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Learning objectives

Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation: The importance of rules, regulations and correct terminology How to observe and analyse a performance Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a performance Evaluating a performance against the perfect model Evaluating planning, strategies and tactics Evaluating mental approach, teamwork and leadership The importance of feedback How to use analysis models. 11 of of 31 31

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What you need to be able to do Performance analysis brings together many areas of PE. You need to be able to: accurately observe and evaluate your own performance and that of others in a chosen practical activity comment on sporting performance in a structured way, demonstrating your knowledge and understanding of a chosen practical assessment activity apply knowledge gained in other areas of the course – for example, the components of skill related fitness.

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Performance analysis Performance analysis involves knowledge and application of: rules, regulations and terminology observation and analysis performance evaluation against the perfect model planning strategies and training methods leadership in sport.

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Rules, regulations and terminology Rules are also sometimes known as laws or regulations. There are a number of reasons why sports have rules. 1. To define the game – for example, the rules for tennis state that serves must land in the service box. 2. To ensure fair play – for example, sprinters can be disqualified for false starts. 3. To ensure the safety of performers and spectators – for example, rugby tackles must be made below the neck to prevent head and neck injuries. Identify three common rules applied in a sport of your choice. 4 of 31

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Rules, regulations and terminology

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Rules, regulations and terminology Sports terminology is the ‘language' of a sport – the particular words and phrases that are used to describe skills and performance in specific sports. Terminology is used in match analyses, publications from governing bodies and award schemes. When evaluating a performance, it is important that you make use of the correct terminology in order to accurately describe what you observed. Make a list of words and phrases used in a sport of your choice.

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Rules, regulations and terminology Task Get into pairs. Each choose a sport. Write down: ten rules that must be followed the punishment for breaking each rule any signals that may be used by officials any terminology relating to this sport. Now use your answers to write 10 questions about the rules, regulations and terminology of your chosen sport. Test your partner to see how much they know. 7 of 31

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Observation and analysis In your practical work, you will be expected to observe your performances and those of others, and examine them in detail. You should be able to analyse what you observe in order to identify strengths and weaknesses in the performance. Relate your answers to techniques, skills, movements, tactics and strategies. You must be able to give feedback about the performance you have just observed, using correct terminology.

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Observation You need to think about how you observe performances. Here are some points to consider: Observe from the best possible position. Think about whether the performer is right- or left-handed. You may need to change your position to observe different aspects of the performance. Observe for some time so that you see several actions/shots/movements. Break down complex skills into their component parts. 9 of 31

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Observation and analysis When observing a performance, bear in mind the components of skill related fitness: agility balance coordination power reaction time and speed. The importance of each component will vary greatly between different sports – someone doing archery will require very little speed or agility.

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Observation and analysis You should also consider: Technique – the procedure used to perform a particular task. Skill – how well tasks are carried out. Skill is usually gained through experience and training. Tactics – an approach designed to deal with particular opposition (individual or team). Tactics are usually worked out in advance of competition. Routines/sequences – some sports such as gymnastics and figure skating require performers to put together routines. Consider the diversity of skill involved and how well the skills are linked together.

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Observation and analysis

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Notation When analysing performance, it can be useful to make notes and record statistics. Here is an example of notational analysis from the 2005 Ashes series: player

runs

ducks 50s 100s caught bowled LBW

Vaughan 326

1

1

1

70%

30%

0%

Flintoff

402

1

3

1

50%

40%

10%

Bell

171

2

2

0

70%

10%

20%

Strauss

393

0

0

2

70%

30%

0%

What conclusions could be drawn from these statistics? Are there any potential problems with basing your analysis on a table like this? 13 of 31

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Strengths and weaknesses A useful step towards improving the quality of performance is identifying strengths and weaknesses. After observing a performance: 1. Make a list of the good points. 2. Make a list of areas needing improvement. Place the most important at the top. 3. Suggest ways that weak areas could be improved, or the performer’s style of play altered to hide deficiencies. 4. Suggest ways in which the performer could make the most of their strengths – this may involve altering their tactics. 14 of 31

