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Contents Section 1 - The Basics Introduction Why these Recipes? Basic Equipment Required Reading and adapting recipes Basic Cooking Techniques Pasta Rice Stir Frying Vegetable tips and techniques and selection How to cook Pork How to cook Chicken How to cook Beef How to cook Fish and Seafood How to make Stew How to make Soup Cutting techniques Ran giri Chopping Onions Herb and Spice Guide English to Spanish herb & spice translations Recommended herbs for dishes by main ingredient Herb and Spice substitute recommendations Herb and spice blends Conversion Charts Liquid Temperature Mass (weight if you are an idiot)

Section 2 – Recipes Breakfast Toast Boiled Eggs Scrambled Eggs Eggs Benedict Pancakes Bubble & Squeak Bacon Sandwich Snacks & Dips Garlic Bread Guacamole Salsa French Onion Dip (very adaptable) Brushetta Soups & Starters Croûtons Borscht Easy Chicken Noodle Soup French Onion Soup Gazpacho Minestrone Baba ganoush Jani me Fasule Salads & Dressings Basic Vinaigrette Caesar Salad Caesar Dressing (traditional) Caesar Dressing (mayonnaise) French Dressing Ajlouk Quraa - Mashed Courgette Salad Kentish Apple Chutney Waldorf Salad Pasta Salad Potato Salad Rice salad Niçoise Salad

Main Courses Feijoada Beef and Banana Stew Adobo Aloo Gobi Anticuchos Arroz con Pollo Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá Tavë Kosi - baked lamb and yoghurt Bobó de Camarao 불고기- bulgogi, fire beef or Korean barbecue Lasagne Risotto Cottage Pie 寿司, 鮨, 鮓 – Sushi Barbecued Sirloin with Chimmichurri Chilli con Carne Chilli chicken with Avocado Salsa Patagonian Lamb Lomo Saltado Rissoles – Aussie Burgers Beef Stroganoff Ceviche or Cebiche Mousakka Linsen und Spätzle Mexican Pizza Spaghetti Carbonara (Traditional, Modern and Cheating) Sauces and Marinades White Sauce (including Bechemel, Mornay and White Caper Sauces) Teriyaki Sauce Peri Peri Marinade Peanut Sauce Creole Sauce Sweet and Sour Desserts Vodka Jelly Turkish Delight Bananas in Foil Stuffed Apples ANZAC Biscuits

Introduction This book has been compiled as a guide to assist people on overland tours, including the tour leaders, on the way to prepare good quality meals. The book consists of sections containing guidance on the basics and more advanced topics as well as a selection of recipes. The recipes themselves are divided into the following sections; Breakfast Snacks & Dips Soups & Starters Salads & Dressings Main Courses Sauces and Marinades Desserts Each recipe gives the nationality of the dish (to assist themed meals), the ingredients and the method of preparation. The majority of the recipes are easy enough to make, although some simplified versions have been included with the more complex dishes. All the recipes are for five reasonably hungry people (unless otherwise stated) and can easily be multiplied to allow for various sized groups.

Why these Recipes? The recipes in this book are included for two reasons, the first being that they are recipes which have been cooked on Tucan Tours in South America, the majority on the truck Magaly (hence the name of the book). The others have all been answers to passengers questions, who have asked how something is made.

Basic Equipment Required Some of the recipes in this book require an oven, apart from that the remainder require the basic equipment which every overland truck carries, regardless of which style of tour or company you travel with. Use of a food processor is not essential for any of the recipes and those that mention one can be adapted to the use of a whisk and bowl or pestle and mortar, although this may first require a finer dicing of ingredients.

Adapting Recipes As you travel around the availability of ingredients will determine exactly what you can and cannot make. All the recipes in this book are adaptable it is extremely easy to substitute meats. If you don't have all the herbs and spices you can use the herb and spice guide to help you choose a substitute. Some recipes have already been adapted as the originals are just not a reasonable option whilst on tour, such as Feijoada which can take days to prepare if you follow the traditional methods. A few of the recipes have been adapted and the original recipe given as well to show how you can achieve similar results with what appear to be completely different recipes, using a bit of creativity and cheating. If you really must then recipes can be adapted for vegetarians by using Soya products, Polenta and TVP, which are available reasonably easily in most South American Countries.

Basic Cooking Techniques The following sections include some very basic guidance on how to cook simple things like pasts and rice, which some people will probably think is patronising, as the majority of people who join tours believe they know how to cook. If this was true then a lot of people like soggy mush (if this is you see the last page).

Pasta Boiled pasta is the basis of an enormous variety of pasta dishes. In most of them, the pasta is usually cooked in the same manner, regardless of the sauce and other ingredients that will be added to it. Notable exceptions are soups, gnocchi, and baked dishes like lasagne and manicotti, which are covered in individual recipes where needed. The four key "secrets" for cooking a good pasta are: cook in salted water, add the pasta only after the water is boiling, do not under cook or overcook, and drain and cool promptly. Also be aware that some sauces or other accompaniments may take longer to prepare than the pasta itself. Salted water On the average, for every 200 grams of pasta, one should use 4 litres of cold water and 2 tablespoons of salt. The salt should added to the water to flavour the pasta. (Although some people believe salt is added because it raises the boiling point of water, thereby cooking the pasta faster, this is absolute bollocks, the amount of salt being added raises the boiling point of the water only a fraction of a degree. The salt is purely for flavour). In addition, some people also add a few drops of Vegetable oil to the water, in order to reduce foaming and the risk of spill overs. The pan should be large enough for the water level to be one or two inches below the rim. It must also be wide enough to hold the uncooked pasta entirely submerged in the water; long pasta like spaghetti may have to be broken in half to fit a smaller pan. When to add the pasta The water should be brought to a boil, stirring. Once the water is vigorously boiling, the pasta should be thrown in, all at once. The cooking time should be measured from this moment. When the cold pasta is added to the water, the latter usually stops boiling for a few moments. The stove's heat should be adjusted so that the water resumes boiling promptly, and stays boiling moderately while the pasta is cooking. The pasta should be kept entirely submerged at all times. (Failure to follow these rules will result in pasta that is partly overcooked and/or partly undercooked.) Cooking time Cooking time varies depending on the kind of pasta; usually it is given on the box. Typical times for dry pasta range from 5 minutes for thin spaghetti to 12 minutes or more for some thick varieties. Fresh, egg-based pasta (pasta all'uovo) takes very little time to cook hardly a minute after the water has returned to a boil; filled pasta like tortellini needs only a few minutes. The recommended time needs to be increased when cooking pasta at high altitudes, since water will boil at a lower temperature. Also, the cooking time may depend on the brand as well as on the kind of pasta. The cooking time can be adjusted to vary the firmness of the pasta. The suggested time will usually produce a chewy pasta al dente, favoured by connoisseurs but somewhat heavy to digest; a slightly longer time produces softer pasta, which may be more adequate for children and morons.

Testing the pasta Beginners should probably play it safe and stick to the time given in the box. Experienced cooks test whether the pasta is ready by "fishing" a sample piece out of the boiling water with a slotted spoon and chewing on it. The pasta is ready when it has lost the "flour" taste of uncooked pasta and has become moist and flexible throughout its thickness, but is still firm enough to need chewing. Some cooks fish a strand of pasta (the long kind like spaghetti and linguine) and throw it against the wall. If it sticks, it's done this method is a load of bollocks all it proves is you have made sticky pasta. Drain and serve When the pasta is cooked, it should be drained promptly with a strainer or colander. To avoid over-drying the pasta, immediately place the pasta on a large plate when it is still dripping a slight amount of water. Quickly mix together with the sauce and other accompaniments. The pasta should be eaten hot within a few minutes, unless the recipe says differently. Note that the pasta will continue to cook in the colander, so its important you not overcook it in the first place. If you feel you have overcooked the pasta, you can rinse it with cold water to impede the cooking process. However, obviously, you will have cold pasta as a result. Rinsing is a not an ideal solution because it also washes away the starches and typically, you want starches to help the sauce stick to the pasta. Storing cooked pasta When preparing a large portion that cannot be served immediately, for example, for a buffet-style meal — it is advisable to cool off the pasta a bit, immediately after draining it. Otherwise the heat still remaining in the pasta may cause it to overcook and stick to itself. This can be done by rinsing the pasta quickly in cold water. For the same reason, it is better to allow the pasta get cold, and re-heat it before serving, than trying to keep it hot for a long time. In this case, it should be drained a bit earlier than the optimum point; each portion can be reheated by placing it in a strainer and plunging it for a few seconds into salted boiling water. Where did I go wrong? •

The pasta came out too mushy: It is mushy because you overcooked the pasta. Alternatively, you drained the pasta when it was perfectly done, but it continued to cook in the strainer.

The pasta still comes out mushy! Low-quality pasta can be next to impossible to cook properly: as soon as it is no longer undercooked, it becomes mushy. There are many types of flour. Good pasta is usually made with semolina, hard wheat, or durum hard wheat. These qualities of wheat contain little free starch, and more of the endosperm protein that forms the gluten that gives pasta its consistency. Lowquality pasta is often made with flour that has a higher content of free starch grains, so that once it cooks it becomes mushy.

My recipe called for X-amount of sauce, yet the pasta soaked the sauce up with little leftover: People tend to over-drain their pasta. Drain the pasta when there it is still slightly dripping. Alternatively, add some olive oil to the drained pasta prior to saucing it.

My pasta is undercooked, yet I followed the directions on the box. The box is a guideline and its advice should be used with caution. The pasta wasn't cooked for long enough. After adding the pasta, wait for the water to boil again and continue to cook for as long as the box says.

My ravioli came out a soggy mess and they fell apart. A rolling boil can do damage to filled pasta. Return the pot to a boil after placing in pasta, and turn the heat to medium once a rolling boil is achieved.

I was told pasta is done when throwing it sticks it against a wall. Is this true? This is not true; it simply means your pasta is sufficiently sticky. The centre of the pasta could still be raw.

Does adding oil to the pasta water make it not stick: Water and oil don't mix when they're cold, and they don't mix when they're hot. Most of the oil will float to the the surface of the boiling water, far away from the pasta you want to protect, but potentially reducing foaming. When you drain the pasta, you dump the oil out first, so little if any oil will touch the pasta.

Rice Rice is a simple dish but many people have trouble cooking it - being too much rice or too much water. This recipe for steamed rice is fail safe and does not require special rice cookers. Ingredients • • • •

1 part rice 2 parts water Deep saucepan with lid ¼ teaspoon salt

The universal rule with cooking steamed rice is that the proportion of water should be double that of the rice. If you use one part rice you must use two parts water. If you use two parts rice you must use four parts water. When cooking rice as an accompaniment then usually 80g per person is enough. This recipe works for all long-grain white rice. Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

There is no need to wash the rice but you can if you choose to. Pour rice into saucepan Pour water into saucepan cold. Remember - twice as much water as rice. Stir water so that floating rice sinks. Place saucepan on stove and set temperature to "high". Do not cover. Wait until water begins to boil. Stir rice again. Set temperature to lowest setting or if a using a heavy pan you can remove it from the heat completely. 9. Cover saucepan with lid. Do not touch for at least 12 minutes. 10. After twelve minutes the rice is ready to eat. It really is that simple the key point to remember is do not touch the lid for at least 12 minutes, not even a quick peek.

Stir Frying Buying or selecting your wok. You don't need to spend ridiculous amounts on state-of-the-art cookware. A standard, stainless-steel wok, purchased for very little, will serve its purpose well. The heavier the wok, the better it will retain heat. This is important because you must cook at a high temperature to avoid stewing or steaming your ingredients. Do not ever use a non stick wok as at the there is now, mounting evidence that the polymer Polytetraflouroethelene (PTFE) which is is by most companies as a non stick coating and the perfluorochemical (PFC) emissions from synthetic compounds associated with it have been shown to cause tumours in the pancreas, liver, testicles, thyroid, or mammary glands in animal studies. Please note the statement above is solely the responsibility of myself, Graeme Dearing, and is in no way associated with Tucan Travel, who are in no way responsible for the opinions stated.

Season your wok. Before you use your wok for the first time, you must season it. Seasoning the wok is a way to "break it in" to ensure even heat-distribution during stir-frying, and helps prevent food sticking. When you remove your wok from its packaging, you may notice a greasy film on the surface. Wipe this film away, and wash your wok in warm, soapy water. To season your wok, put it on the stove over medium-high heat for a few minutes. Add a drop or two of oil, and swirl it around to coat the surface evenly. Remove from the stove to let cool for a bit, and then use a paper towel to wipe out the oily residue. This needs to be done at least twice before the wok is used for the first time. When you clean your wok do not use any scourers or abrasive materials as you will damage the surface and ruin all the work you put in seasoning the wok. Gather your utensils. Chefs use a mesh ladle to toss meat and vegetables around in the wok, but if you don't have one, a wooden spoon will do, but avoid metal spoons as the sharp edges will damage the wok surface. Place several large, clean bowls and plates around your cooking area wok so you can set your cooked items aside as you prepare them in batches. Other items you'll need: a chef's knife, cutting board, and several bowls of different sizes to store liquid mixtures and chopped herbs and vegetables. Preparation. The most time-consuming part of stir frying is preparing the ingredients. You'll want everything portioned out and cleaned, chopped, sliced and diced in advance. The actual stir-frying is fast and furious, so meat, vegetables, noodles, spices and oils should be ready and within reaching distance so you can grab and get on with it. Chop everything into bite sized chunks to ensure quick and thorough cooking. Make sure there's no extra water or other liquid in your wok while stir-frying meat and vegetables. As mentioned earlier, liquid in the wok will cause your meal to stew instead of lightly fry. Stir fry in batches. Properly stir fried food retains its crisp, firm exterior and tender, juicy inside by cooking small portions at a time. Heat the wok, drizzle in enough oil to coat the surface, and add enough small cuts of beef, pork or chicken to just cover the bottom. Fry on high heat, tossing the entire time. When your first batch of meat is thoroughly cooked, remove from the wok and drain on paper towels. Fry the second batch in a little more oil, and then set aside. Oil the pan once more, toss in a few cloves of crushed garlic and/or ginger, and stirfry the vegetables, adding the thicker ingredients like potatoes and carrots first, and then tossing in quicker-cooking ingredients like scallions and mushrooms at the end. When the vegetables are done, return the meat to the pot with the vegetables, and finish with your liquid sauces and seasoning. Give everything a quick toss, simmer for a few minutes and then remove from heat. If you have a large group you will need to repeat the process or use multiple woks.

Learn the flavours. Thai cooking is getting more popular now; similar to Chinese, but with its own spices and flavourings, some of which take their cue from Indian cuisine. Malaysian, Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean styles all have their own distinctive flavours (see the herb and spice blend section). With practice, you'll learn which spices and sauces go with what and how to identify their flavours. The list below is a suggestion of what works well in a stir fry, you should select at least one item from each group, then follow the steps given above. Meat Pork, Chicken, Beef, Prawns, Fish, Scallops or even Tofu Vegetables onions, carrots, broccoli, sugar snap (snow peas), bok choi (Chinese cabbage), mushrooms (regular, oyster mushrooms, shitake mushrooms) bean sprouts Flavourings soy sauce, oyster sauce, hoisin sauce, fish sauce. Fresh ginger, garlic, chillies, galangal, Asian shallots, scallions, kaffir lime leaves, coriander and lemon grass. Green or red curry paste, shrimp paste

Vegetables Tips and Techniques Artichokes (Globe) Trim the bottom so it can sit upright in a non-aluminium pan, and pour in water and 1 tablespoon of olive oil to cover at least the bottom leaves. Cover the pot with a towel, and boil about 25 minutes, or until a knife slides easily through the bottom. Serve with a dish of melted butter or lemon juice, pluck leaves, dip them, scrape off the soft flesh with your front teeth and discard the remains in a bowl. Tip: When shopping for artichokes, press the leaves together. A squeaking sound is a good sign of freshness. Artichokes (Jerusalem) The sweet, nutty flavour of this sunflower tuber can be enjoyed either raw or cooked. While the peel is edible, slice off harder parts with a knife or vegetable peeler. Slice them raw into salads or sandwiches, simmer and purĂŠe, bake or oven roast, substituts for water chestnuts in stir fries, or cook in cream soups. Tip: Jerusalem artichokes have carbohydrate content similar to potatoes, and they will become soft and mushy if boiled. Instead, steam them lightly. Asparagus Keep it fresh at home by storing it with the ends trimmed by a centimetre or two, bound upright in a container with an inch of water at the bottom. When it's time to cook, use a veggie peeler to pare off any tough spots, and drop the bundle into boiling salted water for 2-6 minutes depending on stalk thickness. Remove and shock in ice cold water to retain colour and crispness. It's ready to eat when it's just a little tender to the teeth or knife. Tip: Because asparagus spoils quickly, select bundles that are refrigerated or on ice and use within two or three days of purchase. Aubergine (Eggplant) Aubergine is great on the grill, but it's often a tad too greasy. Don't soak slices or strips, but rather mist them lightly with cooking spray or brush with olive oil. Whipped with tahini and garlic, it transforms into the traditional Middle Eastern spread, Baba Ganoush, and also works very well with breading, tomato sauce and cheese in aubergine Parmesan. Tip: Select aubergine with skin that is smooth, glossy and taut. It's highly perishable, so buy it as close to cooking time as possible. Avocado To pop an avocado open, just cut it in half, following the centre of the pit, and twist the halves apart. Hit the still-embedded pit with a heavy knife until the blade lodges. Use this as a pivot to twist out the pit. Cut into quarters and peel away the skin. Use the sweet, creamy flesh to make guacamole, slice into salads, spread on sandwiches, or just eat salted with a spoon. Tip: To speed the ripening process, put avocados in a brown paper bag and leave them at room temperature overnight.

