use and periodic replacement of the correct lubricating oil, ensuring compressors are adequately cooled and including a carbon monoxide catalyst (such as hopcalite) in the filter system – these catalysts convert the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. The quality of compressed air from a compressor or supply bank may be checked by portable test apparatus (such as colorimetric gas detector tubes) or by taking a sample for detailed laboratory analysis. The requirements and procedures for these analyses are presented in the UK in an Annex of BS EN 12021. Samples for analysis should be taken at least every three months or more frequently if contamination is foreseeable within this period. Also the air from portable compressors should be checked each time they have been moved to a new location. Whilst this is a very useful procedure for monitoring routine maintenance and filter performance, it would not identify an acute event between samples, e.g. a combustion exhaust, unknown to the compressor operator, being moved close to the inlet (such as a vehicle stopped outside a compressor house with its engine running) or a component overheating and producing carbon monoxide by pyrolysis.
Analysis of diving incidents has shown that high levels of carbon monoxide may be found in the diving cylinders, even if the air from the compressor was analysed at the recommended test intervals. All operators should be aware of the risks of a sudden change in supply gas to the diver. To mitigate this, on-line analysis of at least oxygen and carbon monoxide should be undertaken on the gas in the direct supply to the diver. It is also reasonable to apply a parallel logic to all diving compressor and breathing gas supplies, and to continuously check the level of oxygen and major toxic components, in the air being used to fill diving cylinders. PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
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DIARY DATE 17-18 November ADC AGM Birmingham
We’ll be at SeaWork SOUTHAMPTON • UK
PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
seawork.com #seawork2020 13
Maintaining key maritime infrastructures TMS Maritime has worked on two Whitby Piers and the Isle of Man Sea Terminal to ensure that they continue to deliver. Words: Peter Dunwell
he jobs for which clients use diving businesses and divers are many. Here are just a coupole of recent cases from the files of ADC member ‘TMS Maritime’.
In Collaboration with Balfour Beatty, TMS not only delivered but exceeded expectations for this six months, £2.5million project; completing repairs to East Pier and West Pier in the Yorkshire coast town of Whitby ahead of schedule for Scarborough Council. The scheme resulted in the upgrading of the aged piers’ structures to improve their condition. There were essentially two aspects to the works involved. Firstly, stabilising the external sandstone facing blocks of the piers, this involved drilling out damaged sandstone blocks then replacement from the original source quarry at Eskdale. These replacement blocks were skilfully dressed by the team to match the existing structure and, once placed, the voids behind were reinforced and concrete 14
PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
weather and the coastal environment. The project received significant funding from the European Structural and Investment Funds Growth Programme. The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government and the Department for Work and Pensions are the managing authorities for European Regional Development Fund and European Social Fund funding through the Growth Programme, funds established by the European Union to help local areas stimulate their economic development. Funding was also secured from: the Environment Agency; York, North Yorkshire and East Riding Local Enterprise Partnership; North Yorkshire County Council and Scarborough Borough Council.
“The delivery of the works were complex in nature with access requiring innovative thinking, dive teams, and bespoke access equipment. Working closely with the client to ensure schedule, quality, budget and public relations were, maintained…”
ISLE OF MAN SEA TERMINAL
In August 2018, Teignmouth Maritime Services were contracted by BAM Nuttall to carry out various scopes of work at the Sea Terminal in Douglas Harbour, Isle of Man. In a nine month, £1.5million project, these consisted of scour protection to the two Ro Ro ferry berths, linkspan hoist tower piles life extension (consisting of repair sleeve and denso sea shield), installing a new fender pile and repairs to previously damaged piles; and sea shield work to the three walkway dolphins situated within Douglas Harbour.
