WesternLands and Communities A Joint Ventur e of the Lincoln Institute of Land Polic y & Sonoran Institute
January 2017 Intermountain West Region
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MEMBERS OF THE ADVISORY PANEL Anne Reichman, Arizona State University Sustainable Cities Network Program Manager, Tempe, AZ
Natalie Meyer, Climate Protection Coordinator, Bozeman, MT
Arthur Alterson, Planning and Zoning Commissioner, Alamogordo, NM
Nicole Woodman, Sustainability Manager, Flagstaff, AZ
Dean Brennan, Adjunct Professor at Arizona State University and former Planner, Phoenix, AZ Dick White, City Council Member, Durango, CO Gretel Follingstad, Water Bank Administrator, Santa Fe, NM Joyce Allgaier, Planning Manager, Ketchum, ID Kathy Sandoval, Planner, Boulder County, CO Kristen Keener Busby, Arizona Department of Transportation Program Manager, Phoenix, AZ Lor Pellegrino, Planner, Teller County, CO Matt Abbott, Environmental Project Manager, Park City, UT
ABOUT THE STARTER KIT
The Resilient Communities Starter Kit was prepared by Western Lands and Communities, a joint program of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and the Sonoran Institute. This report was prepared with the assistance from an advisory panel of local officials, urban planning and land use professionals who work throughout the West.
Prepared by: Hannah Oliver & Erika Mahoney Yen Editors: Mia Stier & Madison Pike Design: Erika Mahoney Yen & Madison Pike
Paul Andricopulos, Planner, Henderson, NV Randall Rutsch, Senior Transportation Planner, Boulder, CO Susan Culp, Sonoran Institute, Phoenix, AZ Susan Wotkyns, Northern Arizona University Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals, Flagstaff, AZ Susie Gordon, Senior Environmental Planner, Fort Collins, CO Toni Foran, Planning Director, Hurricane, UT
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
CH1 | IDENTIFY CLIMATE CONCERNS
Tackling Climate Confusion
Understanding How Climate Affects Your Community
Recruit a Resiliency Champion
Establishing a Task Force
Assign Project Managers
Conduct a Vulnerability Assessment
CH2 | BUILD SUPPORT
CH3 | FORM A TASK FORCE
CH4 | SCOPE IMPACTS AND PRIORITIZE NEEDS
12 16 20
CH5 | EXPLORE ADAPTION STRATEGIES
CH6 | DEVELOP A PLAN
CH7 | CONDUCT COMMUNITY OUTREACH
11 Guidelines for Effective Communication
CH8 | TAKE ACTION
CH9 | EVALUATION AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Wildfire Management Actions & Checklist
GLOSSARY OF TERMS WEBSITES FOR FURTHER READING
Drought Management Actions & Checklist Flood Management Actions & Checklist 3
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
INTRODUCTION WHAT IS RESILIENCE?
Resilience has a variety of interpretations and applications including for ecosystem management, disaster preparedness, and even community planning. Our interpretation as it applies to this Starter Kit is defined as;
the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks.1
Resilience for communities is associated with climate adaptation strategies, which are a set of actions taken to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual and expected climate change. Climate adaptation strategies are planned in advance or put in place spontaneously in response to a local pressure or a climate event.
Start simple by preparing your community to act wisely during a sudden climate event. Over time strategies will evolve into long-term plans that minimize the effects of climate change overall for your community.
Adapted from Resilience.org, About Resilience: â€œWhat is Resilience?â€? sourced from Holling, Gunderson and Ludwig In Quest of a Thoery of Adaptive Change, 2002
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
WHAT IS THE RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT?
The Resilient Communities Starter Kit is designed for communities who are ready to build resilience to the impacts of a changing climate, but are not sure where to begin. The Starter Kit is intended to be used as a workbook that guides communities through each planning phase. The Kit is tailored for communities in the Intermountain West, a geographical region located between the front ranges of the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada on the west. The Kit provides activities and examples that have helped other local governments prepare for regional issues like increased flooding, wildfire, and drought. To accommodate the specialized needs of each community, the Starter Kit showcases a broad spectrum of strategies to choose from to conduct cohesive and effective planning activities. Work through each chapter of the Starter Kit to tackle climate confusion and identify the climate concerns impacting your community. The Starter Kit provides guidance on ways to build support and scope vulnerabilities before exploring solutions. As you work through the Starter Kit your community will identify strategies that first address your short-term, most critical vulnerabilities and builds to more long-term action. Once your community develops recommendations, the remaining chapters offer resources for conducting community outreach, implementing the actions, and methods for evaluating the success of your actions. Each Starter Kit chapter includes resources and case studies that are tailored for the adoption and implementation of climate related activities that local governments can explore. Not all communities are affected by extreme weather events in the same way, so users can pick and choose the units that relate to their circumstances. This version includes three units covering wildfire, drought, and flood; later versions will include topics on urban heat island and other extreme events.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
IDENTIFY CLIMATE CONCERNS
Climate affects everyone and each community differently. To identify your community’s climate concerns start by understanding them at a regional level. Drought is a regional climate concern in the southwest, having a variety of impacts depending on which community you live in. Identifying your community’s impacts will shape the adaption strategies that your community will use.
Weather reflects daily conditions of the atmosphere at a given location. Weather can change from minute to minute, hour to hour, day to day, and season to season. Climate is the average conditions of the atmosphere for an extended period of time, usually over a 30-year period in a given region . Climate is the average of weather over long periods of time.
For instance, as a ski resort community experiencing drought a decrease in snow impacts the local economy. While drought experienced in a farming community, impacts the local economy and food supplies. Each community will need its own set of adaption strategies to reduce the impacts of drought.
Another way to think about it is, climate is what you expect, and weather is what you get.
WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?
Climate change refers to changes in the long-term averages of daily weather. In most places, climate includes patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, and seasons. Climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, human economies and the cultures that depend on them. Although, the climate we’ve come to expect is changing and the past is no longer a reliable predictor of the future.
To best plan for current and future climate events and shifts, the Starter Kit begins with identifying climate concerns that are specific to your community. Understanding the climate variability that your community faces will provide you the means to start building support and taking action.
TACKLING CLIMATE CONFUSION
Conversations about climate change can be contentious; sometimes through passion but mostly due to confusion over the vocabulary that educators and scientists use when discussing climate topics. Everyone should understand a few distinctions between weather and climate before discussing climate and climate change with others.
Climate change patterns in the West are most commonly characterized by: • More extreme heat events & storm events • Increases in flooding, wildfires, and drought Even the smallest changes in climate have cascading effects on every aspect of where and how people, plants and animals live. For example, a change in the usual timing of rains or temperatures can affect when plants bloom and set fruit, when insects hatch, when streams are at their crest, and more.
So what is the difference between weather and climate? In short, the difference is a matter of time.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
HOW IS CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTING WESTERN COMMUNITIES? In the West, annual temperatures are expected to increase 2-8 degrees by the end of the century. The warmer temperatures will likely appear during the summer, making summer temperatures hotter than normal on average. Increased temperatures are already impacting water resources in the Southwest. The declines in snowpack and Colorado River flows have caused water resources to decrease in a number of communities. Hotter summers are expected to increase the length and severity of drought causing further reductions in water supplies, straining economic engines like agriculture and tourism, and putting environmental pressures on forest and other ecosystems.
A lot of what impacts your community can be measured with water, energy, food, and insurance costs. The cost trends can reflect the monetary impacts of climate change. Consider your community’s needs and resources and how each relate to your weather. Does your community import or export produce to or from another region? Does your community import or export energy to or from another region? Most do. Consequently, if your community is experiencing drought those you export to will too and vise versa. However, to get a full picture on how climate affects your community, you can refer to resources published by people intensely studying climate change and speak with climate professionals working at the state or community level.
