Page 1

Special Report

Next Generation Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications Cabling, Counterfeiting and Securing Safety Cable and Wiring for the Latest Naval Vessels Developments in Cabling Technology on Operations Cables for Naval Applications: Critical Specifications The Path to the Future

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


The UK’s Leading Defence Cables Supplier High performance wire and cables for defence applications

Naval power, instrumentation and communications. Armoured fighting vehicles, weapon systems and soldier systems.

1837-2012 Celebrating 175 years of cable manufacturing

www.aeicables.co.uk 01

02

03

04

01. NES 526 02. Def Stan 61-12 Pt 25 03. NES 527 04. Propulsion Cable


SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications

SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Contents

Cabling, Counterfeiting and Securing Safety Cable and Wiring for the Latest Naval Vessels

Cables for Naval Applications: Critical Specifications

Foreword

The Path to the Future

Mary Dub, Editor

Developments in Cabling Technology on Operations

2

Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications

3

AEI Cables Limited

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Naval Vessels Need Better Performance than Commercial Shipping A Multitude of Dangers The Problems of Space AEI Cables The Future of Naval Cabling

Published by Global Business Media

Cabling, Counterfeiting and Securing Safety

Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom

Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

7

Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

The Senate Armed Services Committee’s Recommendation The Need for Action British Regulatory Bodies Loss Prevention and Corporate Manslaughter Manufacturers Raise awareness of Faulty Cabling and its Long Term Price

Publisher Kevin Bell

Cable and Wiring for the Latest Naval Vessels

Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

© 2012. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

9

Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor

Cooperation with the French “the Entente Frugale”

Developments in Cabling Technology on Operations 10 Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor

French Cabling and Wiring Program in Kapisa, Afghanistan Thales to Provide French Ministry of Defense with e263million Next Generation Air and Naval Radios

Cables for Naval Applications: Critical Specifications 11 Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

NATO and Country-Specific Military Standards That Must be Met US Navy Combat Standards General Dynamics Electric Boat Division AEI’s Firetec Habia’s Swedish Military and Nuclear Cables

The Path to the Future

13

Mary Dub, Editor

IEEE Abstract on EPON The Advantages of EPONS Ericsson’s Assessment of the Complementary Growth of GPON and FTTx Bbroadband The International Spread of FTTx The Future of Cable and Wiring

References 15

www.defenceindustryreports.com | 1


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Foreword C

ables and wiring are the quiet providers of

exercises by Whitehall. ‘HMS Queen Elizabeth’

two essentials of modern warfare: energy

is still under construction, but her sister ship

and telecommunications. 21st century combat is

the carrier ‘HMS The Prince of Wales’ is in the

broadband hungry, as soldiers, sailors, marines

dubious position of being under construction

and airmen take decisions guided by real time

to be mothballed. The contracts for cabling and

situational awareness delivered by personal

wiring these vessels will nevertheless demand the

communication systems and computers. And its

latest high technology products to ensure that the

not just telecommunication systems that need

ships will withstand the demands of the 50 years

cables and wiring – their energy needs require

of warfare for which they are designed.

appropriate wiring that can withstand the demands

The French aircraft carrier, the ‘Charles de Gaulle’,

of operations: temperature extremes, vibration, fire,

has been reported to have had a multitude of

UV light, salt and shock.

gremlins that have, on occasion, limited its speed

The first article in this Special Report looks at how

and capability. Some of the gremlins have been

the use of electricity in shipping has advanced

related to wiring. However, these have now been

over the years and why cable standards for naval

corrected and the French have played an important

vessels call for much higher performance than for

role in the introduction of the latest cabling to

those in commercial shipping. A succession of

Afghanistan. Their navy has also been using the

new standards has been introduced to reduce the

latest high technology communications equipment

size of cables, while protecting against fire hazards

to work with ad hoc coalitions in Libya and groups

and the effects of smoke and toxic fumes in a fire

of EU powers in operations in the Indian Ocean.

situation. These developments come at a cost,

Specifications for cabling and wiring for naval

but are vital if standards are to be maintained and

applications is a fast changing and competitive

safety is not compromised.

field. Many companies are working towards

The second article in this edition covers the issue

customizing their products so that they meet

that bedevils many defence commanders trying

the needs of the highly specialized defence

to prevent the inevitable technical glitches that

market place.

every complex technological operation is a prey

And finally, the end piece: the future for cabling

to - counterfeiting of cables, wiring and electronics.

and wiring. This may be inherently linked to the

Counterfeit products that can by their inferior

rapidly developing field of new applications for

production standards endanger the security of

delivery of broadband. If the civilian market is a

Western armed forces now infiltrate the global

guide, the need for ever greater speed to receive

market in cables and wiring.

and upload data will demand ever more refined

The intricate demands of cabling the next generation of British aircraft carriers is the theme

developments from the passive optical network system and better algorithms.

of the third piece. Aircraft carriers are hugely expensive and their cost and iconic status have always made them vulnerable to cost-cutting

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub is the editor of this Special Report. She has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager.

