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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation EO/IR Imaging and Targeting Systems

Meet Your New Force Multiplier Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Targeting in Counter Insurgency Operations Revealing the Detail in Adverse Conditions with a Moving Target ‘Swimming in Sensors and Drowning in Data’ The Difference a Decade Makes

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


YOUR FORCE MULTIP LIE R .

AH-1Z Cobra image courtesy of Bell Helicopter

MX-20HD/D MX-15HDi

MX-10 MX-15Di

For today’s warfighter and homeland protectors, L-3 WESCAM continually reinvests in turret and sensor development to provide unambiguous clarity in its full-motion video. Because critical decisions depend on seeing what the eye can’t, day or night, WESCAM incorporates the very best imaging technology into the MX-Series to protect your people and national infrastructure. WESCAM’s 2011 product line enhancements include: HD IR, full-motion video channels, a laser spot tracker, an embedded navigation grade IMU, short wave IR and a 10-sensor payload capacity. To learn more, visit www.wescam.com WESCAM

L-3com.com


SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation EO/IR Imaging and Targeting Systems

SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Contents

Meet Your New Force Multiplier Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Targeting in Counter Insurgency Operations

Foreword

Revealing the Detail in Adverse Conditions with a Moving Target

Mary Dub, Editor

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‘Swimming in Sensors and Drowning in Data’ The Difference a Decade Makes

Meet Your New Force Multiplier Evolving imaging and targeting technologies in support of tomorrow’s mission portfolio L-3 WESCAM

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Technology That Conquers Integration and Mission Challenges

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Modular and Scalable Sighting Solutions WESCAM Training – Because Details Matter

Published by Global Business Media

Closer to the Customer Anywhere in the World

Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom

Developmental Agility for Superior Imaging

Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Targeting in Counter Insurgency Operations

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Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

The Constant Challenge of High Quality Intelligence The USAF View: Progress in Distributed Intelligence The Value of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in Mitigating Error and Delivering Precision The Uncertainties Created by the Weather Technologies to Conquer the Disadvantages of Night for a Fixed Target Doctrine on Dealing with an Intelligent Enemy who Learns About Allied Dependence on Electronic Warfare

Revealing the Detail in Adverse Conditions with a Moving Target

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Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

24 hour Persistent Surveillance Before Convoy Movements Overcoming the Hazards to Cloud Cover and Foliage

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

© 2012. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

‘Swimming in Sensors and Drowning in Data’

12

Meredith LLewelyn, Lead Contributor

ISR Problems Still to be Addressed Culture Change Needed

The Difference a Decade Makes

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Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

The Dead and Wounded Later Observed by Coalition Forces were Mostly Women and Children Air Commodore Monkman, Director Air Ops ISAF Joint Command, Pioneer of the “Could I, Should I, Would I” Tenet for ISAF Aircrew

References

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Foreword

T

he huge advances made in the field of electro optic and infrared and laser imaging and targeting represent some of the greatest steps forward in technology seen on the battlefield in the last decade of operations in Afghanistan. However, all coalition commanders on the ground do not always see this leap in technical capability as a step forward. Some United States commanders, especially within USAF, embrace and utilize the latest electro optic (EO) and infrared (IR) imaging and targeting technologies, other allies, noticeably the British, are caught in a more austere budgetary environment and many of the latest advances are beyond their means. However, in the context of the development of counter insurgency effectiveness, the practice of restraint to minimize civilian deaths to progress the counter insurgency aim is strongly reinforced by the latest developments in technology, which fill the much needed gap between weak human and signals intelligence and the richness of the infrared and electro optic, radar and laser imaging surveillance data that can be made available.

armoured vehicles and marine-based platforms. The article continues by looking at a series of training courses to help users maximize equipment performance and results under the most severe conditions and gives details of the resources available to produce and support the design and development of these systems to the highest standards. The second piece the Report looks at the central role of intelligence from surveillance in counter insurgency. The third follows with a discussion from DARPA’s perspective of the challenge of delivering the level of detail and specificity required by the warfighter not only at night, but in adverse weather conditions with the additional challenge of following a moving human target in foliage or a built environment. One view in USAF provides the central focus of the fourth piece, which looks at the criticism offered by senior military that ISR capabilities are still not delivering what is required, perhaps because of structural problems within the armed forces themselves rather than any shortcomings in the technical achievements of the industry. However, the old problem of ‘data deluge’ and the need for more and better software, computers and operators has not gone away. The final narrative in the report is worth studying because the two extracts offered highlight how far

This Special Report opens with an article that

ISAF thinking has changed in the last decade about

looks at how advanced EO, IR and laser imaging

the nature of precision targeting and imaging. The

and targeting systems have become essential tools

result has been that, to a far greater extent, civilians

in capturing and communicating real-time intelligence

and Afghan women and children can feel secure and

associated with 21st Century threats. It goes on to

therefore the counter insurgency task can be handed

describe various multi-sensor, multi-spectral systems,

over to Afghan security forces.

