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SPECIAL REPORT

SPECIAL REPORT

SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Modern Military Applications

Contents Power Uninterruptible Supplies in Modern Military Applications

How Uninterruptible Power Supplies meet the needs of Defence Information Infrastructures Warfare trends

The role of UPS technology in countering the insurgent threat in Afghanistan

The current security status in Afghanistan How Western Armies are Fighting in Afghanistan Network Centric Warfare C4I and ISTAR at Base The Capabilities and Equipment of the ISAF Dismounted Soldier

Foreword

2

Alexander Massingham, Editor

How Uninterruptible Power Supplies Meet the Needs of Defence Information Infrastructures

3

Justin Lucas, Technical Manager, Uninterruptible Power Supplies Limited

Warfare Trends

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell

Modular UPS Technology Choosing the right UPS Supplier The Benefits of a Modular Approach

The Role of UPS Technology in Countering the Insurgent Threat in Afghanistan

6

Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor, Defence Industry Reports

The Current Security Status in Afghanistan The Nature of the Conflict

The Location of the Conflict and the Development How Uninterruptible Power Supplies meet of the Afghan Electricity Supply Infrastructure the needs of Defence Information Infrastructures Editor Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Martin Richards

Warfare trends

Senior Project Manager Steve Banks

How Western Armies are Fighting in Afghanistan – Network Centric Warfare

8

Don McBarnet, Staff Writer, Defence Industry Reports

What isin General Petraeus Trying The role of UPS technology countering to Achieve in Afghanistan and How? the insurgent threat in Afghanistan Production Manager C4I and ISTAR at Base Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Paul Davies

The Capabilities and Equipment of the ISAF Dismounted Soldier

The current security status in Afghanistan Rechargeable Batteries

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

Disadvantages of Rechargeable Batteries

How Western Armies areThe Fighting Future of Portable Mobile Battery Technology and Military UPS Technologies in Afghanistan Network Centric Warfare

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated.

C4I and ISTAR at Base

Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

Glossary and Explanation of Acronyms

12

References

13

The Capabilities and Equipment of the ISAF Dismounted Soldier

Š 2011. The entire contents of this publication

Sponsored by Full details are are protected by copyright.

available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Published by Global Business Media

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SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

SPECIAL REPORT

Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Modern Military Applications

How Uninterruptible Power Supplies meet the needs of Defence Information Infrastructures Warfare trends The role of UPS technology in countering the insurgent threat in Afghanistan The current security status in Afghanistan How Western Armies are Fighting in Afghanistan Network Centric Warfare C4I and ISTAR at Base The Capabilities and Equipment of the ISAF Dismounted Soldier

Contents Foreword

2

Alexander Massingham, Editor

How Uninterruptible Power Supplies Meet the Needs of Defence Information Infrastructures

3

Justin Lucas, Technical Manager, Uninterruptible Power Supplies Limited

Warfare Trends

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Martin Richards Senior Project Manager Steve Banks

Modular UPS Technology Choosing the right UPS Supplier The Benefits of a Modular Approach

The Role of UPS Technology in Countering the Insurgent Threat in Afghanistan Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor, Defence Industry Reports

The Current Security Status in Afghanistan The Nature of the Conflict The Location of the Conflict and the Development of the Afghan Electricity Supply Infrastructure

How Western Armies are Fighting in Afghanistan – Network Centric Warfare What is General Petraeus Trying to Achieve in Afghanistan and How?

Production Manager Paul Davies

C4I and ISTAR at Base

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

8

Don McBarnet, Staff Writer, Defence Industry Reports

Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

6

The Capabilities and Equipment of the ISAF Dismounted Soldier Rechargeable Batteries Disadvantages of Rechargeable Batteries The Future of Portable Mobile Battery Technology and Military UPS Technologies

Glossary and Explanation of Acronyms

12

References

13

Š 2011. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 1


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

Foreword

E

VERY WESTERN soldier depends on uninterruptible power supply technology (UPS) every day, 24/7. This is especially so in the case of the Obama administration’s surge of 100,000 soldiers in Afghanistan. Ubiquitous conditioned electrical power is the frequently unstated force that underpins the effectiveness of 21st century Western armed forces in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. This report will look at how this is the case and what this means for the effectiveness of ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) in Afghanistan. The first part of this report will examine the role of uninterruptible power supplies in meeting the needs of critical defence information infrastructures and the importance of modular UPS technology within a modern and dynamic defence environment. The report will then examine the role of UPS technology in countering the insurgent threat in Afghanistan, how Western armies are fighting in Afghanistan and Network Centric Warfare. In the final sections it will look at current and future demands from the military for technological development in industry.