2 | www.defenceindustryreports.com


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications AEI Cables Limited

S

ince mankind took to the seas there has been an important distinction between vessels for commercial purposes and those for naval use. As time passed, shipping has developed using the technologies available at any given moment. Thus, infrastructure has moved from wood to iron to steel and to modern alloys, composites and plastics. Propulsion has progressed from manual to sail to steam to diesel to electric. However, it is in the use of electricity that shipping has advanced in the twentieth century, and now, in the twenty first century, the use of electrical components continues to increase. This is especially so in naval vessels where sophisticated weapon systems and highspeed high manoeuvrability electric propulsion systems are the order of the day and present new challenges for the cable engineer.

Naval Vessels Need Better Performance than Commercial Shipping The Royal Navy has been involved in many conflicts throughout history, and while it seems unlikely that further global conflicts such as the two world wars of the twentieth century will occur in the future, there is every chance that smaller incidents, such as the Falklands war, could see naval ships in action. The ever increasing amount of electrical equipment on board fighting ships has led the Ministry of Defence, initially through its Ships Department, to recognise that cable standards for naval vessels need to have a much better performance than those used for commercial shipping. This resulted in the issue in 1965 of Standard SES 21 Part 2, followed by Part 1 in 1966 and Part 3 in 1967. Part 1 introduced silicone rubber or tape insulation with CSP sheath; Part 2 introduced rubber insulation, initially butyl and latterly EPR with CSP sheath; and Part 3 included a number of more general types for less specialised applications. Parts 1 and 2 of this Standard have formed the basis for cables for Royal Navy ships until the present day, taking the important principle that naval ships require higher standard cables to cope with the particular conditions likely to be encountered in hostilities, in

Propulsion cable

addition to the specialised nature of their design and onboard equipment. While SES 21 represented a huge improvement in naval cables at the time, it has been developed as technology and circumstances changed. Britain’s membership of NATO ensured that NATO stock numbers were issued to all cables in the standard, allowing the possible use of UK naval cables throughout NATO. The introduction of metrication was incorporated in 1969, and the references changed to DGS 211 www.defenceindustryreports.com | 3


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

The ever increasing amount of electrical equipment on board fighting ships has led the Ministry of Defence, initially through its Ships Department, to recognise that cable standards for naval vessels need to have a much better performance than those used for commercial shipping.

and 212 to reflect the change of responsibility within MOD to the Director General of Ships. The CSP sheathing material was based on a halogenated polymer system, evolving relatively large amounts of hydrogen chloride gas on combustion. In recognition of an increasing appreciation of the effects of smoke and toxic fumes in a fire situation, the standard for the sheathing material was issued as a reduced toxicity version following consultation between the MOD and cable makers. This low acid version remained the standard throughout the 1970’s, AEI cables being used on such vessels as Type 21 frigates.

A Multitude of Dangers The Navy continued to be concerned with the impact of the increasingly harsh environment in which their cables were required to operate. The potential effects of fire in a conflict situation were considered critical, with smoke and toxic fumes likely to impair fire fighting and also the vessel’s ability to respond with potentially disastrous consequences. There were also grave concerns about potential detrimental effects of a number of fluids present on modern fighting ships, with the possibility of sheathing and insulating materials disintegrating should some of these fluids be spilled on the cabling. The specification that appeared in 1982 following consultation with interested parties was for the sheathing material only and was numbered in a new series, for cable, of Naval Engineering Standards (NES) as NES 518. This was specifically halogen free and required demonstrable resistance to seven test fluids, one fuel oil, two hydraulic oils, two lubricating oils and two aqueous. The particular conditions of naval operation were recognised by the introduction of a 28 day duration for these fluid tests in contrast to the 1 or 7 day tests commonly found in commercial standards. Thus this standard set new levels of onerous performance for cable sheathing, and was also accompanied by a formal approval process to ensure compliance.

The Problems of Space With the issue of NES 518 to cover the generic sheathing material, the Navy was now able to issue cable standards using this high performance sheathing material. Numbered in the same series, NES 525 was issued in 1983 and used the NES 518 sheath over assemblies of thin wall insulated conductors from Defence Standard 6112 Part 18 to manufacture small cables for power, lighting, control, communication and instrumentation circuits in both surface ships and submarines. The issue of this 4 | www.defenceindustryreports.com

NES 526

NES 527

standard illustrated the first concerns about the size of cables. Increasing amounts of wiring in naval vessels were highlighting the relatively small amount of space on modern warships that could be used for wiring, and ship designers have been challenged ever since to accommodate all the cabling required within the ship without causing problems of obstruction or derating of cables. This problem is still very much with us! In 1987 NES 526 was issued. This was derived from DGS 212 but utilising the new NES 518 sheathing material to produce a halogen free limited fire hazard cable. This standard continues to use rubber insulation, but for additional protection the conductors are insulated with a dual layer system using an NES 518 or equivalent outer layer. In 1989 DGS 211 was similarly updated with NES 518