which can be found on over 100 different types of platforms including fixed-wing, rotor-wing, UAV and aerostat airborne platforms, as well as on numerous

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager. Focused by a Masters in War Studies from King’s College, London, she annotates and highlights the interplay of armies, governments and industry.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Meet Your New Force Multiplier L-3 WESCAM

649 North Service Rd. W Burlington, Ontario, Canada +1 905 633 4000 www.wescam.com sales.wescam@L-3com.com support.wescam@L-3com.com L-3 WESCAM. A trusted name. A proven product-line. Relied upon time and again by leading defense, homeland security and law enforcement agencies, WESCAM’s advanced EO, IR, and laser imaging and targeting systems have proven to be essential in capturing and communicating real-time intelligence associated with 21st century threats.

MX TURRETS HAVE OPERATED FROM THESE PLATFORMS

E

NGINEERED WITH advanced EO/ IR technology and superior gyrostabilization, WESCAM’s portfolio of multisensor, multi-spectral systems have been proven in-theater, having controlled the battle-space from every altitude. With thousands of systems fielded worldwide, WESCAM’s imaging and targeting systems can be found on over 100 different types of platforms including fixed-wing, rotor-wing, UAV and aerostat airborne platforms – and mounted to numerous armoured vehicles and marine-based platforms. Within WESCAM’s portfolio of imaging and targeting systems is a series of systems that encourage ease and familiarity of use, simplified turret interchangeability within fleets, efficiencies in technology enhancements and overall system support. Featuring common electronics and

cabling, common user interfaces and video overlays and common software and internal components, this family is known as WESCAM’s MX™-Series. MX-Series Benefits • Small and mid-sized imaging and targeting turrets within the MX-Series’ are free from external or support electronics. The resulting weight reduction frees up cabin space and increases endurance; enabling faster, more efficient mission execution • Software commonality and powerful builtin functionality provides common operator interfaces and Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Common LRUs is a key factor in creating simplified interchangeability between turret models and platforms within a fleet. WESCAM has roll-on/roll-off mounting kits further WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 3


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Software commonality and powerful built-in functionality provides common operator interfaces and Line Replaceable Units (LRUs).

SOLUTIONS FOR AIRBORNE, GROUND AND MARINIZED MISSIONS

accelerating the interchangeability process between similar aircraft or varying fleets. • With a reduced LRU count, the MX-Series’ reliability is increased and maintainability made easier, as fault isolation is automatically enhanced. • Whether nose, wing or belly mount, or a recessed side mount requiring installation, the series’ stabilization performance is not affected as turrets within the MX-Series do not require external isolators. For today’s war fighter and homeland protectors, WESCAM’s continually re-invests in product development to provide un-rivaled clarity in its full-motion video. The following technology updates have been added to products within WESCAM’s MX product line. • High Definition IR: Providing a true HD image over a wide field of view. • High Magnification Spotter: Increasing identification ranges by 20% in both low-light and daylight conditions. • Laser Spot Tracker will: Acquire and track a laser designator spot originating from ground forces or allied aircraft. • Short Wave IR: Expanding the spectral domain. • 10 Sensor Payload Capacity: Expands mission flexibility in all environmental conditions.

Technology That Conquers Integration and Mission Challenges From legacy to new platform introductions, product enhancements developed and integrated by WESCAM continue to conquer industry-wide mission and integration challenges: 4 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

Integrated MCUs Reducing once needed cables and LRUs enables lighter weight and simplified integration solutions. MX-GEO User friendly modes of operation enable turrets to automatically point, focus, locate and track with unparalleled accuracy. 1080p HD Imaging Resolution With more pixels on target, sharper colors, bolder contrasts and finer details, the detection of critical Intel is made easier. Enhanced Local Area Processing (ELAP) Increased standoff range, improved feature recognition and maximized haze penetration provides operators higher resolution and enhanced situational awareness. Laser Target Designators Compact, efficient and reliable diode-pumped laser technology achieves unparalleled designation ranges and high MTBF while in theater.

Modular and Scalable Sighting Solutions Modernizing Older Generation Turrets WESCAM’s imaging and targeting systems are modular in design – which easily facilitates system growth. This flexible design allows for individual sensors to be upgraded without affecting other sensors. This flexibility allows for: • The upgrade of existing components to newer technology • The addition of new components to increase your system’s functionality • A low training burden – common system components and interfaces


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

• The best value for smaller budgets – innovative solutions and low “whole life costs”