Strengths: Volleying Weaknesses: Lack of power Concentration

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Strengths and weaknesses Problem A tennis player who is struggling with their serve may identify the ball toss as their biggest weakness. They often do not throw the ball into the air accurately before hitting it with their racket. Solution They could practice their ball placement by putting the racket on the ground in front of them and tossing the ball up in the air repeatedly so that it falls onto the racket. The tennis player is also having trouble with their volley shots at the net. Can you suggest a way they could improve this aspect of their game? 15 of 31

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Strengths and weaknesses

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The perfect model The perfect model is when a performance is at its very best and can be described as skilled and technically correct. Judging an individual’s performance against the perfect model can help you to describe strengths and weaknesses in their performance. First of all, however, you must know how to describe the perfect model. Understanding the perfect model can come from: playing experience watching others reading about a sport in depth listening to and watching top performers. 17 of 31

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Evaluation against the perfect model An example: The perfect model for the shot-put.

Think about

1. the grip 2. the arm position 3. the stance 4. the movement 5. the release.

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Evaluation against the perfect model Task Choose a skill that you know you are good at in a sport of your choice. Write a description of how you would perform that skill to perfection. When finished, read this to a partner. Does it make sense to them? Write down three ways in which your performance of the skill differs from the perfect model.

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Planning When analysing a performance, you need to consider the planning behind it. Coaches devise strategies to beat opponents well in advance of competition. A performer’s strategies should play to their own strengths and also take account of their opponents – they should attempt to neutralize the strengths of the opposition and capitalize on any weaknesses they have. Tactics are less long-term – they dictate how a strategy is to be implemented. At the highest levels in sport, tactics are given much time and thought. They may need to be altered during a competition to counter the tactics of the opposition. Strategies and tactics should be practised in training. 20 of 31

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Planning

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Mental approach When analysing a performance, you should also consider the performer’s mental approach to competing. In individual activities like squash, a good performance requires concentration – a player may have great skills and tactics, but make a lot of unforced errors. In team games, you should also think about how the players work together. Is the teamwork good? Are there selfish players who seek personal glory at the expense of the team? Is success due to the whole team or dictated by a few key players? 22 of 31

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Leadership Leadership principles and roles can have a significant effect on performance in sport. Obvious leaders have titles – coach, captain, etc. Sometimes, individuals act as leaders even though they are not the captain – for example, the fly-half in a rugby team is usually responsible for many of the tactical decisions, whether they are captain or not. As well as making good decisions, a leader should be able to inspire and motivate their team. David Beckham was the England football captain for several years. What were his best qualities as a leader? 23 of 31

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Leadership What qualities do leaders have? Make a list of the qualities you think the best leaders have. The list has been started for you:

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Feedback After analysing a performance, you will need to give feedback to the performer. Feedback is vital to the learning process. It helps the performer to assess their progress and identify areas that still need improvement. These may not be obvious to the performer themselves. You can give feedback in a number of ways: verbally physical demonstration video playback diagrams. 25 of 31

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Feedback Giving feedback is a skill which can be done well or badly. You need to take into account the performer’s personality – some people respond well to being shouted at and told off; other people don’t. You should also consider the situation. Feedback during a training session can be thorough and highly technical. However, if you are giving feedback at halftime in a match, you will need to prioritize what to say. It might be best to concentrate on areas like tactics and mental approach rather than specific skills. 26 of 31

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Analysis tips During your practical activities, you will be asked questions by your teacher and possibly an examiner. Don’t panic, just remember the following advice… If you don’t hear or understand a question, ask for it to be repeated. Don’t answer questions straight away – observe the activity for a couple of minutes. Use an analysis model to give the process some structure.

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Analysis models Here is an example of an analysis model: 2. Analyse 1. Observe e.g. note that player 3 e.g. watch a cricket team play and make detailed observations.

is often dismissed leg before wicket.

Restart the process

3. Evaluate e.g. compared to the perfect model, player 3 does not move their feet enough.

5. Feedback e.g. communicate your observations and training plan.

4. Plan e.g. devise a training plan to improve player 3’s footwork.

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Analysis models

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Exam-style questions 1. List two things that a coach should consider when deciding how best to observe a performer. 2. The following statistics were recorded during a netball match.

Player Goals Interceptions Dropped made passes Sally

8

1

6

Cho

4

2

2

Carla

0

5

0

Deepa

0

0

1

a) Pick two players. What feedback would you give them? b) What are the limitations of the table as a tool for performance analysis?

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17. Performance Analysis