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Queen Elizabeth Class aircraft carrier

sheath and the existing silicone rubber or silicone elastomer taped insulation, for use in fire survival and high temperature zones. Since the issue of these three documents, NES 525/526/527, the cables have remained technically unchanged. There have been a number of changes since the original three NES documents were issued, but none have introduced any significant changes to the products. The standards have now been included in the Defence Standards system as Def Stan 61-12 Part 31 for the sheathing material, Def Stan 61-12 Part 25 for the thin wall insulated cables, Def Stan 02-526 for rubber insulated cables and Def Stan 02-527 for the silicone insulated cables, and these are the standards currently in use for Royal Navy contracts.

AEI Cables AEI Cables is the world’s oldest cable company tracing a direct lineage to the cable manufacturing company started by W. T. Henley in 1837, and celebrating its 175th anniversary this year. The maritime heritage of the company is no more evident than in the Henley logo of a Viking longship, still proudly displayed in the entrance hall to the AEI factory in Birtley. Henley’s range of manufacture gradually evolved as the use of electricity widened, and supply of cables for maritime applications, both naval and commercial were gradually added to the range. Henley cables were installed on HMS Ark Royal, launched by Cammell Laird in 1950, and on the famous Cunard liner Queen Elizabeth, built by John Brown on the Clyde between 1938 and 1940, which spent the war as an armed troopship. Since the introduction of the naval standards described above, W.T.Henley has become AEI Cables. Cables manufactured to the standards described above in the Birtley

factory have been supplied to the Royal Navy and associated fleets for many years now. The company has maintained a close liaison with the Ministry of Defence Sea Systems Controllerate and its successors, who have responsibility for designs and specifications for Royal Navy ships, and AEI is now recognised as the only indigenous manufacturer of cables for naval applications. AEI has supplied the cabling for Type 22 and 23 frigates and Type 45 destroyers, and is currently supplying the cabling for the Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers and the Astute class submarines.

The Future of Naval Cabling So what does the future hold for naval cabling? There are several key factors that can be expected to continue to influence naval cabling. a) Cost The principle of higher performance standards for navy ships is well established. Commercial ships cables are covered by British Standards which offer a reasonable level of performance for their application, as well as a higher standard than can be achieved by the corresponding IEC standards, which, being worldwide in scope, offer a lowest common denominator of performance. However, commercial standards are not the way forward for naval applications. They fall far short of what may be seen as a reasonable performance level, even if the likelihood of serious armed conflict continues to reduce. This level of required performance does come at a cost. The sophisticated materials utilised in their construction are not cheap, and cost pressures will inevitably increase as time passes, especially in the current economic climate. It is to be hoped that any move towards lower standards is resisted, as the potential consequences could be catastrophic. www.defenceindustryreports.com | 5


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Additional requirements will have to be added to the existing standards to ensure that cabling performance continues to reflect the requirements of the latest marine technology.

b) Space The increased level of equipment on modern naval ships increases the amount of cabling required. Space is at a premium and physical sizing of cable is becoming critical, especially on smaller surface ships and submarines. Electric propulsion systems require power cables, which again put pressure on available space. While smaller control cables to Def Stan 61-12 Part 25 are now in common use, as are smaller sizes of silicone rubber insulated cables to Def Stan 02527, especially in sub-surface ships, the space constraints in naval vessels can be expected to become more critical as time passes. c) Performance Ongoing changes in general equipment, weapons systems, propulsion and build techniques all affect the cabling. Additional requirements will have to be added to the existing standards to ensure that cabling performance continues to reflect the requirements of the latest marine technology. Pressure can be expected for resistance to additional fluids, for increased cable operating temperatures, for better cable performance within systems, as well as improved logistics to support modern marine building methods.

Astute Class submarine

6 | www.defenceindustryreports.com

d) Fire Resistance While the current standards represent state of the art performance with regard to flame propagation, smoke emission and toxic fume emission, the area of fire resistance has lagged behind somewhat. Def Stan 02-527 contains the only requirements for fire resistance. Technology has to move on from here, and the increasing importance of cabling remaining operational in the fire, water and impact scenario is only now being appreciated. Further developments can be expected in this area, and their incorporation into the basic standards will follow. AEI Cables is the longest established and most experienced of the companies in the UK defence cable market. We have worked with the MOD and the builders to develop a number of innovative solutions to particular problems especially on the Type 45 project, and we expect this process to continue. We have had to design and develop new cables for applications not envisaged by the initial standards. Equipped with world class cable design and materials technology departments, all the relevant production equipment, and contacts throughout the naval industry, AEI has all the facilities to continue this process into the future.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Cabling, Counterfeiting and Securing Safety Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

“This flood of counterfeit parts, overwhelmingly from China, threatens national security, the safety of our troops and American jobs.” Senator, Chairman of the Senate’s Armed Service Committee 21 May 20121