Ground Systems (GS) & Capabilities Having base-lined the mission-proven EO/IR/ Laser technology within MX-Series of airborne turrets, WESCAM now offers class-leading visual dominance capabilities from the ground. Offering both combat Force-Protection and Hunter-Killer solutions, WESCAM offers the optical and laser technologies required to detect, identify, localize, designate and assist in striking any given target. WESCAM’s ground solutions incorporate the reliability and imaging functionality found within the MX-Series’ airborne product line and have been engineered to operate reliably in unfavorable environmental conditions and climates that meet MIL SPECs. The system’s jitter-free, high-resolution video remains unscathed, even when moving over rough terrain, or through the wind and sandstorms that often tear across the Afghanistan landscape. Vehicle-mast and tower-mounted turret configurations have been designed with the stabilization levels, passive isolation, and high optical-magnification levels that are required by ground forces to support covert missions from outside the audible range. The system’s rapid zoom technology provides a wide field-of-view and a pinpointed capability to identify urban and asymmetrical threats. WESCAM’s ground solutions are the lightest product offering in their class, which minimizes the impact on both armored vehicle and mast weight constraints. The system can deploy multiple MX airborne and ground systems in layered ranges and overlapping fields of view, and visualize continuous networked coverage and threat handoff between sensors. This capability allows for the uninterrupted surveillance of borders, forward operating bases, airfields and other vital assets. Integrator of Leading ISR Communication Systems As a prime contractor for many multi-million dollar programs, WESCAM is relied on to provide more than EO/IR turrets. Fitting sensor turrets with wireless communication equipment, WESCAM incorporates leading sensor technology, including radar, global position systems, inertial navigation systems and moving maps to provide a complete network of shared intelligence.

WESCAM Training – Because Details Matter Lives depend on your ability to keep your equipment operating at its maximum potential.

Because of this, WESCAM offers fully-integrated training programs to help customers optimize their equipment performance and results under the toughest conditions. These are comprehensive training solutions designed to fit every customer’s need and budget. The training offerings range from in-class instructor-led courses to eLearning, and selfstudy courses. WESCAM offers training at its new state-of-the-art training center in Canada, and at WESCAM Authorized Service Centers (WASCs) located around the world. Courses include: • MX Product Familiarization • Operational & Organizational Maintenance – with Flight • Operational & Organizational Maintenance – without Flight • Operational & Organizational Maintenance – Open Enrolment • Operational & Organizational Maintenance – eLearning • Intermediate Level Maintenance Course Descriptions: MX Product Familiarization: This course examines the basic operation, system capabilities, system maintenance, and integration requirements of the MX-Series system. The course is specifically designed around the customer’s specific system configuration and serves as post-sales support training for system integrators, engineers, and managers. The purpose of this course is to understand the basic operation and capabilities of the MX-Series system. This course is available at Wescam Burlington, Wescam Service Centers, or at the customer’s location. Duration: 1 Day Operation & Organizational Maintenance with In-Flight Training: This course is designed to provide a complete training experience. Combining classroom lectures and practical exercises ensures that operators will possess the knowledge and skill to successfully operate and maintain the MX-Series turrets over a wide array of mission scenarios and environments. In-flight training is included with this course, employing the customer’s aircraft. This is a custom course that focuses on the customer’s system and its specific configuration, and it is intended for personnel who will be operating and maintaining WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Throughout the evolution of aerial surveillance missions, WESCAM has led the way through engineering, and manufacturing, rocksolid, flight-proven, EO/IR technology.

the MX turret. This course allows for hands-on operation of the system while installed on the aircraft with the complete customer-configured sensor suite. This course is only available at the customer location and is available upon request. Duration: 5 Days Operation and Organizational Maintenance: This course is intended for system operators and maintainers responsible for operating and maintaining MX turrets at the organizational level. This course is designed to provide a complete training experience, combining classroom lectures and practical exercises. This format ensures that operators possess the knowledge and skill to successfully operate and maintain turrets over a wide array of missions and environments. The course is based around several mission scenarios that will teach the operator how to plan the mission. In planning missions, the operator will determine the appropriate system setup, sensor selection, steering mode, and mission logistics. Scenarios are also used to simulate real-life maintenance and troubleshooting situations. “As required” maintenance tasks at the Organizational level include: window cleaning, desiccant removal and replacement, and turret purging. Troubleshooting scenarios consists of recognizing system failures, diagnosing faults, removal and the replacement of system Line Replaceable Units (LRU). This course is customized to the customer’s particular system and its configuration. Courses are available upon request. Duration: 3 Days Operation and Organizational Maintenance Open Enrolment: This course combines inclass lectures with practical hands-on exercises with one of our MX-Series systems. This costeffective course allows customers to purchase a single seat in the course, rather than having a class with numerous people from your organization. Ideal for customers with small fleets or new employees, this course has the same content as our customer-specific O&OM courses, yet takes a generic approach to MXSeries systems. Questions regarding customer specific configurations are welcomed by the instructor during the class. These courses are scheduled throughout the year at various locations, including Wescam Burlington and Wescam Service Centers. Duration: 3 Days eLearning Operation and Organizational Maintenance: This course is a self-paced interactive computer-based training course, designed for operators and maintainers to learn the operation and organizational maintenance of an MX turret from the convenience of their computer. The content includes system setup,