filled. Secondly concrete was placed below the water line creating a reinforced scour protection, protecting the base of the piers for many decades to come. The delivery of the works were complex in nature with access requiring innovative thinking, dive teams, and bespoke access equipment. Working closely with the client to ensure schedule, quality, budget and public relations were, maintained; achieving full potential in order to reflect well on all those involved, TMS experience in all things maritime proved invaluable. The works, in addition to havingto be carried out in difficult working conditions, had extreme access restrictions through very narrow streets and foreshores. These problems were significantly eased by TMS’s marine capability and experience which further mitigated risk associated with the unpredictable influences of PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
In order to protect the two berths, the design was to install Proserve pumped concrete mattresses to provide scour protection totalling 1150m2 over both berths. Following the removal of debris and preparing the sea-bed, layers of 2 tonne Kyowa rock bags (approx. 1000 in number) were installed and guided into the correct position by divers to the edge of the scour underneath the linkspan. This layer created an even surface to lay the concrete mattresses. Once all the mattresses had been installed they were then pumped with concrete and additional 2 Ton rock bags were installed along all edges to stop future scour occurring underneath the mattress. Three of the eight linkspan piles required repair works due to propeller wash from vessels combined with ALWC (accelerated low water corrosion) which had caused the piles to thin. These three piles were firstly cleared of debris, silt and seabed inside the piles and then repair sleeves were installed prior to pumping with concrete: all piles were wrapped with a Denso SeaShield system. The fender pile at the end of the pier had already been removed, TMS were therefore required to socket the new pile into the original pile. Firstly, the pile stub that remained had to be cut using BROCCO (underwater cutting equipment) below the remaining damaged part
of the pile where the pile had been bent over; to allow enough circular room for the new pile to be fitted. The internal area of the pile stub was then excavated to a depth of 1.3m below seabed, once secure the pile was pumped full of concrete which allowed the fender pile sleeve to be installed over the pile for the fender panel installation.
PROFESSIONAL DIVER â€˘ SPRING 2020
PROFESSIONAL DIVER â€¢ SPRING 2020
Diving in dark water
Nick Bailey, Discovering Safety — Diving Project lead, Health and Safety Executive offers a new take on public safety diving
Discovering Safety is an ambitious programme, which aims to bring about a step change in global health and safety performance using data and analytical techniques to provide new insights. As part of this research programme we have been looking at the current and past aspects of one sector of the diving industry, that of Public Safety Diving.
Diving is a high risk activity where the worker is in an environment hostile to normal human existence and requires a life support system and knowledge of physiological limitations to be able to carry out the work required. Diving work, whether from the offshore platforms of oil and gas infrastructures or in a dive school providing SCUBA experiences to children in a swimming pool, takes place throughout the UK and internationally. Police or Fire and Rescue personnel may be professional or part time members of a Public Safety Diving team. Their tasks can be challenging and unpleasant, such as looking for bodies following an incident or searching for evidence to support crime investigation officers. These people enter mostly dark cold water that may be swift moving, polluted, or contaminated with debris or pathogens. In some areas of the world there can be apex predators such as sharks or crocodiles in the water as well.
UNDERSTANDING RISK IN PUBLIC SAFETY DIVING
For the study we have looked at how UK Police Diving (as all public safety diving in the UK is
“Police or Fire and Rescue personnel may be professional or part time members of a Public Safety Diving team. Their tasks can be challenging and unpleasant, such as looking for bodies…” 18
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“Almost all UK Police diving is carried out using a surface supply method to ensure that the diver cannot run out of gas while they are underwater. UK Police divers will also wear a bailout cylinder…” done solely by the Police), including regulation, training and supervision, compares to that of Public Safety divers around the world. Within the UK, only a relatively few minor incidents have been reported over the past fifteen years whereas, over the same time period on a global scale, around 50 Public Safety divers have lost their lives or been involved incidents. To get a deeper understanding of the work undertaken, the supervision of the diving, and the training that a new diver or experienced diver would need to undertake, a questionnaire was sent to Public Safety dive teams, personnel and training providers around the world. With the data collated, a workshop was arranged and those that had responded to the questionnaire were invited to take part. Those unable to attend were asked to send in questions or put forward points to be discussed. The points that stood out during these discussions were the need for training and refresher training that was suitably risk assessed and overseen by competent trainers. A number of the incidents seen overseas were during training exercises where the diver either became separated from their buddy (not a practice carried out in the UK due to low visibility conditions) or ran out of gas. A widespread view was also held that Public Safety divers should not enter the water without a lifeline or voice communication system.
