A Student Magazine of the Department of British and American Studies
VOLUME 11 ISSUE 2
THE TRUTH AND NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH... EXCEPT MAYBE SOME LIES
EDITORIAL TEAM Capko, Andrej Čížová, Júlia Demo, Peter Drgoňová, Nina Gajdošová, Michaela Javoran, Daniel Krýslová, Natália Peasant, Mr. Ian Saganová, Bianka Valentová, Simona Vaněková, Hilda Vrábel, Julián
GRAPHIC DESIGN Gofjárová, Andrea
COPY EDITORS Čížová, Júlia Perspectives is an online student magazine published twice a year. https://issuu.com/magazineperspectives/ Publisher Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky Filozofická fakulta Univerzita Komenského Gondová 2 814 99 Bratislava
firstname.lastname@example.org | issuu.com/magazineperspectives/ | perspectivesfifuk.wordpress.com
EDITORIAL Dear readers, once again, 2021 has proved to be quite challenging for the Perspectives team. It doesn’t need to be said that by the end of the last semester, we were all sick and tired of the purple Teams icon. All the joy that our friendly editorial meetings brought us before, in cosy coffee shops or dingy pubs was gone. Being a part of a student magazine is hard work (sometimes), but also so much fun once you meet your kind of people. Yes, the pandemic and isolation proved to be a hindrance, but I am glad that we can now bring you a new issue of Perspectives. This time, we focused on the issue of lying. So, whether you’re interested in lying per se, in lying as in unreliability in books or just want to pass the time by reading a kooky short story written by the mysterious Ian Peasant, Perspectives is the magazine to read! Or is it? For all you know, I might be lying.
xJÚLIA ČÍŽOVÁ perspectives |
Content 6 8 10 12 14 18 20 21 22
WHY DO WE LIE? HOW TO SPOT A LIAR THE BIGGEST LIES THAT INFLUENCED HISTORY STORIES WITH UNRELIABLE NARRATORS 20 THINGS TO DO WHEN IT’S RAINY OUTSIDE ARE MEN BIGGER LIARS THAN WOMEN? WHEN THE TRUTH HURTS PERSPEQUIZ VOL. 4 COULD THEY MEET? SUZIE Q AND MILES TRUMPETER
Why Do We Lie? author | Michaela Gajdošová In many religions and cultures, deception is considered a sin or at least an immoral act. However, according to certain studies, it seems that lying is more natural to us than one would think. We may have a penchant for little ‘innocent’ lies or for huge ones in various circumstances. But when did it even start? Researchers presume that we started lying almost immediately after language arose. Our ancestors learned that it is beneficial and less energy consuming. They could manipulate their opponents effortlessly without using physical force when looking for resources or mates. This behaviour then gave them access to new ways and strategies for becoming more powerful and secure. Nonetheless, the research of deception did not cease there. Tali Sharot and her team from the University College London searched for more clues on what regions of the brain are active during deceptive behaviour and what the chemistry behind it is. They discovered that three particular parts of the brain are stimulated. The first one – the frontal lobe (neocortex) is, apart from its other functions, responsible for the expression of emotion and reasoning. Therefore we are able to consciously supress the truth and emotions connected with them through its intellectual nature. The size of the frontal lobe in different species predicts their manipulative and tricking abilities. The second structure – the limbic system, or to be more precise, the amygdala, processes emotions and arousal. The more we lie, the more rapidly its activity decreases. In other words, the more lies we tell, the easier it becomes to 6
tell them, even if the lies are big. The third part of the brain that is responsible for lying is the temporal lobe. It creates mental images and retrieves memories. During the whole process of lying, certain hormones called catecholamines are released into the body. You may know them under more familiar names: adrenalin and noradrenalin. In case you were wondering why your heart is pumping or why your hands become sweaty when you’re lying, these hormones are the answer. Now we know what happens in our brain when we lie. We actually become more skilled in lying throughout our lifetime. The psychologist Kang Lee from the University of Toronto found out that people lie since childhood and they become better at it as they grow older. Several studies were conductred regarding this matter. For example, children were asked to identify toys that were obscured from their view based on an audio recording. The first few recordings were easy to recognize - a dog barking, a cat meowing etc. However, as the experiment went on, the audio had nothing to do with the toy. The researcher then left the child alone in the room and asked him or her not to peek at the toy. When she returned, she asked the child whether they peeked at the toy or not. Most of the children simply could not resist and looked at it, but whether they lied about it depended on their age. Older children had the tendency to lie about it more that the younger ones. It relates to their increasing ability to feel empathy and to perceive things from someone else’s perspective. The older the children were, the easier it was for them to manipulate the truth
according to a different worldview to secure themselves from being exposed. Also, when we look at the age, number of lies reaches its peak between 13 – 17 years. From then on, the frequency decreases. Nonetheless, the process does not disappear in adulthood. We can only imagine about what a world without lies would look like. From my experience, honesty and truth are the way to create stronger bonds and trust among people, although they may hurt sometimes. However, I think that with appropriate communication we can overcome any obstacles. And even avoid the temptation of sweet and easy, but nonetheless dishonest lies. Bibliography: Garrett, Neil, et al. “The Brain Adapts to Dishonesty.” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 12, 2016, pp. 1727–32. Crossref, doi:10.1038/nn.4426. Xu, Fen, et al. “Lying and Truth-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action.” Child Development, vol. 81, no. 2, 2010, pp. 581–96. Crossref, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01417.x. perspectives |
How to Spot a Liar author | Natália Krýslová Pick a lie: Which of these do you hear the most? - I’m fine. - I was stuck in traffic. - I only had one beer. - You don’t look fat in *insert an article of clothing* - I will call you back. - I haven’t seen your message. - It was on sale - I have a headache. - I would never lie to you. These are some of the most repeated lies in the world. Have you chosen the last one? Let me help you become an accomplished lie spotter. First, we have to define what a lie is. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy says that “the dictionary definition of lying is to make a false statement with the intention to deceive.“ However, there’s more to a lie than that. Pamela Meyer, writer, fraud examiner and professional lie spotter says that “lying is a cooperative act”. You must agree with the lie for it to be effective; if you don’t believe in it, it’s nothing. Sometimes, we willingly agree to a lie, under certain social circumstances, under pressure or to keep our dignity. Statements such as “you don’t look fat in it” fall into this category. Most of the time, we agree to be lied to unwillingly. We each have a weak spot, we’re hungry for something, whether it’s our body shape, living conditions, relationships, or success in life. It’s easier to believe lies than being okay with the truth. 8
Some Stats Each person hears 10 – 200 lies a day on an average day, this includes white lies (lies that are essentially meant to be harmless). People lie to strangers more than they do to close people or even co-workers. Gender statistics claim that men lie more about themselves than other people while women lie more to protect other people. When we look at the animal kingdom as a whole, the more intelligent the species, the more likely it is to lie. Koko the gorilla once lied to her caretakers about her pet kitten ripping a sink out of the wall to deflect the blame from herself. Even human babies learn to lie at a very young age – infants are known to fake crying to get attention even if nothing’s wrong.