Although climate concerns are regional, the impacts are particular to each community. Many communities in the West will face or are already facing these impacts.
The following case study provides some context to this chapter’s material and an approach as to how your community can begin researching and understanding their local climate conditions.
UNDERSTANDING HOW CLIMATE AFFECTS YOUR COMMUNITY
Start by learning what climate concerns affect your region. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s website has a detailed description of climate impacts by region and by sector. This is a great place to get an overview of climate concerns in your region. The next step is to understand how the regional climate concerns impact your community.
This case study and more can be found on the Successful Communities Online Toolkit information exchange - SCOTie (www.scotie.org).
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA RESILIENCY AND PREPAREDNESS STUDY Flagstaff gathered information from southwest specific climate research conducted by: the University of Arizona, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and from research conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Web Address: http://flagstaff.az.gov/index. aspx?NID=1732
local, state, regional, and national levels. The six RCCs are located at: 1. Cornell University in Ithaca, New York; 2. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 3. Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge; 4. The University of Nebraska in Lincoln; 5. The Illinois State Water Survey in Champaign; 6. The Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada. Web Address: www.ncdc.noaa.gov/customer-support/ partnerships/regional-climate-centers
These resources can jump start your investigation, but to really understand how climate is impacting your community, you should go to the source. Conduct interviews with climate professionals working in your area or region, for help and direction next. Check with your local or regional university to find professors working in climate and atmospheric sciences. Your city or town deals with the impacts of climate constantly; consult with department managers from environmental services, planning, transportation, public works, parks and recreation, community and economic development, fire, water, and human services to learn more about climate impacts in your area.
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s website has a detailed description of climate impacts by region, state, and by sector. Web Address: https://www.epa.gov/climate-impacts NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION’S (NOAA) NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER (NCDC) NOAA’s NCDC is responsible for preserving, monitoring, assessing, and providing public access to the Nation’s treasure of climate and historical weather data and information. Climate Data Online (CDO) provides free access to NCDC’s archive of historical weather and climate data in addition to weather station history information. These data include quality controlled daily, monthly, seasonal, and yearly measurements of temperature, precipitation, wind, and degree days as well as radar data and 30-year climate normals. Web Address: www.ncdc.noaa.gov/customer-support/ partnerships/regional-climate-centers
For additional resources visit: • Yale Project on Climate Change Communications: Extreme Weather, Climate & Preparedness Web Address: http://climatecommunication.yale. edu/publications/extreme-weather-climate-andpreparedness/ • Georgetown Adaptation Clearinghouse Web Address: http://www.adaptationclearinghouse.org
REGIONAL CLIMATE CENTERS Regional Climate Centers (RCCs) are a federal-state cooperative effort. NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) manages the RCC Program. The six centers that comprise the RCC Program are engaged in the production and delivery of climate data, information, and knowledge for decision makers and other users at the
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
FOCUS ON THE IMPACTS Instead of focusing on the source of climate change (people), focus on the impacts occurring in your community and the potential projections for future impacts. This approach can also open the lines of communication with those who are climate change skeptics.
Cities possess much of the necessary expertise, mechanisms and tools to deal with climate change. Identify and harness the resources that are already available in your community to get this process started. The following list are all examples of how communities can employ adaptation planning: • Emergency preparedness plans • Land use and transportation policies • Heat relief initiatives • Wildfire prevention measures • Urban agriculture policy • Water supply planning • Infrastructure design
STARTER KIT TIP Once you have identified a specific climate concern, practice discussing it with trusted friends and family. Work to articulate the specific climate concern with confidence using common words and phrases when communicating your research with others. As a suggestion, don’t commingle climate concerns into one conversation. Climate change is compoundingly complex and it may create confusion and dysfunction in your conversations. Additionally, comingling will make it difficult when you begin to map out adaption strategies and tactics.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
Use the EPA Climate Change Impacts by State webpage to get started: https://www.epa.gov/climate-impacts/climate-change-impacts-state Choose your state factsheet (PDF) and learn about the likely impacts of climate change where you live. Fill in the questions below to help you identify specific weather and climate changes that have occurred in your community. The worksheet can be done internally by city staff and decision makers or can be tailored to use in the general public. These general questions are deigned to help you frame the background and first pages of your report or action plan. A Climate Change Report/Action Plan is one of the products upon completing the Resilient Communities Starter Kit.
1. What region of the intermountain west, state, and county do you live in? _________________________________________________________________________________________
2. In the last century, how much in degrees, has the temperature changed? _________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How do changes in average temperature affect your snowpack? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________
4. How do changes in snowpack affect your local water supply? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________
5. How do changes in snowpack affect your recreation activities and the local economy? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________
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RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT 6. How do changes in temperature and snowpack affect local soils and agriculture? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. How do changes in temperature and snowpack affect local plants, animals and bugs we need to survive? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. How do changes in temperature and snowpack affect human health in your community? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. How do changes in temperature and snowpack affect the impacts of wildfire on your community? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. How do changes in temperature and snowpack affect the impact of flooding on your community? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. How do changes in temperature and snowpack affect the impact of drought on your community? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 111111
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
BUILD SUPPORT BUILD SUPPORT
RECRUIT A RESILIENCY CHAMPION
Once you have an understanding of your climate concern, it is time to recruit a resiliency Champion. Traditional champions include mayors, city council members and city managers. Today we see many types of champions, particularly ones who display: • Great public speaking abilities • Compassion • Approachable and easy to talk to A champion supports planning activities and helps follow through with your adaption planning goals.
Enlisting a climate champion is the first step for building support. The next step is gaining partnerships, with those who share your climate concerms and are ready and willing to spread the word and support the planning process. Valuable partners often include: • Nonprofits • Academic institutions • Business leaders • Foundations • Research organizations For a detailed look at communications activities and methods, see Chapter 7 Conduct Community Outreach.
Without a champion, planning activities have little traction and can encounter major resistance. It’s critical that your champion has the influence and will to effectively make things happen. With support from a champion you can initiate the climate planning process, achieve collaboration from departments, sister agencies, and community leaders. A champion shepherds the plan through the different stages of the process and supports the completion of the plan. You may already have someone who can build support for climate adaptation planning, or you may be that person yourself. Otherwise, if a clear candidate for a resiliency champion is not immediately apparent look to community leaders outside of the government. Other potential champions include: • Former elected officials or department heads – i.e. former utility directors • Business leaders/Respected community leaders • Long range planners • Economic leaders – depending on the values of your community, looking for the support of an economic leader may have more sway in the community than an environmental champion.
THE POWER OF COMMUNICATION
An aligned communications strategy can go a long way in gaining support for the planning process, but as the City of Chicago discovered, it is important to give this committee a focus by doing the necessary research and identifying priorities before convening the communications committee. Web Address: https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/ progs/env/climateaction.html 12
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT ADDRESS POTENTIAL OBJECTIONS FROM THE BEGINNING Even with the most careful messaging, climate naysayers may require more time and effort before engaging fully in a climate planning process. Boulder County engaged with potential opponents at the very beginning of the planning process through community meetings, a survey, and online question and answer sessions. The questions and comments gathered during their outreach efforts are made available in the appendix of the final plan along with staff responses to all feedback. Web Address: http://www.bouldercounty.org/env/ sustainability/pages/climatechangepreparednessplan. aspx
HAILEY, IDAHO CLIMATE CHALLENGE Hailey is a great example of a city that promoted climate action through a large-scale campaign that involved a climate challenge to help reduce community energy use.