HOW PUBLIC SAFETY DIVING WORKS
Almost all UK Police diving is carried out using a surface supply method to ensure that the diver cannot run out of gas while they are underwater. UK Police divers will also wear a bailout cylinder that can act as an independent supply if needed. Furthermore the umbilical back to the surface for the deployed diver can be used by the standby diver, who is dressed and ready to enter the water and can follow the umbilical and reach the diver quickly. PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
These divers may also be required to search in fast flowing water that can have other dangers that they need to be aware of. Trying to carry out a search whilst you are being forced along the river bed is not very comfortable. For example the flow of water can start to lift the mask off the diver’s face during movement causing it to flood even though the mask is designed to be a positive pressure system. Also when in flowing water the surface cover may obscure submerged items travelling within the water. The study’s final outcome is to be able to provide guidance to Public Safety dive teams around the world, enabling them to work in a safer manner to reduce the number of incidents that occur within the Public Safety diving community. If you would like to know more about this project or other work within the programme and how you can get involved then please visit our website www.discoveringsafety.com 19
Immersion Pulmonary Oedema A serious risk that can be mistaken for drowning
n recent years there has been a growing interest in Immersion Pulmonary Oedema (IPO) as a factor within diving incidents. Although originally reported in the 1980s the condition was until recently thought to be rare. Immersion Pulmonary Oedema (IPO) was first reported in a medical journal in 1981 by Dr Peter Wilmshurst and others, based on investigations into a number of divers with the condition. Further presentations to the Undersea Medical Society and BSAC (British Sub-Aqua Club) Diving Officerâ€™s Conference (DOC) took place in 1984. A paper based on this work was published in the Lancet in 1989. At the 2017 BSAC Diving Conference, Dr Wilmshurst stated that IPO is probably the most common cause of death during subaqua diving and triathlons. He pointed out that two thirds of triathlete fatalities occur during the swim phase of the event, adding that the precise numbers are not known because it can be easily mistaken for drowning. Dr Wilmshurst said that IPO can affect the super-fit, but that high blood pressure, undiagnosed heart disease and the normal effects of ageing are exacerbating factors. Cold water and exertion 20
increase the likelihood of an IPO occurring and he also stated that divers should avoid excessive hydration before a dive. This runs contrary to prior advice to be well hydrated before a dive to reduce the potential for DCI (Decompression Illness), which he said was unproven and probably of limited effect.
Until recent times the condition was thought to be rare but within the last 5-6 years consideration of the circumstances of diving incidents appears to be showing evidence of IPO being a significant factor. BSAC began highlighting the possibility within the Annual Diving Incident Report from 2016 onwards and Dr Peter Wilmshurst has presented on the subject at two BSAC Diving Conferences (2014 and 2017). Over recent years within the BSAC Annual Incident Report a number of the incidents described in the associated synopses have been confirmed by medical assessment as involving IPO in the casualty; a number of divers survived by immediately leaving the water and attending hospital. To date 24 incidents have been identified in the entire database (1997-2018) where IPO has PROFESSIONAL DIVER â€˘ SPRING 2020
“…high blood pressure carries increased risk of pulmonary oedema, which is why it forms one of the screening questions on a diving medical form. What was previously less understood is that very strenuous exercise could trigger IPO.” been confirmed; and for the 2016-2018 reporting years 29 incidents have been identified where IPO is suspected of being a factor from the synopsis using the factors described within the Annual Reports in recent years. Since highlighting the importance of IPO for divers in 2014, a number of articles, including personal experiences of suffering IPO, have been published in SCUBA magazine raising awareness. Pulmonary Oedema may be confused with drowning as both conditions result in fluid collecting in the lungs. First Aid treatment is however likely to be the same for both.