Lie Spotting Now that we know what a lie is, how often we encounter it and from whom, let’s look at the most common signs that a person is lying to you. When it comes to speech, liars resort to formal language use. They use non-contracted denial structures (using do not instead of don’t), they repeat questions, they distance themselves from the person they’re lying about (using that woman instead of her name). When telling a story, liars go into too much unnecessary detail and tell the events in chronological order. Lying people lower their voice and make too many pauses. In terms of body language, a common
misconception is that a person fidgets when they lie. On the contrary, liar’s upper body will freeze when they tell a lie. All our lives we’re being told that insincere people don’t look you in the eye. However, liars that are aware of this social occurrence will keep a way more intense eye contact to compensate for it. Liars cross their arms to distance themselves from the interrogator, they look down when telling a lie, they point their feet towards the exit in a situation they don’t want to be in. Liars also blink more frequently and create barriers around themselves using random objects, such as a glass of water or sheets of paper, placing them between them and the other person. When you catch a liar smiling, you can tell a fake smile apart from a real one by looking at their eyes. A fake smile doesn’t touch the eyes. You can move your mouth and your lips but the little crow-feet wrinkles around your eyes will give it away. Another common sign is a so-called duping delight. It occurs when a person guilty of a crime or a certain misconduct smiles subtly when talking about an unfortunate event that they are guilty of. It is difficult to fake sorrow subconsciously. All these signs are merely red flags, expressions of emotions. If you see one here and there it doesn’t mean a thing. If you see clusters of them together, however, you should be more cautious.
but in a deeper voice. Coughing or clearing their throat could also be a signal of tension and uneasiness. Last, but not least, here are a few ways in which a lying person would say no: - Say no and look in a different direction, usually towards the exit - Say no and close their eyes to distance themselves from the situation - Say no after a slight hesitation when there shouldn’t be one - Say a way too long, unnatural nooooo, if they themselves aren’t convinced of their answer Whether you take these as a manual to become better at lie spotting, or you realize you haven’t learned anything from this article, one thing about lying is crucial. Start with yourself, take care of your weak spots, don’t give liars a chance to easily convince you of something you yourself aren’t sure of. Remember, it takes two to tang- to lie. By believing the lie, you grant it its power.
Techniques to Uncover a Lie If you suspect that someone is lying, the basic rule is to ask open questions. Yes or no questions are easy to lie about. If a person has to make up a story and also make it believable, it gives you a better chance at spotting a lie. If you were to interview a person and something about their story didn’t add up, try asking for the story backwards, or ask for random events out of chronological order. The liar will become confused. This is a technique even FBI agents use when interrogating suspects. Other useful tips include asking unexpected questions (so that the person can’t prepare an answer beforehand), watching out for small and verifiable details, asking a question that you can check later. Generally, you should listen more than you speak. Liars speak faster and louder perspectives |
The Biggest Lies That Influenced History author | Bianka Saganová Why do people lie? Some of them do so because they want to avoid punishment or protect someone else from punishment. Some of them want to cover up an awkward situation, avoid being embarrassed, or make themselves appear better. Little lies probably won’t hurt anybody. But what if your lies are so strong that it’s not just you believes them, but also people born hundred years later?