Alexander Massingham Editor

2 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

How Uninterruptible Power Supplies Meet the Needs of Defence Information Infrastructures

PowerWAVE 9000DPA Modular, scalable, Three-phase UPS

Justin Lucas, Technical Manager, Uninterruptible Power Supplies Limited

Military forces have always needed accurate and timely data to ensure operational success. Modern warfare trends towards widely dispersed activities mean that information must be delivered to a combat zone from points distributed across a large network. This network can include data centres ‘back at base’ as well as more local field units. Such data centres use power protection strategies including UPS systems to ensure mission-critical 24/7 availability. This article looks at how modern UPS technology allows operators to achieve the power security, flexibility and cost-effectiveness they must have.

Reliable, cost effective, critical power protection

Advanced Decentralised Parallel Architecture (DPA) High reliability 'Hot-Swap' modules

Warfare Trends Throughout the history of warfare, military forces have always needed accurate, reliably communicated data to ensure success. Expected warfare trends will increase this demand for accurate data and the widely distributed ICT systems that deliver it. Military and strategic experts see future combat patterns tending away from large scale WW2 type territory battles and towards small-scale conflicts and insurgencies spread over wide areas. Efficient and successful response to such scenarios calls for networkcentric warfare, where an entire army becomes

a single entity with many parts that can shift and adapt to quickly-developing situations when and where they occur. Units must share real-time information, co-ordinate movement and react to battle conditions quickly and accurately. To be effective, this information must be complete, reliable and timely. Much of the intelligence fed to personnel in the war zone will comprise data and updates from other combat areas. However there will always be a need to include information from “behind the scenes” back in the home country. From this comes the concept of a Defence Information

Cost effective scalability Future proof installation Low cost of ownership

Uninterruptible Power Supplies Ltd Bacchus House, Calleva Park, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 8EN T. 0118 981 5151 F. 0118 981 5152 E. sales@upspower.co.uk

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SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

Quality and continuity of electrical mains power is an essential factor in ensuring the data centre’s quality of service, security and cost-effectiveness. This can only be assured by employing an uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) capable of meeting the needs of the infrastructure.

Infrastructure that can handle military operations’ entire needs on a global basis. Moving to a network-centric environment will place new demands on the entire defence information infrastructure (DII) as well as on the battlefield systems. Such infrastructures must integrate vast amounts of data not only for operations intelligence, but also for related matters such as soldiers’ pay and annual leave, and business transactions as well. This information must be available on a 24/7 demand basis to large numbers of users. New ICT capacity must be added quickly as units move to new theatres of war – and perhaps dismantled or redeployed as situations change. Such capability is delivered from data centres in large central sites and smaller locations across Europe. These locations must be populated with high quality, secure ICT hardware, which can be configured to meet developing requirements as easily as possible. In the current economic climate, these installations must make sound business sense as well. Quality and continuity of electrical mains power is an essential factor in ensuring the data centre’s quality of service, security and cost-effectiveness. This can only be assured by employing an uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) capable of meeting the needs of the infrastructure. Configuring such a UPS can best be achieved using modern, modular UPS technology; this provides the level of availability the application demands, together with the equally important features of flexibility and low cost of ownership.

Modular UPS Technology An understanding of how modular UPS systems yield these benefits comes from looking at their 4 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