CAUSES OF IPO
When we are immersed in water, the hydrostatic pressure causes compression of leg veins. As a result blood that normally pools in the legs is pushed centrally into the chest. The increased central blood volume increases the pressure in the alveolar capillaries and may cause fluid to leak into the lungs and cause difficulty breathing, and if not corrected can cause death. It has been known for some time that high blood pressure carries increased risk of pulmonary oedema, which is why it forms one of the screening questions on a diving medical form. What was previously less understood is that very strenuous exercise could trigger IPO. This had previously been reported in military divers under extremes of training. That level of extreme exercise might arise in diving for example when attempting a rescue of another diver or fighting a current.
IPO is the result of a combination of immersion in water and the body’s response to that immersion. Other than avoiding entering the water in the first place some simple steps may help reduce the risk. • Hypertension - high blood pressure can contribute to the risk. Divers with high blood pressure should seek specialist advice from a Medical referee. • Hydration - divers should NOT drink excessive fluids prior to a dive. PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
• E xercise - extreme levels of exercise can contribute to IPO even in very fit individuals and so, where possible, minimise the need to extreme exercise.
BSAC are continuing to consult with an expert to ascertain if IPO is likely in incidents where the description of the incident implies an IPO may have occurred. Whilst the body of information and evidence develops, we believe it continues to be important to remind divers to be aware of factors that could indicate IPO which include: • Divers with breathing difficulties when not exercising particularly strenuously. Breathing difficulties may be indicated by rapid, uneven or heavy breathing, or coughing uncontrollably. • Confusion, swimming in the wrong or random directions. • Inability to carry out normal functions, whilst appearing to have to concentrate on breathing. • Belief that a regulator is not working properly. • Indication of ‘out of gas’ when their regulator(s) are found to be working correctly and with adequate gas supplies. • Divers refusing or rejecting an alternate source when ‘out of gas’. • Indication of difficulty of breathing when on the surface.
Advice from the medical experts at this time is that if you experience breathing difficulties underwater you should terminate the dive, ascend safely and exit the water. If you recognise any of the above factors in a buddy then assist them from the water as quickly as it is safe to do so. Once out of the water the casualty should: • Sit upright if conscious; • Be given oxygen; • Keep warm; • NOT be given fluids. … and it is essential that medical advice be sought. 21
A clean break from work
The proper planning of works breaks and hygiene facilities is, explains Esteban Marrufo, a key contributor to diver welfare
n these strange times, it seems like a good opportunity to talk about welfare issues around our continuously evolving industry. We are all aware of the ACOP (Approved Code of Practice) relating to diving. It is used as a foundation to plan, risk asses and work on our methodology to achieve the safest and best outcome for the tasks carried out within the inshore diving industry. However, there are numerous useful publications that assist the diving ACOP. In this article, I would like to discuss workplace health safety and welfare.
LOOKING AT FACILITIES
How you view welfare often depends on your role inside the company/team you work with. Although an employer has a duty of care towards their employees, it is the duty of everybody involved to recognise and execute safe working practices. This will ensure a clean and maintainable working environment. Interpreting the meaning of these regulations is often one of the reasons for discussion inside a dive team. People might well have different ideas about what is acceptable and what is unacceptable. This is why being armed with the knowledge of welfare in the workplace should go hand in hand with the Diving ACOP. 22
Often, you will find yourself on one day jobs: but what level of welfare should you expect? More importantly what level of welfare will HSE Inspectors expect? For example, for a single or mixed gender dive team of up to five people the minimum expected W/C is one cubicle and one washbasin. If the team is all male then those facilities will be sufficient for up to fifteen people. For any numbers greater than these, there will need to be two cubicles and two washbasins. On longer jobs this is more easily achievable; site owners are encouraged to provide a clean sanitary area with both hot and cold running water, soap and clean towels. Plus, if required, due to contamination, showers as well. This is also expected on short duration jobs. But, in reality, how many dive sites provide these facilities? I am sure it will be agreed that on a one-day job this is difficult. There also needs to be a separate and clean seating area for breaks, drinking water and a means of heating food or water for hot drinks. A full version of the HSE Guidance can be found at www.hse.gov. uk/pubns/indg293.pdf or, for the Construction Industry www. hse.gov.uk/pubns/cis59.pdf Something not unique to the diving industry, but with more relevance for us than
most, is drying facilities. There are so many varied factors to take into account. On a job that requires divers to dive on multiple days there should be a drying area. It should be separate from any eating area and be adequately ventilated. There has to be enough room for all the team to be able to have sufficient space and, where necessary, women and men must be able to change separately. It is imperative that the facility is fitted with high temperature cut-out devices or is properly ventilated: both, in an ideal world. Always remember electric heaters are not radiators; they should not be covered directly and best practice will ensure a fire RA (Risk Assessment) and be in line with fire safety regulations. One of the most common causes of fires is from drying facilities.