The Trojan Horse It all started when the Trojan prince Paris escaped with Helen, who was the wife of the Spartan King. The Trojan war broke out and it lasted 10 years. The Trojans believed they had finally overcome the Greeks. But what they didn’t know was that the Greeks were preparing one final surprise for them. The Greeks had a brilliant idea of building a huge wooden horse. It was constructed by Epeius, a talented master carpenter and also a pugilist. The horse had a hollow belly which allowed men to hide in it. The Greeks pretended to surrender and persuaded the Trojans to accept the horse as an offering to Athena, who was the goddess of war. So, this is how the horse was allowed inside the city gates. Later, when the Trojans fell asleep, the Greeks, hidden inside the horse, snuck out of the trap door and they defeated the Trojans. This smart trick was for sure one of the most successful and well-known in history. You should bear in mind that even though there is evidence of the Trojan war, there is no certain evidence that proves this legend about the Trojan horse. These days, the term “Trojan horse” refers to stealing personal information and disrupting a com10
The Nazi Propaganda puter’s programming. “If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it.” This thought is often attributed to Joseph Goebbels, the minister of Nazi propaganda, who launched a huge campaign in order to persuade the German people to believe that the Jews were their enemies. The lies were spread mainly in the press and they blamed Jews for all the problems Germany ever had, including its defeat in World War I. The biggest lie dates back to the Middle Ages. The Jews were accused of ritual killings of Christian children and using their blood as a sacrifice. Hitler and his accomplices used the Jews as scapegoats to create “the big lie”. This theory states that it doesn’t matter how big the lie is, people will still believe in it. The point is, the lie has to be told repeatedly. Hitler said that everybody tells small lies, but only the bravest are able to tell colossal lies. In the end, people will accept a big lie just because it is too improbable. This is a theory that helps us understand many of the lies which were perpetuated
Anna Anderson or Anastastia?
The Chernobyl Disaster
throughout the history. The aggression accompanying the Russian Revolution put the royal family in jeopardy. The royals were becoming more and more unacceptable for the Bolsheviks. They murdered the royal Romanov family in 1918. Since the Bolsheviks wanted to make sure that no legitimate heir could later endanger them, they killed not just Tsar Nicholas II and his wife, but also their son and four daughters. But after this catastrophic scenario, people started to talk about some members of the royal family, who managed to escape and survive. Two years later, in 1920, Anna Anderson was admitted to a hospital after she had tried to commit suicide. She confessed to being the youngest daughter of the royal family, Princess Anastasia. Many people believed her because she had similar virtues as Princess Anastasia and she provided certain information about the Russian family and also described the life at court quite vividly. One of the people who didn’t believe her was her roommate, who claimed that her name was Franziska Schanzkowska, not Anna and certainly not Anastasia. Even this didn’t stop her pretending – she continued to claim that she was a member of the royal family and earned money as a “celebrity”. She continued to tell her story until her death in 1984. Later on, after the remains of the royal family were tested for DNA, experts confirmed that she was a fake. The remains of all family members were found, which means that
none of them had escaped the 1918 execution. After a nuclear power plant explosion in 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine, millions of people living in the USSR were exposed to radiation. The explosion can be compared to the bomb dropped on Hiroshima – but 400 times worse. The evacuation of people living in nearby cities started an entire day after the explosion. And what is worse, the authorities were quiet about the horrible situation and the health consequences. The Soviets withheld important information from both the Soviets and everyone else. The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, confessed the truth about the situation 18 days after the accident. Thankfully, people who lived in contaminated areas were not exposed to a high level of radiation. They were successfully treated, but it doesn’t mean the radiation could not affect the health of people in the future. As reported by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there could be a connection between thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl disaster. Some deaths caused by cancer can be attributed to Chernobyl, which is the case with evacuees, emergency workers, and people living in the most contaminated
Stories with Unreliable Narrators author | Nina Drgoňová Although we often don’t realize their presence, they exist. Even more than that, they surround us in stories where we sometimes least expect them. I’d like to present to you a few examples in which you never know – is the narrator telling the truth, or are they just a compelling liar?
The one we all know: The Catcher in the Rye (J.D. Salinger) A classic we all learn about in school and most of us had already read as a part of required reading. Who would have thought? The story follows a young boy, Holden, as he runs away from boarding school. He, as the polite unreliable narrator he is, reveals his deceptiveness by stating his location at the very beginning of the book. Many of us might not quite realize what that location is until the very last chapter. One way or another, we question Holden’s actions and thoughts throughout the whole book. Why is that? Is it perhaps bad writing? I dare say that’s not the case! On the contrary, the writing of Holden’s character is quite excellent. We observe him making a a lot of questionable choices and they never quite surprise us because we can see, with every step he takes, that he is unwell. We feel that there is something wrong with him and therefore we can never be sure of what he does next. It is not until the very end that we understand the mental state in which he’d taken all those decisions and, for the first time in the entire book, we feel satisfied. Because he allowed us to understand.
The terrifying one all of us found on Netflix: You (Caroline Kepnes)
The diamond in the rough: One Of Us Is Lying (and everything else by Karen M. McManus)
This story’s arrival on the streaming service platform was hard to miss. I highly doubt that any of us would have guessed that this chilling narrative is based on a book. It focuses on Joe, a man who is, for lack of a better word, a psychopath. Joe is trying to get the woman of his dreams. The choices he makes are driven by his selfishness – he doesn’t care whether it is lying, stealing or even killing. But what makes Joe so different from Holden, for example, apart from his already lost sanity? Why is this story more terrifying the more you read or watch it? Unlike any other narrator of this kind, Joe makes us root for him. We all know he is a horrible person, able to kill a man without hesitation. We all can see that he is a stalker and a murderer. And yet, we’re happy when he gets the girl. We’re happy when things go his way, and we’re putting our own morals aside. The talented Penn Badgley, who was cast for the role of Joe Goldberg, brings this vision even further than we expect it, portraying the psychopath as a charming man who is only doing the best for the world. Many magazines claim that he quickly became the creepiest villain in TV history.
Karen McManus is one of the still-rising stars of the Young Adult genre, focusing on thriller literature. The book narrates a story of six high school students who are all put to detention together, which seems like quite the normal thing to happen in high school… until one of them dies. The five remaining children all have dark secrets and none of them are willing to talk about them. We see the story from all of their points of view, never really knowing who is telling the truth and who is lying. The story unveils all the suspicious quirks each teenager possesses, making the whole situation even more unnerving. We read this story, and although we want to find our favorites, it’s extremely difficult thanks to the unrelenting fear that the one you pick might be the killer.