key components and how they work together. Transformerless technology lies at their core; as we shall see, their key benefits ultimately derive from this. Originally, transformers were an essential part of on-line double conversion UPSs, stepping up the UPS inverter’s output voltage to a level compatible with the original utility or generator mains supply. The transformers were not used for galvanic isolation as is sometimes believed. More recently, advances in power semiconductor technology, and particularly the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) device, have made transformerless designs possible. In a typical implementation, the UPS’s rectifier stage is followed by a DC boost converter which in turn feeds the UPS’s output inverter. The inverter’s boosted input allows it to supply AC voltage at mains level to the critical load with no need for an output transformer. This transformerless design brings a number of advantages, of which the most significant is a dramatic reduction in the UPS’s size and weight. For example a 120 kVA system that previously weighed 1200 Kg and occupied a 1.32 m² footprint can now be built with a weight of 370 Kg and a 0.53 m² footprint. These reductions have had a profound effect on UPS topology, because they allow a significant level of UPS power – currently from 10 to 50 kVA – to be delivered from a UPS module small enough to be mounted in a 19” rack rather than demanding standalone installation. This modular approach means that a single rack with capacity for 5 modules can be configured for any load from 10 to 250 KVA. Then as the load varies due to changing circumstances, modules can be added or removed to adjust the UPS’s capacity accordingly. This flexibility is particularly important in a fast-changing defence environment, where for example an entire communications and information system extension, with hundreds of terminals and associated servers, may require implementation in 9 months or less. In these circumstances the ability to deploy a compact and rapidly assembled modular system, or perhaps even use spare rack capacity within the existing installation, is very attractive. The UPS power is not limited to the rating of the rack, either. As much capacity as required can be added simply by paralleling racks to meet demand. When a UPS supports a mission-critical component of a DII, the availability of the power it provides becomes of vital importance, considering the quite possibly life-and- death consequences of failure. Availability, which is the probability of a system being operational at a given time, can be calculated using the system’s Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) and Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) figures. Availability


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

can be improved both by maximising MTBF and minimising MTTR. MTBF can be maximised either by increasing the reliability of every component in the system or by ensuring that the system is resilient to the failure of a single component. There is a finite limit to component reliability, even with increased cost. Power protection systems that rely only on component reliability achieve MTBFs of typically between 50,000 and 200,000 hours. However by adding resilience through redundancy, a three- to six-fold increase in power protection system MTBF can be achieved. A system with redundancy is one that can survive the failure of single component. For example in a modular UPS system, a rack with three 10 KVA modules could be used to supply a 20 KVA load. If one module fails, the remaining capacity is sufficient to continue full load support. This is known as an N+1 redundant configuration. However it is important to note that for the modular system to be fully redundant, it should have a distributed parallel architecture. Each module should contain all necessary UPS functions, avoiding external single points of failure such as a central static switch. As mentioned earlier, the UPS availability can be increased by reducing MTTR as well as by increasing MTBF. Modular systems allow significant MTTR reduction, because if a module fails it can simply be removed and replaced. The faulty module can then be taken away for repair off line, while the UPS has already been restored to full capacity. Modular UPSs can feature ‘hot swapping’ where the faulty module can be removed and replaced without having to divert the load to bypass. The whole operation can be completed in typically half an hour, compared with the six hours more typically needed to repair a standalone system down to component level in situ. Modular UPS systems can offer the best power availability currently on the market, as they benefit from both redundancy and hot swappability. They can offer ‘six nines’ or 99.9999% availability, which is a significant improvement over the ‘five nines’ offered by systems lacking hot swappability. Modular topology can also reduce both capital and operating costs, which is a consideration of ever-increasing priority. By adding or removing modules, the UPS capacity can be incrementally adjusted to closely match the load’s demand – and adjusted again if the demand should change. Also, one or more extra modules can be added for redundancy with minimal excess capacity. This scalability minimises data centre space demands as well as capital equipment costs. Modular systems also improve energy efficiency compared with transformer based standalone units by around 5%, with resulting reductions in energy and cooling costs. This savings arise

mostly from eliminating the transformer, but matching the UPS capacity to the load can contribute as well. Further cost savings are possible through improvements in the UPS input power factor and lower input current harmonic distortion, which reduce the need to over-specify cabling and switchgear, and can sometimes reduce running costs as well.

Choosing the right UPS Supplier Choosing the right UPS topology, configuration and hardware is obviously essential, but it is just as important to choose the right supplier as well. For example, because of today’s deteriorating quality of mains power, many ICT managers view generators as an essential component of their power protection strategy, able to take over the load before UPS battery autonomy is exceeded. Matching a generator and UPS, as well as correctly configuring the UPS, are not simple catalogue purchase exercises. UPSs can cause problems for generators, and vice versa, if they are incorrectly paired. Other factors, such as UPS capacity and redundancy, and battery autonomy, depend on the requirements and priorities of each installation. UPS suppliers should accordingly be able to advise on as well as deliver the best solution for any given application. The supplier should also offer a maintenance and emergency callout package appropriate to the site’s critical load. This can include remote monitoring and diagnostics as well as site visits. Regular inspection and maintenance of items such as batteries will capture problems before they cause failures. International standards exist to define different aspects of service quality, and prospective UPS suppliers should be certified for these. BSI EN ISO 9001:2008 covers quality management, ISO 14001 covers environmental management and OHSAS 18001 is for health & safety management.