T

he Senate Armed Service Committee report on bogus electronic parts, cables and wiring has already had an impact on the United States Armed Forces. After a year long investigation by the US Senate Armed Services Committee, which uncovered 1,800 cases of bogus parts, many were found on the US Air Force’s largest cargo plane, special operations helicopters and Navy surveillance planes including the Navy’s P-8A Poseidon, a Boeing 737 derivative. The report revealed failures by defense contractors and the Department of Defence to report counterfeit parts and exposed a defense supply chain that relies on hundreds of unvetted independent distributors to supply electronic parts for some of the most sensitive defence systems.2 And of course, it is not just the United States Department of Defence that is affected – European and Asian markets have been infiltrated by substandard cable, wiring and electronic products as well.

The Senate Armed Services Committee’s Recommendation The Armed Services Committee made a number of recommendations about the supply chain for the defence industry. It criticised the defence industry’s reliance on unvetted independent distributors. The Committee identified approximately 1,800 cases of suspect counterfeit parts in the defense supply chain. More than 650 companies, each of which relied on their own network of suppliers, supplied those parts. DOD and defense contractors are frequently unaware of the ultimate source of parts used in defense systems. The parts originated from Huajie Electronics in Shenzhen, China, a fact that neither DOD nor Raytheon was aware of prior to the Committee’s investigation.3 On a smaller scale similar counterfeit products are being detected in Europe. In the United Kingdom, which has a number of advisory bodies on counterfeiting and safety, there have been warning notices.

The Need for Action The investigation also revealed deficiencies in the process used to determine whether and how parts are tested by contractors and subcontractors to the Department of Defense in the United States. These tests were not rigorous enough to ascertain the origin of the product and whether it met the required standard. In the United Kingdom there are a number of regulatory and oversight bodies which play some part in monitoring the manufacturing supply chain. The Approved Cables Initiative warned of a quality problem that had been identified with the zinc coating of armour wire and armoured cables produced by Demes Kablo of Turkey, which were subsequently recalled by the manufacturer.4

British Regulatory Bodies There are a proliferation of monitoring bodies to check on standards and advise on electrical cables and wiring in the United Kingdom. The government’s Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) issues regulations and guidelines on security issues, for example, the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations 2005, implementing the provisions of the European Parliament and Council Directive on the Restrictions of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment. These limit the use of hazardous substances such as lead and cadmium in electrical equipment. There is, of course, BASEC (the British Approvals Service for Cables), which is able to provide independent investigation and produces reports where there is a performance problem with cables or wiring.5 BASEC notes how rising copper prices have added to the problem of sub-standard and faulty cables. This has meant manufacturers of cable have been tempted to cut corners and use less copper than is required. In many cases, cable standards specify the maximum conductor resistance permitted, in accordance with the standard IEC 60228. Drawing down the diameter of the copper wire too much has www.defenceindustryreports.com | 7


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Perhaps most important of all is the commitment of cable and wiring manufacturers to selfpolice and ensure that their products meet set standards and T45 BAE

are traceable.

the effect of increasing resistance (reducing conductance). Cables with resistance higher than specified may overheat or offer a reduced level of safety. In extreme cases, this could result in fire or electric shock. BASEC has sometimes seen materials other than pure copper in use in cables, such as steel wire, copper-coated aluminium or badly recycled copper. As BASEC has investigated these inferior quality products, they have discovered that some have incorrect cable construction, incorrect marking, use incorrect insulation and/or sheathing materials leading to cracking, and in some instances, they have poor smoke and fire performance in supposedly fire and smoke rated cables.

Loss Prevention and Corporate Manslaughter The LPCB (Loss Prevention Certification Board) aims to ensure that products do what they claim, to prevent fires and ensure security.6 Manufacturers and contractors in the UK are covered by the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007, which provides the ultimate sanction on manufacturers found negligent of their responsibilities. More prosaically, BS 7671 oversees wiring regulations.

Manufacturers Raise awareness of Faulty Cabling and its Long Term Price Perhaps most important of all is the commitment of cable and wiring manufacturers to self-police and ensure that their products meet set standards and are traceable. AEI last year ran a campaign to alert customers of the importance of traceability of products through its ‘Setting the Standards’ 8 | www.defenceindustryreports.com

initiative. Clive Sharp, Commercial Director of AEI Cables, said: “We’ve discussed this issue with many customers who tell us they need information to guide them away from the dangers of purchasing or installing faulty cables…It is difficult to recognise poor quality cable, and by its nature we are talking about a hidden danger that is difficult to detect on appearance alone. As raw materials reach record price levels, some manufacturers are cutting corners and using less copper. There is very often a high price to pay for installing faulty cable either through injury or in having to retro-fit.” More than 27 per cent of all electrical fires are attributed to faulty wire and cables. In the past five years alone there have been 1,200 non-fatal injuries and 15 fatalities. Common issues emerging in the marketplace include undersized conductors, wrong size armour wires, no identification on the sheath of the cable manufacturer and false or misleading information on the cable, labels and packaging.7