The ultimate representation: Made You Up (Francesca Zappia) Francesca Zappia really pushes the limits of unreliable narration with her debut novel, in which we follow the life of young Alex, a highschool girl — and a schizophrenic. This book is different from the other titles on this list, especially because the narrator is aware of the fact that she is unreliable and tries to fight it. Unlike the other characters we just met, she isn’t deceitful on purpose, and not knowing what comes next is as terrifying for her as it is for us. She can’t trust herself and neither can we. She doesn’t want to lie to us and, oftentimes, doesn’t even realize she is doing so. And the moments in which both Alex and the reader realize the real and whole truth are utterly heartbreaking. This book is the ultimate testimony to people with mental disorders, giving us a peek through the window into their lives, provoking us to see them as narrators who are worth being written about and known. perspectives |
author | Daniel Javoran
20 Things to Do When it rains
1. Meditate Your mind is yours and yours alone. When was the last time you spent some time with it? Just close your eyes and breathe. Inhale. Exhale. Inhale. Exhale. Inhale. Exhale. Focus on that breathing. Isn’t it beautiful? Don’t mind the thoughts passing. Thinking is natural. Just let go of thoughts. See a thought, observe it, and let it go. You can do this for a minute, two minutes, or an hour. You’ll probably fail, because this is actually really hard, but does that matter? I have 19 more tips for you!
There’s something about making your home a nicer place to live that feels good. Also, in addition to making your environment more pleasant, tidying up is a great alternative to exercise.
You don’t have to read a whole book. Try a chapter. If chapters are too long, try reading a page. If you can’t read a page right now, try reading a paragraph. If that is too much work, maybe the book shouldn’t be on the reading list. You don’t have to read bad books.
I haven’t done this for so long. But I guess it’s a good thing to do when it’s rainy. Just a few push-ups to get the blood flowing. Maybe some squats. Try not to think about “body goals”. Think about who imposes these goals on whose bodies instead. Think about health. Don’t forget to stretch beforehand. And afterwards. Maybe try yoga - that comes with a lot of stretching. I guess. I don’t know, do I look like a yoga teacher?
3. Watch Some Netflix Now this is one you can’t really fail at. Unless your wi-fi router hates bad weather too, in which case, good luck! Or maybe you don’t have a Netflix account because they keep getting pricier and pricier. There’s always the good old TV. Or rather, there’s always the old TV! So curl up with a blanket, and watch that sitcom. Or that movie. Isn’t bad weather perfect for a horror movie? You know what you like. Or maybe watch something you hate, that would be an interesting experiment!
4. Tidy Up There are no more excuses, dear reader. If you’re reading this article looking for things to do, then you have to do this. Dust off those shelves. Vacuum the floors. Clean the bathroom. Reorganize your wardrobe.
5. Read a Book If you’re like me, you have a long reading list that just keeps getting longer. Rainy weather gives you an excuse to make it a little shorter.
6. Go For a Walk! Sure, that sounds crazy. Going for a walk when it’s pouring? Good thing that there’s this invention called an umbrella. And good thing there’s this invention called a raincoat. Put on that raincoat, grab that umbrella and go. There are a couple of advantages to walking in the rain. For example, you’ll probably meet no one. Going for a walk in the rain sounds crazy after all. But you can act morally superior afterwards. Bad weather can’t stop you from being active. How virtuous! Also, there’s that fresh air unmatched by anything. And nothing tastes better like a hot cocoa after a walk in the rain.
7. Listen to Sad Music Take control of your life by giving in to the gloom through music. The rainy weather is already a good background, so why not play Lana Del Rey’s “Ultraviolence” album to it? Or maybe Lana Del Rey’s “Born To Die” album? Or Lana Del Rey’s “Honeymoon” album? Yes, I’m totally trying to make you listen to Lana Del Rey. perspectives |
8. Listen to Happy Music Okay, just because it’s raining doesn’t mean that you have to be sad. You can deceive yourself by turning on the lights, playing happy music and dancing. Not happy? You can always pretend!
12. Do That Thing You’ve Been Putting Off Forever
Did you know that you can create a playlist on YouTube? Well, now you know, so do what you will with that information!
You know that thing you have been putting off forever? You know. That thing? Well, there’s no better time than now to do it. It’s easy. Learn how to do it. And then start doing it. When you’re finished, you can look back at the process and think, “Huh, I did it.” And is there a better feeling than knowing that you’ve already done the thing that you’ve been saying you would do for ages?
9. Make Yourself a Dish
13. Learn Something New
If you’re bored, you can always cook. What ingredients do you have? With websites like supercook.com and myfridgefood.com, you can always find a recipe, no matter what you have or don’t have at home.
You can wait for the better weather productively and learn something new. There are thousands and thousands of resources to learn from on the Internet. Shocking, I know. You have to be careful not to get misinformed, but otherwise, have fun learning.
Making yourself a dish is good because it not only makes the time fly, but in the end you’ll be able to eat something delicious.
10. Make Someone Else a Dish Eating by yourself is one way to do it. But it is better if you have someone else to share your food with. Surprise whoever you’re living with with a nice warm meal. Together, you can talk about the terrible weather and other things.
11. Write in a Journal During rainy days like this, there are a lot of emotions inside of us. Put them on paper. Take aside five or ten minutes to fill in a page in your journal. If you don’t have one, make one. How? There are hundreds of tutorials online.