Beans (Green) Green beans are a winner steamed, blanched or stir fried. Drizzle snipped green beans with olive oil or mist with cooking spray and spread them out on a cookie sheet. Sprinkle with chopped garlic and sea salt and cook under the grill until the ends begin to brown. Note: The difference between haricots vert and green beans? Haricots are longer, thinner and more tender. They're also known as French beans. Beetroot Sweeter than most vegetables, beets also boast high fibre, folate and antioxidants. Look for firm flesh, round shape, deep colour and smooth skin. Large beets are often tough, so choose smaller ones, about five centimetres in diameter. Beets are great peeled and shredded raw into salads, but the flavour is even richer when they're roasted or boiled. Roast unpeeled in foil at 195 ºC or boil, for 40 to 60 minutes, until a knife pierces the flesh easily. For a treat that will keep long after beet season is over, try pickling them. To store beets, cut off the greens and keep in the refrigerator for up to two weeks. The greens will keep for three to five days, wrapped in plastic. Handling Tips: Wear gloves or you'll be walking around with red palms for days. Bok Choy Bok Choy is a member of the cabbage family, typically used in Asian cuisine. It's the backbone of kimchi, a Korean spicy fermented vegetable dish, but it's tasty in Western dishes as well. Separate the stalks and the leaves, as the stalks take longer to cook. Bok choy is most commonly added to stir fries. The stalks will take about five minutes over high heat, and the leaves should be cooked until just wilted and bright green, about two minutes. Stalks will take about 4 minutes to boil and 6 minutes to steam; the leaves will take 2 to 3 minutes each. Bok choy is best with Asian flavours -- ginger, soy and sesame oil are a few of the best. If incorporating boy choy into Western dishes, use it the same way you'd use any other type of cabbage. Buying Tip: Look for firm stalks with brightly coloured green leaves. To store, keep in a plastic bag in refrigerator for up to two days. Brussel Sprouts As members of the cruciferous family, these tiny cabbages share the cancer and freeradical fighting properties of broccoli. To prep Brussels sprouts, cut off the base and discard any leaves that come off with it. They can be steamed for 20 to 30 minutes or sliced thinly and sautéed as a side dish or tossed in stews, soups or pasta. Toss in olive oil and sea salt and roast for 30 to 40 minutes at 195 ºC for simply perfect sprouts. They're a perfect side dish for macaroni and cheese on a cool night. Buying Tip: Look for firm, tight, bright green leaves with no brown spots. Store in the refrigerator for 3 to 5 days.

Broccoli Like all cruciferous vegetables, broccoli has cancer-fighting properties and is also a pretty powerful antioxidant. It's also pretty tasty when done right. This vitamin packed brassica is sensational steamed (7 minutes should do it), stir-fried with sesame oil and soy sauce, raw or lightly blanched with dip or in slaw. Lemon juice kicks up the flavour, but make sure to add it toward the end of cooking. If using the stalks, peel, cut into bite-sized pieces, and add two to three minutes to the cooking time. Tip: Air circulation is crucial for properly storing broccoli, so mist the florets, wrap loosely in a paper towel, and make sure any external plastic bags are perforated. Buying Tip: Look for tight, firm stems and dark green heads. Yellowing and a strong smell are two good give aways that it's past its prime. To store, keep it in the fridge in a plastic bag for three to five days. Cabbage Whether it's vinegar, mayo or mustard based, there's no better side than a fresh coleslaw. Colourful cabbage heads also make festive dip bowls. Just wash, dry and slice off the protrusion from the core end so it will sit upright without wobbling. Then trim off the top quarter, and remove the core and inner leaves (save these for coleslaw!) with a grapefruit knife, leaving a wall that's about half an inch thick. Fill it up with your favourite dip. Tip: For optimum flavour and freshness, select smaller, more compact heads with few loose leaves. For maximum crispiness, soak shreds in salted ice water for 15 minutes before combining with other ingredients. Carrots Carrots are perhaps the most versatile of the root vegetables with their sweet, rich flavour and vibrant colour. They are one of the most important vegetables in stocks, and are frequently cut into bite-sized pieces to be added to soups and stews. They can be steamed for 7 to 10 minutes, boiled for 3 to 5 minutes or roasted at 225 ยบC for 40-50 minutes. One of the best ways to serve carrots is ran giri (see the previous section) To dress up salads, shred raw carrots and mix in with greens before dressing. Cut into sticks and serve raw, or steam for 1 to 2 minutes to enhance the colour and flavour. The sweetness of carrots also lends itself to breads, cakes and muffins. Buying Tip: Look for firm, smooth flesh, plumpness and a bright orange colour. To store, keep in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for up to two weeks. If the leafy green tops are still attached, remove them, as they'll leach moisture from the carrots.

Cauliflower Cauliflower, another cruciferous vegetable, looks a lot like broccoli but has a creamier, nuttier flavour. Packed with antioxidants and anti-cancer properties, it's nutritious as well as tasty. Cauliflower florets can be steamed for 7 to 9 minutes. Its nuttiness is best enhanced by drizzling the florets with olive oil, sprinkling with sea salt, and roasting in a 200ºC oven for 20-30 minutes, until tender and starting to brown. Cauliflower also makes makes a glorious gratain and is perfect for curries. Like broccoli stems, cauliflower stems are also edible. Discard the core, which can be bitter, and add about five minutes to the florets' cooking time. Tip: Cook cauliflower with milk or lemon juice to maintain its whiteness. Aluminium pots will add a yellow cast, and iron will brown down or blue its hue. Buying Tip: Look for firm, compact, white heads with no brown spots, and bright green leaves. Store it in the refrigerator, wrapped in plastic, for up to one week. Celeriac (Celery Root) It's knobby, bulbous and an unappealing colour. The pungent flavour, a favourite of the French, is a mix of celery and parsley. Ambitious cooks can try whipping up a celery remoulade, which stars celery root. Firsttimers, though, should stick to an easier preparation. Once trimmed and peeled, celery root can be cut into bite-sized pieces and prepared the same way as any other root vegetable. Steam for 10 to 12, or roast in a 200ºC oven for 20 to 30 minutes. Add it to soups or stews, or purée and serve like mashed potatoes. Buying Tip: Look for a firm texture and hard roots, and heaviness. If the leaves are attached, they should be fresh and green. To store, trim off the excess roots and keep in the refrigerator. Chives Snip fresh chives onto potatoes, eggs, fish and salads just before serving to add a little oniony lift, or mix with sour cream for a classic party dip. Tip: Do not wash chives until you are ready to use them; any extra moisture will cause them to spoil. Collard Greens Unlike most vegetables, the vitamins and minerals present in this leafy green are more available to the body after cooking, as the dense leaves are difficult to digest raw. Many people would argue that there's only one way to cook collards -- simmered slowly with a ham hock or salt pork until soft. They're wonderful that way, but the method is not for everyone, especially vegetarians. Leaves can be boiled until tender, about 30 minutes, or sautéed in olive oil with garlic and onion until tender, 15 to 20 minutes. As a general rule, though, the longer they're cooked, the better; the pungent flavour mellows with time. Buying Tip: Look for crisp leaves with a deep green colour and no strong odour. Keep them refrigerated in a plastic bag for three to five days.

Courgette (Zucchini) Courgette can be enjoyed sliced in half and bake in a 180ºC oven until the pulp can be scooped out easily. Stuff the hull with cheese, herbs, breadcrumbs, sautéed garlic and onion or any other ingredients that appeal, and bake until browned on top, but it's also a classic base for bread, and can be baked into a light, flavourful French-fry alternative. Tip: When sautéing Courgette, make sure not to add too much at once or the sudden influx of moisture will cause it to steam, rather than sauté. Fennel People seem to have strong reactions to fennel, they either love it or they hate it. Italians favour its sweet, licorice flavour and use it to add sweetness and complexity to pasta dishes and risotto. Prepare it by removing the fronds and tough core. Slice and serve raw fennel in salads; it's especially good with sweet or buttery flavours like orange or avocado. Cube it and steam for 20 to 30 minutes, or roast at 190 ºC for 20 minutes. Tip: Don't toss the fronds when you remove them. Instead, use them in place of fresh herbs in salads, soups or stews. Buying Tip: The stalks and base should be firm and blemish-free, and the feathery leaves should be green and lively. Kept it the refrigerator, it should last up to four days. Garlic Where the culinary world would be without garlic? Not only does it add depth and flavour to just about everything under the sun; it also keeps vampires away -- which is certainly helpful around Halloween. Garlic can be used raw in dips like hummus or pesto, but it's even better when it's roasted it in a 200 ºC oven for 45 minutes to mellow the bitterness and make the flavour richer. Use garlic to flavour sauces, sauté greens in, rub on toasted bread -- the possibilities are endless. This little bulb also packs more than just flavour. Garlic is chock-full of vital nutrients, including manganese, vitamin C and B vitamins, calcium and iron and more. That's certainly worth a little garlic breath. Buying Tip: Garlic should be big, plump and firm, with tight, silky skins. Store fresh garlic in a cool, dry place away from sunlight. Whole bulbs can last up to two months, but once they've been broken, they'll only last for 4 to 5 days. If your garlic starts to sprout, it's time to toss it.

Mushrooms The hearty, meaty flavour of mushrooms is a perfect fit for the cool temperatures of fall. With such a wide range of sizes, shapes and flavours available, it's a vegetable that never bores. For Shiitakes and Portabellas, remove the stem before cooking. Mushrooms cook quickly and it's easy to create a variety of dishes with them. Grill large mushrooms, like portabellas for 8 to 10 minutes. Roast mushroom for 10 to 15 minutes, depending on size. SautĂŠ in olive oil or butter until brown for 4 to 6 minutes, or fill them with your favourite stuffing and bake. Buying Tip: Look for dry, firm caps and stems. Store mushrooms in the refrigerator, unwashed, in a paper bag or wrapped in damp paper towels, for 2 to 4 days. When ready to use, wipe gently with a damp cloth or paper towel, a brush will tear off the delicate skin. Parsnips Like all starchy root vegetables, parsnips are hearty and their nutty, sweet flavour goes best with cold-weather dishes like soups and stews. Peel and trim both ends before cooking. If they're not going to be used immediately, let them soak in water with lemon juice once cut, as the air will cause them to brown. Eat parsnips raw like carrots, or steam them briefly and then chill to enhance their flavour. Steam them for 10 to 20 minutes, and roast for 20 to 40 minutes at 190ÂşC, depending on size. PurĂŠe parsnips and serve them like mashed potatoes. Buying Tip: Stay away from the huge ones, as they're fibrous and tough. Stick with small and medium ones instead. They should be firm and pale ivory, with no sprouting roots. Keep in cool, dry place, like the refrigerator for eight to ten days. Peppers (Bell) Bell peppers come in almost every colour of the rainbow, and they're all endlessly appealing in cool summer gazpacho, cut into strips or cubes to add colour and crunch to salads and stir fries, or cut off their tops, remove seeds and stuff them with your favourite filling. Grilling brings out bell pepper's natural sweetness, and adds some wonderfully smoky notes. Slice in half, remove seeds, brush with oil and place face down on the grate until tender and lightly charred. Cut into strips, these are unbeatable on burgers, served over rice and pasta, or simply enjoyed alone. Tip: Don't have grill access? Peppers can be roasted over a gas burner. Try for an all-over char, and once they're cooled, in a plastic bag, peel off the outer layer with your fingers or a paring knife. Potatoes (new) These baby taters tend to have a flaky, thin skin that doesn't need to be peeled -- just washed. Their small size makes them ideal for herb roasting and steaming, and they're a stand out for potato salads. Tip: If you're buying new potatoes loose rather than bagged, select those of similar size so they'll cook in the same amount of time.

Potatoes (Salad) Much like their lumpier counterparts, these smaller, smoother, finger-shaped potatoes take well to roasting, steaming, baking and cold salads. Just steam 25-30 minutes until fork tender, and serve with butter and chives, or roast with garlic at 250 ºC for 20 minutes. Tip: Salad potatoes should feel solid; if there is any give when squeezed, they are not fresh. Pumpkin Pumpkin can be steamed or roasted. In either preparation, peel the pumpkin and scoop out the seeds prior to cooking. Depending on the size of the pieces, steaming should take about 20 to 25 minutes. When roasting, peel off the skin either before or after, although it's much easier afterwards. Roast pumpkin at 200ºC for 40 to 50 minutes, or toss it into soups and stews for a nutty, sweet burst of flavour. Pumpkin is also great for dessert and makes breads, pies and cheesecakes. Don't throw out the seeds -- toasted with a little bit of olive oil and sea salt, they make a hearty and delicious snack. Buying Tip: Choose a pumpkin with a firm, full stem. It should feel heavy when you pick it up, and be uniform in colour. Store in cool, dry place for one to two months. Pumpkin also freezes well, so you can enjoy it long after the harvest season. Radishes Radishes are excellent when pickled or grated into salads for a bright, zesty kick, but many people neglect the tasty greens. They're a bit pungent and peppery, so a little goes a long way. Slice or shred them raw into salads, or cook them as you would spinach or any other leafy green, by sautéing, steaming, or blanching in salted water. Tip: The bulk of radishes' spicy flavour is in the skin, so peel for a milder flavour. Spinach (Baby) While like its more mature counterpart, baby spinach is prone to contain grit, don't run water on the leaves or spin it too hard, as the leaves will bruise. Instead, place leaves in a bowl filled with water, and gently stir them with your fingers. Let them sit for a moment, and lift out the leaves. Drain and rinse the bowl of any grit, and repeat until the water is gritfree. Toss leaves into salads, steam, sauté with garlic, wilt, or use instead of lettuce on sandwiches. Tip: When possible, buy loose Baby Spinach so you can feel the leaves for freshness. They should be slightly more tender than regular spinach.

Sweet Potatoes Not only do sweet potatoes possess a sweet, almost decadent flavour, but they're also one of the most nutritious vegetables out there. High in fibre, complex carbohydrates, protein, vitamins A and C, iron and calcium, they're a practically a meal in themselves. Sweet potatoes are best steamed for 30 to 40 minutes and mashed, or baked for about one hour. If mashed, serve with butter. If baked, season with cinnamon, ginger or nutmeg. Black beans are also a surprising complement to sweet potatoes. Buying Tip: Look for firm, smooth skin, a uniform colour, and no blemishes. More delicate than russet potatoes, they also don't keep as long. Keep them in a paper bag in a cool, dry location, like a pantry or cellar, for up to one month. Squash (Butternut) This squash has a sweet, nutty flavour that's similar to, though a bit milder than, pumpkin. Like pumpkin, it's also quite versatile, lending itself well to a variety of cooking methods. Butternut is great in soups and stews, steamed and mashed like potatoes or roasted. If steaming, peel, cut into bite-sized chunks and cook for 7 to 9 minutes. To roast, cut in half lengthwise, drizzle with olive oil and salt, and place in a 200ยบC oven for 30 to 45 minutes, or until fork-tender. Scoop out the seeds either before or after roasting. The sweetness of the squash goes well with butter, cinnamon, brown sugar and nutmeg, and offers a pleasing contrast to stronger spices like ginger, sage, cumin and cardamom. Buying Tip: Make sure it's firm, unblemished, and feels heavy for its size. Because it has such a thick skin, this squash can be stored for up to a month in a cool, dry place before using. If it's been cut, raw butternut squash will last in the refrigerator wrapped in plastic for up to five days. Tomatoes Tip: Don't store tomatoes in the fridge, as it'll cause them to get mealy and lose flavour. Stem side down on the counter top is ideal. Turnips Most often used in soups and stews, they also make a hearty side dish. Always peel turnips before cooking. Steaming 1-inch cubes will take 15 to 20 minutes, and roasting will take about 30 to 40 minutes.

How to cook Pork Handling & Storing Pork Fresh packaged cuts of pork can keep in the fridge for 2-4 days. If you're not going to use it before that, wrap it tightly and keep it in the freezer for up to 6 months. Ground pork is good for 1-2 days in the fridge and 3 months wrapped in the freezer. Ham loses flavour and texture in the freezer, so plan accordingly. Check packaged bacon's freshness date. It can stay frozen for up to a month. If pork, cooked or uncooked, has been left out at room temperature for more than 2 hours, toss it. It might look and smell fine, but pathogenic bacteria aren't your pals. It's not necessary to rinse pork before using it, as any outside bacterial will be killed by cooking, which entails a minimum internal temperature of 70ºC or 80ºC for well-done. Pork Chops Pork chops are cut from the loin and are named loin, rib, sirloin, top loin or blade chops depending from which part of the loin they came. They can be bought boneless or bone-in, generally in thickness's ranging from 1 to 5cm. Because pork chops are a leaner cut, they can often benefit from brining (read our guide here) to retain maximum moisture. The 3cm inch top loin chop has been nicknamed "America's Cut." Base cooking time on the thickness of the chops. They're great grilled, broiled (8-10 minutes for broiling or grilling a 2cm, 12-16 for a thicker one), braised (8-15 minutes up to 2.5cm, longer for thicker cuts), or sautéed (7-8 minutes). Ribs Spareribs come from the belly of the pig and impart a luscious pork flavour, due to their fat content, but are less meat-laden than leaner back chops. Either cut is delicious roasted or grilled, and can be seasoned with a dry spice rub, or basted with sauce or steeped in a marinade. Back ribs are called "baby" because they're smaller than those from the belly. For the best results boil the ribs for 15 minutes before roasting or grilling, which makes the final dish a lot softer. Slow Cooked Bone-in cuts like pork shoulder are ideal for slow cooking, as the collagen is given time to soften and make for incredible tender, sumptuous meat. Place a whole or half shoulder in your slow cooker with a few slices of onions, a dash of Worcestershire sauce, and enough liquid to cover it about 3/4 of the way up. The liquid can be water, but it's extra-yummy with a couple of beers, some wine, stock, or a bit of fruit juice poured in. Set it to cook on "high" for 5-7 hours, lift it out of the liquid, shred the meat with a fork, and season with your favourite sauce.