HSE (HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE) COMPLIANCE It is worth adding that, if you are working on a construction site where there is a planned schedule for inland diving operations, you should find a well-equipped welfare area that includes a robust welfare ethos and facilities that should stand up to the ACOP regarding not only welfare but also the HSE (Health and Safety Executive) document for construction sites. It clearly states on page 11 section 2.44
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“…prearranging all breaks and outlining from the start what you need to do to share out the areas and breaks is a hugely important part of creating a safe and happy workplace.”
of the HSE ‘Health and Safety in Construction’ document that, in almost all cases, arrangements still need to be made for welfare facilities where work is of a short duration. In this day and age, it is more important than ever to promote good hygiene and safe refuge areas. These documents are designed to keep us all healthy to alleviate the lost time through illness at work. Not complying with current recommendations can bring a whole site to a standstill thus losing operational time: this never goes down well with the client. Going back to a one-day job, is it unreasonable to speak to the client and arrange use of facilities? If, for instance, you are working in a marina, could you pre-arrange an area just for the dive team to use as a changing area… somewhere to sit and eat some lunch? All of this can be arranged through the client via the contractor. Keep in mind that, if you are running a five-man team, you will have to take breaks all together as any shortfall in team numbers working will result in non-compliance with the diving ACOP. With, say, a six-man team or more, you can rotate the team to take breaks one at a time; this keeps the team operating. All the above points absolutely have to be taken into account at the PROFESSIONAL DIVER • SPRING 2020
planning stages of any job.
WORKING WHERE THERE ARE OTHER TEAMS
The facilities you are expected to see are totally transferable to boats and barges. It is worth keeping in mind that with boats and barges the facilities are often built in, so you would fully expect a working boat to have a clean area for changing, a suitable area for eating etc, However what needs to be reviewed is the total amount of personnel that are licensed to be operating on said vessel and use the facilities. All boat skippers should have this under control, but if you walk into the work environment and have the knowledge to suitably question what the facilities are, you are already one step closer to achieving a good working relationship with everybody involved. Very often you will find on a vessel month-on/month-off crew who have strict routines and strict cleaning processes. They are letting you into their work environment and, at that moment, taking a break from the day’s work, will often mean that everybody stands down. Going into their rest area, all together might, more often than not mean that you would be heavily overcrowding their refuge space. This is why prearranging all breaks and
outlining from the start what you need to do to share out the areas and breaks is a hugely important part of creating a safe and happy workplace.
In general, it is a good idea to be familiarised with the HSE Guidelines on welfare, construction sites and fire safety. These should always be reviewed in all job planning before the dive plan is executed. If you keep in mind that no job can start properly until the welfare of the dive team is taken into account, then should you have a visit from an inspectorate, there will be no problem in displaying that you have considered all aspects of the work. This is best practice and will show you to be a confident and safe employer, if you are an employee it will display a strong respect for your craft and show you have the ability to think of others. In the modern-day site, it is imperative that the people working in our industry respect the regulations and guidelines. Never compromise your standards, always work with everybody’s welfare in mind and you will find yourself in a stronger position to assist your employer in achieving their goal of employee welfare and customer satisfaction. Dive safe all. 23
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