Additionally, nine documentary film segments were created to highlight the challenge and the environmental programs the city employs. Your community can use this as an model to build support for your programs. Web Address: https://www.haileycityhall.org/ ClimateChallenge/Challenge.asp
The following case studies would not have been successful without the recruitment of resiliency champions and the support of key stakeholders.
For more videos visit the EPA Climate Showcase Communities Program website at: https://www.epa. gov/statelocalclimate/climate-showcase-communitiesprogram
BOULDER COUNTY, COLORADO CLIMATE CHANGE PREPAREDNESS PLAN (C2P2) Boulder County staff contacted known climate skeptics even before the plan was released. This approach ensured that there were no surprises or roadblocks down the line in the climate adaptation planning process. Web Address: http://www.bouldercounty.org/env/ sustainability/pages/climatechangepreparednessplan. aspx
These case studies, and more, can be found on the Successful Communities Online Toolkit information exchange (SCOTie) at www.scotie.org
• Tool & Data for Planning Webinar - Web Address: https://sonoraninstitute.org/?s=webinar • British Columbia Climate Action Toolkit - Web Address: http://www.toolkit.bc.ca/tool/ sustainability-checklist • Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments – Chapter 5 (PDF download): https://cig.uw.edu/publications/ preparing-for-climate-change-a-guidebook-for-localregional-and-state-governments/
FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA RESILIENCY AND PREPAREDNESS STUDY Flagstaff’s Resiliency and Preparedness Study was developed through a key resiliency champion who reached out from the city staff to get support for the initiatives, which was critical particularly in a difficult political climate. Web Address: http://flagstaff.az.gov/index. aspx?NID=1732 13
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
WORKSHEET IDENTIFY A CHAMPION
Now is a good time to think about who will bring about the most progress to your climate concerns. Begin to organize your approach to messaging and decide who your target audience is for public outreach and gaining support for your adaption strategies. Below are a few questions to get the process started. STARTER KIT TIP Keep in mind, you don’t need to influence everyone - so focus your efforts on those who can directly impact your goal. Most importantly, your champion needs to be able to articulate the goal of your climate adaption strategies clearly and without struggle. Their confidence, shown in their ability to articulate, will bring support. Your supporters will begin to articulate the goal well too - like they have seen done by the champion.
Name your “top five” political champion candidates to lead the support for your climate adaptation strategies. 1.___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________ Name your “top five” academic champion candidates to lead the support for your climate adaptation strategies. 1.___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________ Name your “top five” business champion candidates to lead the support for your climate adaptation strategies. 1.___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________
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RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT What audience does your political champions appeal to? What form of public messaging do they use? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ What audience does your academic champions appeal to? What form of public messaging do they use? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ What audience does your business champions appeal to? What form of public messaging do they use? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Is it better to take an economic, social, or environmental approach to climate issues? Each approach has its strengths, and your community may require a combination of more than one. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Who are potential climate change skeptics in your community? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Identify five potential community partners. 1._______________________________________________________________________________________ 2._______________________________________________________________________________________ 3._______________________________________________________________________________________ 4._______________________________________________________________________________________ 5._______________________________________________________________________________________
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
FORM A TASK FORCE
In the first two chapters you identified a climate concern and potential recruits for a resiliency champion. Now we begin to establish what is known about the current climate, scientifically and politically, and jump-starts the planning process. To dig deeper, many municipalities take an inclusive approach and establish a task force.
Consider the following list of questions when creating your mission statement:1 -Who are we? -What are we trying to accomplish? -Why and for Whom? -What will be the result if we succeed or fail? -Why should people care about that? -What makes us unique? This mission should be reviewed and approved by the government body of the effort.
The task force is a group of people that help sift through the research and identify potential strategies for tackling climate issues.
EXAMPLE TASK FORCE MISSION STATEMENT
A task force can: • Provide elected leaders and local government decision makers with information about establishing and implementing climate smart initiatives. • Propose new ideas to its local government. • Identify funding sources for projects and financial return from investments.
TOWN OF HELENA, MONTANA TASK FORCE MISSION STATEMENT The Helena City Commission formed a citizen-managed task force to assess the City’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the vulnerability of the City’s water supply in the energy crisis of 1974, calling themselves the Alternative Energy Resources Organization or AERO. Web Address: http://aeromt.org/about-us/
ESTABLISHING A TASK FORCE
1. Define the Mission of the Task Force 2. Determine the Task Force Structure 3. Select Task Force Members
DEFINE THE MISSION OF THE TASK FORCE
A mission inspires membership. Anyone joining the task force will want to know: 1. What are we going to do? 2. And how are we going to do it?
“AERO is a grassroots nonprofit organization dedicated to solutions that promote resource conservation and local economic vitality. AERO nurtures individual and community self-reliance through programs that support sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, and environmental quality.”
Creating the mission first prepares you to answer these questions; and it will help in selecting members that guide the task force in accomplishing the task at hand.
Questions for developing a mission statement are developed from Strick Walk, Chapter 3 Marketing in Patagonia - tools for grassroots activists
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT AERO created specifical goals to: 1. Work with City staff and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) to conduct an energy and GHG assessment for Helena’s municipal government. 2. Assess the vulnerability of Helena’s water supply system in light of continued climate change and make recommendations to secure adequate water supply. 3. Recommend actions to the City Commission to reduce both municipal and community-wide GHG emission levels.
The table on page 18, Potential Task Force Members, represents a well rounded combination of potential members and their roles.
TASK FORCE ACTIVITIES
Below is a list of activities for your task force to begin the planning process; also find the Starter Kit chapter that can help complete the task.
o Now that you have a task force build a fondation of information about your community’s current/future climate impacts. Ch 1 o Conduct a Vulnerability assessment to scope impacts and prioritize needs. Ch 4 TASK FORCE STRUCTURE o Create an inventory of existing buildings, businesses, The structure of the task force should have built-in homes, or populations that are most at risk from the accountability for each memeber; creating defined roles effects of climate change. Ch 4 and tasks allow each member to contribute equally and o Explore strategies that address the climate impacts on a regular basis. affecting your community. Ch 5 o Research existing programs that support climate For example, the Task Force Chair serves as a liaison adaption strategies that may be expanded, or may among the governing body, champions, partners, and help task force members identify local government task force members. staff who are knowledgeable about climate impacts The Task Force Chair should have a commitment to: and resiliency planning. Ch 5 • Local climate action; o Assess existing land use plans & local policies to • Great communication skills & organizational skills; determine if any relate to climate impacts. Ch 5 • Demonstrated ability to motivate volunteers; o Identify similar initiatives in other localities. Ch 5 • Ability to manage relationships among elected o Develop recommendations that address your officials, municipal staff, and volunteers. community’s climate impacts and present to city council or other decision-making bodies. Ch 6 SELECTING TASK FORCE MEMBERS o Conduct community outreach for feedback on A task force should bring together different points climate concerns, potential strategies, task force of view from different sectors of the community. To action, and current/future policies that address ensure a broad spectrum of opinions and expertise, it is climate impacts. Ch 7 recommended to include a mix of government staff and o Gather information on funding sources, technical volunteers, both expert and non-expert. assistance, and other resources to support climate resilience strategies and actions. Ch 8 It is helpful if participants have a vision for how the o Work with city staff and community leaders to community should respond to climate change issues implement the strategies and actions. Ch 8 as well as a grasp on how the community functions. It o Evaluate the measures that are implemented to is vital to remind your task force that each person may ensure that they are accomplishing the outcomes have a different reason for participating, but you are they set out to accomplish. Ch 9 unified in your purpose and mission. 17
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT Potential Task Force Members
Implement policy changes and approve budgets
Participate in planning, support energy efficiency audits and upgrades. Encourage staff to support the program
Assist with financial planning, budgeting and grant applications
Facility/Road Maintenance Staff
Identify retrofit and maintenance needs; maintain equipment to maximize efficiency
Ensure enforcement of energy and building codes
Nonprofit or City Staff
Integrate climate change into existing environmental programs; help access technical support, grants, loans and other resources
Purchasing or Procurement Staff
Ensure purchasing of energy products and services
Teachers & Fire Department Community Members/Volunteers Academic or Extension Staff
Professional insights, public outreach experience (i.e. interns, technical advice and resources) Provide stakeholder insights, reality checking, volunteer work experience Professional insights, public outreach experience
*Modified from New York State Department of Enviromental Conservation: Establishing a Task Force http://www.dec.ny.gov/energy/65489.