For language learning, I recommend Duolingo, a free language learning app. I spent six months learning Spanish with the app during high school, and I still catch myself understanding some words when people speak Spanish in movies.
14. Unplug According to Instagram, I spend approximately two hours a day on the app. According to me, that is too much. Anyway, I know I’m not alone in spending too much time with screens. Sometimes it can even grow into an addiction. And we don’t want that. The solution is simple. Unplug. Turn off whatever has screens. Turn off your mobile phone, your tablet, and your computer. Instead, stare blankly into the space and wonder about what you’re missing out while you’re unplugged.
15. Write a Short Story
18. Lie in Bed and Sleep
If reality gets you down, you always can spend some time in fantasy. Something I learned in a creative writing class last semester was that a short story is simply a character on its path. To write a short story, you need to create a character. A character needs three things: motivation, a weakness, and a strength. What does your character want? What is it lacking? What is its strength? How would it all play out? The most important thing is for you to have fun with it.
Just lying in bed sometimes doesn’t cut it. And being in bed calls for a little nap. What I like to do is drink a cup of coffee, take a twenty-minute nap and wake up as fresh as a daisy. This, of course, doesn’t work for everyone.
16. Write a Poem
19. Lie on the Floor and Cry
Writing a poem is one of those mysterious things that can be done in a myriad of ways. They say there are no rules in poetry writing. So you can just freestyle it. Write about what you feel, what you experience, or what you’d love to experience. If you need rules, but still want to keep it simple, you can write a haiku. The form is 5-7-5, which means (if I simplify it a lot) that there are three lines, the first with five syllables, the middle one with seven syllables, and the last one with five syllables.
17. Just Lie in Bed Actually, you don’t have to keep busy. Maybe this is the time you finally can let go. Just lie in your bed. Listen to the raindrops dropping on the window. Notice the weird combination of light and darkness that comes from the sun being covered by clouds. How does the silence sound? Just lie in bed. Remember all the embarrassing things that have happened to you in your life. Remember all the bad decisions. And just lie in bed.
Simply sleeping for a while is always nice. The best way to do this is to fall asleep unplanned. You will wake up two hours later not sure what year it is. Maybe it will even stop raining by then.
When it’s rainy outside, you can just lie on the floor and cry. Why? Just because you can. Don’t let societal expectations get the best of you. Lying on the floor and crying might just be the best way to spend your afternoon. If anyone asks you what’s going on, tell them to leave you alone. You have the freedom to lie on the floor and cry wherever you want, whenever you want. Don’t let anyone tell you otherwise.
20. Write a Perspectives Article If everything else fails, write an article for Perspectives! We need talented writers, so don’t hesitate to contact us. Of course, everything has already been written, so you’ll have to write listicles like “20 things to do when it’s rainy outside” and such. But don’t worry, it’s really fun and I’m not suffering at all! In addition to the opportunity to get your thoughts published, you’ll meet a community of super nice people. So if that’s what you like, we are waiting just for you!
Are Men Bigger Liars Than Women? author | Hilda Vaněková
Being honest is one of the most important assets of humanity. But one can easily get caught in the web of their own lies. We tell them, we hear them, we reveal them. Some of them are just tiny little gracious lies, some are bigger, and some of them are more complex and thoughtful. Some of us lie on purpose and some are not even aware that they are lying. But is there a difference between men and women? Can we divide men and women, and compare who lies more often? And who lies about more serious, important things men or women?
Lies Revealed Liars are very careful about the words they use. They can often support untrue information with trustful statements, which makes it hard to identify which part of the information is made up and which one is not. The supportive statements are mostly common, believable incidents. The key is to stick to the truth as much as possible and not tell too much information. According to a research done at the University of Portsmouth, those who tend to lie often are mostly lying face-toface rather than telling untrue or half true information via social media networks. The most common lies are little gracious lies wrapped in a coat of truth or made up information. Exaggerating or omitting information can also be considered lying. According to Daily Mail, the most common lies are: Oh, everything’s all right, I’m fine; It was good to see you; My train had a delay; I´ll call you in a sec; This is delicious and Of course I love you. Some lies can be identified immediately, some are hard to discern. But about half of the lies are, at the end, revealed.
Who Is the Bigger Liar?
The research from University of Portsmouth also showed that men mostly tend to lie to their family members, friends, colleagues, or partners. Women mostly lie to their bosses, business partners or customers, and mostly in situations when their job or business is at risk. Another reason why women tend to lie is that they are afraid of not being rated highly enough or not being rated properly. On the other hand, men’s lies are mostly because of deflecting blame, avoiding getting their feelings hurt or avoiding embarrassment. We could say that men’s lies are more self-serving or self-oriented, while women’s lies are more oriented towards others’ feelings. Women wouldn’t probably say they had no time to do a task but would rather say they didn’t want to pass on too much work onto other colleagues and bother them with it. There is also a different meaning for men being bigger liars. Men often lie and exaggerate their amount of salary, their height or the number of their sexual partners. They lie ‘in a big way’. Women tend to do the opposite, they minimalize their weight, age, and the number of sexual partners. United States Census Bureau did a research with an interesting result about men and women lying about the amount of their salaries. Men confess a higher amount of their salary and women a lower amount. This mostly happens in marriages where women earn more than their husbands. An interesting fact is that both sides lie about both salaries - their own and their partner’s. Women exaggerate their husbands’ salaries more and decrease their own by just little, and while men do not decrease their wives’ salaries, they do exaggerate their own.