PowerWAVE 9000DPA Modular, scalable, Three-phase UPS

Reliable, cost effective, critical power protection

Advanced Decentralised Parallel Architecture (DPA)

The Benefits of a Modular Approach Data centres and computer rooms within a DII structure will inevitably seek the best available power protection hardware and support package because of their need to provide data processing and communications facilities on a 24/7 basis. However a correct choice will bring other benefits as well. Using a modular approach will ensure the UPS is correctly scaled to the load, with no space or money wasted on excess capacity or redundancy. A correctly optimised design will also ensure energy and cooling costs are kept to a minimum during operation. Meanwhile, the flexibility inherent to modular systems will allow fast UPS configuration, and re-configuration, to meet the rapidly changing demands of military operations.

High reliability 'Hot-Swap' modules Cost effective scalability Future proof installation Low cost of ownership

Uninterruptible Power Supplies Ltd Bacchus House, Calleva Park, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 8EN T. 0118 981 5151 F. 0118 981 5152 E. sales@upspower.co.uk

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SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

The Role Of UPS Technology in Mitigating the Current Insurgent Threat in Afghanistan Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor, Defence Industry Reports

While the increase in troop numbers may not yet have had time to have effect, “kinetic activity was at an historic high” and the ISAF forces were being challenged. What’s more the insurgents’ logistics capacity and command and control were proving tenacious.

The Current Security Status in Afghanistan At the turn of the year, winter 2010/ 2011, the past year’s situation reports by ISAF forces presented bi-annually to Congress were mixed. In April 2010 there was a note of caution: “The security situation has improved since the end of 2009; however, individual islands of security exist in a sea of instability and insecurity. The limits of security are significantly related to the presence of a well-led and noncorrupt ANSF. (Afghan National Security Forces) Combined forces continue to gain ground in Marjeh and central Helmand. Consolidating gains and continuing to deny the Taliban a chance to re-establish a foothold will be essential to continued operations. In areas where ANSF presence is limited, militias and guardians – while an imperfect guarantee of security – assist in improvements to the security of various districts”.1

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After a difficult summer the October 2010 the report was even less positive. “While kinetic activity is at a historic high, we are seeing some early indications that comprehensive Coin (counter-insurgency) operations are having localised effects in portions of Helmand and Kandahar provinces,” says the report. Congress was told that while there had been “increased pressure on insurgent networks over the past several months, the insurgency has proven resilient with sustained logistics capacity and command and control”.2 So while the increase in troop numbers may not yet have had time to have effect, “kinetic activity was at an historic high” and the ISAF forces were being challenged. What’s more the insurgents’ logistics capacity and command and control were proving tenacious. Why? To answer this question, it is necessary to look at the nature of the conflict and its location. It is


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

PowerWAVE 9000DPA Modular, scalable, Three-phase UPS

Reliable, cost effective, critical power protection

also useful to look at how the insurgents and the Western armies fight, because it’s the insurgents capability to move effectively among the local people who frequently do not have mains electricity let alone UPS technologies that allows them to be so successful.

The Nature of the Conflict The nature of the conflict in Afghanistan, as in many 21st century conflicts, is frequently described as an asymmetric counter insurgency. This means that there is an asymmetry between the firepower and technology of the Taliban and related forces and ISAF with significant weight in favour of ISAF. However, the Taliban and Al Qaeda linked forces are able to fight to their own advantage with lethal ingenuity and effectiveness with low technology weapons and little reliance on high quality power sources. They use mobile phones, laptops, IEDS (improvised explosive devices), booby traps, ambushes and suicide bombs. They rarely, if ever, take on ISAF troops in set battles that they know they might lose; they fight by trying to dominate the “human as well as the physical terrain” by wrong footing the alliance. Their forces are “networked” by low cost mobile phones, 2.0 web applications, and the advantages of shared culture, religion and language to give them the a critical superiority in the “physical terrain” and the capacity to call on ties of kinship in rural villages the “human terrain”. They can also play three trump cards to win favour: firstly, that political goodwill accrues to disparate groups of insurgents not always from the local area from the Afghans’ innate hatred of foreign soldiers on their territory, even those requested to offer assistance to stabilize the country. Secondly, they gain strength from the historical awareness of the

failure of several generations of military incursions. Thirdly, they understand the debate in the Western media about the political and economic costs of keeping troops in Afghanistan and this allows them to wait the conflict out.