ASSIGN A PROJECT MANAGER
Colorado to develop a Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP), now required statewide. A grassroots task force made up of realtors, developers, contractors, and planners, helped to garner support for the plan.
Project managers are responsible for bringing all the players together and guiding the planning process to completion. In Boulder County, the Preparedness Plan required one person working full-time for about 2.5 years to complete the plan. In Chicago, they hired “three part-time people, a project manager, and an internal process manager”. Depending on your community needs and the scope of planning process, you may require more or less staff.
The following case studies provide a range of examples from communities who have brought together a task force to focus on local climate action. CALIFORNIA’S SMALL CITIES CLIMATE ACTION PARTNERSHIP (SCCAP) This is a partnership of four communities in California: El Cerrito, Albany, Piedmont, and San Pablo. Under the ScCAP the cities are working together to share their work, processes, and best practices as they implement various energy efficiency projects and policies. Web Address: https://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/ small-cities-climate-action-partnership
WORKING WITH ELECTED OFFICIALS Elected officials should try to leave their authority “at the door” so that all members feel free to participate fully. SET AN EXAMPLE FOR OTHERS TO FOLLOW In 2005, Summit County was one of the first counties in 18
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT VERMONT NATURAL RESOURCES COUNCIL This action guide outlines steps to form a committee to work on climate issues. The Vermont Town Energy and Climate Action Committee is an important voice for the community to help inform decision makers and voters on how to advance cost-effective strategies to save energy and reduce waste. Web Address: http://vnrc.org/programs/energyclimate-action/energy-committees-and-vecan/vermontenergy-and-climate-action-network/
The Citizen Task Force included representatives from nonprofit organizations, private businesses and industry, the local hospital, the University of Montana, and city staff. Together they developed a plan that demonstrated how climate action makes fiscal, environmental, and social sense for the City of Missoula. A good way to promote interest in the task force is to hold a kick-off event and ask for enthusiastic volunteers to serve on the task force or work on subcommittees. Web Address: http://www.ci.missoula.mt.us/1709/ Conservation-Climate-Action-Plan
• New York State Department of Environmental Conservation: How to Set Up a Climate Smart Coordinator or Task Force - Web Address: www.dec. ny.gov/energy/65489.html • Vermont Energy and Climate Action Network: Starting a town energy committee - Web Address: www.vecan.net/forming-and-maintaining-a-townenergy-committee/
MISSOULA, MONTANA CONSERVATION & CLIMATE ACTION PLAN Missoula’s Mayor appointed representatives for a citizen task force made up of individuals with varying points of view.
Asking someone to join the Task Force should be an honor, yet if they deny the opportunity don’t get discouraged. They may even come around later down the road. 19 19
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
IMPACTS & PRIORITIZE NEEDS
CONDUCT A VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
EXPAND YOUR CLIMATE RELATED ISSUES WITH DATA RESOURCES In Chapter One: Identifying Climate Concerns, you explored the climate change impacts affecting your community.
In this chapter, your task force will learn to weigh the risks and predict vulnerabilities in your community, for the short and long term. Conducting a vulnerability assessment will help the task force identify the potential effects that a changing climate has on municipal operations, community safety and wellbeing. With this information the task force can prioritize what is most vulnerable and needs the most urgent action.
Expand the information collected in Chapter One for a comprehensive understanding of your community’s climate realted issues. Climate data can reveal trends, vulnerable areas, or correlate with other behavioral data. For example public transportation might increase during the winter due to severe driving conditions.
To conduct a vulnerability assessment, we are using the seven step process developed by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Canada1. For the full workbook visit http://www. env.gov.nl.ca/env/waterres/climate_change/vultool/ index.html
Begin with your community, county, or state data resources, and identify climate trends. For regional and local climate information, visit the National Climactic Data Center at www.ncdc.noaa.gov. Also, try the Climate Data Online Search engine to download free data sets: https:// www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/search
LOCATE ISSUES ON A MAP IN YOUR COMMUNITY For this step you will need a map of your community; either physical or a map on a computer that can be managed. Ask if your community has a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialist or department; they can help in this process. Using a map, locate the areas within your community that are most vulnerable to climate impacts. For example, increased flash flooding is a climate impact that may occur in your community. Flooding often happens within the 100-year flood zone or floodplain. Vulnerability Assessment Steps were adapted from “7 Steps to Assess Climate Change Vulnerability in Your Community” by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Canada, Department of Environment and Conservation. 2013. 1
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT Key municipal infrastructure and operations include: • Transportation • Energy • Water management • Communications • Solid Waste Management • Education and Recreation For instance, a city water treatment plant that is located in the 100-year floodplain, and in a WUI area is extremely vulnerable to both wildfire and flooding events.
STARTER KIT TIP Maps are a great tool for communicating to any audience. Show impacts and prioritize needs with story mapping. Visualize information on maps for presenting to your governing board and to the public. Try your local County Assessor’s Office website for paper map downloads and online map tools. Mark where the 100-year flood zone is in your community. Many cities already have maps made that identify where the 100-year flood zone is located. Map any schools, homes, and businesses that are at risk in or near the 100-year flood zone. Another example of mapping vulnerable locations includes identifying the wildland-urban-interface (WUI), wildfires are most likely to occur in the WUI. Therefore, anyone living or working in or near the WUI need to be fully aware of wildfire risk and the strategies to manage it. Locate the area in your community that is considered the WUI.
The task force can assess the vulnerability of each critical municipal infrastructure and operation with the following questions: 1. What are the potential impacts to the municipal operations or infrastructure? 2. What number of people would be affected by a current or projected climate impact at this location? 3. Is the municipality prepared for these impacts? 4. How can the municipality be more prepared for these impacts? After the mapping exercise, the task force can use the worksheet on pages 24 & 25 to list the municipal infrastructure and operations in your community most affected by climate impacts.
Drought is one impact that is difficult to map since the impact is experienced differently in one area from another. However, on the map you can mark the areas in a community that are not served by water infrastructure and also private well locations, which are most vulnerable to drought. A map of watersheds, lakes and rivers can signal drought boundaries.
Following the assessment, you should have a clear idea of which municipal infrastructure and operations are most at risk to climate impacts.