Roasted Pork

Various cuts of pork take well to roasting. A pork "roast" simply refers to a larger cut, so for clarity's sake here, we're just talking about the cooking technique. Bone-in rib roasts, racks and crowns contain fat and bones that allow meat to retain moisture during cooking, and tenderloins and loin roasts, which are leaner cuts, tend to benefit from time in a brining solution. Roast pork cuts uncovered in a shallow pan at 180ºC, to an internal temperature reading of 70ºC. For loin roasts (bone-in or boneless), crown roasts and legs, estimate 20 mins of cooking time per 500g. Shoulders take 30 minutes per 500g. Tenderloins take 220-230ºC heat for 20-30 minutes (whole, not per weight), and ribs take 1 1/2 to 2 hours. Marinate as frequently as desired. Just make sure to discard any unused liquid that's come into contact with the pork at any time. Pork Cutlets & Medallions Pork medallions are simply slices from a tenderloin, and they're excellent braised (cooked over low heat with a small amount of liquid in a covered pan for 8-10 minutes for a 1-2cm cut) or sautéed (0.5-1cm cuts take 4-8 minutes at medium heat in liquid in an uncovered pan). Cutlets are thinly sliced cuts taken from the sirloin end of the tenderloin, from the leg, or from a cross-section of the tenderloin. Since they're cut so thinly, they cook quickly, and are great grilled (use a brine or marinade), or sautéed for 3-4 minutes. Sausage How do we love sausage? Let us count the ways -- pan-fried, boiled in beer, grilled, stewed, in gumbo and jambalaya, with peppers, on a biscuit, in gravy, as andouille, chorizo, bratwurst, hot and sweet Italian. ... We could go on, but we'll just note that sausage is seasoned ground pork, often enclosed in a casing, and comes from various cuts, including the shoulder butt and the loin. Sausage can be cured, fresh, or smoked, and making it at home is easier than you might think. To help sausages keep their moistness and ensure they are cooked through, place them in boiling water for five minutes before barbecuing or grilling, this will also remove some of the fat and help prevent flare ups over coals. Pork Tenderloin So what exactly is this tenderloin? It's a tender, if somewhat less flavourful cut from the full pork loin, and is generally as lean as chicken breast. The cut is from the inner rib bones of the sirloin end, and the whole thing can be quickly grilled or roasted (use a marinade or brine to ensure moisture and flavour), or cut up to make kebabs and and medallions. Roast a whole tenderloin for 20-30 minutes at 220-230ºC. Keep a close eye so it does"t overcook and dry out. Parts of the tenderloin are smoked to make Canadian bacon. Stir-Fried Pork Sliced-up strips of tenderloin cook quickly in a wok, absorb the flavours of oils and marinades, and can be trimmed as leanly as you'd like. Freeze the meat for 15-30 minutes to make it easier to slice, and try for thin slices, or bite sized pieces. Make sure to have all of your meat and other ingredients cut and ready to go, and pre-heat a wok or heavy skillet until the it begins to smoke. Add oil, and and the pork, which should be cooked until all pink traces are gone. Remove the pork with a slotted spoon, cook ingredients in batches until they're tender-crunchy, add any soy or other flavouring, return the pork to the mixture, and cook for another minute.

Bacon What exactly is bacon, aside from being the most delicious edible matter on the planet? Bacon is meat taken from the side or belly of the pig, and then cured and/or smoked . The high, streaked fat content is what gives the meat its slight sweetness and ability to crisp up so yummily. Slab bacon comes with a rind that's sometimes cut off and fried to make pork cracklings, also known as chicharron, pork scratchings, pork rinds or pork skins.

How to cook Chicken Don't be afraid of handling and cooking chicken. It's easy once you know how. Handling Use separate, differently coloured sets of utensils for handling raw and cooked chicken, or wash thoroughly with hot, soapy water in between uses. A minimum internal temperature of 70ยบC must be reached in order to kill any bacteria. The older the bird, the more flavourful it is. Frying Covering the chicken after it's been fried will cause it to lose its crispiness. To avoid dangerous spattering, dry off utensils before they come into contact with the cooking oil. Also allow floured or coated pieces to dry for 20-30 minutes before they're placed into the oil. They'll brown more evenly. Drain cooked chicken on a metal rack or a brown paper bag rather than on paper towels. It'll retain more crispiness. Grilling Spatchcock (split open) whole birds to enable even cooking. Turn the meat with tongs or a spatula -- piercing with a fork causes the juices to escape. Roasting Brining (soaking the meat in a salted-water solution) before roasting makes for tender, juicy meat. Room-temperature butter slipped under the skin before cooking also keeps the meat moist and ensures flavourful, crispy skin. A V-shaped rack or basket placed in a pan allows for even heating, and keeps the bottom of the bird out of the juices. Seasoning Several sprigs of fresh herbs blended or processed with a clove of garlic, a pinch of sea salt, a splash of red or white wine and several tablespoons of olive oil adds fresh flavour to grilled and roasted chicken. For maximum flavour, rub pastes and spices both on and under the bird's skin. Multi-hour marination isn't necessary. Thirty to 60 minutes tends to be sufficient. Stir Frying Use metal or wooden utensils, as plastic will likely melt at the high temperatures required for this method. It is easier to cut chicken into thin strips if it's slightly frozen. Use 1 to 2 tablespoons of peanut, vegetable or corn oil for each pound of chicken. Braising and Stewing Brown the meat evenly in oil or butter, and then add the cooking liquid to the same pan to maximize flavour and reduce clean-up Don't use non-enameled cast iron or regular aluminium pans as they can impart an unwanted taste to the chicken with this method. Non-stick cookware doesn't let the meat brown as well as anodized or pressure-cast aluminium or stainless steel does. Stock and red or white wine make excellent braising and stewing liquids, as do brandy, cider and crushed tomatoes.

How to cook Beef Buying & Handling Save your meat counter visit for the end of your grocery store trip so you can get your beef home in tip-top shape. Thaw your meat out in the fridge not at room temperature If possible, dedicate separate cutting boards for meat, poultry, fish, and fruit & veggies. Even if that's not feasible, scrub them with hot, soapy water or bleach after use. Roasting To maintain the flavourful crust on your roast, use a wire rack and keep it from sitting in a pool of its own juices. Carve the roast across the grain for maximum tenderness and hold the knife at the same angle for every slice. Fat and bones protect the meat while it's cooking. You can remove them after. Braising Got a tough cut like a shank, ribs, rump or pot roast? Braise it. Slow cooking in liquid breaks down collagen, turning it into gelatin and making the meat unbelievably tender. Don't submerge the meat entirely (that's stewing) or let the liquid level drop too low (that's baking), but do cook it down for a sauce with rich, concentrated flavour. Brown the meat on all sides before braising to add rich colour and flavour. Stewing See the how to make stew section Stir-Frying Thinly sliced strips with most of the fat trimmed make the most flavourful stir fry beef. Be prepared! Have everything cut and easily at hand, 'cause this process goes quickly -and deliciously. Don't toss everything into the pan at once. Some veggies might take more or less time than your beef, so add ingredients in stages. This way, individual flavours and textures can be maintained. Marinating Marinades are a great way to add flavour and juiciness to your meat. Include an ingredient with some acidic properties (vinegar, citrus, wine) to break down tissues and let the meat absorb moisture. Scotch and other spirits add exceptional flavour to meat. Just make sure they're mixed with enough other liquid so they don't flame up when exposed to heat. One to 2 cups of marinade for each 750g - 1kg of food is a good guideline. Marinating times can be as short as 30 minutes or as long as overnight.

How to cook Fish and Seafood Preparing fish isn't as tricky as many people think, and it's pretty versatile, healthy and delicious to boot. Buying If you're lucky enough to have a fishmonger nearby, make their acquaintance! They'll steer you to the best catch of the day, and recommend the best way to cook it for maximum flavour. If you're in the market for whole fish, keep your eyes peeled for ones that look like they've been plucked right from the water -- glistening fins and bright unclouded eyes. Whether it's whole or sliced into steaks or fillets, if it smells "fishy", don't buy it If your catch is frozen, make sure that there's no ice crystal build-up on the inside of the plastic wrap, and that there's no discolouration on the skin. Look for fridge and ice table temps of 4-6oC. If it's being kept higher don't buy it Storing If you're not cooking up that whole fish the second you get home, wash it thoroughly, pat it dry, wrap it in wax paper, and store in a sealed container at 4-6 oC until it's time to cook. Freezing your catch? For whole fish, wash it and place it on a tray in the freezer. Once that coat has solidified, dip it in ice water and return to the freezer. Repeat until a glaze has built up, and then wrap in wax paper or plastic and store in a freezer-safe bag. Smaller fish can be frozen into a block, wrapped, and bag-sealed. Separate individual fish or fillets with wax paper. Store at -12oC and use lean fish within 6 months, medium-fatty fish within 4 months, and fatty fish within 2 months. Handling Never thaw frozen fish at room temperature. Leave it in a 4-6 oC fridge overnight, in cold water for 1 to 2 hours. Thawing fillets in milk can zap the "frozen" taste and make them seem even fresher. Once frozen fish has been thawed, never re-freeze it. Use it right away or lose it. If you're going to be frying or grilling, thaw it thoroughly to prevent spattering and uneven cooking. Methods like steaming and poaching don't require a pre-thaw, and if the fish is to be cubed or cut into strips, a partial thaw allows for an ideal cutting consistency. Baking Use a pre-heated oven, and make several shallow cuts into the fish's flesh to allow oil or butter to permeate and keep it moist. Herb-infused oils can add extra, luscious flavour, all the way through. If the ends are substantially thinner than the thickest part of the fish, tuck them under so they don't over-crisp. Try to use similarly sized cuts to allow for even cooking, or stagger their start times so every piece heats evenly.

A good rule of thumb is 10 minutes of cooking for every inch of thickness, measured at the thickest part of the fish. Fish turns opaque and flakes easily with a fork when it's ready to eat. Still, always better safe than sorry -- look for a reading of 65ยบC at the centre of the thickest part. Let cooked fish stand for 3-4 minutes before serving it so heat and juices have time to redistribute. Grilling If you find yourself fond of fish, a grilling basket is a great investment. If you don't have one, always make sure to keep the grill grate well oiled and prevent the fish from sticking. Prolonged heat makes fish dry out, so if possible, stick to cuts around 2.5cm thick, and keep the temperature high. If you're grilling a whole fish, when it's time to flip -- don't. Instead, use two spatulas to roll it over. Little bones can be tricky to avoid,so if you're cooking a while fish, place it skin side down with the bones intact. When the fish starts to cook, the flesh should curl away from the bones. Once it's off the grill and slightly cooled, slide a fork along inside to lift them out easily. Frying Use a heavy pan for frying fish -- ideally one that's cast iron and seasoned, with high sides to minimises spattering. Fish can be brushed with oil, rather than immersed, but either way, it's best to use 1/8 inch of a flavourful fat with a high smoke point -- like butter, lard, light olive oil or very high quality extra-virgin olive oil. All sorts of coatings work well with this method -- from a quick roll in peppered flour, to combos of bread crumbs, cornflakes, crushed crackers and instant mashed potatoes. Make the heftier stuff stick with a layer of flour, then a dip in milk or beaten eggs, and a roll in your chosen ingredient. Heat the oil, and then fry fish on each side until browned, making sure not to crowd the pan. Drain on crumpled brown paper bags to avoid stuck-on paper towel fluff. Poaching Bouillon, stock, wine, vinegar and herbed, buttered milk all make excellent, flavourful poaching liquids. Place the fish in a pan and just barely cover with the cooking liquid. Bring the liquid to a boil and then turn down to simmer with the lid on until the fish is nearly done. Remove the fish, and use the leftover liquid as the base of a quick sauce, thickened with butter and flour, and poured over the fish. Enjoy the fish hot, or chill it and flake into salads and casseroles.

Fish Steaks Marinate fish steaks for 6 to 12 hours in plastic, zippable bags, and use leftover liquid as a basting liquid while cooking. Wrap fish steaks, butter, marinade and vegetables in aluminium foil and place in a 230ยบC over to steam until the fish easily flakes. Whole Fish Fish kept whole and on the bone maintains moisture and natural flavour. Pop it in the oven in a parchment pouch ("en papillote") or aluminium foil with a little lemon, wine and butter for an impressive-looking, yet incredibly simple main dish. Raise the fish on celery or green onion stalks while cooking. This allows for heat circulation and imparts a lovely, subtle flavour. Leave on the head and tail for maximum moistness. Planking is an excellent way to achieve a smoky flavour Attach a whole fish to an oiled hardwood board by nailing it, or fastening in place with nailed-on strips of bacon. Lean it at an angle close to a camp-fire, or in an oven raised slowly from 100-180ยบC. Serve the fish, plank and all, on a platter. Freshwater fish are laden with little bones, and it's almost impossible to remove them all, so be sure to warn your guests. Should any go awry, have them swallow a lump of rice, bread or banana to dislodge the offending particle. Shellfish Buy only shellfish that smells slightly sweet, without a whiff of ammonia. It should appear glistening, bright and alive. Overcooking toughens shellfish, so keep a close eye on your catch. Molluscs like mussels, clams and oysters are ready to go when their shells begin to open, and the insides just begin to curl. Crustaceans like lobsters, shrimp and langostines turn red or bright pink. Simmer octopus with a wine cork for optimum tenderness and flavour. The old saying about only eating oysters in R-less months no longer holds true as modern shipping and transportation is more sophisticated. They're sweetest from November to May, but are perfectly safe at any other time. Oysters can stay alive and fresh for two weeks after harvest. Try to buy only oysters with closed shells, but if one is slightly open, lightly tap it. If it closes, the oyster is still alive. If it remains open, the oyster has died, so discard it. De vein shrimp by peeling them, making a slit along the back and removing the vein with the knife. Rinse them in cold water to remove any lingering debris.

How to make Stew Stew really is a convenience food, from the ease it takes to make to the supplies you need to do it. A Dutch oven (big pot with a lid), tongs, a wooden spoon and a flour bowl are really all you need. Step 1: SautĂŠ the Aromatics All good stews start with aromatic vegetables. The classic French mirepoix flavour base is composed of two onions, one carrot and one celery stalk, but there are many variations -fennel, leeks and shallots to name just a few. Cook the aromatics in a little bit of oil until they become fragrant, about 5 to 7 minutes. Remove them from the pan. Step 2: Cook the Meat This step is essential for an excellent meat stew. First, dredge the meat in flour. This accomplishes two things -- giving the meat a tasty crust, which locks the moisture inside, and thickening the liquid the stew is cooked in. Brown the cubes in a little bit of oil over medium-high heat, and remove from the pan. Step 3: De glaze De glazing gets all of those tasty browned bits from the vegetables and meat off the bottom of the pan and into the sauce. You can use stock, wine, cider or even water, although the latter doesn't offer much in the way of flavour Simply pour in enough liquid to cover the bottom of the still-hot pan, and loosen the particles with a wooden spoon or spatula. Step 4: Put It All Together Add the browned meat, aromatics and any herbs and spices you'll be using to the de glazed pot. Rosemary, thyme and bay leaf are all wonderful complements to most earthy stews. Then add enough liquid to just cover the meat. Cover and cook on heat low enough to simmer, but not boil, which will cause the meat to become tough. Step 5: Add Vegetables If you add the vegetables to the stew along with the meat, they'll be mush by the time the meat is done. When a meat is half cooked, add the vegetables, cover again, and cook until they are fork-tender. VoilĂ ! You have stew.

How to make Soup Equipment Making soup is a lot easier if you have the right equipment on hand. Here's what you'll need: Stock pot or Dutch oven: You can execute just about every step in this, but if you're making your own stock, you'll want to have two vessels. Strainer: You won't need this for every soup, but it comes in handy for making stock, smoothing cream soups and for skimming fat off of soups. Blender (counter top or immersion): This comes in handy for puréeing smooth soups or thinning out ones that are too chunky although it is not really necessary. Frozen bottle of water: It cools down large pots of soup for storage. Start with Stock "6 cups stock or water." If you see that listed in the recipe ingredients, don't be fooled into thinking those options are comparable. Good soup starts with good stock and water pales in comparison. The trick to good soups is the layering of flavours, and each layer should contribute. Home-made stock is best, of course. And it's not hard to make. Tip: The only difference between broth and stock is salt; broth has it and stock doesn't. Many store bought "stocks" are actually broths, so make sure to check the sodium content before buying or using. If you're making stock at home, never add salt to it. Cook the Meat Season the meat with salt and cook it in the pot with a little bit of olive oil or butter over medium-high heat until it begins to brown. This will accomplish two things; you'll bring out the flavour of the meat and leave behind some tasty bits for when you cook the vegetables and de-glaze the pot later. Remove it from the pot and set aside. Tip: Sea salt and has a richer, more natural flavour than iodized table salt, making it better for cooking. Cook the Vegetables Many recipes call for plopping raw vegetables right into the stock. You can do that, but you'll lose a lot of flavour. Sautéing the vegetables first gets a lot of water out, making flavours richer. In the same pot that you cooked the meat, sauté the vegetables over medium-high heat with butter, oil and a little bit of salt, until they release their liquids. De-glaze Pour a little bit of wine or some of the stock into the pot with the vegetables, and scrape the tasty, caramelized bits from the bottom of the pan. Tip: Always save some extra stock in case you need it later.

Soup's On Add your stock to the pot with the vegetables and bring it to a boil, then reduce to a simmer. Then add the rest of your soup ingredients, like pasta, rice or beans, as well as the browned meat. Season with salt and pepper, keep simmering and don't forget to taste often. If you're making a smooth soup, blend it at the end and add more stock to thin as necessary. Tip: If you're adding delicate herbs or greens that will wilt, save them for the last 5 to 10 minutes of cooking. Bean Soups If your soup has beans in it, here's what you need to know: Dried beans are more nutritious than canned, and they're much kinder on the digestive system. If you're using dried beans, first soak them in water in the fridge overnight, as they'll cook faster and more evenly. Don't add salt to the stock or water until the dried beans get tender. If you salt them too early, they'll stay tough longer, and they won't soak up any of the delicious flavours of the stock. If you're using canned beans in soups, don't simmer them for long periods of time, as they'll start to fall apart. Cream Soups Cream soups are thicker and smoother than their chunky counterparts, and people often think they're harder to make. The steps are basically the same, except after the vegetables are cooked in butter or oil, flour is added to the mixture to thicken it and then the stock is whisked in a little at a time. Cream soups are almost always purĂŠed and strained at the end as well. Properly made cream soup will have the consistency of heavy cream. Fixing Soup Mistakes So you made a soup and it's not quite right. Do you throw out the pot and start over? No way! Try one of these techniques instead: Too thin: Cook it longer, uncovered. The water will evaporate and the soup base will thicken. Or, make a slurry. Dissolve one tablespoon of cornstarch or flour into two tablespoons of water, and then whisk this into the soup. It should start to thicken in about 10 minutes. Too thick: Add more stock Too salty: Add more stock, or water if you're using store-bought stock that contains salt. Or, peel a potato and let it simmer in the pot -- it will draw out some of the salty liquid. Too bland: Bland food is almost always the result of not enough salt. Don't be afraid of salt.

Cutting Techniques Dicing Onions There is only one quick and easy way to dice an onion, the example below states ¼ inch slices and cubes, however this is entirely variable depending on what is required. Step 1. After peeling off the outer skin of the onion, place the onion on its side on a cutting board. Slice off the top of the onion. Step 2. Turn the onion so it sits on the newly cut flat surface, and slice the onion in half through the root end. Step 3. Place an onion half, flat side down, on the cutting board. Make ¼ inch slices lengthwise through the onion, cutting up to, but not through, the root end. (This keeps the onion from falling apart.) Step 4. Turn the onion and make ¼ -inch slices that are perpendicular to the previous slices. The onion will fall apart in neat ¼ -inch pieces. Repeat steps with the remaining onion half. Ran giri - 乱切り Ran giri is a Japanese term, which loosely translated means random cut, it results in vegetables cubes which have a large surface area and therefore cook more rapidly, which helps to preserve nutrients and enables sauces and flavourings to coat more. This technique is also a good for cutting carrots and cucumbers for salads. Cut the end of a vegetable at a 70° angle. Roll the vegetable towards you and cut again, at a 70° angle. Continue rolling and cutting until you're finished.

