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Learning objectives

Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation: Definitions of health and fitness ‘Health related fitness’ and its components The definition of exercise and health related exercise The effect of physical fitness upon health and performance Physical, mental and social benefits of exercise The role of schools and the National Curriculum The PESSCL strategy.

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Health Health is defined as… …a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being, and not merely, the absence of disease or infirmity. So a healthy person is: physically well mentally well socially happy free from disease. 2 of 24

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Fitness Fitness is defined as… …the ability to meet the demands of the environment. Fitness is not necessarily about how far you can run or how good you are at sport. Being fit means being physically able to cope with the demands of everyday life. These demands will vary from person to person, depending on things like lifestyle, occupation and age. 3 of 24

A fit person is able to make short journeys on foot or on a bike.

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Health related fitness

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Exercise Exercise is defined as… …a form of physical activity done primarily to improve health and physical fitness. It is important to understand that ‘exercise’ is not the same as ‘sport’. Exercise can be any physical activity, even just going for a short walk. Sport tends to be competitive in some way. 5 of 24

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Health related exercise

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Health Not doing enough physical activity can greatly increase your risk of developing heart disease. Seven out of ten adults in the United Kingdom do not take enough regular physical exercise. The British Heart Foundation suggest that you can significantly reduce your risk of heart disease by doing 30 minutes of moderately intense physical activity at least five times a week. This can include walking.

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Performance Performance is defined as… …how well a task is completed. Having good health related fitness allows you to perform tasks well. List the 5 components of health related fitness. Explain how each component aids performance in the following sports: Netball 8 of 24

Climbing

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Definitions

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The benefits of exercise: physical well-being A person’s physical well-being depends on them being in good physical condition – their body should be able to cope with the demands of their environment. They should be able to perform everyday tasks like walking, running for a bus and doing housework without getting tired. Physical well-being also means being free from injury and disease.

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The benefits of exercise: mental well-being Exercise also improves your mental well-being and helps you feel good about yourself. It can burn stored body fat so your physical shape improves and you could lose weight. Exercise can improve your muscle definition (tone). It can strengthen your bones, joints and muscles, improving your posture as a result. How does your physical appearance affect how you feel? Exercise can improve your flexibility so you can move more efficiently and easily. Being fit gives you more energy, so everyday tasks become easier and you feel less tired. 11 of 24

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The benefits of exercise: mental well-being Feeling better about yourself and having more energy can help you to cope with stressful situations or emotional pressures. Exercise can teach you to learn, adapt and make decisions without unnecessary worry. Exercise can provide a welcome break from work or study, helping you to put aside worries and problems. Making yourself physically tired can also help you sleep better, so you are more rested. 12 of 24

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The benefits of exercise: mental well-being Playing sport can be exciting and rewarding in itself – especially when you win! If you are successful, your confidence and self-esteem may improve, making you happier and less stressed. Exercise can also be stimulating and motivating – it provides a challenge which drives people to excel. Some sports also have a danger factor which some people find exhilarating – for example, rock climbing or alpine skiing. 13 of 24

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The benefits of exercise: social well-being Social well-being means how well you relate and interact with those around you and with society as a whole. Sport can help you to develop good relationships and improve your confidence, communication and teamwork. Participating in sport is a good way of meeting people and making new friends. You can develop transferable skills such as leadership, teamwork and cooperation. If you are good at sport, you may be able to make a career out of it, either as a competitor or in related fields like coaching. 14 of 24

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The benefits of exercise

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The National Curriculum The benefits of participation in physical activity are well recognized. Government initiatives encourage all children to do sport. Schools play a key role in encouraging participation in sport. They implement compulsory PE for all students and provide extra-curricular opportunities for participation in sport through after-school teams and clubs. The government issues a document called the National Curriculum which outlines what schools must teach. Why do you think it is so important to encourage children to participate? 16 of 24

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The National Curriculum The National Curriculum says that schools must: Develop pupils' physical competence and confidence. Promote physical skillfulness, physical development and a knowledge of the body in action. Provide opportunities for pupils to be creative, competitive and to face up to different challenges as individuals and in groups and teams. Promote positive attitudes towards active and healthy lifestyles. Allow pupils to discover their aptitudes, abilities and preferences, and make choices about how to get involved in lifelong physical activity. Encourage students to try different sporting roles. 17 of 24

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The National Curriculum

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PESSCL strategy One way in which the government is trying to encourage participation in sport is through the Physical Education School Sport Club Links strategy. This scheme is supported by £459 million from central government. The aim of the PESSCL Strategy is to: “…enhance the take-up of sporting opportunities by five- to sixteen-year-olds by increasing the percentage of school children who spend a minimum of two hours each week on high quality PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum from 25% in 2002 to 75% in 2006 and 85% by 2008.” 19 of 24

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PESSCL strategy By 2010 the aim is to offer all students at least four hours of sport every week. This will comprise of at least two hours of sport at school and the opportunity for at least a further 2–3 hours beyond the school day, delivered by a range of school, community and club providers. This will involve the forging of better links between schools and sports clubs. It is hoped that these links will enable young people to try out new sports and feel comfortable in a club setting. As a result, they may be more likely to continue participating in sport after leaving school. 20 of 24

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The benefits to schools & clubs Creating partnerships between schools and clubs helps to create continuity between school sport and sport in the wider community. Linking with schools can benefit clubs by increasing their membership and raising their profile in the community. They can also gain access to school facilities. School sport benefits by gaining access to more specialist club facilities and equipment. Students benefit from a wider range of opportunities, for example, to officiate at competitions.

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Exam-style questions 1. Define the following terms: a) Health b) Fitness c) Exercise d) Performance 2. There are many benefits of exercise. Suggest three reasons, other than physical ones, why a person may benefit from joining a sports club.

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Exam-style questions 3. Exercise is ‘a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness’. How might exercise improve: a) health? b) physical fitness? 4. Explain the role of schools in promoting healthy lifestyles through PE.

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Reasons for taking part in physical activity