IDENTIFY THE COMMUNITY MEMBERS AND POPULATIONS WHO HAVE BEEN OR WILL BE MOST AFFECTED BY CLIMATE IMPACTS Using the map from Step Two, identify community members and populations who have been or will be most affected by climate impacts. Populations that may need additional assistance are: • Elderly • Youth
ASSESS WHAT MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS HAVE BEEN OR WILL BE AFFECTED BY CLIMATE IMPACTS Using the map from Step Two, identify municipal infrastructure and operations that have been or have the potential to be most affected by climate impacts. Use the map to mark where populations are more dense and/or more reliant on municipal infrastructure. 21
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT • Single parent households • Special needs • Residents living in isolated locations
impact on your local and regional economy and can be more significant than a short-term impact. The task force can assess the vulnerability of each business, industry, or major employers with the following set of questions: 1. What are the potential impacts to this business/ industry/major employer? 2. What number of people would be affected by a current or projected climate impact at this location? 3. Is the municipality prepared for these impacts? 4. How is the municipality prepared for these impacts?
An example of a population at risk might be an elementary school located within the 100-year floodplain, this group is vulnerable to flooding. Or a nursing home in a WUI area, is an example of an elderly population vulnerable to wildfire. The task force can assess the vulnerability of each community population with the following questions: 1. What are the potential impacts to the community members or population? 2. What number of people would be affected by a current or projected climate impact at this location? 3. Is the municipality prepared for these impacts? 4. Are there municipal staff, groups, or others who can assist these population in a climate related event?
After the mapping exercise, the task force can use the worksheet on pages 24 & 25 to list the businesses most at risk. Following the assessment, you should have a list of the most vulnerable businesses, industries, and major employers in your community.
After the mapping exercise, the task force can use the worksheet on pages 24 & 25 to list the community members and populations who have been or will be most affect by climate impacts.
IDENTIFY HOW THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT HAS BEEN OR WILL BE AFFECTED Using the map from Step Two, identify important ecological and environmentally sensitive areas that are prone to climate impacts.
Following the assessment, you should have a list of the most vulnerable populations in your community and an idea of municipal staff, groups, and others who can help those in need during a climate related event.
Important ecological sites or environmental sensitive areas may include: • Hiking Trails • Camp Sites • Outdoor Recreation Areas • Parks and Protected Areas • Rivers and Lakes • Beaches and Coastlines
ASSESS WHICH BUSINESS, INDUSTRY, OR MAJOR EMPLOYERS HAVE BEEN OR WILL BE MOST IMPACTED BY CLIMATE IMPACTS Using the map from Step Two, identify the businesses located in areas identified on the map at most risk to climate impacts.
The task force can assess the vulnerability of each of these areas with the following questions: 1. What are the potential impacts to the natural environment? 2. What number of people would be affected by a current or projected climate impact at this location?
For example, if your largest employer is located in the WUI, it is vulnerable to wildfires. In a wildfire scenario, the largest employer in your community burns down during the night. The largest employer has a major 22
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT STEP SEVEN:
3. Is the municipality prepared for these impacts? 4. How is the municipality prepared for these impacts?
EXPLORE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES BASED ON THE IMPACTS IDENTIFIED Using your maps and worksheets, the task force can begin to explore adaption strategies that address each category or subcategory listed on the worksheet on pages 24 & 25. For example an adaption strategy for youth might implement new safety procedures for an entire school district. The next chapter, Chapter 5 Explore Strategies and Activities, will guide you toward appropriate strategies for your community’s circumstances.
After the mapping exercise, the task force can use the worksheet on pages 24 & 25 to list natural environments most at risk. Following the assessment, you should be able to determine which natural environmental areas are most at risk to climate impacts.
MAP TOOLS This map is of Flagstaff High School and Marshall Elementary School, in Coconino County Arizona. The Map Legend below and the Zoom View on the right show the schools are at risk; see the Base Flood Elevation in black and the 1% Annual Chance Flood Zone in blue. This map and maps like this can be made online using the Coconino County Assessor’s Office website. Web Address: https://gismaps. coconino.az.gov/ parcelviewer/ Check with your local Assessor’s Office website for similar map tools and zoning information to aid your task force in mapping vulnerable areas.
Coconino County, AZ Floodplain Map December 21, 2016
THIS MAP WAS GENERATED BY THE COCONINO COUNTY WEB MAP APPLICAT ION. IT IS FOR GENERAL PUPOSES ONLY. NO WARRANT Y OF ACCURACY IS GIVEN OR IMPLIED.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
Use the map you created in Chapter 4, to list the locations that are vulnerable and at risk of climate impacts in your community. Categories, Subcategories, and a Ranking System have been provided below to help you get started. See the example entries on the next page. At the end of this activity your task force will have a prioritized list of all the vulnerable locations in your community.
Main Categories Municipal Infrastructure & Operations Community Populations Business Natural Environment
Subcategories for each Main Category Municipal Facilities/Operations Water Waste Energy Transportation Communications Education Public Safety Hospitals Hazardous Sites Ports
Community Populations Students/Youth Elderly Single Parent Household Special Needs Residents in Isolated Areas All/General Population
Business Agriculture Industry Grocery Banks Healthcare Retail Car Repairs Fuel/Gas Stations
Natural Environment Hiking Trails Camp Sites Parks Protected Areas Natural Historical Sites Forests Lakes & Rivers Beaches & Coastlines
Current Policy 1 = New Policy in Place 2 = New Policy in-Progress 3 = Old Policy 4 = No Policy
Current Safety Measures 1 = New Measures in Place 2 = New Measures In-Progress 3 = Old Measure 4 = No Measure
Ranking System for Prioritizing Vulnerability of Each Location # of People Affected 1 = Less than 10 2 = Less than 1,000 3 = Greater than 1,000 4 = Majority of the Community
Event History 1 = Projected to Happen 2 = Historical Event 3 = Happened Recently 4 = Happened + Projected to Again
Create this WORKSHEET in Excel to customize the Categories, Subcategories, and Ranking System values. Keep your Vulnerability Assessment up to date! 24 24
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
Using your map, list the vulnerable locations at risk of climate impacts. Refer to the list of Categories, Subcategories, and Ranking System on page 24 to help you comple the Vulnerability Assessment. Add the total for each unique row to discover the entity's level of vulnerable severity. Also, create this workseet in Excel to quickly sum by categories and/or subcategories to discover the vulnerability of entire sectors of the community. Climate Concern: Wildfire Date of Vulnerability Assessment: 01/02/2017
Municipal Infrastructure & Operations Waste Community Populations Youth Business Natural Environment
# of Current Total Event Current Unique Location People Safety Vulnerable History Policy Affected Measures Severity 4
Hillside Landfill 123 N Valley Rd Sunny Brooks High School 321 S Moon St
Bear Mnt. Pass
333 S Coal Mine Rd 222 N Bear Mnt Pass
Notes Related policies but no explicit policy w/ safety measures
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
EXPLORE ADAPTION STRATEGIES STARTER KIT TIP
Each Adaption Strategy works in a different way to accomplish the same goal - to minimize the impact of climate change on the community. Your community will need many adaption strategies, to address all sectors of the community; • Municipal Infrastructure & Operations • Community Populations • Business/Industry • Natural Environments
Communities already have many opportunities within their policies, codes, and ordinances to create adaption strategies. Here are a few local policies that provide a great place to start: • Emergency Preparedness and Management Plans • Land use Policies • Transportation Policies • Building and Development Codes • Heat Relief Initiatives • Wildfire Prevention and Management Measures • Urban Agriculture Policy • Water Supply Plans • Floodplain Ordinances • Municipal Codes
Each adaption strategy will have its own set of tactics and actions to be successful which we will plan in the next chapter. Right now, learn which adaption strategies your community needs to minimize the impact of climate change. Wildfire Unit begins on page 40 Drought Unit begins on page 47 Flood Unit begins on page 54
Below is an example from Washington DC’s plan, Sustainable DC, that shows the Goal on the left and a Strategy on the right. The Goal is general whereas the Strategy is more specific.