The Location of the Conflict and the Development of the Afghan Electricity Supply Infrastructure In Afghanistan 85% of the approximately 28 million population lives in rural areas.3 Only about 7 per cent of this 249,984 sq mile mountainous country has access to electricity, according to 2007 government figures, and Afghan energy distribution ranks among the lowest in the world at under 20 kWh per capita.4 Power supply infrastructure has often been an early target in conflict. Electricity distribution is managed by the Kabul Electricity Directorate (the Ministry of Water and Energy, Dahan e Cahman, Kabul.)5 The country has benefitted from the export of power from neighbouring countries Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. In some rural areas power supplies are generated from many small basic diesel and small hydroelectric plants fed from erratic supplies of melting snow. The German government has been successful in establishing a number of rural electricity projects.6 In the capital Kabul, electricity used to be something of a luxury, however, since the completion of the supply from Uzbekistan 24 hour supply in many areas is available, but the wattage can vary between 180-160MW.7 This is the nature of the local supply that allied forces would access locally if available. Such is the variability of local supply that ISAF forces C4I (command, control, communications, computers and military intelligence) capabilities depend on electricity generated on military bases in the country.

Advanced Decentralised Parallel Architecture (DPA) High reliability 'Hot-Swap' modules Cost effective scalability Future proof installation Low cost of ownership

Uninterruptible Power Supplies Ltd Bacchus House, Calleva Park, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 8EN T. 0118 981 5151 F. 0118 981 5152 E. sales@upspower.co.uk

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SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

How Western Armies are Fighting in Afghanistan – Network Centric Warfare Don McBarnet, Staff Writer, Defence Industry Reports

Counter insurgency warfare does not fit any set pattern but has evolved within a number of constraints. Each fight is sui generis, specific to itself.

NCW and information technology is critical to American fighting capability. But this dependence on information technology and conditioned power at main bases and portable power sources for the dismounted soldier in the field mean that to some extent many soldiers’ war fighting capability is being compromised.

H

OW TO win is a process of trial and error learnt in conflict with the insurgents in local areas. But western warfare is constrained by the thinking and equipment of the cold war and former conflicts. General Petraeus took up his post as Commander of Commander, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) on June 30 2010 and continued to rework COIN (counter insurgency) strategy and the rules of engagement. Since 1999 U.S. joint doctrine in modern American warfare has been that network centric warfare (NCW) should use information technology to gain battlefield dominance by the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same”. NCW would provide a common operating picture (COP) between the commander and the soldier

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on the ground. The goal of NCW is to use a flow of images and information to accelerate the speed of command and focus the agility of the networked soldier in the “fog” and unpredictability of battle. NCW and information technology is critical to American fighting capability. But this dependence on information technology and conditioned power at main bases and portable power sources for the dismounted soldier in the field mean that to some extent many soldiers’ war fighting capability is being compromised. Why? To answer this question, it is necessary to assess what ISAF is trying to achieve in Afghanistan now.

What is General Petraeus Trying to Achieve in Afghanistan and How? General Petraeus’ current stated strategy is to assist the Government of the Islamic Republic


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

of Afghanistan (GIRoA) by “partnering” with the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), the Afghan National Army (ANA) and the Afghan National Police (ANP) to develop their skills so that by 2014, Afghanistan is sufficiently secure and self reliant that ISAF may be able to draw down their forces in Afghanistan. Secondly, Gen Petraeus has reiterated Gen McChrystal’s change to the rules of engagement (ROE), which dictate and crucially limit when a soldier may respond to aggression with firepower. Petraeus wants to advance the Western cause for “hearts and minds” by dramatically reducing the number of Afghan civilian casualties.8 Further, ground tactics were changed and soldiers were encouraged to leave their transport and gain situational awareness with Afghan security force partners “by interacting face to face (with Afghans), not separated by ballistic glass or Oakleys.”9 So, and this is a very important change for access to conditioned power and UPS technology, the ISAF soldier on many operations is now dismounted, partnered with ANSF and away from his vehicle or forward operating base in an extreme climate in unsecure rural areas. It is this very different use of the dismounted soldier, training partner security forces and endeavouring to build relationships face-to-face with an insurgent who can appear to be a civilian at one moment, or a lethal adversary the next that is the crux of the current counter insurgency battle. The new and changed military task of dealing as a dismounted soldier with this ambiguity is the focus of the challenge to uninterrupted power supply technology in Afghanistan.