Guide to Herbs and Spices English name

Spanish name

Allspice, ground

Pimiento de Jamaica Molido

Allspice, whole

Pimiento de Jamaica Entera

Ancho Chilli Powder

Chile Ancho en Polvo

Anise Seed

Semilla de Anis

Anise, Star

Anis Estrella





Bay Leaves


Bouquet Garni

Ramillete de Hierbas Aromaticas

Caraway Seed

Semilla de Alcaravea

Cardamom, ground

Cardamomo Molido

Cardamom, whole

Cardamomo Entera

Celery Salt

Sal con Apio

Celery Seed

Semilla de Apio



Chile Powder

Chile Molido

Chinese 5 Spice

Cinq épices Chinoises



Cinnamon Sticks

Pallillos de Canela

Cinnamon, ground

Canela Molida

Cloves, ground

Clavo Molido

Cloves, whole

Clavo Entera



Coriander, ground

Cilantro Molido

Coriander Seeds, Whole

Semillas de Cilantro

Cream of Tartar

Cremor Tartaro

Cumin, ground

Comino Molido

Curry, Powder

Curry en Polvo

Dill Weed


Fennel Seed


Fine Herbs (French blend)

Hierbas Finas

Garlic, minced

Ajo émincé

Garlic, pepper

Ajo con Pimineta

Garlic, powder

Ajo en Polvo

Garlic, salt

Sal con Ajo

English name

Spanish name

Ginger, ground

Jengibre Molido

Ginger, whole

Jengibre Entera

Italian Herb Seasoning

Hierbas Italianas

Jamaican Jerk Seasoning

Condimento de Tirón Jamaicano

Juniper Berries

Enebro, Junipero

Kitchen Bouquet

Ramo de Cocina

Lemon Peel

Cáscara de limón

Mace, Ground

Macis Molida

Marjoram, Ground

Mejorana Molida

Marjoram, Powder

Mejorana en Polvo


Yerba Buena

Mustard, Colemans

Mostaza de Colemans

Mustard, Dijon

Mostaza de Dijon

Mustard, powder

Mostaza en Polvo

Mustard, seed

Semilla de Mostaza

Mustard, whole

Mostaza Entera

Nutmeg, ground

Nuez moscada Molida

Nutmeg, whole

Nuez moscada Entera

Onion Salt

Sal con Cebolla

Onion, Flakes

Cebolla en Trozo

Onion, minced

Cebolla Picada

Onion, powder

Cebolla en Polvo

Orange, peel

Cáscara de naranja

Oregano, ground

Orégano Molido

Oregano, whole

Orégano Entero

Paprika, ground (Hungarian)

Paprika Hungara Molida

Paprika, Spanish, Smoked

Pimentón (de la Vera)

Parsley Flakes

Hojas de Perejil Deshidratadas

Pepper, black, cracked

Pimienta Rajada Negra

Pepper, black, ground

Pimenta Negra Molida

Pepper, black, whole

Pimemta Entera Negra

Pepper, Chilli, Pods

Vainas de Pimienta de Chile

Pepper, green, whole

Pimienta Verde Entera

Pepper, red, crushed

Pimienta Aplastada Roja

Pepper, red, ground

Pimienta roja Molida

Pepper, white, ground

Pimenta blanca Molida

Peppercorn, ground

Grano de pimienta de Tierra

English name

Spanish name

Peppercorn, whole

Grano de pimienta Entero

Poppy Seed

Semilla de amapola

Poultry Seasoning (Bells)

Condimento de Volatería (Bells)

Pumpkin Seeds

Pepitas de Calabaza

Rosemary, crushed

Romero aplastada

Rosemary, Leaves

Romero Hohojas



Sage, ground

Salvia, Molida

Sage, rubbed

Salvia, Estregada

Salt, plain

Sal Entera

Salt, Sea, coarse

Sal de Mar de Grano



Salt, Sea, ground

Sal de Mar Molido

Sesame Seeds

Semillas de Ajonjoli

Sesame Seeds, black

Semillas de Ajonjoli Negro

Sugar, brown

Azucar, Piloncillo

Sugar, cane

Azucar de caña

Sugar, powdered

Azucar en Polvo



Thyme, ground

Tomillo Molido

Thyme, whole

Rama de Tomillo

Turmeric, ground

Cúrcuma de India Molido

Vanilla Bean

Vainas de Vainilla

Vanilla, extract

Extracto de Vainilla

Winning combinations Beans - cumin, cayenne, chilli, parsley, pepper, sage, thyme Beef - basil, bay, chilli, curry, cumin, garlic, marjoram, mustard, oregano, parsley, pepper, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme Cheese - basil, caraway, celery seed, chervil, chilli, chives, coriander, cumin, dill, garlic, horseradish, lemon peel, marjoram, mint, mustard, nutmeg, paprika, parsley, pepper, sage, tarragon, thyme Chicken - allspice, basil, bay, cinnamon, curry, dill, fennel, garlic, ginger lemon grass, mustard, paprika, rosemary, saffron, sage, tarragon, thyme Eggs - basil, chervil, chilli, chives, curry, dill, fennel, ginger, lemon peel, marjoram, oregano, paprika, parsley, pepper, sage, tarragon, thyme

Fish - anise, basil, bay, cayenne, celery seed, chives, curry, dill, fennel, garlic, ginger, lemon peel, mustard, oregano, parsley, rosemary, thyme, saffron, sage, tarragon, marjoram Fruits - allspice, anise, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, ginger, mint Lamb - basil, bay, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, garlic, marjoram, mint, mustard, oregano, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme Potatoes - basil, caraway, celery seed, chervil, chives, coriander, dill, marjoram, oregano, paprika, parsley, poppy seed, rosemary, tarragon, thyme Salad Dressings - basil, celery seed, chives, dill, fennel, garlic, horseradish, marjoram, mustard, oregano, paprika, parsley, pepper, rosemary, saffron, tarragon, thyme Salads - basil, caraway, chives, dill, garlic, lemon peel, marjoram, mint, oregano, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme Soups - basil, bay, chervil, chilli, chives, cumin, dill, fennel, garlic, marjoram, parsley, pepper, rosemary, sage, thyme Tomatoes - basil, bay , celery seed, cinnamon, chilli, curry, dill, fennel, garlic, ginger, lemon grass, marjoram, oregano, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme Substitutions You may find yourself in a situation where you are out of a particular herb or spice. This chart will help you choose substitutions or alternatives, for the most common herbs and spices, that should work with your recipe. Allspice - Cinnamon; cassia; dash of nutmeg or mace; or cloves Aniseed - Fennel seed or a few drops anise extract Basil - Oregano or thyme Cardamom - Ginger Chervil - Tarragon or parsley Chilli Powder - Bottled hot pepper sauce plus a combination of oregano and cumin Chive - Onion; or leek Coriander - Parsley or celery leaves Cinnamon - Nutmeg or allspice (use only 1/4 of the amount) Cloves – Allspice, cinnamon or nutmeg Cumin - Chilli powder Ginger – Allspice, cinnamon, mace; or nutmeg Mace – Allspice, cinnamon, ginger; or nutmeg Marjoram – Basil or thyme Mint – Basil, marjoram; or rosemary Nutmeg – Cinnamon, ginger or mace Oregano - Thyme or basil Parsley - Chervil or coriander Red Pepper - Bottled hot pepper sauce or black pepper Rosemary – Thyme or tarragon Saffron - Turmeric (for colour) Sage - Marjoram or rosemary Tarragon - Chervil, fennel seed or aniseed Thyme - Basil, marjoram or oregano

Herbs and Spice Mixes and Blends Berbere Spice Mix (Ethiopian) dried red chillies, black peppercorns, ground ginger, cloves, coriander seeds, ajowan, allspice berries, greed cardamom seeds, fenugreek, cinnamon stick Bouquet Garni Traditionally, this mixture is tied up in cheesecloth for easy removal after flavouring. dried parsley (classic ingredient), dried thyme (classic ingredient), dried bay leaf (classic ingredient), dried rosemary (optional ingredient) Chat Masala (Indian)ground asafoetida, mint, ginger, ajowan, cayenne, black salt, mango powder, cumin, dried pomegranate seeds chilli Powder Ingredients vary widely but usually include: garlic, onion, cumin, oregano, allspice, salt and other spices. Curry Powder (Indian) dried red chillies, coriander seeds, mustard seeds, black peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, ground ginger, ground turmeric Five Spice Powder, star anise, fagara, cassia, fennel seeds, cloves Fines Herbes tarragon, chervil, chives and parsley Garam Masala(Indian) The name translates to hot mixture cumin, coriander seeds, cardamom, black peppercorns, cloves, mace, bay leaf, cinnamon Harrisa (Morrocan) (real) 1 tablespoon coriander seeds, 1 tablespoon caraway seeds, 4 large garlic cloves unpeeled, 4 large red bell peppers, 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil, 1 tablespoon sugar, 2 teaspoons dried crushed red pepper Harrisa (Morrocan) (cheating) 1 teaspoon ground caraway, 2 Tablespoons cayenne, 1 Tablespoon ground cumin, 1 clove garlic, 1/2 teaspoon salt, 1/4 cup Italian salad dressing Herb Salt, sea salt, bay leaves, dried thyme, dried rosemary, dried oregano Jerk Seasoning (Jamaican) chillies, thyme, cinnamon, ginger, allspice, cloves, garlic, onions Mixed Pudding Spice coriander seeds, cinnamon stick, allspice berries, whole cloves, nutmeg, ground ginger Quatre-Epices (French) The name means four spices black peppercorns, whole cloves, nutmeg, ground ginger Panch Phoran (Indian) cumin seeds, fennel, mustard, fenugreek, nigella Pickling Spice black peppercorns, yellow mustard seeds, hot red pepper flakes, allspice berries, dill seed, mace, cinnamon stick, bay leaves, whole cloves, ground ginger Ras-el Hanout (North African) Translates to top of the shop peppercorns, cardamom, mace, galangal, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, ash berries, cloves, ginger, turmeric, nigella, lavender, rosebuds, orrisroot, cassia, fennel seeds Sansho Seven Spice Mixture (Japanese) sansho, seaweed, chile, orange peel, poppy seeds, white sesame seeds, black sesame seeds Spice sea salt, cumin seeds, black peppercorns, coriander seeds, cloves Zahtar (Middle Eastern) sumac, roasted sesame seeds, ground thyme

Conversion Charts Liquid 5.0 millilitres (ml) = 1 teaspoon (tsp.) 15.0 millilitres = 1 tablespoon (tbsp.) 30.0 millilitres = 1 fluid ounce (oz.) 240 millilitres = 1 cup (c.) 480 millilitres = 1 pint (pt.) 0.95 litres (l) = 1 quart (qt.) 3.80 litres = 1 gallon (gal.) Temperature Celsius = Fahrenheit = Gas mark = Definition 100 = 200 = ¼ = very cool 110 = 225 = ¼ = very cool 120 = 240 = ½ = cool/slow 130 = 250 = 1 = cool/slow 140 = 275 = 2 = cool/slow 150 = 300 = 3 = cool/slow 170 = 325 = 4 = moderate 180 = 350 = 5 = moderate 190 = 375 = 6 = moderate 200 = 400 = 7 = hot 220 = 425 = 8 = hot 230 = 450 = 9 = very hot 240 = 475 = 10 = very hot 250 = 500 = 10 = very hot Mass / Metric to imperial 28 grams (g) = 1 ounce (oz.) 227.0 grams = 8 ounces 0.45 kilograms (kg) or 450 grams = 1 pound (lb.) or 16 ounces 1.0 kilogram = 2.2 pounds


Toast If you really need to be looking up how to cook toast refer to the last page immediately.

Boiled Eggs OK so boiled eggs are fairly self explanatory, but this is more of a timing guide than a recipe, and it is nice to start with something really simple. Ingredients •



Method 1. Bring a large pot of water to the boil. Pierce the base of the eggs (not essential). Place eggs in boiling water. 2. For soft boiled:cook for exactly 3 ½ minutes 3. For medium boiled: 5 minutes 4. For hard boiled: 7-10 minutes 5. Once eggs cooked remove from water and place in cold water. This is not essential but helps, as placing in cold water helps remove the shell from the egg hence easier to peel

Scrambled Eggs Ingredients •


1 tsp per egg of Milk (optional)



Salt and pepper

Method 1. Break eggs into a large bowl, add milk, salt and pepper, and a dollop of margarine. Whisk well. 2. In a pan heat oil. Place egg mixture into pan. Cook gently, with a spatula move the mixture around the pan lifting the cooked parts of the bottom of the pan, until eggs are done. 3. Add a little more to make a main meal or a hearty breakfast: 4. Fried onions, green peppers, cheese, tomatoes, tomato paste, garlic, herbs of choice, meat.

Eggs Benedict (Serves 4) Ingredients •

4 ea. English muffins - toasted

8 ea. Eggs

8 ea. Back bacon slices

¾ cup Hollandaise – (see recipe in sauces section)

1 Tbsp. Parsley chopped

1 tsp. Paprika

Method 1. Prepare hollandaise according to recipe. 2. Poach eggs in poaching dish or by dropping in hot water. Meanwhile toast English muffins 3. and warm Bacon in oven. 4. Place Bacon on English muffin half, then poached egg. Top with hollandaise and 5. garnish with paprika and chopped parsley.

Pancakes Ingredients • 1 cup (120 grams) plain flour (white, whole grain or 1:1 mix of white and whole grain) •

1½ teaspoon baking powder

1 pinch salt

1 cup (250 ml) milk (substitute buttermilk or 1:1 mix of milk and buttermilk)

3 eggs, separated

1 Tbs white sugar

Method 1. In large bowl, mix dry ingredients together until well-blended. 2. Add milk and mix well until smooth. 3. Separate eggs, placing the whites in a medium bowl and the yolks in the batter. 4. Beat whites until stiff and then fold into batter gently (skip this step for heavier pancakes or if 1 cup buttermilk is substituted for milk). 5. Let sit for 20 minutes, this will let the flour absorb some liquid improving the flavour and texture of the pancakes. 6. Pour ladles of the mixture into a non-stick pan, one at a time. 7. Cook until the edges are dry and bubbles appear on surface. Turn; cook until golden. Makes 12 to 14 pancakes.

Bubble and Squeak England Bubble and Squeak is a traditional English vegetable dish made from the leftover vegetables from a Sunday roast. The name is derived from the sound the dish makes while cooking. Ingredients •

1 medium onion, chopped (optional)

1 tablespoon fat or oil

Various cooked vegetables, potatoes and cabbage, optionally carrots, peas, and Brussels sprouts.

Method 1. Start by frying a chopped onion in fat or oil. 2. Chop the vegetables (which will have been boiled the previous day) together, and add to the pan. 3. Cook over a medium heat till the underside is golden brown and crispy, then turn it, scraping the crispy bits into the mix. 4. Repeat the alternate cooking and scraping a few times, then serve.

Bacon Sandwich England Ingredients •

1 tbsp olive oil

2-3 rashers streaky bacon

25g/1oz salted butter, softened (must be butter margarine is not good enough)

2 slices bread (any type as long as it is fresh)

tomato ketchup, to taste

freshly ground black pepper

Method 1. Heat the oil in a frying pan and fry the bacon until crisp and golden-brown, it is important to have the bacon crisp. 2. Spread the butter onto the bread, followed by the ketchup. Sandwich the bacon between the pieces of bread and season, to taste, with freshly ground black pepper. 3. To serve, place the sandwich onto a plate, walk to the truck and give the sandwich to the driver.

Snacks and Dips

Garlic bread France Ingredients •

Bread – baguettes or rolls are best

Margarine or oil

Garlic – loads crushed


Parmesan cheese (optional)

Method 1. In a bowl mix margarine and crushed garlic. Cut baguettes into thick slices; do not complete the cut so the base of the baguette is still attached. 2. One each side of bread spread on the mixture – do not skimp, nothing worse than half garlic bread. Sprinkle a light coating of grated cheese on top. 3. Wrap each baguette in tin foil and place on the BBQ grill. Turn after a few minutes, serve hot. Variations: Garlic and Herb bread: Add a selection of herbs to the margarine and garlic mixture – oregano and basil are popular favourites Herb Bread: Substitute garlic for herbs.

Guacamole Mexico Ingredients •

2 Avocados – very ripe

Garlic - crushed

Lemon juice

Tabasco – a dash

Tomatoes – diced finely, ripe

Pepper and salt

Method 1. Remove avocados from the skin and discard pip. 2. Add lemon juice and mash into a smooth paste. 3. Mix in tomatoes, garlic, pepper and salt and a dash of Tabasco. 4. Serve with fresh bread, toast, corn chips or crackers Variations: Substitute Tabasco for sweet chilli sauce, you can also add chopped coriander and / or finely diced onion

Salsa Mexico Ingredients •

6 Tomatoes – finely diced

1 Cucumber – finely diced

2 Onions – finely diced

Garlic - crushed

Tabasco – a dash

Chilli sauce – a bigger dash

Salt and pepper

Mixed herbs

Method 1. Mix all the above together in a bowl. Serve with corn chips, crackers or as a side dish.

French Onion Dip France Ingredients •

Packet of French onion soup

Cream cheese or crème fraiche

Method 1. Mix the above ingredients together in a bowl. Serve with corn chips, crackers, toast, fresh bread or on pasta. Variation: This recipe works with most packet soups i.e. chicken, corn, pea and ham …

Brushetta Italy Ingredients •

Bread – preferably thickly sliced or sliced baguette

Tomatoes - diced


Garlic - crushed



Method 1. In a pan place tomatoes, basil, pepper and garlic – fry until just soft. 2. Brush oil over bread and toast. 3. Place tomato mixture on toast and serve. Note: this can also be served as a quick and easy main meal ………

Baba ganoush Lebanon Alternately spelled baba ghanouj, baba ghannouj, and baba gannoujh. Baba ganoush is a common Middle Eastern and Mediterranean dip with a creamy, somewhat smoky flavour. It is usually eaten with pita bread although naan or a crispy flat bread also work well. Ingredients •

1 medium-large aubergine, any variety

2 tablespoons raw tahini

Juice of 1 lime (or lemon)

1 clove garlic, crushed

3 tablespoons olive oil

½ tsp salt

Paprika or cayenne pepper, as a garnish

Method 1. Roast the aubergine. This can be done in a variety of ways, but the flesh should be fully cooked and the skin should be burned and falling off easily. 2. An effective method is to prick the aubergine and place it a few inches over a fire or gas grill, turning it as the exposed skin blackens, about every 3-4 minutes. 3. Scrape off the aubergine skin. It's all right if you miss a few burned bits. 4. Finely chop or blend the aubergine flesh with the rest of the ingredients. The consistency should be smoothish. 5. Reserve a bit of the olive oil, and drizzle that over the top. Sprinkle with some paprika or cayenne.