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sensor selection, steering modes and mission logistics. Maintenance tasks will be covered at the organizational level including window cleaning, desiccant removal and replacement and turret purging. Troubleshooting will also be covered and consists of recognizing system failures, diagnosing faults and removal and replacement of system line replaceable units (LRUs). This interactive computer-based course makes extensive use of animations, videos and images, keeping students engaged during the course and allowing for maximum knowledge transfer. This is a superb tool for operators and technicians to stay current on the MX product. Duration: 10-12 hours Advanced Application and Custom Courses: In addition to our standard course offerings, WESCAM offers custom training courses tailored to mission requirements. Our specialized training services department will work with you in designing the customized training package to meet your organizations requirements. Contact us today to find out how we can help. For our self-maintainers, WESCAM offers maintenance training that aligns to the WESCAM Maintenance Concept. Intermediate Level Maintenance: This course has been designed for self-maintainers responsible for the troubleshooting and repair of their MX-Series products. The focus of the course is on providing technicians with the theory and practical hands-on experience required to maintain and troubleshoot the MX-Series system at the Intermediate Basic-level. This practical course covers; system operation, troubleshooting techniques, removal and replacement of Shop Replaceable Units (SRUs), system calibration and return to service tasks. The course is based on real life practical troubleshooting scenarios that reinforce the WESCAM approach to troubleshooting the MX-System. The trainees will make use of WESCAM service manuals, schematic diagrams, specialized test equipment and diagnostic tools. The course requires the proper Special Tools and Test Equipment (STTE) and SRU spares, as defined by Wescam, to be located at the course site. Duration: 10 Days For more information on WESCAM’s products, Service and Training services, please visit us at www.wescam.com

Closer to the Customer Anywhere in the World WESCAM continues to invest heavily not only in product development, but also in customer care. From single operator configurations to complex, multi-operational systems, the following


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

support infrastructure is in place to support WESCAM’s customers: WESCAM Authorized Service Centers WESCAM has expanded its global footprint by partnering with leading service providers to create strategically located Authorized Ser vice Centers ( WASCs) around the world. WASCs provide support services so customer operational availability remains high. WASC technicians are factory trained and certified, and all follow WESCAM’s documented in-house procedures.

Certified to AS 9100 and ISO 9001 standards, L-3 WESCAM’s practices and products have achieved a standard of quality that is recognized and respected throughout the world. L-3 WESCAM remains focused on being the EO/IR leader in the defence, homeland security and law enforcement markets. Throughout the evolution of aerial surveillance missions, WESCAM has led the way through engineering, and manufacturing, rock-solid, flight-proven, EO/ IR technology.

WESCAM Service Centers are located in: Santa Rosa, CA, USA Warner Robins, GA, USA Burlington, ON, Canada Telford & Gloucestershire, UK Aranjuez, Spain Tokyo, Japan Cairns, Australia Donauwörth, Germany Quito, Ecuador Bogota, Colombia Coming Soon: France, UAE, Jordan Field Support Representatives (FSRs) WESCAM’s FSRs are factory-trained technicians, experienced in performing diagnostics and repairs anywhere in the world. Available for dispatch within 24 hours from the closest WSC location, FSRs respond rapidly to customer calls for on-site repairs. MX-Raid Now all WESCAM MX systems can interface with diagnostic software that can be used to perform checks, calibrations, firmware updates and log errors from in the field. This service reduces delays in determining and repairing system faults, eliminates no-fault-found returns, significantly reduces response time results and reduces downtime for the end user.

Developmental Agility for Superior Imaging L-3 WESCAM has the operational capabilities in place to support the design and development of commercial off-the-shelf EO/IR imaging and targeting systems. With over 200,000 square feet of floor space, innovative measures have been implemented to foster the design, assembly and support of new and existing technologies. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and Targeting in Counter Insurgency Operations Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

“Airpower is targeting, and targeting is intelligence” Colonel Meilinger, former Dean and Commander of School of Advanced Airpower Studies, USAF

Where human intelligence (HUMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) are weak, real-time data from surveillance can offer a great deal of insight where the data generated can be processed and used.

“It is widely accepted that in counter insurgency campaigns intelligence is a necessary condition of success. The security forces need to understand the population and its social and political dynamics, and to have accurate and actionable ‘contact’ intelligence on the insurgents. Understanding and intelligence have been singularly lacking in Helmand. For instance, precisely because troops were under intense tactical pressure in which conventional military activity was essential, they were able to gather little intelligence in the Sangin valley in the first two years of the campaign. This ignorance continues to this day.”1 This damning indictment of intelligence capability was written and published less than a year ago and reflects a need for more effective intelligence and surveillance capabilities in 2012.