C4I and ISTAR at Base Network centric warfare in its current military use is dependent on a conditioned supply of power that allows information and images at the C4I suites in Camp Bastion and other Main (MOB) and Forward Operating Bases (FOB) to be distributed through to Commanders on the ground and to patrols on foot. This requires consistent voltage, steady frequency, continuity and cleanliness of the power supply and an absence of power quality events such as high-frequency noise, harmonic distortion and voltage transients. Military generators need to be protected by online or double conversion or line interactive UPS technologies to protect the critical load. And in the extreme weather conditions, humidity, dust and mud of Afghanistan they will require frequent maintenance by military engineers or contractors. Typically, UPS installations up to 10kVA have a two-year warranty and larger systems a oneyear. Generators often have a standard oneyear warranty. However, where the critical load has a high significance for the effectiveness of a war fighting capability, original equipment

manufacturers (OEMs) warn that routine checks need to be more frequent. Many UPS systems emit alarm signals (audible, visual or remote) to alert operators to fault conditions or a change in operating environment. However, they are only as useful as the operator there to respond to them. While age of unit, maintenance and monitoring are manageable problems, heat and humidity in an extreme climate is less easy to counter. Diesel generators generate substantial amounts of heat in operation, nearby standby equipment can be degraded at ambient temperatures of 30 degrees. 35 degrees centigrade is the level at which few systems maintain equilibrium, but this temperature is frequent in Afghanistan during the summer months. Keeping equipment and installations cool is a fundamental part of the management of UPS and is costly and difficult to achieve in operational conditions in forward operating bases (FOB).

PowerWAVE 9000DPA Modular, scalable, Three-phase UPS

Reliable, cost effective, critical power protection

The Capabilities and Equipment of the ISAF Dismounted Soldier The ISAF10 soldier is equipped by a wide range of frequently updated national soldier modernization programmes to be integrated into C41, but the challenge is to keep the instruments running on extended periods working away from vehicles, the MOB (Main Operating Base) or the FOB (Forward Operating Base). The US has the Future Force Warrior Program, the UK’s Future Infantry Soldier Technology (FIST), France, Fantassin à Équipement et Liaisons Intégrés, (Integrated Equipment and Communications Infantryman FELIN), Italy’s Soldato Futuro and Germany’s Infanterist der Zukunft (Infantryman of the future IDZ). There is also Canada’s Integrated Soldier System project (ISSP). The driver of these combat system modernization programmes is to deliver the electrically powered information connectivity needed by the commander and the dismounted soldier while not overwhelming him or her with bulky and weighty equipment. Without replacing primary (disposable) batteries within a matter of hours much of the soldiers’ connectivity fails to function. For example, as part of the Bowman programme the British soldier carries a Personal Role Radio weighing in at 1.5kg with a limit of 20 hours’ continuous use without replacement or recharging. This can mean that much of the soldier’s equipment fails to operate and he is no longer protected to prevent fratricide and other incidents. As General Peter Fuller, of the United States’ Program Executive Officer, PEO Soldier, put it: “Power is a challenge because they are not operating from a FOB via a vehicle to an operation, then back to a FOB in their vehicles. [In Afghanistan] they are leaving their FOB, they are leaving their vehicles and they are operating dismounted for several days. Carrying kit for Land

Advanced Decentralised Parallel Architecture (DPA) High reliability 'Hot-Swap' modules Cost effective scalability Future proof installation Low cost of ownership

Uninterruptible Power Supplies Ltd Bacchus House, Calleva Park, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 8EN T. 0118 981 5151 F. 0118 981 5152 E. sales@upspower.co.uk

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SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

The driver of these combat system modernization programmes is to deliver the electrically powered information connectivity needed by the commander and the dismounted soldier while not overwhelming him or her with bulky and weighty equipment.