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Cable and Wiring for the Latest Naval Vessels Meredith LLewellyn, Lead Contributor

T

he aircraft carriers ‘HMS Queen Elizabeth’ and ‘HMS Prince of Wales’ are the most iconic symbols of British soft and hard power projection. Commissioned in 1998 by the then Labour government’s Strategic Defence Review at the cost of a mere £3bn for two, they are now being built in Rosyth in Scotland. But the cost and symbolic value of an aircraft carrier has brought controversy. The Prince of Wales is now being built to be mothballed – an issue to be revisited by the government in 2015. Nevertheless the 50 year life span of ‘the Queen Elizabeth’ has meant that she has attracted some desirable contracts. The £8m contract to supply cabling to the vessel was awarded to AEI cables and the length of cable required is said to stretch from Co. Durham to Moscow – not a short distance.

Cooperation with the French “the Entente Frugale” While ‘the Queen Elizabeth’ progressed, a cooperative deal was made with the French. In January 2006 John Reid, the Defence Secretary at the time, signed an agreement to work with France to share the base costs of the development of the carrier. The agreement was that France would pay one third of the demonstration phase costs of the common base line design. Staged payments were also to be made by France in recognition of the investment the UK had already made in the design. This comprised £30m in 2006 and £25m in July with a further £45m at the end of the demonstration phase if France decides to continue with the project.8 For the French Navy this deal had many benefits because their aircraft carrier the ‘Charles de Gaulle’ had

QEC Aircraft carrier

been dogged by funding problems and, worse, a host of technical problems that restricted its usefulness since its commissioning in 1999. Aircraft carriers are not mere symbols of economic and political power, they are also symbols of complex technical teamwork, because keeping the craft up to date with the latest equipment has to be tried and coordinated with the latest avionics equipment for its aircraft. The operation of the launch and arrestor systems for the aircraft is hugely complex especially in stormy conditions. In a recent sailing to fight piracy and terrorism in the Indian Ocean, the flagship was brought back to base after sailing for one day because of an electrical fault, revealing the key importance of high quality cabling for such prestigious ships. “A technical fault has forced France’s flagship and only aircraft carrier to return to port less than a day after it set off to fight piracy and terrorism in the Indian Ocean.” Naval spokesman Capt. Hugues d’Argentre said the nuclearpowered Charles de Gaulle would be back in its home port of Toulon later in the day and it would take a few days to carry out the necessary repairs. “A fault was found in the insulation of an electrical cabinet in the propulsion system.”

www.defenceindustryreports.com | 9


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Developments in Cabling Technology on Operations Meredith Llewellyn, Lead Contributor

Apart from Operation Unified Protector over Libya, the most active operations to date are the EU NAVFOR operations and exercises in the Indian Ocean against piracy and terrorism off the Somali Coast.

N

etwork centric war fare is a broadband hungry form of warfare, and developments like LINK 16, a tactical data exchange network created by the United States for NATO and its Allies, links military aircraft, ships and ground forces in real time. Link 16, a high-bandwidth secure data network, allows real-time monitoring of the airspace from the South of England to the Mediterranean Sea. It also supports the exchange of text messages, imagery data and provides two channels of digital voice (2.4 kbit/s and/or 16 kbit/s in any combination). Cabling every ship and aircraft to the latest specification has demanded retrofits of some of the older craft and constant updating on many of the newer ones. Apart from Operation Unified Protector over Libya, the most active operations to date are the EU NAVFOR operations and exercises in the Indian Ocean against piracy and terrorism off the Somali Coast. And the enhanced communications links have ensured operational effectiveness: “72% of pirate attacks have failed, 81% since August. Those results are due to the combination of EU NAVFOR’s action, the application of new concepts of operations, the use, by the maritime community, of systematic security measures on merchant vessels and high-quality cooperation with other naval forces and independent Navies”, said French Rear Admiral, Philippe Coindreau in 2010.9

French Cabling and Wiring Program in Kapisa, Afghanistan Cabling for aircraft carriers, warships and aircraft is not the only operational mission of the French forces. They have also been central

10 | www.defenceindustryreports.com

to the development of electrification programs in Afghanistan. In June 2012, the inauguration ceremony took place of an electrification programme for the province of Kapisa at Mahmud-e-Raqi. The 10million euro project will allow 40,000 Afghans to receive electricity in their homes and also serve their infrastructure health centres, schools and mosques.10

Thales to Provide French Ministry of Defense with e263million Next Generation Air and Naval Radios The French procurement agency (DGA) announced in June 2012 a new CONTACT programme to provide enhanced networkcentric operations for the French navy and air force. This hinges on the ability to move everincreasing volumes of information between all the players in the battle space. Next generation communication systems have a key role to play in the critical decision chain, especially in complex environments and multinational coalition operations. “We are very proud to have been selected to design and build a complete theatre communications system comprising future air and naval tactical radios and associated waveforms, which will give French forces the joint communications capabilities they need to accomplish their missions effectively,” said Luc Vigneron, Chairman & CEO of Thales. “The CONTACT programme is strategically important for the French armed forces and key to France’s national sovereignty and it also provides a solid framework for the future development of software-defined radio at the international level.”