The answer is men! Men lie around four times a day while women tend to tell untrue information about two times per day. Men tell lies more frequently than women and they are even twice as good in lying than women. Their lies are more refined and so it becomes much harder to expose them. The achievement of a successful lie gives men even more confidence in repeated lying. Counted together, that means an average man lies around one hundred thousand times during his lifetime. However, we still need to take into consideration that there are people who don’t lie every day.
But what if the participants of these researches weren’t telling the truth? You decide what you believe...
When the Truth Hurts author | Daniel Javoran If the reality is too harsh, should you be able to ignore it and live in a fantasy land instead? Reality is dark during a pandemic. A virus, an entity that you can’t reason with, has become the ruler of our fates. Many people are dying, many more are sick. Many have died. Many have lost their beloved ones. Life was never completely safe, but the way that everything is dangerous in the pandemic feels different. It takes one mistake and you’re sick, not knowing whether you’ll make it out alive. Even with the existing vaccines, reality is painful. Anytime I read comments by covid-deniers or anti-maskers on social media, I feel anger. I think that anger is the right emotion. Covid-deniers deny reality the rest of us have to live with. They live in a fantasy land, where they are the ones in control of their fates. This makes the reality even darker, because the one mistake that it takes doesn’t have to be your mistake. It takes one denier with their mask under their chin sneezing on your bus, and you’re sick, not knowing whether you’ll make it out alive. Great! I also sort of empathize with these idiots. Even as they are killing those around them, I think I understand where the denial of reality is coming from. The despair of seeing the darkness and endlessness of the pandemic, of understanding the danger, is painful. It may sound absurd, but it was not once that I wished I was a covid-denier. I wished I didn’t see how dangerous the virus is. I wished I looked the other way. I wished I wasn’t filled with fear. Rejecting the truth about covid might be the only way the deniers can feel free in this world. Maybe seeing the truth would be too much for them. Maybe they would lose their minds. So I empathize. Sure, it’s not real freedom. They might feel free, but they’re not. They’re just ignorant. I can’t feel free like them, because my mind doesn’t let me think that, for example, all of those dying people are paid actors. Even if they hurt, I feel there’s something valuable about true beliefs. Also, it’s just generally difficult to lose beliefs. I can’t dream up the freedom they have dreamt up. Still, there’s a part of me that envies the illusion, a part of me that wants to live in a fantasy land. 20
Freedom is not possible under the current conditions. But that’s true for most parts of history. You either have a pandemic, a crazy State, weird social norms, unjust hierarchies, or a combination of some or all of them. If you’re a human being living on Earth, you shouldn’t count on living in a state of absolute freedom. Or any freedom at all. There are all sorts of people who believe in hard deterministic fate. In that picture, you have no free will whatsoever. If you’re doing anything, it’s just fate acting through you. How do people who believe that cope? Or is that the way they cope? Isn’t the thought that you have no control kind of comforting? Whatever happens, happens because it should happen. Nothing is wrong with what’s going on. It’s how it should be. But it’s also nerve-wrecking. No freedom at all? Why exist, then? I think these philosophical speculations have a lot to do with privilege. I’m writing here about anger and envy towards covid-deniers, but am I not in an enviable state? I will be vaccinated by the end of this summer. If I lived in the Global South, I might have to wait for years to get a jab. I’m writing about freedom, but even during the hardest lockdowns, am I not free? It’s not like I’m being detained by a totalitarian regime. I’ve already lived in a fantasy land. Reality has some really dark parts, and I’ve been able to ignore them thanks to not experiencing them. There are always blind spots. No one can see the whole reality. Should you be able to ignore the harsh parts and live in a fantasy land instead? Well, you’re already able to. That’s a part of what being a human is. But, as I’ve said before, there’s something valuable about having true beliefs. So what are the alternatives if you don’t want to ignore the darkness? You can’t reason with the virus, and you also can’t reason with all the oppression and poverty in the world. You can be angry with it all, that doesn’t help either. Maybe as a motivational force. You can also be empathetic to the wretched of the world, and that sounds better than anger, which has negative connotations. So, yeah, be righteously angry and empathetic. And then, what? Act? How?
Perspequiz vol. 4 author | Simona Valentová
April 1st is best known as the Fools’ day. But the truth is that many great things happened on this day throughout the course of history, such as the creation of the first treaty with Native Americans in today’s US or the discovery of the ruins of Pompeii. Our department will, however, remember this day for the “Battle of Fools” fought by brave students and teachers on the MS TEAMS platform. And how was it possible for us to take part in the battle? The mastermind behind this event was the Event Team of our Perspectives magazine. The Team, consisting of three members, was doing its best to create an online quiz for every interested student or teacher from KAA, although “foreigners” were welcomed to participate as well. The battle was led by Doctor John P.B. Barrer who, with his New Zealand accent, jokes, and funny remarks, created wonderful atmosphere and motivated everyone to fight with courage and honor. Twenty-two soldiers divided into six armies pit their wits against each other, all determined to win. The names of the teams are also worth mentioning, we had “Petra a jej parta”, “Riders on the Storm”, “The Obvious Winners”, “Teachers Gone Wild”, “Tex Mex Team”, and, my personal favorite, “Gepard Retardieu”. They competed in four categories, each containing five questions. The first category was
aimed at the Royal family, the players guessed the relationships between various royals, their heights, or even the number of corgis that the Queen has owned to this day. The second category transported us into the world of fiction, we travelled from Hogwarts to Mount Doom, from Springfield to Shrek’s swamp. The third category explored our own world, old kings, traditional dances, and famous people. Lovers of music could fill in the missing words in their favorite lyrics or guess the number of words rapped by Eminem in his song “Rap God” per 15 seconds; all in our fourth category. As the battle slowly came to its end, it was time to announce the winners. It should be noted that each of the armies did an incredible job and there were only minor differences in their scores. Nonetheless, the “Riders on the Storm” gained the victory. They were rewarded with book tokens to “Martinus” that will, hopefully, enrich their general knowledge even more. The rest of the soldiers returned home with diplomas as a memory of their brave service. As one of the members of the Event Team, I would like to thank each and every participant for going on this road with us and for the lovely evening we all had together. We, of course, know that not everything went as smoothly as we had hoped, but we will do everything to make the PERSPEQUIZ no.5 even better.