Warrior for several days requires power; whether they be night vision devices, laser aiming devices or whatever it might be. The resupply of power is a challenge so we are focusing on how do we lighten the load and do this rapidly.”11 The Canadian Lt. Col. Jacques Levesque, Program Manager for Canada’s Integrated Soldier System project (ISSP) the Initial Operating Capability for ISSP is planned for FY2014 summarised the scale of the problem succinctly: “In a two week high intensity operation in Afghanistan, 17,500 AA batteries were consumed over a fortnight by a single Canadian infantry company, with the typical soldier carrying at least 15 AA and two CE123 batteries.”12 On a brief for the British Army the same problem is described. “UK dismounted soldiers are operating in very difficult environments where they are hindered by the excessive burden of carried loads. Regularly carrying~45 kg of equipment and supplies on a mission in temperatures exceeding 45°C is unsustainable, reducing the quantity and types of missions that can be carried out.”13 The British are even more pointed and succinct about the consequences of the failure to solve this problem vulnerability and fatalities: “The load carried reduces the tempo of infantry operations, making it easier for the enemy to plan attacks and cause casualties. Reduced tempo means that dismounts require more protection to counter enemy attacks, which further increases the load burden. For some roles, up to 30% of the overall burden is due to the power sources (batteries) carried to power the electronic

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equipment that the modern soldier uses” The Energy Efficient soldier outlines several areas where work is needed on the carried power source: • Reducing the mass • Reducing power consumption • Decreasing the complexity of use of equipment; • Increasing soldiers’ trust in the power source. Further, the ergonomics of the power source need to be considered.: • Changing the shape of large square boxes that do not fit into the army back pack or fit in a pouch • Standardization of batteries. The British army thinks that developments in the following areas would help: – Advanced batteries – Fuel cells – Hybridisation – Micro engines – Photovoltaic devices For military use these new power sources would also have to be ruggedized and shock proof with a capability to operate in extreme temperature, humidity and altitude. The goal described by the British Army in the Dismounted Soldier’ Capability Vision is reduction in the weight of electronic systems and power sources by 50%, without loss of functionality or capability. But these changes could be assisted by improvements in the devices needing the electrical supply: • Lighter weight electronic systems • Advanced display technologies • Reduced power consumption electronics


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

• Power management techniques and software (sleep mode) • Optimised system architectures14 In France, FELIN (Fantassin à Équipements et Liaisons Intégrés) – Future Infantry Soldier System has developed its own solution to load at… “about 24Kg while also ensuring as much as 72 hours of autonomous operation with power provided by two individual batteries. The system is recharged at a section level, with mobile battery rechargers and vehicle integration kits. The system is integrated on three key infantry platforms; the new wheeled VBCI and VAB, Revalorisé and the tracked AMX 10P. “ Felin uses two rechargeable Li-ion batteries to ensure that the soldier can operate the system for 24 hours once dismounted. The unit is also equipped with a collective fuel cell based battery charger, which will sustain the team for two more days of continuous dismounted operation. Batteries can be recharged using collective devices.15

Rechargeable Batteries The argument for rechargeable batteries in a military counter insurgency context is strong. In a network centric environment where the transmission and receipt of large quantities of data by portable and mobile devices are required, battery service time is critical but short. Rechargeable batteries offer cost saving and logistic advantages. Primary batteries cost 30 times more than rechargeable. But primary batteries do offer a 10 year shelf life in extreme conditions. Rechargeable nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries are used but their high specific weight, low energy density and limited capability in low or high temperatures, when compared to primary technology militates against them. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with applications in notebook computers and mobile phones and Lithium ion polymer rechargeable technologies most frequently used in cell phones, offer energy density and reduction of total cell weight. They are currently in use in the British Clansman system. These new batteries will power portable radios, handheld computers, Global Positioning Systems and encryption devices. The US army also has some units using the Li-ion BB 2590. The British Army report a 6 man patrol reducing its battery load from 14kg to less than 3kg using the new technologies combined with closer monitoring of battery discharge.

Disadvantages of Rechargeable Batteries Stocking rechargeable batteries requires significant maintenance, keeping track of

the battery’s state of health, cycle count and age. Due to high self-discharge, nickelbased batteries exhibit a 10-20% selfdischarge per month. This compares with 5-10% for lithium and lead-based batteries. S e l f- d i s c h a r g e i n c r e a s e s a t h i g h e r temperatures a significant issue in Afghanistan. For this reason, secondary batteries are not an effective media for long-term energy storage, and must be fed before each activity. For rechargeable batteries, a combat device also requires an additional State of Health (S o H) indication that depicts the expected l ife expectancy of the fully charged device.16

The Future of Portable Mobile Battery Technology and Military UPS Technologies:

PowerWAVE 9000DPA Modular, scalable, Three-phase UPS

Reliable, cost effective, critical power protection

New technological developments of soldier portable chargers may well be the way forward and several manufacturers are working to develop new systems with military applications. Providing Soldiers with greater flexibility, implementing renewable energy, and developing fuel cells and biological power sources are top priorities for the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center’s Army Power Division (CERDER). Other devices, such as thermophotovoltaics (which convert electromagnetic radiation from thermal sources to electricity), zinc-air batteries, solar panels, and fuel cells, are being designed and tested. On the issue of heat management the Centre for Defence Enterprise for the UK’s MOD has been working with members of the Motorsport Industry Association on ideas like the Paris-Dakar Rally-influenced dust-proof cooling system and an electromechanical flywheel, which increases the efficiency of FOB, powered diesel generators.