Soups and Starters

Croûtons France Ingredients •

1 Baguette or French bread

½ lb Butter

1 Tbsp. Granulated Garlic

1 tsp. Garlic salt

½ tsp. Pepper

½ cup Parsley – chopped

6 Tbsp. Parmesan – powdered

Method 1. Cut bread into 1/2” cubes. 2. Melt butter, granulated garlic, and garlic salt until butter is completely melted. 3. Toss together croutons with the melted butter mix making sure to coat all the croutons with the butter evenly. 4. Sprinkle pepper, parsley and parmesan over the croûton and remix. 5. Place the croutons on a sheet pan, avoid over crowding or over filling the pan. 6. Toast in a hot oven for 8 minutes or until golden brown. Stir as needed to brown evenly. 7. Remove and let cool to room temperature. 8. Store in an air tight bag or container.

Borscht Ukraine Ingredients •

4 ea. Potatoes - peeled and halved

2 ea. Carrots - chopped

2 ea. Celery ribs - chopped

1 ea. Onion - chopped

1 tsp. vegetable oil

1 can Beef broth (a cup of beef stock can be used as a replacement, but is not ideal as it contains to much salt.)

1 jar Sliced pickled beetroot

4 Tbsp. Sour cream

2 Tbsp. Fresh dill – chopped

Method 1. Cover potatoes with cold salted water by 1 inch and simmer until tender, 20 to 25 minutes. 2. Drain and keep warm. 3. While potatoes are boiling, sauté carrots, celery, and onion in oil over high heat, stirring frequently, until vegetables beginning to brown. 4. Add broth and bring to a boil. 5. Simmer,covered, until vegetables are tender, about 13 minutes. 6. Stir in beets and their brine and simmer, covered, for 8 more minutes. 7. Ladle borscht into bowls and add potatoes. 8. Top with sour cream and dill.

Easy Chicken Noodle Soup China (universally adopted) Ingredients •

2 litres Chicken broth (stock can be used as a replacement, but is not ideal as it contains to much salt.)

500g Chicken meat – cooked, diced

2 Tbsp. Butter

1 cup Carrots – sliced or small dice

1 cup Celery – sliced or small dice

½ cup Onion - minced

1 tsp. Garlic - minced

½ tsp. Marjoram

¼ tsp. Pepper

6 oz. Thick noodles – dry

2 Tbsp. Parsley – chopped

Method 1. In a large sauce pot over medium heat add butter, carrot, celery, onion, garlic, marjoram and pepper. 2. Cook until vegetables are almost tender. 3. Add chicken and broth and bring to a boil. 4. Reduce the heat to a simmer and add the noodles. 5. Cook until noodles are al dente; garnish with parsley and serve hot.

French Onion Soup Makes 10 servings Ingredients • 3 Tbsp. vegetable oil • 6 ea. White onions - julienne • 8 cups Beef broth (Stock can be used as a replacement, but is not ideal as it contains to much salt, so do not use additional salt if using stock) • 1/3 cup Dry vermouth • 2 Tbsp. Brandy • 2 tsp. Salt • ½ tsp. Garlic powder • ¼ tsp. Black pepper Optionals for traditional serving • 10 ea Croutons (cut 2"x2" and 3/8" thick) • 20 ea Swiss cheese – sliced to 1 oz • 10 tsp. Parmesan cheese – shredded Method 1. Place 3 tablespoons oil to a large soup pot or saucepan over medium/high heat. 2. Add the sliced onions and sauté for 20 minutes until the onions begin to soften and start to become translucent. 3. Add the beef broth, water, salt, garlic powder and black pepper to the pan and bring mixture to a boil. 4. When soup begins to boil, reduce heat and simmer for 45 minutes. Optional - traditional serving 1. When the soup is done, spoon about 1 cup into an oven-safe bowl. 2. Float a croûton on top of the soup, then place two slice of Swiss cheese on top of the croûton making sure there are no holes for the soup for come through. 3. Sprinkle ½ teaspoon of shredded parmesan over the Swiss. 4. Place the bowl into your oven set to high. 5. Leave the soup for 5 to 6 minutes or until the cheese is melted and starting to brown (you may need to leave longer if you are making more than one bowl at a time). 6. Sprinkle an additional ½ teaspoon of shredded parmesan cheese over the top of the soup and serve. 7. Repeat process to prepare remaining servings. Note: To make the croutons cut a baguette or French bread 1-1.5cm thick. Preheat oven to 325° F. Place the bread in the oven directly on the rack and bake for 15 to 20 minutes or until each piece is golden brown and crispy. Set these croutons aside until you need them. Cheating Method Ingredients Onions – loads sliced into fine rings, Garlic – crushed, Oil, Tabasco sauce – a dash, Cayenne pepper and nutmeg – a pinch of each, Stock cubes, Water, Dry white wine Parmesan Method In a pan, brown onions and garlic. Add Tabasco, cayenne and nutmeg, stock cubes and water. Bring to boil and then reduce to simmer for about 30 minutes. Add wine, continue cooking for a little while longer.

Gazpacho Italy Serves 10 Ingredients •

2½ lb Tomato – peeled and diced (can used canned if desired)

1 lb Cucumber – peeled and diced

8 oz. Onion – peeled and diced

4 oz. Green bell pepper – seeded and chopped

1 tsp. Garlic – chopped

2 oz. Fresh white bread crumbs

2 cups Tomato juice

3 oz. Red wine vinegar

4 oz. Olive oil

½ tsp. salt

½ tsp. Pepper

¼ tsp. Cayenne pepper

1 tsp. Lemon juice

Method 1. Combine all ingredients in a blender or food processor except olive oil and process until liquefied. 2. Slowly add the olive oil until well incorporated. juice 3. Adjust tartness with lemon as your taste desire. Serve chilled.

Minestrone Soup Serves 8 Ingredients •

4 Tbsp. Olive oil

8 oz Onions – julienne

4 oz. Celery – diced

4 oz. Carrots – diced

1 tsp. Garlic – chopped

4 oz. Cabbage – shredded

4 oz. Courgette– diced

8 oz. Tomatoes – canned in juice, diced

3 qt. Chicken broth

½ tsp. Basil – dried

3 oz Small macaroni

12 oz. Cannelloni beans – canned

2 Tbsp. Parsley – chopped

½ tsp. Salt

½ tsp. Pepper

Method 1. Heat the olive oil in a sauce pot over medium heat. Add onions, celery, carrots and garlic. 2. Cook until almost tender. Add cabbage and Courgette and continue cooking for another 5 minutes. 3. Add tomatoes, chicken broth and basil. Bring to a boil then simmer until vegetables are tender. 4. Add the pasta and continue to simmer until the pasta is cooked. Add the beans and bring the soup back to a boil. Add parsley, salt and pepper. Serve hot.

Jani me Fasule Jahni Bean Soup Albania Ingredients •

500ml of dry white beans

1/2 cup chopped onions

1/2 cup olive oil

2 tablespoons tomato sauce

1 tablespoon chopped parsley

1 tablespoon chopped mint


chilli powder

Method 1. Boil beans in hot water in an uncovered pot for 5 minutes. Rinse and boil for another 15 minutes in a covered stock pot in 3 cups hot water. 2. Sauté onion in olive oil until it turns yellow. Add 2 tablespoons bean stock from the pot along with tomato sauce, parsley, salt and chilli powder for taste. Cook for 10 minutes or until a thick sauce is formed, then pour everything into the pot. 3. Add chopped mint, cover tightly and cool for 2 hours over low heat, or for 30 minutes in a pressure cooker. This should produce a thick juice, covering beans by ½inch. Serve hot.

Salads and Dressings

Basic Vinaigrette Makes about 400 ml Ingredients • 60 ml white wine vinegar •

30 ml lemon juice

1 teaspoon Dijon mustard

sea salt

300 ml olive oil

Method 1. combine the vinegar, lemon juice, mustard and salt in a bowl and whisk until the salt has dissolved. 2. Drizzle in the oil and whisk continuously until the dressing has emulsified. 3. Pour into a jar or bottle with a lid and refrigerate. shake well before using. Because of the oil and vinegar, this dressing will last for many weeks in the fridge and will probably be used well before it deteriorates. Tips Salt will not dissolve in oil, therefore it must be worked into the acid of the vinegar or lemon juice to break it down before adding the oil. Dijon mustard is rarely used in a vinaigrette and is added to a dressing to assist in holding it together (emulsify) as well as adding flavour. Do not panic if the dressing splits while it sits in the fridge. Simply shake or whisk well just before adding to the salad. A common rule of thumb for this dressing is 1 part vinegar to 3 parts oil. Some recipes may stray from this rule deliberately to offer a milder tasting dressing to allow the good oil to shine, or depending on its use. Olive oil is only one option for a vinaigrette. Strong nut oils like walnut and hazelnut can be used either on their own (very strong) or in equal parts with a mild oil like peanut oil or grape seed oil. Try a combination of vinegars like 50 ml red wine vinegar and 50 ml sherry vinegar to 300 ml olive oil with salt and pepper to taste. No mustard is needed. Place in a sealed jar and store. Shake well before use. For a vinaigrette for 1 serving, try 1 tablespoon white wine vinegar, pinch of salt, 3 tablespoons olive oil, whisk together and serve (although it is probably easier to get some friends).

Caesar Salad United States of America Ingredients • 1 lb Romaine – cleaned and cut into 1½” pieces • 1 cup Caesar dressing (see recipe in dressing section) • 4 oz Croutons (see recipe in breads section) • ½ cup Parmesan – shredded • 4 ea. Lemon wedges Optional Grilled chicken, Shrimp or Crab Method In a mixing bowl toss Romaine, Caesar dressing and croutons. Transfer to a serving bowl and top with parmesan and optional toppings if desired. Garnish with Lemon wedge. Caesar Dressing (traditional) Makes 3 cups Ingredients • 8 oz Egg yolks • 2 Tbsp. Garlic – chopped • ½ Tbsp. Pepper • 2 Tbsp. Red wine vinegar • 4 Tbsp. Lemon Juice • 1½ Tbsp. Dijon mustard • ½ tsp. Tabasco • 2 tsp. Worcestershire sauce • 4 oz Anchovies – minced • 2 cup Olive oil Method Place egg yolks into mixer on high speed and whip yolks until they begin to peak. Turn the speed down to medium and slowly add the remaining ingredients except the olive oil. Increase the speed back to high and drizzle in the olive oil until emulsified. Store in an air tight container and refrigerate. Caesar Dressing (mayonnaise) Makes 1½ cups Ingredients 2 ea. Garlic cloves - minced and mashed to a paste ¼ tsp. Salt 1 tsp. Anchovy paste 2 Tbsp. Fresh lemon juice 1 tsp. Dijon-style mustard 1 tsp. Worcestershire sauce 1 cup Mayonnaise ¼ tsp. Pepper Method In a bowl whisk together all the ingredients. Store refrigerated in an air tight container.

Coleslaw Holland Serves 10 Ingredients •

8 cups Cabbage - shredded

¼ cup Carrot - shredded

2 Tbsp. Onion - minced

1/3 cup Sugar

½ tsp. Salt

1/8 tsp. White pepper

¼ cup Milk

½ cup Mayonnaise

1½ Tbsp. White wine vinegar

2½ Tbsp. Lemon juice

Method 1. Combine the sugar, salt, pepper, milk, mayonnaise, vinegar, and lemon juice in a large bowl and beat until smooth. 2. Add the cabbage, carrots, and onion, and mix well. 3. Cover and if possible refrigerate for at least 2 hours before serving.

French Dressing Makes 1 litre France Ingredients •

1 cup Mayonnaise

¾ cup White wine vinegar

2 Tbsp. Garlic – minced

2 tsp. Kosher Salt

1½ tsp. Sugar

1½ tsp. Paprika

1½ tsp. Dry mustard

1 ½ tsp. Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp. Pepper

¼ tsp. Onion salt

¼ tsp. Celery salt

2 fl. oz. Chilli sauce

2 cups Olive oil

Method 1. Combine and blend all ingredients except the olive oil in a mixer. 2. Slowly drizzle in the olive 3. oil and continue until dressing is emulsified. 4. Transfer to an air tight container and 5. refrigerate.

Ajlouk Quraa Mashed Courgette (Zucchini) Salad Turkey Ingredients •

500g Courgette (Zucchini) about 3 medium

1 tbsp. fresh lemon juice

1 tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil

½ tsp. salt

½ tsp. caraway seeds

½ tsp. ground coriander

½ tsp. harissa*

1 clove garlic, crushed

¼ 100g feta cheese, crumbled

Method 1. Cut Courgette (Zucchini) into 1-inch-thick slices. 2. Place Courgette (Zucchini) in a large saucepan and cover with water to 1 inch above Courgette (Zucchini). Bring to a boil and cook 20 minutes, or until Zucchini is very tender. Drain in a colander. 3. Coarsely mash Courgette (Zucchini) with a fork while it is still in the colander. Drain any excess liquid. 4. Combine lemon juice, olive oil, salt, caraway seeds, coriander, harissa, and garlic in a bowl and stir with a whisk. 5. Add Courgette (Zucchini) and toss well. 6. Sprinkle with feta cheese and serve with pita bread. •

Harissa is a blend of garlic and cayenne, which can be substituted for a mix of garlic powder and cayenne (or chilli powder).

Kentish Apple Chutney England Makes approximately 1.8kg/4lbs Ingredients •

900g/2lbs apples

600ml/1 pint spiced pickling vinegar (make your own or available from supermarkets)

450g/1 lb sugar

1½ teaspoons salt

1 teaspoon ground allspice

125g/4oz preserved ginger

325g/12 oz sultanas

Method 1. First prepare jars. Jars with vinegar-proof lids are needed, i.e. coffee jars with plastic lids are ideal. Wash the lids and jars. Plastic lids can be sterilised by placing in store-bought sterilising fluid. Jars can also be sterilised using sterilising fluid. Read product instructions. If using the oven sterilising technique, metal lids can be put in the oven with the jars. Lay the clean jars and metal lids to warm in very cool oven, Gas ¼, 225°F, 110°C. Whilst they are sterilising: 2. Peel, core and dice apples 3. Put vinegar, sugar, salt, allspice into large saucepan and bring to the boil, stirring until sugar is dissolved 4. Add pieces of diced apple, simmer for ten minutes 5. Chop ginger into very small pieces and add to pan with sultanas. 6. Simmer until chutney thickens, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. (It is thick enough when you draw a spoon through mixture, it leaves a trail and does not immediately fill up with liquid. ) 7. Let the chutney cool, remove jars from oven and fill them with chutney. 8. Cover with waxed paper discs (waxed side down) 9. Allow to cool completely 10.Screw on lids, then label with name and date 11.Store in a cool dark place. Give it six weeks to mature before eating.

Waldorf Salad United States of America OK there may be some argument about Waldorf salad being American but it was first created by Oscar Tschirky in 1890 at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. Ingredients •

1 large Granny Smith apple

1 large Red Delicious apple

1 tablespoon of lemon juice

1/3 cup (80g) of raisins

1/3 cup (80g) of chopped walnuts

1/3 cup (80g) of chopped celery

2 tablespoons of mayonnaise

1 tablespoon of sugar

6 large leaves of lettuce

Method 1. Slice the apples into wedges, place in a bowl. 2. Pour lemon juice on the apple wedges, and ensure a light coating to prevent browning. 3. Plumpen the raisins by placing them in warm water for 5 minutes, drain well. 4. Mix celery, raisins and walnuts into the bowl of apple wedges. 5. Mix the mayonnaise and sugar together, then pour into the apple mixture, ensure a light coating on all items. 6. Chill for at least 30 minutes 7. Place three lettuce leaves on a large plate and three on another, place half of the mixture on each set of leaves. 8. Serve Notes, tips, and variations Though the original salad only used apples, celery and mayonnaise; walnuts mixed in have become an integral part of the modern version of the salad. Some idiots also use cherries, which are only used as a sweet addition to further the contrasts within the salad apparently, which sound like a load of bollocks (because it is).

Pasta salad Italy Ingredients •

250 g short pasta (shell, bow tie, orecchiette or macaroni)

2 tablespoons cooking salt

1.5 litres water

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

2 garlic cloves, crushed

1 teaspoon salt flakes

50 ml balsamic vinegar

200 ml olive oil

½ continental cucumber, seeds removed

1 yellow bell pepper, diced

250 g cherry or grape tomatoes

100 g black olives

¼ cup fresh basil leaves

¼ cup fresh flat-leaf parsley leaves

sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

Method 1. Boil the pasta in the salted water until al dente slightly crunchy on the inside (see tips for cooking pasta in the first section). 2. Drain the pasta in a colander or sieve (do not rinse), add the vegetable oil and toss. spread the pasta evenly on a baking tray and leave to cool at room temperature. 3. Place the garlic in a bowl and use a spoon to squash the salt flakes into the garlic. stir in the vinegar and olive oil. 4. Slice the cucumber and place in a salad bowl. Add the bell pepper, tomatoes, olives, herbs and pasta, and season to taste. 5. Stir in the dressing and serve. Tips Consider cooking extra pasta when making dinner so it can be set aside for a pasta salad the next day. Variations The combinations for a pasta salad are limited only by your imagination. Steamed or grilled vegetables, smoked, grilled or roasted meats, ham or salami, herbs and spices can all be used to produce good results.