Are YOU a fan of quizzes? Do you like a friendly competition and have a school spirit? If you answered YES, do not forget to join us next time. See you soon! When you play the game of Perspequiz, you win or you win. perspectives |
A (Short) Short Story:
Could They Meet? Suzie Q and Miles Trumpeter
author | Mr. Ian Peasant Dear participants of our small workshop devoted to two obscure figures of the last third of the 20th century playing something they called jazz and a stream of rock ‘n’ roll entitled as hard rock. In our scholarly research project, we shall be dealing with unusual, bizarre musical duos that, in the past, planned their artistic cooperation and one chosen duo will be the first in a series of scholarly gatherings our association will organize. We hope that we shall be able to utilize all advantages that stem from comparing psychological dispositions of artists (musicians) belonging to different genres of art (or music, in particular). We are going to analyse and methodologically adequately process our findings based on recorded conversations of these artists. We count on the fact that we shall collect enough data to complete art (music) creativity types, which we shall then offer to our highly esteemed scholarly audience. With this in mind, we hope that we shall be able to provide agencies, institutes and other subjects involved in this branch of artistic enterprises with basic guidelines that will help these subjects in finding new talents that could efficiently be utilised in the new industry at the end of the 21st century in the same way as these past times had their Superstars and The Voices, The X Factors etc., and thus they will be able to provide new populations with cultural saturation adequate to their needs. We shall start with an example of a celebrated glam starlet Suzie Q and an enthusiastic cool jazz avant-garde soloist Miles Trumpeter. As an introduction for the uninitiated reader, we include a press release of the recording companies in question. They hoped to promote their newly created musical enterprise by merging two minor figures in their particular fields in a kind of future fusion cross-over music activity. 22
MEDIA NEWS: The consortium of Glam Rock Publishing Ltd. and Jazz Media Enterprise Plc. announces their new cooperation. Two major music stars, Miles Trumpeter and Suzie Q. are going to spend an allocated, and yet unspecified time in a state-ofthe-art equipped studio at an unknown place. This is because at this stage of the project, the artists wish to avoid unwanted interest of mass media. However, the aforementioned music industry corporation subject would like to inform the public with pride that after spending some time the recording facilities, the artists in question will commence their world tour in the famous and venerated music venue – at Carnegie Hall in New York City! Dear audience, journalists, and fans of hot jazz and good old hard rock – welcome to the one and only Susie and Miles World Tour Show! After the press release of the above-mentioned recording corporations we are quoting verbatim, we are also enclosing in our written materials the recorded conversation of the subjects in question. The recording event is of unspecified time and location, however, it can be deduced from additional information which were gathered thanks to our researchers that it took place circa three days before the start of their world tour, which would have commenced on September 1, 2001. This offers us unlimited possibilities if it has got anything in common with a minor destabilizing political event known as the attack on the World Trade Centre or the Twins, about to take place in 8 days, which then started an era of local wars in the Middle East. But let´s not get involved in fruitless conspiracy speculations. However, we have to express our regrets that parts of this conversation have not been preserved due to an ancient technique of recording of this conversation on the outdated tapes based on ferric oxide compounds that are prone to magnetic degradation. It is enough to state that our experts did their best in achieving as adequate results as possible. However, some parts towards the end of this document had been, alas, irretrievably lost. We expect our dear audience will have to guess what more could have been expressed by these figments of culture which is so distant from our vantage point.