Conclusion The development of uninterruptible power technologies has a major and significant impact on the effectiveness and sustainability of the ISAF soldier in the field and therefore on the effectiveness of command. The high level of lethal kinetic activity by insurgent forces noted to Congress in 2010 needs to be responded to by a fast moving, connected and agile ISAF soldier. If the weight and bulk of batteries are reducing his agility and speed of response, the need for advancement in technologies is clear. To quote from the Small Wars Journal “All the information in the world and all the capability in the world is only as good as the soldier being willing to carry it.”

Advanced Decentralised Parallel Architecture (DPA) High reliability 'Hot-Swap' modules Cost effective scalability Future proof installation Low cost of ownership

Uninterruptible Power Supplies Ltd Bacchus House, Calleva Park, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 8EN T. 0118 981 5151 F. 0118 981 5152 E. sales@upspower.co.uk

W. www.upspower.co.uk

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

Glossary: AANA

Afghan National Army

ANP

Afghan National Police

ANSF

Afghan National Security Forces

C4I

Command, control, communications, computers and military intelligence

COIN

Counter insurgency strategy

COP

Common Operating Picture

FELIN

Fantassin à Équipement et Liaisons Intégrés, Integrated Equipment and Communications Infantryman France

FIST

Future Infantry Soldier Technology UK

GIRoA

Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

IDZ

Infanterist der Zukunft Infantryman of the Future, Germany

IEDs

Improvised Explosive Device

ISAF

International Security Assistance Force

Li-ion

Lithium ion batteries

Ni-Cd

Nickel Cadmium batteries

NiMH

Nickel-metal-hydride batteries

OEM

Original equipment manufacturer

Soldato Futuro

Future soldier system, Italy

ISSP

Integrated Soldier System project, Canada

SoH

State of Health

VAB

Véhicule de l’Avant Blindé

VBCI

Véhicule Blindé de Combat d’Infanterie

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SPECIAL REPORT: UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES

References: 1.

8.3 p.127 http://www.defense.gov/pubs/pdfs/Report_Final_SecDef_04_26_10.pdf

2.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/nov/24/afghanistan-war-pentagon-sreport-congress

3.

Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations.

4.

http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Electricity_Supply_in_Afghanistan

5.

http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Electricity_Supply_in_Afghanistan

6.

http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/en-afghanistan-renewable-energy-short.pdf http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/en-afghanistan-renewable-energy-electricity-rural-areas.pdf

7.

The Australian Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC) project managed a $130 million electricity rehabilitation project to improve the electricity transmission and distribution system in Kabul, Afghanistan and rehabilitate a hydropower station in Tajikistan in 2008.

8.

The August 2009 Rules of Engagement called for ‘courageous restraint” where soldiers had to check with a commander before calling in additional firepower.

9.

COMISAF/CDR USFOR-August 2010. FOR The Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Civilians of NATO ISAF and US Forces-Afghanistan COMISAF’s Counterinsurgency Guidance.

10.

ISAF is drawn from 48 countries, but the largest contributors are currently in order of size of contribution United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Poland, Turkey, Romania, Spain and Australia. http://www.isaf.nato.int/en/troop-contributing-nations/index.php

11.

http://www.soldiermod.com/volume-5/soldato.html

12.

http://www.soldiermod.com/volume-5/soldato.html

13.

http://www.innovateuk.org/_assets/pdf/competition-documents/briefs/energy_efficient_soldier.pdf

14.

http://www.innovateuk.org/_assets/pdf/competition-documents/briefs/energy_efficient_soldier.pdf

15.

http://defense-update.com/products/f/felin.htm Major General (armament) Vincent Imbert

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Special Report – Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Modern Military Applications  

Defence Industry Reports - Special Report on Uninterruptible Power Suppliesin Modern Military Applications

Special Report – Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Modern Military Applications  

Defence Industry Reports - Special Report on Uninterruptible Power Suppliesin Modern Military Applications