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Cables for Naval Applications: Critical Specifications Don McBarnet, Staff Writer

2

1st century navies faced with constant demands for high effectiveness plus strict cost control present contractors with a tough task. Some Asian and Middle East and North African countries are seeking to enlarge and upgrade their fleets to high technology ships that reflect the change in task to littoral operations, intelligence gathering and electronic warfare. Many European countries are seeking to customize their warships, stretch their life spans and apply new systems to improve combat effectiveness and reduce crew requirements. As a result, naval contractors expect a cable manufacturer to offer a full range of cables to cover increasing warship complexity, the ability to meet all naval specifications plus interoperability. Expertise in energy and telecommunications is assumed, as are the latest innovations for defense electronics and network centric warfare. Above all, cables for defense have to display enhanced ruggedness: electronic discretion, fire-safety, shock and vibration resistance. Customised cables are frequently required for specific requirements – often they are needed to reduce weight to enhance speed in air and sea craft.

NATO and Country-Specific Military Standards That Must be Met To list all the international specifications to be met by manufacturers is unnecessary. However, the list is long and the qualities required are high and demanding.11 Some qualities that need noting are the requirements to be low smoke, low toxicity and halogen free. Energy cables for propulsion need to carry increased voltage for increased power capacity. For example, Nexans Korean subsidiary is fully outfitting a 1,800ton submarine being built by Hyundai Heavy Industries according to strict VG-95218 German standards with cables carrying 1.8/3kV up to 8.7/15kV. For next generation cables for instrumentation and control standard, thin-wall halogen-free fire-resistant (HFFR) cables are used to carry vital technical information for sensors, measurement and the control panel. Multi-pair 0.22mm2 cable was used by DCN (Dynamic

Circuit Network) on the Mistral Class Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD), the most employed asset within the French navy. Nexans also provides lightweight cables with tape insulation according to the MIL-Dtl-24640 US Navy Standard.

US Navy Combat Standards For the US Navy, cables must be tested against electro-magnetic pulse (EMP), which arises from the aerial detonation of a nuclear device and can disable data transfers. Horizon frigates and Mistral LHDs require thin-wall LV cables, Halogen-Free Fire-Resistant cables (Flamex) that provide efficient energy for equipment, conveniences, cabin wall outlets, public address systems, automatic doors and lighting. For naval applications, special shielding is required for high mechanical strength and resistance to vibration, stress, sea salt and chemicals, even for multimode and single mode OF (Optical Fibre) cables that provide a downlink from the satellite dish to equipment for video transmissions, and high-speed connections, and for radar and electronic combat systems.

General Dynamics Electric Boat Division The next generation of attack submarines is equipped with coaxial cables, which deliver video and data services throughout the vessel for information exchange, internet access and armament connections. Similarly, de-gaussing cables are provided for Northrup Grumman’s Ship Systems, as part of the US Navy’s Aegis (guided missile frigate) shipbuilding program. These special cables are used to demagnetize the ship’s hull as it cuts through the water, thus reducing the threat from mines. In the UK, General Dynamics integrates cabling as part of the engineering design process: the General Dynamics UK integrated approach ensures that key areas of design are considered as one system. Such areas include: MMI (Man Machine Interface) location, common cable routes, appropriate separation of cables, common powers solutions, Rad Haz/EMC/TEMPEST and mutual interference. Following a strict design process, the General Dynamics UK approach www.defenceindustryreports.com | 11


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

For the US Navy, cables must be tested against electro-magnetic pulse (EMP), which arises from the aerial detonation of a nuclear device and can disable data transfers. astute submarine

begins with the installation as a collaborative venture, utilising resources from other companies to ensure that cable routing and clipping are appropriate. This reduces the installation time and is intended to obviate difficulties. For defence applications, TEMPEST is checked for. TEMPEST is a codename for compromising emanations from electrical, mechanical, or acoustical energy, which might unintentionally be emitted by any number of sources within equipment/systems which process and, therefore, might compromise national security information. General Dynamics UK can, and does, of course, provide a similar service for land vehicles.