Potato salad Germany Potato salad has many variations world wide, but can trace it´s origins back to Southern Germany, where it was often served hot and originally with vinegar and bacon rather than the modern mayonnaise versions, although the modern German hot potato salad is more like the recipe given at the bottom. Ingredients • 700 g waxy potatoes • 2 tablespoons cooking salt • 50 ml white wine vinegar • 150 ml olive oil • 1 teaspoon salt flakes • ¼ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper • 2 tablespoons chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley Method 1. Wash the potatoes thoroughly and place in a pot with enough cold water to cover. 2. Add the cooking salt, bring to the boil and simmer until fork tender (about 15–20 minutes, depending on size). When checking for doneness, a skewer or fork should pierce the potato with little resistance and slide out easily. Drain the potatoes and cool on a flat tray, do not rinse under cold water. refrigerate the potatoes for several hours or overnight to allow the starches to set and make them easier to cut (no sticky residue). 3. The cold potatoes can be peeled easily or used with their skins left intact. cut into bite-sized pieces and place in a bowl. 4. Toss with the vinegar, oil, salt flakes, pepper and parsley. Variations The dressing in this recipe is a very basic oil and vinegar mixture. Often potato salad is served with a creamy mayonnaise dressing if this is preferred, then use ¾ cup home made mayonnaise (or pre-made mayonnaise from the supermarket if you really must). Hot German Potato Salad Ingredients • 700g potatoes Cooked and diced • 1 onion,chopped • 1/4 c water • 2 Tbsp whole-wheat flour • 1 Tbsp honey • 1 tsp soy sauce • 1/2 tsp celery seed • 1 pinch ground pepper,optional • 200ml water • 125ml vinegar •

Method sauté the onion in 1/4 cup water over medium heat until tender and beginning to brown. Stir in flour, honey, soy and celery seed. Mix well until smooth. Stir in water and vinegar. Heat to boiling, stirring constantly. Add potatoes, stirring carefully. Heat through.

Rice salad Greece Ingredients • 750 g cooked medium-grain rice (white, brown or wild rice) •

2 garlic cloves

1 teaspoon sea salt

½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

juice of 1 lemon

150 ml olive oil

1 red bell pepper (green or yellow can also be used)

½ cucumber, seeds removed

½ bunch spring onions, finely sliced

150 g sweetcorn (tinned is good)

150 g green peas

Method 1. Place the cooked rice in a large bowl. 2. For the dressing—finely chop the garlic and place in a small bowl. add the salt and pepper and squash with the back of a spoon to form a paste. stir in the lemon juice and oil and set aside. 3. Dice the bell pepper and cucumber so they are uniform in size with the corn kernels and peas and add to the rice. 4. Add the spring onions. 5. Place the sweetcorn and peas in another bowl, cover with boiling water from the kettle and leave to stand for 2 minutes (fresh) or 30 seconds (tinned or frozen). 6. Drain and refresh under cold water. Drain thoroughly and add to the rice. 7. Add the dressing just before serving and stir until all ingredients are thoroughly combined. check the seasoning and serve at room temperature. TIPS A rice salad is a great way to use up leftover steamed rice. See the tips for cooking rice in first section. Medium-grain rice is best as the grains stay separated once cooked and remain soft when chilled. Long-grain rice can be used for this salad but the cooked grains tend to harden considerably when chilled overnight. This is why cold long-grain rice is ideal for fried rice, but it must be heated slightly or brought to room temperature to soften before use for a rice salad. Short-grain rice is too gelatinous and will stick together which will be very frustrating when trying to make a rice salad. It is soft and sticky when cooked and when cold. Leftover short grain rice it is ideal to add to soups or used with cream and sugar to make rice pudding (as long as it is not too salty).

Niçoise salad Niçoise salad is a simple,fresh salad originating from the region of Nice, France. There are many variations to the salad. Traditionally, Niçoise salad is not served with boiled potato or any cooked vegetables. Original versions of this salad use raw vegetables, boiled eggs, anchovies, olive oil and tuna. Ingredients •

500 g salad potatoes

2 tablespoons cooking salt

400 g green beans, topped

4 eggs

120 ml extra virgin olive oil

40 ml red wine vinegar

2 teaspoons Dijon mustard

sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

450 g can tuna

2 baby cos lettuces, leaves washed and dried

250 g cherry or grape tomatoes, halved

100 g black olives

Fresh tuna is an excellent substitution if you can get it. Method 1. Place the potatoes in a large saucepan, cover with cold water, add the salt and bring to the boil, then reduce the heat to a simmer and cook until just tender. Drain and cool completely before slicing into thick rounds. 2. Place the beans in a bowl or pot and cover with boiling water from the kettle, let stand for 2 minutes. Drain and refresh (cool) under cold water. 3. Place the eggs in a small saucepan of cold water. Bring to the boil over high heat. reduce the heat to low and simmer, uncovered, for 8 minutes. Drain and cool under cold running water. Peel and quarter. 4. Combine the oil, vinegar and mustard in a jar with a lid and shake until combined. add salt and pepper to taste. 5. Flake the tuna into large pieces and divide between 4 bowls or place in 1 large bowl. add the potato, beans, eggs, lettuce, tomatoes and olives. Drizzle over the dressing.

Main Courses Feijoada Beef and Banana Stew Adobo Aloo Gobi Anticuchos Arroz con Pollo Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá Tavë Kosi - baked lamb and yoghurt Bobó de Camarao 불고기- bulgogi, fire beef or Korean barbecue Lasagne Risotto Cottage Pie 寿司, 鮨, 鮓 – Sushi Barbecued Sirloin with Chimmichurri Chilli con Carne Chilli chicken with Avocado Salsa Patagonian Lamb Lomo Saltado Rissoles – Aussie Burgers Beef Stroganoff Ceviche or Cebiche Mousakka Linsen und Spätzle Mexican and Pizza's

Feijoada Black Bean Casserole Brazil Feijoada, the national dish of Brazil, is a complicated dish that usually takes days to prepare. Feijoada can be varied by adding different kinds of meat, such as smoked beef tongue, smoked pork ribs, or other cuts of pork. Feijoada is a heavy meal usually reserved for festive occasions. It is often followed by a nap. This is a simplified version of the original Brazilian speciality Ingredients •

2 cans black beans

1 ham bone or pork hock

1 c. chopped onion

1 tsp. salt

1 tsp. pepper

1 tsp. cumin

2 Tbsp. lime juice

8 pork sausages or hot dogs


1. Drain beans and put in a pan. Add 4 c. water, ham bone or pork hock, onion, salt, pepper, cumin, and lime juice. 2. Bring to the boil, then reduce heat, cover, and simmer over low heat for 3 hours. 3. Brown sausages, cut in bite-sized pieces, and add to the bean mixture. If using hot dogs, cut them into bite-sized pieces and add directly to the bean mixture. Heat thoroughly. Serve with rice.

Beef and Banana Stew Uganda Ingredients •

1 lb. beef, cut in cubes

2 c. water

2 onions, sliced

2 tomatoes, peeled and sliced

2 tbsp. oil

2 medium green plantains, or 4 small green bananas, washed, peeled, sliced, and placed in a bowl with cold water

1 c. coconut milk

salt and pepper, to taste

Method 1. Place the meat and water in a pot and simmer for 1 hour. 2. Sauté the onion and tomato in hot oil in a large skillet until the onions are soft and golden. 3. Add cooked meat, plantains or bananas, and coconut milk to the onion and tomato. If the coconut milk does not cover the meat, add some of the meat stock. 4. Season with salt and pepper. Simmer gently until bananas are cooked and the meat is tender. If you are using regular bananas, add them 15 to 20 minutes before the meat is done.

Adobo Philippines This dish is the most indigenous in the Philippines. It has evolved over the centuries as a way of preparing foods that wont spoil easily in a tropical climate. The vinegar gives it the tangy taste and acts as the preservative. Each region has its own version but the most commonly used is pork and/or chicken. The version below is the traditional way of making adobo. Ingredients •

8-10 chicken pieces, preferably legs and wings

1/3 cup vinegar made from coconut juice (as a variant, try balsamic vinegar)

1/4 cup soy sauce

4 smashed cloves of garlic

1-2 pcs bay leaf

½ tsp. freshly cracked (not ground) black pepper corns

Method 1. Put chicken, garlic, peppercorn, soy sauce and vinegar in a pan and bring to a boil 2. When chicken is cooked, put chicken pieces in a colander and drain. Put aside the pot with soy sauce and vinegar. 3. When chicken pieces are no longer draining, fry them in hot oil at medium heat (have a cover ready for splatters) 4. Sear the chicken and brown them on all sides. 5. Put chicken pieces back in the pot with soy sauce and vinegar and bring to simmer. Add 1-2 pieces of bay leaf. 6. Cook until it has dried a bit. Adobo should not be saucy. 7. Serve over hot steamed rice.

Aloo Gobi India Aloo gobi is an Indian curry. Aloo means potato and Gobi means cauliflower. Ingredients •

750 g tomatoes, diced or puréed

1 big cauliflower cut into chunks

4-5 potatoes, peeled, cut into cubes

1 lemon

4-5 tablespoons of ghee

1 teaspoon cumin seeds

1 tablespoon salt

1 tablespoon curcuma (turmeric)

2 tablespoon ground coriander

1-2 tablespoon ground chilli

2-4 tablespoon garam masala

1 sprig of mint

Procedure 1. Heat the ghee/oil in frying pan, wok or karahi (an Indian utensil specially used for frying purposes) 2. Add jeera (cumin seeds) and wait until they turn a light brown colour. 3. Add the spices (except for garam masala) and the tomatoes. 4. When the mixture turns oily, add the vegetables. 5. Roast the cauliflower and the potatoes until they turn soft. Stir occasionally. 6. Add the garam masala, mint and lemon juice.

Anticuchos Beef Hearts Peru Ingredients •

Beef heart

2 cloves of garlic

¼ of a cup ground spicy red chilli

2 cups of brown vinegar

1 teaspoon of ground cumin

1 teaspoon of achiote (annatto)

1 teaspoon of salt

1 teaspoon of ground black pepper

Method 1. Place all the above ingredients, other than the heart, in a bowl and mix thoroughly. 2. Clean the heart, removing all fat. Cut into bite size cubes. Place the heart pieces into the marinade mixture and leave to marinate for about 10 hours or overnight. The heart should be completely covered. 3. After marinating, insert meat on skewers. At this stage if desired , some additional ingredients such as green pepper or red pepper (capsicum) or corn-on-cob (cut to a similar size to the heart, may be also inserted on the skewers.) 4. The skewered heart should then be cooked on a barbecue grill, turning frequently and brushing with the marinade mix. When they are well done they should be served immediately.

Arroz con Pollo Rice and Chicken Peru Arroz con pollo is a traditional dish that's common throughout Latin America especially in Cuba, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and the Dominican Republic. Common ingredients include rice, vegetables, fresh herbs and chicken. The recipe given here is the Peruvian style recipe which includes citrus juice. Ingredients • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

10 chicken drumsticks & 10 chicken thighs 1 orange 1/2 lemon 1/2 lime Salt 1 pound chopped green pepper 1 pound chopped onion 3 cloves garlic 15 oz. tomato sauce 1 small jar chopped pimentos 1 1/2 cups cooking sherry 2 cups water 3 cups long-grain rice 1 tablespoon salt bay leaf pinch of saffron can of peas olive oil

Method 1. Marinate the chicken for about 6 hours in the juice of 1 orange, 1/2 lemon, and 1/2 lime. Sprinkle with Salt. 2. Brown chicken in a pan. 3. Sauté onion, pepper, and garlic to make a soffritto. 4. Add tomato sauce to soffritto, cook for 5 min. 5. Add pimento, liquid from can of peas, bay leaf, salt, saffron, sherry, and water. Add chicken, cover pot, and cook for 1/2 hour on low. 6. Add rice, cook on stove on low or in oven until liquid is almost absorbed (about 3045 min.). 7. Mix in peas and let them warm up before serving.

Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá Portugal Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá is a dish of salt cod and potatoes created in the 19th century by Gomes de Sá at the restaurant Restaurant Lisbonense in the city of Porto. Ingredients •

1kg salt cod

1 cup olive oil

4 medium-sized onions

1 tsp. garlic, finely-chopped

6 medium-sized potatoes

20 pitted black olives

6 hard-boiled eggs, sliced

2 Tbsp. parsley, finely chopped

Method 1. Starting the day before, soak the salt cod, refrigerated, in a container of water for 16 - 24 hours, changing the water 3 or 4 times. 2. Drain and rinse the cod. Place in a saucepan and fill with water to cover the fish by 1 inch. Bring to a boil and then simmer for about 20 minutes until the fish flakes easily when tested with a fork. Drain thoroughly and flake the fish coarsely, removing any skin or bones with a paring knife. Set aside. 3. Boil the potatoes in their skins until easily pierced with a fork or skewer but not soft. Drain, cool and peel. Slice into ¼-inch slices. Set aside. 4. In a heavy frying-pan, heat a ½ cup of olive oil over medium high heat for two minutes. Add the sliced onion and sauté for about 6 or 7 minutes until the onions are translucent and slightly brown. Stir in the garlic and remove from the heat. 5. To assemble, lay half the potatoes in the bottom of a casserole. Cover them with half the cod and then half the onion. Repeat with the rest and drizzle the rest of the olive oil over the top. 6. Bake for about 20 minutes in a 400ºF/200ºC oven until the top is lightly browned. 7. Garnish with olives and hard-boiled egg slices. Sprinkle with parsley. 8. Serve from the casserole with a cruet of olive oil and port vinegar on the side.

Tavë Kosi Baked lamb and yoghurt Albania Ingredients •

1½ lbs lamb

4 tablespoons butter (½ stick)

2 cups rice

salt, pepper

For yoghurt sauce •

1 tablespoon flour

4 tablespoons butter (½ stick)

1ltr yoghurt

5 eggs

salt, pepper

Method 1. Cut meat in 5 serving pieces, sprinkle each piece with salt and pepper, and bake in a moderately-heated oven with half the butter, basting the meat with its gravy now and then. 2. When meat is half-baked, add rice. 3. Remove the baking pan from the oven and leave it aside while you prepare the yoghurt sauce. 4. Sauté flour in butter until mixed thoroughly. 5. Mix yoghurt with salt, pepper and eggs until a uniform mixture is obtained, and finally stir in the flour-butter mix. 6. Put the sauce mixture in the baking pan; stir it with the meat pieces and bake at 190°C for about 45 minutes. Serve hot.

Bobó de Camarao Brazil Ingredients •

3 lbs (1.2kg) medium size shrimp

3 lb (1.2kg) yucca root (cassava, manioc)

2 cups onion, chopped

3 cloves garlic, chopped

½ cup olive oil

6 medium tomatoes, peeled and seeded (or a large can of whole tomatoes)

¼ cup cilantro, chopped

2 cups coconut milk

¼ cup palm oil (also known as dendê)

add salt and pepper to taste

Method 1. Peel and cut the manioc and put in a pan with cold water and salt. 2. Cook until tender, drain and reserve both the cooked manioc and the liquid. 3. Discard any manioc fibre. 4. Using a fork, mash the manioc while still hot. Use some of the liquid to help in the process. Do not use a blender or food processor. 5. Peel and de-vein the shrimp. 6. Sauté the onion and garlic in the olive oil until wilted. 7. Add ½ of the chopped cilantro and the tomatoes, stirring well. 8. Add the 2½ lb (1kg) shrimp and cook it (about 15 minutes). 9. Add the puréed manioc. 10.Check the amount of liquid and add more of the reserved manioc liquid to thin the mixture, if necessary. 11.Add the coconut milk, the remaining cilantro and the palm oil. 12.Check for salt and pepper. 13.Serve with white rice.

불고기 Bulgogi, fire beef or Korean barbecue Korean Ingredients •

1kg beef (whatever part, suitable for grilling), thin sliced

3 onions, sliced thinly

8 button mushrooms, sliced

3/4 cup soy sauce

1/4 cup sugar

4 tbsp sesame oil

4 tsp pepper

1-2 tbsp minced garlic

Method 1. Slice the beef as thinly as possible. 2. Combine all the ingredients in a big bowl. 3. Marinate beef and vegetables for at least 30 minutes. Marinating overnight will get the best flavour tenderness. 4. Grill the beef. 5. Serve with rice.

Lasagne Italy Ingredients For the ragu •

4 tbsp olive oil

4 celery sticks, finely chopped

2 carrots, finely chopped

1 medium onion, finely chopped

2 garlic cloves, peeled and crushed

1 sprig rosemary

700g/1lb 9oz beef mince

340g/12oz pork mince

1 bottle red wine (750ml/26½fl oz)

2 x 400g/14oz cans tomatoes, roughly chopped

200ml/7fl oz beef stock

salt and freshly ground black pepper

For the bechamel sauce •

1 litre/1¾ pints whole milk

2 bay leaves

¼ onion

pinch freshly grated nutmeg

50g/2oz butter

50g/2oz plain flour

For the lasagne •

14 sheets fresh lasagne pasta

3 125g/4½oz balls mozzarella, cut into small cubes

small handful grated parmesan

freshly ground black pepper

2 tbsp butter

Method 1. Preheat the oven to 180C/350F/Gas 4 2. For the ragu, heat the olive oil in a frying pan over a low heat and fry the celery, carrots and onion for approximately 15 minutes, until softened and golden. Add the garlic and rosemary and fry for two more minutes. 3. Add the beef and pork mince and cook until the liquid from the meat has been absorbed. 4. Pour in approximately 400ml/14fl oz of red wine and stir well. Cook for approximately 45 minutes. 5. Once the wine has evaporated, add the tomatoes and stock. Leave the mixture uncovered to cook slowly for two hours. Top up with more warm stock if necessary. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste. 6. To make the bechamel sauce, place the milk in a large non-stick saucepan, add the bay leaves, onion and nutmeg and gently bring to the boil. 7. In a separate saucepan melt the butter and add the flour. Beat well and cook for two minutes. Remove the milk from the heat and add a little to the flour mixture. Combine well, and when all the milk has been absorbed, add a little more. Continue to do this until all the milk has been added, whisking continually. 8. For the lasagne, blanch the pasta in salted boiling water for three minutes. Spoon a third of the bechamel sauce into the bottom of a lasagne dish in a layer, then place some of the pasta strips over the top. Follow this with some of the mozzarella and parmesan, and sprinkle over freshly ground black pepper. Follow with a layer of ragu. Repeat this step twice until all the ingredients have been used up. Dot knobs of butter over the surface and cook in the oven for 30 minutes, or until golden-brown on top and completely cooked through.