“Tactics are doing things right, where Strategy is doing the right things... Strategic planning will pave a pathway for meaningful action.” -Brian O’Donnell, from Patagonia’s book Tools for Grassroots Activists 26 26 26
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
DEVELOP A PLAN
Once strategies are explored in detail, the task force will need to identify actions that apply to your community and prioritize the actions in a plan. In this section we will provide information on crafting a plan using a phased approach. • Create a Tailored Matrix • Identify Plan Criteria & Limitations • Task Force and Stakeholders Rate Tactics Against Criteria & Limitations • Organize/Prioritize Tactics into a Strategy • Combine Strategies into a Plan
Potential criteria, useful in evaluating the action tactics that make up your response plan, include: • Budget Availability: Is there funding available to implement this action tactic? Or will there be funding available in the future? • Effectiveness of Action/Leverage: Is this action effective in managing climate impacts? Does this tactic have high leverage in the community? • Political Will: Is this action tactic supported by the city council and mayor? • Public/Community Support: Is this action tactic supported by the community? • Staff Availability: Is there enough staff available to implement this tactic? • Successful Examples: Has this action been successfully implemented in other communities? • Partners: Are there partners or other jurisdictions necessary to implement the action tactic? • Others: Are there other resources that your community identifies as important?
CREATE A TAILORED MATRIX
Now that your goal has adaption strategies, plan a series of tactics to best implement the strategies. Each tactic is planned based on a list of needs and limitations required to execute. Weigh each tactic against the same needs and limitations criteria (i.e. time, funding, resources) to understand which are the most efficient at meeting the adaption strategy and overall goal.
Once the task force and stakeholders identify the important criteria to weigh each tactic, you can tailor your matrix using the worksheet sample on page 30.
Creating needs and limitation criteria will provide a straight forward method of planning. Formalize a chronological list of action tactics that are the best use of time and resources for your task force. The Worksheet sample on page 30 provides a guide for how to create a tailored matrix to measure each tactic against the criteria. The task force and stakeholders can use the matrix template to create their own evaluation matrix consistent with your adaption strategy tactics.
TASK FORCE AND STAKEHOLDERS RATE ACTIONS AGAINST CRITERIA
Conditions are different for every community and criteria can be subjective based on each tactic’s perceived needs and limitations. Therefore it is necessary to bring the task force and all stakeholders to the table, because with each person comes new opportunities and perspective.
Identify the criteria to measure each tactic against before implementing it into your strategy and a part of your plan.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT Go through the process of weighing each action against the criteria to discover the best tactics. Keep in mind the best tactics have: • Support • Achieve your Adaption Strategy & Overall Goal • Build towards a Long Term Successful Plan • Use the Least Amount of Resources
Strategy Reduce Wildfire risk to Youth Community Populations Rating Tactic Description Tier One Wildfire Risk Assessment Mapping Research any Local and/or Regional Tier Two Wildfire Policies. Evaluate for any Necessary Updates. Host Worshops for staff and students at Tier Three schools and daycare centers to inform and educate on Wildfire safety measures. Train Fire/Forestry Staff to Conduct Evaluations of Wildfire Risk Tier Four around schools and daycares and Follow up on any Risk Factors.
Refer to the matrix on page 30 for an example for how to fill out the matrix with each of the criteria.
Understand the trade-offs between criteria like time and funding, political will and community support, using the Worksheet sample on page 30. Weighing your needs and limitations criteria will help organize your tactics in the necessary order to achieve each of your adaption strategies.
DEVELOP A SET OF PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS
When the actions and strategies are prioritized and ordered, it is time to pull together all of the information gathered during this process and define a set of plan recommendations to present to the community and governing body. The plan should include: 1. A summary of the community’s climate concern (Chapter 1 Worksheet) 2. A set of vulnerability assessments (Chapter 4 Worskseet) 3. A set of maps of the vulnerabile areas 4. A set of Apative Strategies for each; -Municipal Facilities/Operations -Community Populations -Business/Industry -Natural Environments 5. A set of Tactics ranked based on your Criteria, for each adaptive strategy. (Chapter 6 Worksheet) 6. A set of Tools for monitoring goals and indicators for tracking progress. (Chapter 9) Your community might already have many adaptation strategies and opportunities within their current community policies, codes, and ordinances. Evaluate your plan recommendations for the potential to be incorporated into these existing plans.
Once the actions are prioritized for each strategy, the task force can establish a set of plan recommendations to present to the community and key stakeholders. This phased approach can guide your community through a gradual process to accomplish your overall climate adaptation goal. There are many benefits to using this type of prioritization: • First, the prioritization process serves as a policy evaluation that city council and other elected officials will need before they approve funding for implementation of the actions. • Second, the ranking of actions will show the task force and other staff which actions require more public outreach to gain community support and funding. • Last, prioritizing actions will help the task force easily create a set of plan recommendations using the tiered approach outlined in this chapter.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
STARTER KIT TIP The activities in Chapter 6 provide the strucutre and elements to form a comprehensive plan, for your task force to performed again and again. It can seem like a long road ahead, due to the nature of our economic, political, and social systems that from year-to-year bringing changes in public support, finances, municipal budgets, and political will. However, the tiered approach is deigned with the intrinsic nature of adaption and allows for flexibility when things change. Always remember to reach out for mentors from other local governments who have come before you in overcoming the challenges that we face in climate change.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
WORKSHEET WEIGHING PROPOSED TACTICS FOR EACH STRATEGY The table below is an example of how to work through the steps outlined in Chapter 6. The key criteria are identified and placed along the top for each strategy evaluated. Select one strategy at a time and estimate the weighing criteria necessary to complete each action/tactic. When all of the actions are estimated using the key criteria the strategy can be weighed against other strategies. Repeat the process for each of the four community sectors (i.e. municipal infrastructure/operations, community populations, business, natural environments). After completing the worksheet, compile all strategies for each sector of the community into a comprehensive Action Plan that the task force and stakeholders can present to decision makers. Example: Wildfire & Community Populations Strategy: Reduce Wildfire Risk to Community Populations - Specifically Youth Key Criteria Staff Budget Political Community Action Tactics: Hours Dollars Will Support 1. Wildfire Risk Assessment Mapping (WUI areas) 2. Research Local and/or Regional Wildfire Policies and Evaluate for Necessary Updates 3. Host Worshops for staff and students at schools and daycare centers to inform and educate on Wildfire Safety Measures. 4. Train fire/forestry staff to Conduct Evaluations of wildfire risk around schools and daycare centers and Follow Up on any Risk Factors.
30 30 30
Fire Dept. & Assessorâ€™s Office
GIS Intern ($12/Hr)
Look at neighboring community policies
Fire Dept. & NFPA
Requires Scheduling & Coordinating w/ schools
Fire/Forestry & NFPA
Requires Scheduling & Coordinating w/ schools
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
CONDUCT COMMUNITY OUTREACH
Community outreach is essential. Without community engagement it is unlikely that the task force will reach its goal. Climate change in many Western communities is a controversial topic that leads to strong opinions that divide the public. The right messaging and communication strategy can provide a unified purpose in order to move past dissenting views on climate change and take action together. “Understanding the fundamentals of marketingstorytelling, self-presentation, and meaningful engagement is key and often the missing ingredient in the difficult and important work of the public sector... Without it we will continue to publish studies that go unread and preach to our own choirs.”2 This chapter offers resources and guidance on communicating climate issues.
After your task force has identified a clear objective for the community outreach, try to identify 3-5 adjectives that best describe your objective. Use these adjectives when developing your communication materials. Once the task force is able to frame the objective of the outreach they can then identify the target audience for the objective.