AEI’s Firetec AEI’s specialist cables are used for naval applications – another example from within the public sector demonstrates their value for defence as well as health applications. At the Chesterfield Royal Hospital, Derbyshire, AEI are using the screened wiring cable Protec to provide continuity of power for lighting in a £1.4million scheme. Enhanced Firetec has been used for the fire alarm system. Protec exceeds the requirements of BS8436 for use in walls and partitions, where there is a risk of damage or penetration from nails or screws. It is a Low

12 | www.defenceindustryreports.com

Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) screened cable with reduced electromagnetic interference (EMI). For the fire alarm system, the hospital used Enhanced Firetec Enhanced which allows added evacuation time in a fire emergency. Ossie Lawrence, regional sales manager for AEI Cables, said: “These cables are ideal in this situation where there may be interference from other electrical equipment and where continuity of power is critical. For hospitals and other buildings such as educational institutions where large numbers of people move about, these cables reduce the risk of anything going wrong and provide reassurance for the organisation.”12

Habia’s Swedish Military and Nuclear Cables Habia Cable, the Swedish high-end cable manufacturer, has won contracts to supply nuclear safety grade cables to Korea and it also supplies a range of cables for naval, airframe and communication systems. Habia has an extensive portfolio of standard and custom multicore signal, power and data cables including coaxial and databus cables in a range of materials to meet the demanding requirements of in-theatre handling and environmental conditions.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

The Path to the Future Mary Dub, Editor

T

he area that appears to be changing the most rapidly in the next generation of cables and wiring is the response to armed forces demand for the provision of more broadband. The use of PON (Passive Optical Networks) is central to the tale. Then, there is the historical tension between the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T). Both organizations produced separate and incompatible 1 Gigabit and 10 Gigabit standards. The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) also specified Radio Frequency over Glass for carrying HFC RF signals over a passive optical network.

IEEE Abstract on EPON An article in Communications Magazine in 2002 describes the working of Ethernet Passive Optical Networks – an emerging subscriber access architecture at that time that combines low-cost point-to-multipoint fiber infrastructure with Ethernet. EPONs were designed to carry Ethernet frames at standard Ethernet rates. An EPON uses a single trunk fiber that extends from a central office to a passive optical splitter, which then fans out to multiple optical drop fibers connected to subscriber nodes. Other than the end terminating equipment, no component in the network requires electrical power, hence the term passive. Local carriers have been interested in passive optical networks for a long time because of the benefits they offer: minimal fiber infrastructure and no powering requirement in the outside plant. With Ethernet now emerging as the protocol of choice for carrying IP traffic in metro and access networks, EPON has emerged as a potential optimized architecture for fiber to the building and fiber to the home.13

The Advantages of EPONS According to researchers in Arizona State University and the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), EPONs aim at converging the low-cost equipment and simplicity of Ethernet and the low-cost fiber infrastructure of PONs. EPONs are a promising solution to provide sufficient bandwidth for emerging services such as videoconferencing,

distributed gaming, IP telephony, and video on demand.14 Such are the advantages of this type of system that similar technology developed for the US Air Force Secure Passive Optical Network (SPON) developed in 2009 by Cable Manufacturing Business to meet SIPRNet demands, produced secure passive optical network (SPON) which integrates Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) technology and the Armored Shield Carrier PDS Protective Distribution System (PDS). After changes to the NSTISSI 7003 requirement and a new mandate by the US Federal Government for greener technologies, the US Federal Government proposed this as an alternative to Active Ethernet and Encryption devices. Subsequently, a directive by the US Department of Army (DA) Chief Information Officer (CIO) ordered that all camps, posts and stations undergoing modernisation aggressively adopt the technologies by 2013, in order to decrease operation cost and capital expenditures.

Ericsson’s Assessment of the Complementary Growth of GPON and FTTx Bbroadband In an article on Deep Fiber Broadband Access Networks, the researchers describe how early deep-fiber broadband (FTTx) access networks seldom had to deliver little more than fast internet access. However, expectations have changed. Many broadband access networks are now expected to deliver a bundle of services, such as the triple-play offering of internet access, telephony plus TV and video services. To the consumer, TV and video have the greatest appeal but they are also the most bandwidth-hungry of services. This combination – subscriber appeal and the requirement for bandwidth, is driving the demand for higher speeds (50-75Mbps). The article examined the two most recent standards, GPON and VDSL26-7, which build on and effectively replace earlier standards (BPON and VDSL) and argues that, although GPON and VDSL2 standards are often seen as competing technologies, they could be complementary and be incorporated into the EDA broadband access family. In their assessment, operators will have to use both of these technologies to provide a comprehensive and flexible access solution.15 www.defenceindustryreports.com | 13


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

Manufacturers need to customize and specialize to a high degree to meet the very specific needs of the defence market or any other field. astute submarine

The International Spread of FTTx Many millions of subscribers around the world are today connected via deep fiber broadband (FTTx) access. Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the USA offer this. In some countries FTTx constitutes the fastest-growing type of broadband access. One of the driving forces for FTTx access is surging demand for IPTV fueled by the transition to HDTV. Important aspects that affect the deployment of FTTx access networks are regulatory conditions and competition. This mimics the defence demand for more broadband for situational awareness.