The Constant Challenge of High Quality Intelligence For 10 years, British and other allied commanders have struggled with the provision of the useful and actionable intelligence, at the right time, in the right quantity to the commander on operation in Helmand, or elsewhere in Afghanistan or the Middle East, despite all the advances in modern technology. However, modern technology is delivering a host of different systems and capabilities to offer assistance. Where human intelligence (HUMINT) and signals intelligence (SIGINT) are weak, real-time data from surveillance can offer a great deal of insight where the data generated can be processed and used.

The USAF View: Progress in Distributed Intelligence American commanders see themselves as more successful in their use of surveillance 8 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

data. In an article on ‘The Changing Face of Warfare’, Lieutenant General David A. Deptula, USAF, Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), U.S. Air Force and Colonel James R. Marrs, USAF, former Commander, 480th ISR Wing Virginia are much more ‘can-do’: “Nowhere is this progress as evident as in the rapid evolution of distributed intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations. Joint and allied forces depend daily on these new capabilities—a result of innovations stemming from our longstanding competencies in ISR, unmanned aerial systems, air, space, cyberspace infrastructure, and both the technology and art of distributed operations…As our coalition partners continue to develop their ISR capabilities, we must be active participants with them in developing a network-centric allied environment to integrate with the DOD DCGS enterprise. This is also the time to imagine the future of distributed ISR operations— one whose capability is an order of magnitude greater than the one we operate today.”2 And in next generation, net centric warfare improved ISR allows enhanced targeting precision, that delivers command of the air without collateral damage and civilian deaths, which undermine the whole purpose of a counter insurgency campaign. What is more, in the economic climate of austerity in warfare and curtailed defense budgets, precision targeting as the result of well used intelligence allows greater efficacy, as Major Basham, USAF describes: “The true merit of precision strike is not just the increased efficiency in destroying targets; rather it is much more far-reaching. The benefits of fewer sorties and smaller munitions expenditures per target include reducing force package requirements, logistic needs, costs, forward


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

basing, and war-fighters at risk. Alternatively, the benefits are still increased targets destroyed. More dramatically, the implication is the capacity to prosecute parallel attacks at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels simultaneously with long-range systems.”3

The Value of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in Mitigating Error and Delivering Precision Major Basham USAF gives the example of improved targeting with the B-2 using the JDAM missile developed by Boeing. Targeting is enhanced by synthetic aperture radar, which corrects software, coordinate plotting or GPS error by offering high accuracy synthetic aperture radar images. “Although the JDAM is a highly accurate weapon, there are still errors introduced into the targeting equation that cause the weapon to strike less than perfect. The circular error probable (CEP) of a weapon gives the radius from the target within which the probability of a weapon hitting within that radius is 50 percent…The cause for errors include target location error (TLE) and weapon error in the form of navigation, guidance, and mission computer software errors. TLE derives from the accuracy of target coordinates estimation by intelligence sources as they mensurate the coordinates using a variety of methods or simply errors in plotting coordinates….Guidance and software errors are inherent in the weapon and accepted. However, the B-2 has the unique capability to refine the TLE and GPS navigation error by using its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to correct any TLE and eliminate much of the GPS error, up to the resolution of the radar. By taking a radar map of the target area, the pilot can minimize the error between where the navigation system thinks the target is and the actual position. This capability is unique to the B-2 and referred to as GPS Aided TargetingTM (GAT).” 4

The Uncertainties Created by the Weather On operations, the weather can limit precision. Major Stephen Masham, USAF again: “Weather can have a profound influence on the effectiveness of some PCS systems by degrading the ability of target-imaging sensors or platform-based sensors to see the target. Poor weather can render unusable some infraredguided weapons and those relying on electrooptical sensors, including LGBs (Laser-Guided Bomb). Because of improvements in technology, not only can air and space forces perform their missions under ideal conditions; they can also increasingly operate in adverse circumstances. No longer does the nighttime provide a cover for adversary movement.” 5

MX-20 ON TETHERED AEROSTAT OVER IRAQ

Technologies to Conquer the Disadvantages of Night for a Fixed Target “The B-2 can identify, to some degree of accuracy, targets below weather using its synthetic aperture radar to refine or designate target coordinates. Such a capability holds enemy forces at risk whenever detected and identified in a fixed geographic position; i.e. whenever they stop moving. They would gain no respite from the covering clouds, just the worrying possibility that a GPS-guided weapon might be dropping towards them, at any moment.”6 However, warfare is never static and insurgents are learning to work around this danger and adapt their modus operandi to present a different challenge to modern surveillance moving targets and knowledge of allied surveillance capabilities.