#2 IDENTIFY YOUR TARGET AUDIENCE(S)
The second step is to identify whom to engage in the outreach. Using the objectives outlined in Step #1, it is important to reach the audience directly affected by the strategy’s tactis which may include a policy change. Additionally, include those who can assist with its adoption or implementation. Your target audience may change with each adaption strategy, and how it applies to the community. Answering the following questions will help determine your target audience and understand what makes them different: • Who is currently affected by the climate impact we are addressing? • Who will be affected by future climate impacts? • Who will be affected by each strategy tactic? • Who is currently involved with climate impact policy? • Who has influence over the adoption of the adaption strategy? • Who are additional stakeholders? Once the task force creates a list of target audience(s) they can then develop a tailored message to each that is based on the larger objective identified in Step #1.
Use these six steps as a guideline, to direct your task force through the process of developing and executing community outreach on the topic of climate impacts3:
#1 FRAME THE OBJECTIVE OF THE OUTREACH
The first step is bringing the task force together to frame the community outreach objective. Objectives may include: 1. Gaining Support 2. Education & Awareness 3. Discovering Partners & Funding 4. Understand any Conflicting Groups 5. Providing a Voice for the Community
Walker, Strict (2016). Patagonia’s “tool for grassroots activists” : Chapter 3 Marketing Adapted from ICLEI’s Outreach & Communication Resource Guide. January 2009. http://www.mml.org/green/actionguides/BE_1_2_ICLEI_ OutreachCommunicationGuide.pdf 2
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT #3 DEVELOP A TAILORED MESSAGE TO THE TARGETED AUDIENCE AND IDENTIFY A MESSENGER
messages, and follow traditional interpersonal rules:4 1. Say what you mean. 2. Don’t take too long. 3. Be yourself. 4. Try to relate to people. 5. Being like everyone else makes you forgettable. 6. Don’t interrupt people
A tailored message reflects an understanding of your target audience. The likes and dislikes, words and terms familiar to them characterize the tailored message. Tailoring a message can gain more attention from your target audience, and even garner support. Effective tailored messages can promote engagement and communication with your task force. Engagement from your target audience is primarily driven by two themes:4 1. Relevance - How does it affect me? 2. Differentiation - What makes your cause the one I should support? The content of your tailored message needs to connect to the target audience’s daily lifestyle and provide unique direction for them. Unique direction can be a website with more information, a facebook page, or a public event to attend.
Refer to the table Outreach Media by Audience Size to explore some common communication mediums. It is effective to use multiple communication mediums to reach all target audiences for outreach. Although, each communication medium requires continuous upkeep and attention, which takes a lot of time. If your task force is just getting started, we suggest having a single source, like a website, that all the other communications can point to for more information and the most current information. This allows you to focus your time working on the website, keeping content high quality and impressive. Using various tailored messages relative to each target audience (like public relations memos, social media, and emails) can be less time consuming, if you keep messages current, meaningful and direct them to the source website for more information.
Understand that once you enter into a real-time communication with your target audience that relationship needs to be maintained. Not engaging with them is the worst thing you can do. Messages need to be updated to remain credible and hold attention with the target audience. Highly trusted messengers – different messengers for different audiences - lend credibility and importance to the message. Find a great, relevant quote from someone your audience knows and trusts.
OUTREACH MEDIA BY AUDIENCE SIZE Large Audiences Smaller Audiences Newspapers Television Radio Fact sheets Social Media Website Blogs Polls Journal & Magazines Memos Reports
#4 SELECT THE MEDIUM FOR OUTREACH
The next step is selecting a communication medium for your target audience. Be strategic in selecting communication mediums for outreach. The increasing amount of automated messages we receive today is overwhelming, so try to come across as human as possible. Take time to make thoughtful 4
Walker, Strict (2016). Patagonia’s “tool for grassroots activists” : Chapter 3 Marketing
Public Meeting Public Forum Focus Groups Neighborhood Meetings Workshops Conferences Webinars Surveys Presentations Word of Mouth Town Hall
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT #5 CONDUCT COMMUNITY OUTREACH
• Were the appropriate messengers chosen to assists with outreach? • Were the tailored messages appropriate for each target audience? • Was the communication media appropriate for the messages and target audience? • What improvements could be made? • Were the objectives of the community outreach achieved? After evaluating your community outreach, it may be appropriate to conduct additional outreach if you identify changes that need to be made. If so, make the necessary changes and begin the process again.
Community outreach is time-sensitive work, with the community as your critic. Before you begin your communications, ensure you have ample staff who understand the mission and goal of the task force. Also, we suggest a quality control check method to check and double check messages before they go out to the public domain. The task force will need to be prepared to publicly: • Discuss your community’s climate concern • Share your task force mission and goal • Introduce adaption strategies • Promote different strategy tactics • Listen to community members • Answer questions
• EcoAmerica’s Communicating on Climate 13 Steps and Guiding Principles - Web Address: http:// ecoamerica.org/research/#13steps • Climate Access - Web Address: http://www. climateaccess.org/tips-and-tools • ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability Guidebooks - Web Address: http://icleiusa.org/ publications/#guidebooks • Smart Chart Interactive Communication Tool - Web Address: http://smartchart.org/ • Midwest Academy - Organizing Social Change Web Address: http://www.midwestacademy.com/ manual/
#6 EVALUATE YOUR AUDIENCE, MESSAGE, MESSENGER, AND MEDIA
It is important to evaluate your target audience(s), outreach message, messengers, and media to make sure that efforts are meeting your objectives. Objectives may include: 1. Gaining Support 2. Education & Awareness 3. Discovering Partners & Funding 4. Understand any Conflicting Groups 5. Providing a Voice for the Community Take the time to learn as you go and track public feedback. Evaluations can be done by conducting surveys or polls of the public on social media. Feedback can provide more background for task force decision making.
STARTER KIT TIP Images and visuals are a powerful communication tool and have been proven to be useful in communciating climate issues.
Additionally, communicate within the task force by taking notes during an event to share with task force members later. Below are questions to consider while conducting community outreach activities: • Was the target audience appropriate? Who was missing or left out?
Research shows that using images that induce fear are good to attract attention, but do not motivate action. Whereas images that are not threatening and link to people’s everyday actions and concerns were more effective in spurring action.5
O’Neill, S., & Nicholson-Cole, S. (2009). “Fear won’t do it”: Promoting positive engagement with cli-mate change through visual and iconic representations. Science Communication, 30(3), 355–379. Sterman, J.D. (2011). Communicating climate change risks in a skeptical world. Climatic Change 108, 811–826. 5
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
STARTER KIT TIP Understanding the core values of the community is important when creating policies that meet the needs of your community. Values are the principals and standards of behavior a person lives by, that hold strong and do not waiver in uncertainity. Values are often shared across diverse groups; however, these diverse groups may use different words to talk about the same value. Aligning these values can help build consensus and agreement around an issue and can help prioritize what the community really wants based on their values. In addition, identifying values can help create a shared language or common dialogue within a diverse community. There are many ways to understand your community values, a successful example is highlighted below. In 1997, Envision Utah launched an unprecedented public effort aimed to keep Utah beautiful, prosperous, healthy, and neighborly for future generations. A key part of this effort was undertstanding the core values of those living in Utah. Envision Utah conducted over 80 indepth interviews to find out what residents value about living in Utah with the objective to guide the public, community leaders, and policy makers in making better informed and coordinated decisions to protect, promote and preserve what people truly care about. Envision Utah applied their community values to their communication stratregies and to the development of policies to ensure community needs were met in the process. For more information on Envision Utah, visit www.envisionutah.org
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
COMMUNICATING CLIMATE CHANGE: 11 EFFECTIVE GUIDELINES 6 START WITH PEOPLE, STAY WITH PEOPLE Doing homework on your audience and their work, and concerns demonstrates respect. If you can connect what they care about to climate change using their own words, they will listen to you. Employing research to understand their needs and relate to them where they are, will open hearts and minds. Start from their perspective, and infuse what they care about throughout the entirety of your conversation or communication. CONNECT ON COMMON VALUES Many people talk about the science of climate change, the causes and consequences, and what must be done to address the issue. However, if you want people to care and act, you need to make the issue relevant to them. Connecting on values that bring us together – family, community, and America – creates emotional and motivating bonds that humanize all parties involved and forms the foundation of a productive discussion on climate change. ACKNOWLEDGE AMBIVALENCE Not all of us have the same information on climate change, and many Americans are focused on other priorities. If you start out assuming everyone knows, or should know, or cares, or should care as much as you do, you will lose much of your audience. A simple line like, “Some people worry more about climate change, and some people are less concerned,” will allow people to be comfortable where they are, and listen to you with an open mind.