Risotto Italy Risotto is an Italian rice dish, most popular in the north of Italy. Historically, risotto is the name given to all recipes that use rice as the main component and are served as first dish in a traditional Italian lunch or dinner. Generally the rice is slowly cooked in stock, but other liquids can be used. What's described here is a basic risotto recipe. Shaved, grated or ground parmesan cheese is almost always sprinkled on top. It can be eaten as is, but risotto is generally enjoyed with one or two ingredients added. In Italy, risotto is, like pasta, usually served as first course, the second course being meat or fish. Ingredients •

400 grams risotto rice (plump, medium grain rice that contains a lot of starch, the types Arborio, Carnaroli or Vialone Nano are traditionally best)

1 onion

1 clove of garlic

1 glass of dry white wine

25 grams (1 ounce) butter (a good rich butter is best)

about a litre of stock/broth, but it's a good idea to have more than you need (as the amount needed is difficult to predict). What type of stock depends on the flavour you're trying to achieve, but since the flavour of the stock will become the main flavour of the dish, good stock is critical. If using bought stock canned is better than cubes or powder, making your own is really the only way (see soups and starters for recipe and advice). Make sure the stock isn't too strong or too salty, as it will be greatly condensed. Make sure the stock is clear too, or the texture of the risotto will become gritty .

Method Make sure your stock is simmering before you begin. It's important that the temperature is as high as possible, without letting the stock boil. The surface of the stock should just be moving a little. A large thick pot is best for the risotto. 1. Finely chop the onion and garlic and sweat them very gently (cook over medium heat, without letting them brown) in some butter or olive oil. This is known as a soffritto in Italy. 2. Add the rice and cook until it has a transparent look (this shouldn't take long). Add some salt and pepper. 3. Add the wine. A hot pan will cause the alcohol to evaporate more quickly (and create a nice dramatic effect), but make sure you don't burn the rice or the soffritto. 4. As the wine cooks away you will see the remaining liquid getting thicker as it's absorbing the starch from the rice. When it’s more or less gone, add some stock. Do not add too much stock. The rice should never be submerged in stock. Keep stirring it and keep adding more stock as it cooks away. This should take about 15 to 20 minutes.

5. Taste to see if the rice is done. The rice should be soft, but have enough bite to it to feel the individual grains of rice. The choice between a liquid risotto or a firmer one is a matter of personal preference. When put on a plate, it should spread out slowly. If it sits still, it needs some more stock; if there's liquid coming from the risotto, it needs to cook down a bit more. 1. When it's done, stir in the butter in small chunks at the time, taste to get the amount of butter right. Season with more salt and pepper to taste. 2. Let it rest for a few minutes, and then serve. Risotto won't keep , but rehydrating it with some soup or stock can yield edible results. Notes •

This is only the most basic risotto recipe. Add ingredients only at the beginning (through the soffritto, when they need to cook with the rice) or at the very end (for ingredients that lose their flavour with too much cooking, such as herbs). If you want to use ingredients that require a very specific cooking time, like potatoes or broccoli, it's best to blanch them in advance, and add them to the risotto at the very end. It's very difficult to add them to the risotto halfway so that they will be cooked perfectly when the risotto is done. If you want the flavour of the stock to be present in these ingredients, blanch them in the stock. For some ingredients, like mushrooms, the cooking time isn't extremely important. These can simply be added to the risotto somewhere along the line.

A common mistake in making risotto is to add too much of the extra ingredients. The star of the dish is the rice, and only very little else is needed. Tips

Think of risotto as a way of making stock edible with a fork: the quality of the stock you use is the most important factor in the quality of your risotto.

Use a different type of liquor to replace the white wine; vodka, whiskey, champagne and Martini work well. Keep in mind that the colour of the liquor will affect the rice. Using red wine will create a red risotto. Rosé wine will make a pink/purple risotto.

Saffron added to the stock is risotto alla Milanese.

Using large roasted breadcrumbs instead of parmesan cheese will create a nice contrast in texture with the risotto. Put the breadcrumbs on top of the risotto at the last minute and don't stir, or they will soak up too much moisture and lose their crunch.

Cottage Pie British There are a lot of people with different versions of what cottage and shepherd's pie are, the truth is quite simple cottage pie is made with lamb and shepherd's pie is made with mutton. Traditionally leftover meat was used which still follows the same recipe as below, but without the need to brown the meat, although it will need to be shredded or finely cubed. Ingredients •

450g minced lamb

1.3kg powdery old potatoes, such as King Edwards

1 large or 2 small onions

2 tbsp flour

2 cups beef stock (alternatively, stock cubes can be used, or gravy powder, if the flour is omitted)

a handful of mixed vegetables such as peas and carrots

mixed herbs



Method 1. Brown the mince in a frying pan. There is no need to add oil, as the meat is fatty enough. 2. Finely chop the onion and lightly fry in a little butter until clear. 3. Add the onions to the mince along with the mixed herbs and some pepper. 4. Sprinkle the flour over the mixture and stir and cook for 3 - 4 minutes (if using gravy powder, omit this step). 5. Cover with beef stock (or add water and beef bouillon/gravy powder) and simmer for 30 minutes. 6. Meanwhile: i. Peel, chop and boil the potatoes for 20 minutes until cooked. ii. Once the meat is cooked, skim off the excess fat, then boil rapidly to reduce the liquid until it just covers the mince and onions. iii. Drain the potatoes very well until completely dry. Mash until smooth and free of any lumps. iv. Add butter to the mashed potato, taste and adjust the seasoning. v. Add enough milk to make the mash very soft (heavy mash will not float properly on top of the mince).

7. Put mince mixture in a shallow oven proof dish. 8. Spread the mash on top of the meat and brush the tops of the potatoes with melted butter. 9. If desired, sprinkle the grated cheese on top of the mash. 10.Spike the top with a fork – that is, rough up the surface of the mash with a fork. 11.Cook in a hot oven for about 30-50 minutes until the top is golden brown. 12.Serve with peas or beans.

寿司, 鮨, 鮓 Sushi Japan

In Japanese cuisine, sushi is vinegared rice, usually topped with other ingredients including fish (cooked or uncooked) and vegetables. Outside of Japan, sushi is sometimes misunderstood to mean the raw fish by itself, or even any fresh raw-seafood dishes. In Japan, sliced raw fish alone is called sashimi and is distinct from sushi, as sashimi is the raw fish component, not the rice component. Sushi can be eaten as is or dipped into shoyu (Japanese soy sauce) and then eaten. Types of Sushi Sushi types include makizushi, nigirizushi, oshizushi, and inarizushi. Makizushi (rolled sushi), or maki for short, is the kind that is most common outside of Japan as it is basically sushi layered on top of nori, rolled into a tube, and cut into thick slices. Easy to make and even easier to mass produce. Nigirizushi (hand formed sushi), or nigiri for short, is, a hand-formed small bed of rice with an ingredient on top (ranging from tuna or salmon to eel or egg). Nigiri sushi that is served without the rice is called sashimi. Gunkanmaki (battleship roll or boat sushi) is a nigirizushi where an oval piece of sushi rice is surrounded by nori and topped with a topping such as fish eggs. Oshizushi (pressed sushi) is similar to nigirizushi but it is formed by pressing with the aid of an oshibako, a wooden mold. Generally, the topping is placed in the oshibako first, the rice is added on top, then the combination is pressed together with the oshibako top or lid. After pressing, the sushi is removed and cut to serving sizes. Inarizushi (stuffed sushi) is generally a pocket or pouch containing the rice and other ingredients. Materials used to make the pocket include tofu, bean curd, egg, and cabbage leaves. Saikuzushi is an artistic type of sushi, where the rice is tinted with different colours and later sliced to make an image. Chirashizushi, is scattered sushi with rice in a box or bowl and seaweed on top. Different kinds of seafood and fish are placed on top, including octopus, squid, tuna, alongside with chopped cucumbers and green onion. Chirashizushi has two main regional types, the version of Tokyo, and the Osaka Version. Edomae, or Temakizushi, is one of the most common types of sushi, with rice and fish rolled up in seaweed. Crab, octopus, tuna, shrimp, and several other types of seafood is rolled up inside the rice. It is even found in convenience stores in Japan. Sashimi (basically sliced raw seafood, mostly fish without any rice) is often the most artistic form, with thin slices of fish and shellfish being formed into a range of different shapes, especially flowers. While technically not sushi, sashimi is often grouped together with the different types of sushi.

Eating Sushi An authentic sushi-eating experience can include miso soup, makizushi (sushi rolls), sashimi (pieces of fish with no rice), nigirizushi and garnishes of wasabi, soy sauce and pickled ginger. Hot, fresh, green tea is an excellent beverage to drink with your meal or beer. Sake is not usually consumed with sushi, because it is made from rice it is considered to be too much rice in one meal. Although many Westerners mix the wasabi and soy sauce together in the provided dish, this is not authentic, and is not recommended because it dulls the taste of the wasabi. Instead, add a little soy sauce to the small dish, and if wasabi is desired, add it to the sushi directly. Note: In Japan, sushi chefs will apply a small amount of wasabi to the appropriate types of sushi during preparation. For example, sushi that features its own unique sauce will be prepared sans wasabi so as not to compromise the flavour. Sushi can be eaten with chopsticks or by hand; nigiri sushi in particular may be eaten by hand because the rice is packed lightly and may fall apart if eaten with chopsticks. When dipping nigiri sushi in sauce, the best method is to dip the fish, which is what the soy sauce is supposed to flavour, and not the rice, which would absorb too much soy sauce. Many people start with a mild sushi, such as tamago (a sweet, cold omelette on rice), and end with a stronger taste at the end of the meal, like a darker fish. Between different items it is recommended that a piece of pickled ginger be eaten to cleanse the palate and ensure that none of the subtle flavours of the sushi is missed. Making Sushi The best sort of Sushi to start with if you have never made Sushi is Temakizushi, because it is hand rolled you do not need and special equipment . If you are serving it as part of a meal then all you do is cook the rice and chop whichever fillings you prefer and your guests assemble their own meal.

Temakizushi Ingredients • 3 1/3 cups short grain rice • 4 cups water, plus 1/4 cup water • 6 tablespoons rice vinegar • 5 tablespoons sugar • 3 teaspoons salt • Nori Possible filling ingredients: • Avocado • Carrot • Eggplant (grilled Japanese) • Tofu (made crisp by frying) • Tomato • Cucumber (Chinese-without seeds, or regular is also ok) • Asparagus • Wilted spinach • Bell peppers, julienned • Scallions, julienned • Snow peas, julienne

Method - Sushi Rice 1. Rinse rice in water until the water runs clear and then drain in a colander for 1 hour. 2. Place the drained rice in a rice cooker or in a pot with a tight-fitting lid and add 4 cups water. 3. Over medium heat, cover and bring the water to a boil. Boil for about 2 minutes, reduce heat and allow to simmer for another 5 minutes. 4. Reduce heat to low and cook for about 15 minutes, or until water has been absorbed. 5. Remove from the heat, remove lid, and place a towel over pot. 6. Replace lid and let stand for 10 to 15 minutes. 7. While the rice cooks, combine vinegar, sugar and remaining 1/4 cup water in a saucepan. 8. Heat over low temperatures, stirring, until sugar and salt dissolve. Let cool. 9. Empty rice into a non metallic tub and spread it evenly over the bottom with a wooden spoon. 10. Run the spatula through the rice in slicing motions to separate the grains. 11. While doing this, slowly add vinegar mixture. 12. Add only as much as is necessary; the rice should not be mushy. Method – assembling Temaki Place a half sheet of nori horizontally in front of you on your mat. Place rice on left third of nori, leaving border of nori all around. Place filling vertically across middle of rice. Fold near corner of nori over to begin folding into cone shape. Continue to roll until cone is formed. Serve with pickled ginger, wasabi and soy sauce as condiments

Barbecued Sirloin with Chimichurri Chile Ingredients For the chimichurri sauce •

2-3 long red chillies, seeds removed, finely chopped

10-12 garlic cloves, peeled, finely chopped

2 large handfuls finely chopped curly-leaved parsley, leaves only

4 heaped tsp dried oregano

2 tsp sea salt flakes

5 tbsp red wine vinegar

5 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

5 tbsp cold water

For the barbecued sirloin •

1 x 2kg/4½lb well-hung boneless beef sirloin, not rolled (weight after bone removed)

freshly ground black pepper

Method 1. For the chimichurri sauce, place the chopped chillies and garlic into a bowl. 2. Add the remaining chimichurri sauce ingredients and stir well until combined. Cover the bowl with a sheet of cling film, then set the mixture aside for 4-6 hours to allow the flavours to infuse, or preferably overnight. 3. One and a half hours before serving the meal, light the barbecue outdoors and leave the coals to heat through for one hour. 4. When the coals are white hot and the flames have died down, suspend a cooking rack 25cm/10in above the coals. 5. Season the beef sirloin all over with salt flakes and freshly ground black pepper, then place the seasoned beef sirloin, fatty-side down, onto the cooking rack. (NB: Ideally, during cooking, the barbecue should be covered with a lid and the vents should be open.) 6. Sear the fatty side of the sirloin for 4-6 minutes, or until golden-brown, then turn the beef over and continue to cook for 20-25 minutes. 7. Turn the sirloin steak over again and continue to cook for a further 20 minutes (for medium), or until the sirloin is barbecued to your liking. 8. When the beef sirloin is cooked to your liking, remove it from the barbecue and set aside to rest for ten minutes, before carving into thick slices. 9. To serve, arrange 2-3 slices of the barbecued beef sirloin onto serving plates and spoon over the chimichurri sauce.

Chile con Carne Mexico Ingredients •

250g dried red kidney beans or 2x410g cans, drained

900g ripe tomatoes, skinned

900g braising steak

4 tbsp vegetable oil

2 onions, chopped

½-1 tsp hot chilli powder or cayenne pepper

1 rounded tbsp paprika

1 tbsp cumin seeds

2 tbsp dark muscovado sugar

3 garlic cloves, crushed

600ml/1 pint beef or chicken stock

salt and freshly ground black pepper

soured cream or crème fraîche, to serve

roughly chopped fresh coriander, to garnish

Method 1. If you're using dried beans, put them in a bowl, cover with plenty of cold water and leave them to soak for at least 8 hours, or overnight. 2. Drain the beans, tip into a pan and cover with fresh water. Bring to the boil and boil rapidly for 10 minutes. Drain and reserve. Roughly chop the tomatoes. 3. Cut meat into 1-2cm/½-¾in cubes, discarding any excess fat. Pat dry on kitchen paper and season with salt and pepper. Heat half the oil in a large, heavy-based saucepan or sauté pan until very hot. Fry half the meat, for about 10 minutes or until well browned. Drain with a slotted spoon and set aside. Repeat with the remaining oil and meat. 4. Add the onions to the pan with the chilli, paprika, cumin and sugar and fry very gently for 8-10 minutes until deep golden and caramelised. Return the meat to the pan with the garlic, tomatoes, stock and red kidney beans (if using canned beans, add for the last 30 minutes of cooking time). Bring to the boil, reduce the heat and simmer, uncovered, on the lowest setting for 1¼-1½ hours until the meat is meltingly tender. Check the seasoning and serve with spoonfuls of soured cream or crème fraîche, and plenty of coriander.

Chilli chicken and avocado salsa Mexico Ingredients •

4 large skinless boneless chicken breasts, weighing about 200g each

1 tsp chilli powder

1 tsp sweet paprika

2 tsp cracked black peppercorn

1 tsp garlic salt

1 tsp chopped thyme

1 tsp chopped parsley

1 tsp olive oil

For the Pinto and Avocado Salsa •

1 tin pinto beans, drained

1 small red onion, finely chopped

1-2 large red chillies, sliced

2 avocados, peeled, stoned and diced

4 tbsp chopped fresh coriander

2 tbsp lemon juice

6 tbsp extra virgin olive oil

salt and freshly ground black pepper

Method 1. Remove the chicken from the fridge and allow about one hour to come to room temperature. 2. Mix together the spices, seasoning, herbs and half the olive oil. Rub the mixture into the chicken. 3. Grill over hot coals or on a preheated, ridged, grill pan, for about eight minutes on each side, basting with the remaining oil. 4. To make the salsa, gently stir together all the ingredients in a large bowl and allow to stand for ten minutes before serving.

Patagonian Lamb Argentina Ingredients •

20g/¾oz dried porcini mushrooms

2 x 225g/8oz lamb loin fillets

2 tsp red wine vinegar

1 onion, finely chopped

3 garlic cloves, finely chopped

1 tsp chopped fresh rosemary

1 tbsp chopped fresh parsley

½ tsp dried oregano

½ tsp sugar

½ tsp salt, or to taste

½ tsp freshly ground black pepper

250g/9oz streaky bacon or pancetta

Method 1. Preheat the oven to 180C/350F/Gas 4. 2. Soak the porcini mushrooms in hot water for 20 minutes, then chop, discarding the liquid. 3. Trim any sinew from the loin fillets and set aside. 4. Place the chopped porcini into a mini food processor with the remaining ingredients, except the lamb and bacon, and blend to form a paste. (pestle and mortar can be used instead of a food processor) 5. Place half of the bacon rashers side by side on a chopping board to form a sheet. Place one lamb fillet over the rashers at one end, so it can be rolled up. 6. Spread half the paste evenly over the top of the fillet. Then roll the fillet, wrapping it up in the bacon sheet. 7. Repeat the process with the second fillet. 8. Place the two fillets in a roasting tin, making sure the rasher ends are tucked under the fillet. 9. Transfer to the oven and roast for 15 minutes for medium-rare meat, 20 minutes for medium and 25 minutes for well done. Remove from the oven and set aside to rest for 5-10 minutes. 10. Serve with mash and root vegetables.

Lomo Saltado Peru Ingredients •

900g of beef tenderloin or other tender steak

¼ cup red wine

2 tablespoons of crushed garlic

2 medium onions cut in strips

4 tomatoes chopped into quarters

5 potatoes peeled and cut into strips for frying

1 yellow Peruvian Chilli Pepper (aji) cut into thin strips

1 tablespoon of vinegar

2 tablespoons of soy sauce

vegetable oil for frying

salt and pepper


Method 1. Cut the meat into thin strips and marinate them in the wine for 1 hour. 2. Use a wok to cook garlic in oil over medium heat and add the meat. Reserve the juice. 3. Add the tomatoes, salt and pepper. Cook a few minutes. 4. Add the soy sauce while stirring the meat in the wok. 5. Add the onions, aji strips, coriander and vinegar. Combine the juice from the meat. 6. Fry the potatoes in a separate pan and add to the other ingredients. 7. Serve the dish with white rice.

Rissoles Australia Ingredients •

1 kilogram of beef mince

1/2 cup of breadcrumbs

2 eggs

gravy powder or flour

various herbs

Method 1. Place beef mince in mixing bowl with eggs, breadcrumbs and your favourite herbs and seasoning. 2. Mix thoroughly. 3. When fully mixed, remove one handful and mould into a the shape of a very thick hamburger patty. 4. Roll the rissole in either flour or gravy powder (depending on your preferences). 5. Cook on a hotplate, BBQ or in a frying pan on a medium heat until cooked through and outer layer is crunchy. .