Doctrine on Dealing with an Intelligent Enemy who Learns About Allied Dependence on Electronic Warfare Allied doctrine acknowledges the central importance of this internecine struggle with a knowing insurgent force, and emphasizes how American forces need to adapt. “Commanders must know their own EW capabilities and those of potential enemies. Mission planning hinges on accurate information. Each year, new technology weapons systems are fielded in increasing numbers. Potential adversaries recognize US dependence on electronically oriented communications and weapons systems. Seeking to take advantage of this fact, some potential adversaries are organized to attack our critical weapons systems control functions and associated communications nodes. Many countries have been purchasing modern and capable weapons systems from a variety of sources. In addition, terrorists may acquire highly sophisticated and dangerous weapons. To counter these possibilities, commanders and their staff must become well versed in the employment of weapons systems and the EW capabilities of all possible adversaries.”7 The need to be proactive and one step ahead of the game never ceases. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

Revealing the Detail in Adverse Conditions with a Moving Target Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

UAVs with in-built or turreted surveillance systems are frequently used with aerostats for the apocryphal ‘dull, dirty and dangerous’ projects to deliver persistent detailed surveillance at a relatively low cost.

R

E VIEWING USAF statements on capabilities and the latest industry surveillance systems capabilities, it frequently appears that all can be revealed from the latest technology on offer. Yet DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) program officers are still looking for federal funding in the latest FY2011 Budget for research into current technological capabilities to deal with the challenge of fine detail and the night. Dr. Nibir Dhar, a program manager for DARPA explains in an abstract of his work in 2010: “The war fighter’s effectiveness in current and future combat missions can be severely limited by a lack of adequate target discrimination, an inability to view the operational scene with larger fields of regard and longer standoff distances. For ground combat and near ground support operations, where tactical information is urgently needed, there is a significant capability gap for day/night intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) to make timely decisions. There are still challenges of targeting and C-spot that must be addressed. Existing electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) capabilities have already proven to be very important and necessary tools. However, current imaging systems have narrow fields of view and typically single wave band with relatively poor resolutions. To address these deficiencies, Microsystems Technology Office at DARPA is developing a suite of electro-optics capability. Phenomenological study indicates there is a clear need to increase wavelength bands, range, and field of view (FOV) for target detection, recognition and identification while maintaining a small SWaP (system size, weight, and power). Enabling wider FOV, higher resolutions and multi-band imaging technologies would provide a solution path for the war fighter’s combat effectiveness.”8 Using sensors to reveal the detail is a multifaceted task. There are ground sensors and vehicle borne sensors that use the latest infrared (IR) and electro optic (EO) technologies to protect base camps and soldiers and their vehicles on the ground. NATO’s Consultation, Command and

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Control Agency (NC3A) has been using advanced sensors since 2005 to protect headquarters in Afghanistan against IEDs and other threats: “NC3A is currently providing direct support to three locations in Afghanistan, namely at ISAF headquarters, Kaia and the Kandahar airfield, and its first task was to install standoff detection sensors against vehicle-borne and suicide bomber devices. This involves vehicle and body scanners with multi-scan capability combining high-energy transmission and backscatter imaging that allows the identification of organic material (such as explosive precursors) and shape recognition. These systems are not only used on base sites: being mobile they can be used to set up vehicle checkpoints. The scanning time for a vehicle is less than ten seconds, a speed compensation system (Doppler radar) allows the vehicle to move through the gate at about five km/h.”9

24 hour Persistent Surveillance Before Convoy Movements UAVs with in-built or turreted surveillance systems are frequently used with aerostats for the apocryphal ‘dull, dirty and dangerous’ projects to deliver persistent detailed surveillance at a relatively low cost: “Persistent ISR is yet another ally. NATO is aiming at computer-assisted analysis of video footage, including from infrared cameras. The idea is to be able to exploit the imagery of an itinerary over a period of at least 24 hours (and more if needed) before the passage of a major convoy. In September 2009 the NC3A awarded Lockheed Martin UK a contract for the development and delivery of a FullMotionVideo (FMV) system allowing for real-time (HD) video distribution, storage, archival and retrieval. This asset will be used to recognize and plan for unusual or suspicious events, track individuals, identify insurgents among civilians and also improve the detection of devices placed along Afghanistan’s roads. In 2011 the NC3A intends, if tasked, to start a program involving the use of hyper spectral sensors.”10


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

MX-15HD USED TO OVERSEE OIL SPILL CLEANUP EFFORTS

ARREST CAUGHT WITH MX-10 IR SENSOR

Overcoming the Hazards to Cloud Cover and Foliage “The capability to penetrate the ground with electromagnetic impulses and obtain a picture of what is buried underneath is certainly one of the most interesting. Foliage-penetrating radars (Fopen) and ground-penetrating radars are increasingly regarded as one of the key elements of mine and roadside bomb detection. In 2005 America deployed to Iraq a C-12 aircraft equipped with a Penrad 6 synthetic aperture, continuous-wave radar developed by SRI International. In addition to this primary sensor, the aircraft carries an L-3 Communications Wescam 14 Skyball electro-optical turret. In the course of its deployment the radar was subjected to a series of software and hardware upgrades, including a two-fold output power increase. Known as the Horned Owl program, what started as operational testing became an operational mission and the C-12 Horned Owl has flown over 680 combat sorties�11 Whatever data is collected, the value of the information is only as good as the data handling system. Here, data handling software and the most relevant algorithms can deliver specific and valuable detail that would be near impossible to mine by human viewing of