The Future of Cable and Wiring It is a high risk task to predict the future in any field, especially a high technology field such as cables and wiring. However, several features emerge from the coverage of the topic. First, manufacturers need to customize and specialize to a high degree to meet the very specific needs of the defence market or any other field. Secondly, the hunger for situational awareness delivered through broadband access to every soldier, sailor or airman on operation is going to mean a revolving process of constant upgrades in wiring and technology to allow interoperability between the most high technology specifications of the richer nations’ armed forces and the others. As the armed forces of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa equip their armed forces with the new emerging technologies from the United States and Europe, the demand for the latest traceable cables and wiring will continue to rise.

14 | www.defenceindustryreports.com


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION CABLE AND WIRING SOLUTIONS FOR NAVAL APPLICATIONS

References: 1

 Carl Levin, US Senator for Michigan: website

2

The Manufacturer http://www.themanufacturer.com/articles/over-a-million-counterfeit-parts-used-on-us-military-aircraft/ 24 May 2012 by Tim Brown

3

Carl Levin, US Senator for Michigan: website

4

Approved Cables Initiative http://www.aci.org.uk/news_more.asp?news_id=33&current_id=1

5

British Approvals Service for Cables http://www.basec.org.uk/

6

The Loss Prevention Certification Board http://www.bre.co.uk/page.jsp?id=1869

7

http://www.aeicables.co.uk/cgi-bin/news2.pl?newsId=155

8

N  ews Article Defence Policy and Business UK-French agreement on aircraft carriers 24 Jan 06

The United Kingdom and France have reached an agreement on cooperation concerning the future design of aircraft carriers. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/DefencePolicyAndBusiness/UkfrenchAgreementOnAircraftCarriers.htm 9

10

EUNAVFOR Force Headquarters handover ceremony December 15, 2010, published in News, Press Releases by EU NAVFOR Public Affairs Office http://www.defense.gouv.fr/operations/actualites/afghanistan-avancee-de-l-electrification-en-kapisa

Afghanistan : avancée de l’électrification en Kapisa Mise à jour : 22/06/2012 15:09

11

NEXANS website:

NATO specifications and IEC standards, ISO 9001 quality standards, Qualified Products List (QPL), German VG, American Mil-Dtl-24643, Mil-Dtl-24640, Mil-PRF-85045, Mil-C-17, UK Naval Engineering, Standard (NES 525), DG211, French Navy Standard (NF STF 41-06), Japanese JIS specifications, Advanced fire-performance, (IEC 60332-3 and/or IEC 60331), low-smoke (IEC 61034), halogen-free (60754-1/60754-2), low toxicity (NES713) 12

AEI website

13

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=983910&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.

jsp%3Farnumber%3D983910 This paper appears in: 
Communications Magazine, IEEE
Date of Publication: Feb 2002
Author(s): Kramer, G. 
Alloptic Inc., Livermore, CA 
Pesavento, G. 
Volume: 40, Issue: 2 
Page(s): 66 - 73 
 14

15

http://mre.faculty.asu.edu/WDM_EPON06.pdf WDM ETHERNET PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS Michael P. McGarry and Martin Reisslein, Arizona State University Martin Maier, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) http://www1.ericsson.com/cm/res/thecompany/docs/publications/ericsson_review/2007/1_deep_fiber_web.pdf Ericsson Review No. 1, 2007 Deep-fiber

broadband access networks

Joe Baker, Torbjörn Cagenius, Colin Goodwin, Mats Hansson and Martin Hatas

www.defenceindustryreports.com | 15


Defence Industry Reports… the Defence Industry Reports….the leading specialist combined leading specialist online research andcombined networking online research and networking resource for senior military and resource for senior military and defence industry professionals. defence industry professionals.

 •p toUpthe U minute Industry News other content available to the minute Industryand and Technology Technology News andand other content available to to allallsite users on a free of charge, open access basis. site users on a free of charge, open access basis.

 •ualified Q signed upupmembers abletoto access premium content Qualified signed members are are able access premium content SpecialSpecial Reports andand interact with usinga variety a variety of advanced Reports interact withtheir their peers peers using of advanced onlineonline networking tools. networking tools.

Designed to help usersidentify identify new solutions, understand the the  •esigned D to help users newtechnical technical solutions, understand implications of differenttechnical technical choices select the the bestbest solutions implications of different choicesand and select solutions available. available.

Thought Leadership Advice and from internationally recognised  •hought T Leadership – -Advice andguidance guidance from internationally recognised defence industry key opinion leaders. leaders defence industry key opinion

Input - Contributions from senior military personnel and defence industry  •eerPeer P Input – Contributions from senior military personnel and defence professionals industry professionals.

Independent Editorial Content – Expert and authoritative analysis from winning journalists and leading industry commentators award winning journalists and leading industry commentators.

Unbiased Supplier Provided Content.

Designed debate. • Writtento tofacilitate the highest professional standards

Written to the highest professional standards.

Independent Editorial Content - Expert and authoritative analysis from award

Unbiased Supplier Provided Content

Designed to facilitate debate

Visit: www.defenceindustryreports.com

Special Report – Next Generation Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications

Special Report – Next Generation Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation Cable and Wiring Solutions for Naval Applications