Ceviche or Cebiche Peru The origins of Ceviche can be traced back to pre-Colombian times and the Moche civilisation in what is nowadays Northern Peru , when the juice from the Tumbo fruit (also called the Banana Passionfruit - a type of long passion fruit with quite a bitter, acidic taste) was used to "cook" the fish. When the Incas came later they ate salted fish prepared using fermented juice from maize, known as Chicha. It wasn't until the Spanish arrived that a more recognisable form of Ceviche using Lime or Lemon juice and Onion. Ingredients •

1kg of white fish (Sea Bass or something similar)

juice from about 6 large limes

2 red peppers, diced

2 finely diced jalapeño peppers (or chilli of your preference)

salt and pepper to taste

1 large onion, sliced into half-rings

bunch of finely chopped Coriander (cilantro)

Sides •

2 lettuce leaves per plate

2 - 3 corn cobs cut into 2 inch pieces, cooked as usual

3 or 4 sweet potatoes, boiled and peeled

Method 1. Wash and de-bone the fish and cut them into ½ inch x ½ inch chunks. 2. Season the fish with salt, pepper, red pepper and jalapeño. Marinate the fish for 1 hour to ”cold cook”. You should have enough lime juice to completely cover the fish. 3. Add onion. Mix gently. Marinate for 1 more hour. 4. Serve on a bed of lettuce and add two pieces of corn on the cob and a portion of sweet potato. Notes •

Ceviche (an alternate spelling) can be eaten as an entrée as well. In this case, this will be enough for about ten people.

More traditional recipes call for much less marinating. In fact, some will marinate it for as little as 10 minutes total (basically just the time it takes to get the sides ready). If marinating for a small amount of time be aware that the acidity of the lime is the only thing that "cooks" the fish.

Moussaka Greece This recipe includes cinnamon, which some regional cooks of Greece would disagree with, while others swear by it. I add it because I love the subtle aroma it gives the meat sauce, and it also masks the meaty smell perfectly. Ingredients • 2 medium Aubergines (Eggplants) • 2 tablespoons cooking salt • 5 tablespoons cooking oil • 1 medium onion, peeled and finely diced • 2 garlic cloves, minced • 500 g lamb mince • 3 tablespoons tomato paste • 1 teaspoon dried oregano • 1 cinnamon stick • 250 ml beef stock • salt and pepper • 300 g potatoes, peeled and cooked • 50 g grated cheese For the sauce • 30 g butter • 30 g plain flour • 375 ml milk • 50 g grated tasty cheese Method 1. Slice the Aubergine, spread on a plate and sprinkle with the cooking salt. leave for 30 minutes. rinse and pat dry with paper towel. 2. Fry the Aubergine in a little oil until brown on both sides. set aside. 3. Heat the remaining oil and cook the onion and garlic until softened. Add the mince and cook until browned. 4. Stir in the tomato paste, oregano, cinnamon, stock and seasoning. Bring to the boil, cover and simmer for 30 minutes. 5. Slice the cooked potatoes. When the meat has cooked, remove the cinnamon stick. 6. Line the base of a large baking dish with half of the Aubergine and pour over half the meat mixture. Top with the rest of the Aubergine, then add the remaining meat and finally add a layer of sliced potatoes. 7. For the sauce, melt the butter, stir in the flour and cook over medium heat until the mix turns a sandy colour. Remove from the heat and add all the milk at once. Return to the heat and, using a whisk, stir the sauce until it comes back to the boil then continue to 8. boil for 2 minutes. Remove from the heat and stir in the tasty cheese. 9. Pour the sauce over the moussaka, sprinkle with the cheese and bake in a preheated 180ºC oven for 30 minutes or until golden brown.

Beef Stroganoff Russia Ingredients •

600 g beef fillet or rump

2 tablespoons olive oil

3 tablespoons butter

1 medium onion, finely chopped

150 ml white wine

150 ml fresh cream

salt and pepper

200 g sour cream

1 tablespoon chopped fresh flat-leaf parsley

Method 1. Cut the beef into strips 1 cm x 5 cm, trimming off any fat or gristle. 2. Place 1 tablespoon oil and 1 tablespoon butter in a frying pan over high heat, and when the butter begins to foam, add half the beef and cook rapidly for the beef to brown but still be underdone. Place the beef in a colander or strainer to drain. 3. Place the pan back on the heat and add the remaining butter to the pan, add the onion and cook gently until softened. 4. Add the wine and reduce to one-third, then add the cream and reduce by half. add the beef, stir and season with salt and pepper. Bring to the boil and remove from the heat. stir in the sour cream. 5. Place in a serving dish and sprinkle with the parsley.

Linsen und Spätzle Germany This one is a slightly modified recipe; the traditional one has no tomato and honey. But as on many "national meals" there is are different opinions. The best is to try around until you got your own best taste for it. The most important things for a traditional taste are the vinegar and the bay (laurel) leaves. Ingredients 250 grams brown lentils 1 carrot 2-3 potatoes 1 onion 2 pairs of scalded sausage 1 large piece of smoked pork belly 2 cloves of garlic 1 litre of water for the lentils, it's needed to make the sauce, so don't use more water. 40 g butter 40 g flour ½ litre water 1 tablespoon tomato paste 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 1 teaspoon honey about 1 teaspoon salt pepper one or more bay (laurel) leaves

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Method Lentils 1. Wash the lentils in sieve and cook them on small heat in one litre water for 40 to 50 minutes (there are already done lentils to buy, and dry lentils, etc. so best check instructions on the lentils package). 2. 20 minutes before the end of that time frame add the diced carrot and onion plus the peeled raw potatoes, also the garlic, the sausages (full or in pieces), the bay (laurel) leaves and the pork belly. 3. After those 20 minutes, put the pot on the side and keep it warm. Roux 1. Melt the butter in the little pot, add the flour and cook carefully until brown, keep stirring. 2. Slowly add the half litre of water in small portions and let it boil up once. 3. Add the tomato paste, the vinegar and honey, and spice with salt and pepper to your liking, pour the content into the pot with the lentils and mix well and keep it warm.

Mexican Pizza Mexico & Italy Ingredients •

12 small corn or flour tortillas

vegetable oil or margarine

1 (16-ounce) can refried beans

¼ cup chopped onion

2 ounces fresh or canned green chilli

peppers, diced

6 tablespoons red taco sauce

3 cups chopped vegetables, such

as broccoli, mushrooms, spinach,

and red bell pepper

½ cup (2 ounces) shredded part-skim

mozzarella cheese

½ cup chopped fresh

coriander (optional)

Method 1. Brush one side of each of two tortillas with water. Press the wet sides of the tortillas together to form a thick crust for the pizza. 2. Brush the outside of the tortillas with a small amount of oil or margarine. Evenly brown both sides in a heated frying pan. Repeat with the rest of the tortillas. Set aside. 3. Heat refried beans, onion, and half of the chilli peppers together in a medium saucepan, stirring occasionally. Remove from heat. 4. Spread about 1⁄3 cup of the bean mixture on each tortilla pizza. Sprinkle with 1 tablespoon taco sauce, then top with ½ cup of the chopped vegetables, 1 teaspoon 5. chilli peppers, and 1 tablespoon cheese for each pizza. 6. Return to frying pan and heat until cheese melts. Top with coriander if desired. Serve immediately.

Spaghetti Carbonara Italy Traditional Recipe Ingredients •

3 eggs

1 cup freshly grated parmesan

250 g prosciutto, diced*

500 g spaghetti

125 g butter, cut into dice

freshly ground black pepper

* Proscuitto is different to bacon and ham, but all are interchangeable. Method 1. Beat the eggs gently with a fork and add 1/3 cup parmesan and the prosciutto. 2. Cook the spaghetti in a pot of rapidly boiling salted water until al dente. 3. Drain the spaghetti, then return to the cooking pan and mix in the butter. once the butter has melted, quickly stir in the egg and cheese mixture. it is important that this process be performed immediately after draining and replacing the spaghetti in the pan, so that the egg is allowed to cook from the heat retained in the pan. Do not turn the heat back on as it will scramble the eggs. 4. Sprinkle the remaining parmesan over the top, season with the pepper and serve immediately. Modern recipe Ingredients •

500 g spaghetti

2 tablespoons olive oil

250 g bacon, diced

1 cup sliced portobello or button mushrooms (optional)

1 garlic clove, thinly sliced

250 ml thickened cream

sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

4 eggs, lightly beaten

2 tablespoons chopped


½ cup grated parmesan

Method 1. Cook the spaghetti in a large saucepan of rapidly boiling salted water until al dente. 2. Heat the oil in a sauté pan, add the bacon and fry until the bacon is brown and slightly crisp. 3. add the mushrooms if using and cook until softened. add the garlic and sauté for another 30 seconds. 4. Add the cream and bring to the boil. 5. Add the pasta and mix thoroughly. season with salt and pepper. 6. Remove from the heat and stir in the eggs and chives. 7. Serve topped with parmesan cheese. Cheating recipe Ingredients •

500g spaghetti

150g cooked ham slices cut into strips

2 cans of creamy mushroom soup (or 500ml of made packet soup)

Method 1. Cook the spaghetti in a large saucepan of rapidly boiling salted water until al dente. 2. Combine with the warmed up soup and ham strips

Sauces and Marinades

White sauce Makes approximately 1¼ litres

Ingredients • 80 g butter • 80 g plain flour • 1 litre milk • salt and pepper Method 1. Melt the butter in a saucepan over medium–low heat. Add the flour and stir continually with a wooden spoon until the ‘roux’ reaches a sandy colour and texture; about 3–5 minutes. 2. Remove from the heat, add all the milk and use a whisk to combine the sauce. return to medium heat and stir with the whisk until the sauce begins to thicken. Gently boil for 2 minutes, being careful not to let it burn. 3. Remove from the heat and season with salt and pepper. Tips Adding the milk to the roux bit by bit is a method that is more traditional, but considered outdated and time-consuming by some chefs who favour the above method. Using a whisk should only be done when making the sauce in a stainless steel pot because an aluminium pot can tend to make the sauce grey from the reaction of the different metals. Also, a whisk may scratch non-stick coatings. For a thicker sauce, add an extra 20g flour and 20g butter to the basic recipe and continue as per the method. Variations For a Béchamel sauce take a small onion and stud with 10 whole cloves and 1 bay leaf, add to the milk and bring to the boil. Remove from the heat and allow to infuse for 10 minutes before discarding the onion and spice. The milk is now ready to use in the recipe. If using béchamel sauce for lasagne, add an extra 150 ml milk to the recipe to thin it down and remember to keep the sauce hot so it is easy to pour. For a Mornay sauce add 200 g grated Gruyère or tasty cheese once the sauce is removed from the heat. Only season with salt and pepper after the cheese has melted as the cheese may be salty enough. If using Mornay sauce for seafood crepes, then try replacing the milk with fish stock for greater flavour. For a white caper sauce add 2 tablespoons rinsed and chopped capers and 2 tablespoons chopped parsley. Other variations include adding 2 tablespoons curry paste to the cooked ‘roux’ before adding the milk. Or add 2 tablespoons of your favourite mustard once the sauce is finished and before it is cool. Also try 1 cup chopped and cooked mushrooms or caramelised onions, added once the sauce is finished and removed from the heat.

Teriyaki Sauce Japan Makes 1 Litre Ingredients •

2 c. Water – hot

200g. Brown sugar – light

2 c. Soy sauce

1 Tsp. Ginger – minced

1 Tsp Garlic – minced

1 Tsp. Aji-Mirin

150ml Pineapple juice

Method Dissolve brown sugar in water. Add remaining ingredients and mix well. Store refrigerated until needed.

Peri-Peri Marinade South Africa The words Pili-Pili, Piri-Piri, and Peri-Peri all are used to refer to hot chilli peppers, sauces and marinades made from them, and foods cooked with those sauces and marinades. This spicy hot marinade can be used on any meat you grill or broil: chicken, shrimp or prawns, beef, etc. Ingredients • two or three fresh hot chilli peppers chopped (hot red peppers are typical; jalapeno peppers and poblano peppers are also good) • four tablespoons lemon juice or lime juice (or vinegar) • four tablespoons oil • one tablespoon cayenne pepper or red pepper, or one tablespoon dried red pepper flakes • one teaspoon minced garlic (or garlic powder) • one tablespoon paprika • one teaspoon salt • dried or fresh oregano or parsley (or similar) Method 1. Combine all ingredients. 2. Grind and mix the ingredients into a smooth paste. 3. Adjust the ratio of cayenne pepper and paprika to taste. 4. Rub marinade onto meat and allow to marinate in a glass bowl for at least thirty minutes (or overnight if possible) before cooking.

Peanut Sauce Uganda Ingredients • 2 tbsp. vegetable oil •

1 medium onion, peeled

2 medium tomatoes, cut into bite-sized pieces

1 small aubergine, with or without peel, cut into bite-sized pieces

¼ c. smooth peanut butter

¼ c. water

Method 1. In a large frying pan, heat oil over medium heat for 1 minute. 2. Add onion and cook until transparent. 3. Add tomatoes and cook for 5 minutes. 4. Add eggplant and cook for 5 minutes more. In a small bowl, combine peanut butter with the water and stir to make a paste. 5. Add to tomato and aubergine (eggplant) mixture and stir well. 6. Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer, uncovered, for 10 minutes or until eggplant is tender.

Creole Sauce Cuba Ingredients • 4 tbsp. olive oil •

1 large yellow onion, sliced into narrow wedges

1 large green bell pepper, seeded and cut into 1/2 -inch-wide strips

6 to 8 cloves garlic, peeled and minced

2 c. tomato sauce

1 c. red wine vinegar

½ tsp. oregano

salt and pepper to taste

Method 1. Heat oil in a large saucepan or skillet over medium-high heat. 2. Add onion, green pepper, and garlic. 3. Sauté 3 to 4 minutes, or until onion and green pepper are soft. 4. Add tomato sauce, vinegar, oregano, and salt and pepper. 5. Reduce heat, cover, and simmer 10 to 15 minutes.

Mayonnaise Makes about 1 cup Ingredients •

2 egg yolks

1 tablespoon white wine vinegar

250 ml light olive oil

salt and pepper to taste

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Method 1. Place the egg yolks and vinegar in a bowl and whisk. 2. continue whisking and very, very slowly drizzling the oil. Do this by adding only a few drops at a time in the beginning. as the mayonnaise starts to thicken, the oil can be added a little bit faster in a thin steady stream. 3. When all the oil has been added, season with salt and pepper and finish with the lemon juice. cover and keep refrigerated for up to 4 weeks.

Sweet and Sour Ingredients •

125 ml white vinegar

100 g white sugar

125 ml tomato ketchup

50 ml soy sauce

2 slices canned pineapple, diced

pinch of ground ginger

1 tablespoon cornflour

Method 1. Place the vinegar, sugar, tomato sauce and soy sauce together in a wok or saucepan. Bring to the boil and simmer for 1 minute, stirring constantly. 2. Add the pineapple and ginger. combine the cornflour and a small amount of water and mix to form a paste. 3. Stir into the sauce and cook until thick—if too thick add a little more water.

Desserts and Sweets

Vodka Jelly Turkish Delight Ingredients •

Jelly crystals or cubes



Desiccated coconut

Method 1. Prepare jelly crystals as per package, substituting maximum 50% water for vodka. Pour into flattish dish. 2. Place in fridge, preferably overnight, or until set. Cut into cubes and sprinkle with desiccated coconut. 3. Great to get a party started …..

Bananas in Foil Ingredients •

Bananas - peeled



Brandy (optional)

Chocolate or nutella (optional)

Method 1. Take each banana and place on a piece of foil. 2. Sprinkle with cinnamon, sugar and chocolate, add a ash of brandy. 3. Wrap into parcel and place on coals for a few minutes until banana is soft.

Stuffed Apples Ingredients •

Apples – one per person




Brandy or sherry

Method Take each apple and with a corer, remove the core leaving a hollow in the apple. In a bowl mix sultanas, brandy, sugar and cinnamon together. Stuff mixture into each apple. Wrap in tin foil and place on coals. Cook until apple just soft.

ANZAC Biscuits New Zealand and Australia ANZAC biscuits have long had an association with the Australia/New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) troops sent to Gallipoli during WWIl. The biscuit appears to be a variation of Scottish oat cakes, said to be from the Scottish-influenced city of Dunedin. The recipe was created to ensure the biscuits would keep well during naval transportation to loved ones who were fighting abroad. Ingredients •

2 cups plain flour

1 cup sugar

4 tablespoons golden syrup (cane syrup)

1 cup desiccated coconut

2 cups rolled oats

225 grams butter or margarine

Method 1. Mix the dry ingredients in a bowl, and melt the syrup and butter in a saucepan. If necessary add a little water to the mix. 2. Mix the wet and dry ingredients and roll into small balls and flatten on oven trays 3. Bake at 150°C (300°F) for about 15 minutes. 4. The finished biscuits are quite chewy and crisp, with a long shelf-life. Using brown sugar instead of white sugar gives more colour and flavour

Schokoladen pretzel (Chocolate Pretzels) Germany Ingredients •

1/2 c butter (or margarine)

1/4 c sugar

1 egg, large, beaten

1 tsp vanilla extract

1/4 c milk

1/4 c cocoa

2 c plain flour

Chocolate icing

2 Tbsp cocoa

1 1/4 c icing sugar

2 Tbsp butter (or margarine),melted

1/2 tsp vanilla extract

Method 1. Cream 1/2 cup butter and the sugar until light and fluffy. 2. Beat in the egg, vanilla, and milk. 3. Sift cocoa and flour. Mix into butter mixture until thoroughly blended. 4. Chill dough until firm enough to handle (about 30 minutes). 5. Using 2 T dough, roll a rope about 25cm long between your hands. 6. Shape into a pretzel as follows: 7. Make a loop bout 1 1/2 inches in diameter by crossing the ends, 8. leaving 1-inch tails. 9. Flip the loop down over the crossed ends. 10. Press firmly into place. 11. Place pretzels on greased baking sheets. 12. Bake at 180ºC. for about 10 minutes. Make frosting in a small bowl. 13. Mix cocoa and confectioners' sugar. 14. Gradually stir in butter and Vanilla. 15. If frosting is too thick, thin with milk. 16. When pretzels are cool, spread with Chocolate icing.

Magaly's Cookbook  

Overland cookbook

Magaly's Cookbook  

Overland cookbook