Whatever data is collected, the value of the information is only as good as the data handling system. the material. Migma Systems has developed two algorithm suites, one to detect roadside bombs and mines from land vehicles and the other via airborne platforms. The algorithms enhance images produced by existing hardware and sort the resulting data. For vehicle-based systems, the Migma Systems detection algorithm suite is able to cue at a safe standoff distance of 60 meters with a high detection and low false alarm rate.12 WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

‘Swimming in Sensors and Drowning in Data’ Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor

‘Why is ISR still a high-demand, low-density capability after several years of needing it?’ is one of the most common questions heard at senior levels in the military. Col Dagvin R. M. Anderson, USAF in October 2011

Mobile missile launchers or weapons concealed in buildings or tunnels still present a threat.

EXCEPTIONAL DETAIL – SCREEN CAPTURE FROM MX-10HDi Turret

C

OL ANDERSON goes some way to answering the question himself: “We have done much to boost the number and quality of assets in combat, such as flying more sorties on the battlefield and standing up the ISR Task Force within the DOD to expedite the fielding of ISR platforms and sensors. Since 2009 the number of ISR sorties in Afghanistan alone has quadrupled, and in just the last year the Air Force has fielded wide-area surveillance systems such as Gorgon Stare that represent a leap forward in technology, taking ISR from the proverbial ‘looking through the soda straw’ to maintaining surveillance across an entire city. The Air Force has even developed an independent training pipeline for operators of remotely piloted aircraft to help address the demand for their surveillance platforms. Despite this effort, the Air Force still cannot meet the demand.”

ISR Problems Still to be Addressed Why? One of the key issues Col Anderson raises is the moving target. Counter insurgency demands

12 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

the tracking of key individuals over terrain but also in a crowd - despite the Gorgon Stare, this is still a challenge. Mobile missile launchers or weapons concealed in buildings or tunnels still present a threat. Finally, flooding the skies with surveillance aircraft, UAVs and aerostats frequently provides too much information that overwhelms the operators and detracts from the intelligence delivery process. Anderson argues for better data tagging, data storage and system architecture. He also highlights the problems of incompatibility of data from different sources and the difficulties of data sharing between coalition allies.

Culture Change Needed Some in USAF acknowledge the need to change the mindset of those managing ISR assets and training operators. Experience in this field no longer equates to ability and the younger generation with greater acceptance and fluency with technology should drive the integration of improved intelligence to the warfighter in such a way that the real time information to the commander and his troops is improved.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

The Difference a Decade Makes Marushka Dubova, Defence Correspondent

C

OUNTER INSURGENCY operations are rarely rapid. There is a classic debate about the need for ‘strategic patience’ to establish a political and security solution. However, the decade that allied/ ISAF forces have spent in Afghanistan represents a significant period, where there has been a paradigm shift in approach with the use of more intelligence and precision targeting. As a poignant illustration of the impact of the most recent changes in precision targeting and electro optic and infrared surveillance technology, I have drawn on two contrasting case studies from operations in Afghanistan over the last decade. This highlights the extent to which precision technology reinforces thinking about how counter insurgency operations should be carried out to minimize civilian deaths. The first report is drawn from a United States CENTCOM Executive Summary from 2002. The second extract is drawn from the current 2012 British Ministry of Defence website for the Royal Air Force. The narrative is compelling. “Coalition aircraft [had] regularly been the target of hostile fire from the Deh Rawod area… Gunfire from various caliber weapons was observed throughout the day and at night, including mortars and AAA [anti-aircraft artillery] fire… Several compounds in the Deh Rawod area were positively identified as sources of this AAA fire. AAA fire had emanated from these compounds on repeated occasions over the previous two days and the source of the fires did not change. In all cases, the locations of these compounds were such that they could range and threaten coalition ground and airborne forces… As coalition ground and airborne forces approached the area, fire erupted from some of the compounds. By firing, these AAA batteries established that they were manned, armed, and operational. Their proximity to the objectives, landing zones, and blocking positions made them a threat to inbound coalition forces. Consequently, these sites were valid targets and AC-130 aircraft were directed toward them. Significant efforts were expended to ensure only the