Location and time of recording: King Killer Studios, Brooklyn, N.Y.C., September 1, 2001. Miles: So, hey, Sue… We could start, what d’ya say… Suzie: Hey, Papa, take it easy, right? Miles: Hey babe, slow down, will ya? No harm meant, but who is older here, eh? Suzie: So what? Are you the wise guy here, or what? Miles: Hush, hush, baby. We can sort it out in a friendly way. Suzie: That’s my boy. Exactly, as I say. We can cope with it. Miles: Well, so what are we goin’ to do? Suzie: I guess we better start playin’, right? Miles: Yeah, and should we start with? 48 Crash or your sentimental crap Stumblin’ in? Bet you miss your sweet little glam rocker. What’s ‘is name? Eh? Chris? Suzie: Shut up, you nasty old frustrated ‘ick. Okay, so what? Shall we play your boring stuff you regard as music? Your crazy blah-blah improvising you call jazz. Bitches Brew or what? What ya think? Nobody liked it. They only listened to it ‘cos they tried to look cool and that they know what’s all about. But they didn’t give a damn about one note of… Miles: You bitch! What d’you think? That the whole world will be dancing to your stupid silly songs, such as You Can’t Give Me Love? Is that all you can do? Suzie: OK, OK, let’s forget it. This way we won’t get nowhere. We started in a wrong way. So what ya suggest. What’re we gonna do? Miles: I d’nno. I guess we better calm down and sort it out. Anyways, whose f… up idea it was to put us together? What do they think? That we are Robbie Williams and Christina Aguilera or what? Suzie: What you think? Those damn guys up there. Sitting in their leather cosy chairs, scheming to make a new hit, to connect Michael Jackson and Paul McCartney, Cave and Minogue, Karel and Dara? Making business plans, plotting, taking their own share. And their slice of your pie is quite large. And what you got for everythin’ you do? You are strivin’, strummin’, going from gig to gig, from pub to pub, getting up in the morning, hanged over and such things. Paying taxes, paying for the planes, paying your tax adviser. And what for? So that some stupid damn pimp took
your per cents? You are young. You have your ideals. First loves. And then you end up in some old juke box with some old crap song. Miles: And what you think? That some’un will do it for your chestnut eyes? Wake up, babe. Nobody’s gonna give you nothin’ for free, I guess. Suzie: Okay, let us think. We gonna get out of this goddamn jail. Let’s get it straight. We must do somethin’ to get ‘em some bucks, so that we have some quid and then we could go home. Miles: We should f… up those bast’rds, sons of bitches. We should explode their headquarters in their skyscrapers with their millions of bucks which they squeezed out of us, poor hardworking guys. Suzie: Yeah, that’s my boyo. Miles: Yeah, but what can we do? You think you will pluck at your bass strings and that’ll do? Me, who played with the best bassists of my time, not to speak about Charles Mingus? Suzie: Grrr. Don’t be phony. You think I expect you to sing like Louis Armstrong? No way. We should do somethin’ to save our skin and to get out of this cell as unharmed as possible. Miles: Oh, come on, it’s so easy. Just less’ play some riff, two or three notes, man, and that’s it… The rest is PR and a huge advertisin’ ‘n marketin’ campaign. Suzie: Yeah, I know, buddie… I gotta know it. What ya think, why did I sing with that shit-head Chris? You think I was on cloud nine, singing that crap, ‘Our love is alive and so we begin, foolishly layin’ our hearts on the table…’ ? Miles: Well, at least you had a million of records, didn’t ya? What can I say? Do you think a million people would buy my In a Silent Way? Forget it. Suzie: Yeah, but you’ve got awards. Emmy and all… Miles: Yeah, I can stuff ‘em into my closet. Suzie: Yeah, but you know you are liked. Admired. As a perfect jazzman. The best one. And you can still appeal to people. Put them into trance. Make them dream. Miles: And? Does it earn me a place in the charts? Suzie: Well, we must get back to basics. Less’ come back to the roots. Me – the primitive rock ‘n’ roll, glam with glittering overall and a bitt of jumping and twisting. And you – the most complicated stuff you can ever play, dodecaphonic perspectives |
scales, unpleasant screeches, lamenting nots that drill under your skin, etc., etc., etc. Don’t worry, it’s gonna be alright. People will devour it. As long as they hear it all day long or if they see it. In the tube, bus, tram. Simply everywhere. Miles: Yeah, it can be. Still, we gotta think it over. We must make a hit. We have to kill them. Suzie: What, have you dried up? Did you lose a trumpet? Miles: Well, maybe… But that’s not the point. Why should we play so that other guys are up to their neck in gold. Riding in limousines, ‘I think I need a Lear jet…’ Suzie: I know, I know, an old song. ‘Welcome my son, welcome to the machine.’ But that doesn’t help us now. Miles: Uhmm, you’re goddam right. Suzie: So less’ do it. Good ol’ rock ‘n’ roll. Miles: Less’ do it. You’ll play the basic bass riffs and I will add some spice with my divine instrument. Suzie: Yeah. And if it’s not gonna work, you can still make those daubs of yours. Those dark figures. Miles: Stop it, right? You can act in those silly detective series. An ex-MI operative who is mentally deranged? But Dempsey and Makepeace sorted you out, eh? And I like painting. That’s my hobbyhorse. So what? Suzie: Okay, nothing ‘gainst it. De gustibus… as they say. Miles: So, we should gonna make some great gig. … An’ then… …you say, Sue? … Suzie: Well, yeah… I would say… grrr… bang bang…. /unintelligible noise./ Miles: We have to… pssh… crash… zapp… ouiiieeee… I think it’s… /unintelligible noise grows in volume./ Suzie: We should start. The drummer will give the beat. One, two. One two three four… You know the forty-eight crash come like a lightning flash Forty-eight crash, forty-eight crash… Miles: Oh righ’… Uap ta ba doo daam, uab da dap tap. Dab dab tadoo tadoo, uap ta dap ta dab… /The remaining par of the cassette tape is filled with noises of exceedingly lamenting sounds of a trumpet and a heavy booster tones of bass guitar. The rock ‘n’ roll riff and trumpet solo is turning down in volume only to cease playing at all. The rest is only silence. Bitter silence./ 24
Dear participants of this small workshop dedicated to two obscure figures of a stream entitled jazz and hard rock of the latter part of the 20th century. Their lives could throw light on this interesting part of our history and can bring us a glint of inspiration in searching for new talents in the field we call now “new hyper sound”. They could be presented as models in their fervent dedication to their music which they served wholeheartedly not taking into account the steep curve downwards in their recording career. Thank you for your attention and feel free to the taste musical samples of the artists in question in your ear fishes presented to you at the entrance. Enjoy your night and see you at the next event of our series of scholarly seminars dedicated to music duos. THE END.
p e te r s Tr um & M ile s s io n Q ie z Su ing S e Re c o rd
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