MX-15i ON armed SKY TRACTOR

The decade that allied/ ISAF forces have spent in Afghanistan represents a significant period, where there has been a paradigm shift in approach with the use of more intelligence and precision targeting. compounds that were the sources of fire were targeted. At the first targeted compound, the apparent location of most of the deaths and injuries, AAA fire was directed at the AC-130 as it approached… The AC-130 was not able to observe the AAA weapon itself. Rather, the ground location of the source of the fire was identified and fires were directed to that area.” WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 13


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

As the year turned to 2012, the primacy of the counterinsurgency premise to use precision and ISR to avoid civilian WESCAM MX-10 ON UK MOD LYNX

deaths at all costs has led to new practice among air operators

SCREEN CAPTURE FROM MX-10

The Dead and Wounded Later Observed by Coalition Forces were Mostly Women and Children “Just as the weapon itself is not seen, it is also not possible to determine if the fires from the AC-130 have damaged or destroyed the weapon. Consequently, personnel at the weapon’s location were the primary targets. Unfortunately, it [was] also not possible to distinguish men from women or adults from children…The dead and wounded later observed by coalition forces were mostly women and children. Coalition medical personnel treated the wounded. Four wounded children were medically evacuated by helicopter… Further, the local Afghans maintained that most of the dead had already been buried – although no fresh gravesites were observed.”13

Air Commodore Monkman, Director Air Ops ISAF Joint Command, Pioneer of the “Could I, Should I, Would I” Tenet for ISAF Aircrew As the year turned to 2012, the primacy of the counterinsurgency premise to use precision 14 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

and ISR to avoid civilian deaths at all costs has led to new practice among air operators providing back up to troops in contact (TIC) on the ground. Air Commodore Alistair Monkman, Director Air Ops ISAF Joint Command reinforces the message. “…Our mission in Afghanistan is that of counter-insurgency. This means we are here to protect the Afghan people, be it from insurgents, natural disaster and prevention of civil casualties. I have pioneered the “Could I, Should I, Would I” debate. The tenet of this debate is for airmen to think carefully before any engagement that might be kinetic and with any possibility of e n d a n g e r i n g c i v i l i a n s . Fu r t h e r m o r e , …when a TIC (troops in contact) is supported by air it is essential that 85% of incidents do not go kinetic; thus one of the main aspects of the air role is to act as a deterrent.”14 As Flt Lt Katie Issitt, currently serving in Afghanistan on targeting, puts it: “Weapons are only used as a last resort or if we are certain we have a valid target and the likelihood of collateral damage or civilian casualties are as low as possible; if there’s any doubt, weapons are not used.”15


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION EO/ IR IMAGING AND TARGETING SYSTEMS

References: 1

2

p 321 ‘Understanding the Helmand Campaign’, Anthony King, International Affairs 86:2 (2010) ‘Global Distributed ISR Operations’ The Changing Face of Warfare http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-54/26.pdf JFQ / issue 54, 3d quarter 2009 Lieutenant General David A. Deptula, USAF, is Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Headquarters U.S. Air Force. Colonel James R. Marrs, USAF, was Commander, 480th ISR Wing, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia.

3

AU/ACSC/022/2001-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE B-2A AND 500 POUND JDAM: A NEW CONCEPT OF MASS by Steven L. Basham, Major, USAF

4

AU/ACSC/022/2001-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE B-2A AND 500 POUND JDAM: A NEW CONCEPT OF MASS by Steven L. Basham, Major, USAF

5

AU/ACSC/022/2001-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE B-2A AND 500 POUND JDAM: A NEW CONCEPT OF MASS by Steven L. Basham, Major, USAF

6

AU/ACSC/022/2001-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE B-2A AND 500 POUND JDAM: A NEW CONCEPT OF MASS by Steven L. Basham, Major, USAF

7

Air Force Doctrine Document 2-5.1 5 November 2002 http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/service_pubs/afd2_5_1.pdf DAVID F. MacGHEE, JR. Major General, USAF Commander, Air Force Doctrine Center

8

Dr. Nibir Dhar of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency June 2010 IEEE Sensors Council and Nanotechnology Council Chapters of Northern Virginia/Washington

9

Armada International 3/2010: Paolo Valpolini p.24

10

Armada International 3/2010: Paolo Valpolini p.24

11

Armada International 3/2010: Paolo Valpolini p.24

12

Armada International 3/2010: Paolo Valpolini p.24

13

BEYOND PRECISION: ISSUES OF MORALITY AND DECISION MAKING IN MINIMIZING COLLATERAL CASUALTIES, by Lt Col Dwight A. Roblyer United States Air Force National Defense Fellow Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign A Research Report Submitted to the Air Force Institute for National Security Studies May 2003

14

MOD UK quotes http://www.raf.mod.uk/currentoperations

15

MOD UK quotes http://www.raf.mod.uk/currentoperations

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


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Special Report – Next Generation EO/IR Imaging and Targeting Systems  

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Special Report – Next Generation EO/IR Imaging and Targeting Systems  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation EO/IR Imaging and Targeting Systems