SCALE FROM PERSONAL TO PLANET People understand what they can see around them with their own eyes. If you talk about Superstorm Sandy or wildfires in the Rockies, people get that. Then you can scale up to other areas of the country or the planet. Starting with global catastrophe leads to fatalism, since many people can’t see how their actions could address such a big problem. SEQUENCE MATTERS Research reveals that you can take the same set of facts, arrange them in different ways, and end up with very different results. If you start with the negative and impersonal, global catastrophe for example, it’s very hard to get to the positive, personal, and relevant. Follow the sequence above: connect on common values, acknowledge ambivalence, and scale from personal to planet. USE “FACTS,” NOT SCIENCE Every time you read about science, it refutes some other science. We have our scientists, and the other side has theirs. Everyone knows scientists argue, and that science can be mutable. Talking about science opens the door to question and debate. It’s better to assume the science, and talk about the facts. Over 80 percent of Americans notice that the climate and weather are changing. Talk about the facts of warmer summers and droughts. After all, you don’t talk about the science of smoking cigarettes - you talk about health.
EcoAmerica’s 13 Steps and Guiding Principles for communicating on climate. December 2013.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
COMMUNICATING CLIMATE CHANGE: 11 EFFECTIVE GUIDELINES INSPIRE AND EMPOWER The most important thing to do to engage people on climate change is to convey a sense of hope and potential. Many of us avoid the subject because it can be depressing. America has doubled the supply of solar energy in just the past two years. America has solved great challenges before, and we know we can solve this one too.
HAVE AT LEAST ONE POWERFUL FACT FROM A TRUSTED MESSENGER One or two facts with a lot of emotional power can add significant weight to your message. Highly trusted messengers - different for different audiences - lend credibility and importance. Find a great, relevant quote from someone your audience knows and trusts. SPEAK FROM THE MOUNTAIN TOPS, DON’T FIGHT IN THE TRENCHES Focus on the big picture, on what’s important, on working together to achieve common good. Arguing details turns off your audience and distracts from the important point. Whether the drought is the worst or the second worst ever is not the point. The point is the trend, the big issue, and the solutions. Message discipline is critical: simple messages, repeated often, by trusted messengers are powerful.
BE SOLUTIONS-FOCUSED If climate change is as large of a problem as we say it is, Americans will expect, and respond better to, practical solutions that match at scale. Even if you talk about light bulbs, it’s about what can happen when all of us change them. Show the path to achieve your solution. Will it seem realistic? Overwhelm problems with solutions, presenting five solutions for every one problem, ensuring you focus on solutions actively in place all around them. Doing so will quell any feelings of futility and fatalism, while at the same time motivating them on what is possible. Avoid suggesting people make sacrifices. Americans have shallow tolerance for more problems; they are strapped for time, resources, and money. Offer a path to a better life, not a lesser life.
For more information on this research, visit EcoAmerica’s website at http://ecoamerica.org/ research/#13steps
DESCRIBE, DON’T LABEL Labels are code words that bring up other, sometimes negative, associations. Abstractions don’t have the same power as concrete terms. A lot of climate change terms, like “mitigation,” don’t mean much to Americans. Rather than talk about “alternative energy,” talk about wind and solar power. Rather than “ecosystem collapse”, talk about the plants and animals that we depend on to survive. The most persuasive language is vivid, familiar, and descriptive. 36 36 36
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
Moving from the planning phase to implementation takes the same amount of collaboration and diligence as the previous phases – if not more. Creating a realistic action plan with measurable goals and outcomes is pivotal to successful implementation.
with information on how the strategies were implemented. Also, look for a section called ‘Taking Action’, which provides actions that can be taken at the government operations level, community wide, and quick start actions for small, rural, medium and large communities. The web address is provided in the Resource section at the end of this chapter.
Now that you have feedback from the community and governing body, the task force is ready to develop an action plan. The plan should outline specific implementation tactics, critical steps, costs and timelines for each strategy.
To manage this work, we suggest creating an Implementation Task Force, one that mirrors the planning task force and includes stakeholders from each group. A dedicated manager (full or part-time) should organize and communicate the implementation methods to the task force and stakeholders, ensuring tactics are implemented in line with strategies and goals don’t get watered-down. The Implementation Manager should oversee the monitoring and evaluation of goals and use indicators for tracking progress to guide task force efforts.
This chapter will help structure an action plan to present to your local governing board for approval.
Action plan strategies include implementation methods. Your task force may decide on a combination of implementation methods, some of which are listed below and have the potential to influence policy, planning, and infrastructure: • Zoning rules and regulations • Taxation (include tax incentives) • Building codes/design standards • Public safety rules and regulations • Issuance of bonds • Infrastructure development • Permitting and enforcement • Management practices • Outreach and education • Emergency management powers • Partnership building with other communities
PARTNERSHIP BUILDING WITH OTHER COMMUNITIES
Recruiting new members and broadening your network of partners is an effective tool for implementing certain actions. Sometimes it is necessary to work with a neighboring community to make sure everyone within the community limits has access to emergency services.
If the Action Plan or individual strategies are approved by the governing body (i.e. City Council, Town Council), the task force can implement the measure based on available funding and should act to pursue additional external funding sources to support long-term plans.
British Columbia’s Climate Action Toolkit is a detailed resource of plans, policies, projects, and processes 37
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT Potential external funding sources include federal and state grants. Funding agencieis seek applicants that can provide a broader framework and an explicit commitment; and plans that have already been approved by a governing body will be more competitive in soliciting funding. In the best case scenario, the plan and strategy approval does not create a negative impact to the community’s operating budget. For example, British Columbia Action Toolkit’s Green Infrastructure Policy (http://toolkit.bc.ca/tool/green-infrastructure-policy) can generate utility cost savings for municipal operations and the community over time. The task force is responsible for identifying new opportunities to leverage existing municipal efforts and propose plans to cost-effectively implement the strategies.
ANTICIPATE THE NEXT ACTION Understand all impacts of implementing your strategies, direct and indirect. Indirect side effects come with costs and new barriers. Be prepared to determine the full costs and benefits of each implementation method. EMPHASIZE THE COST OF INACTION In Chula Vista’s Climate Adaptation Plan, they emphasizes that “the cost of ‘no action’ could be more significant in the long term through public and private infrastructure damages (due to wildfire and flooding), public safety and health issues (due to extreme heat, wildfires, and poor air quality), and energy and water shortages (due to higher local demand).”
• British Columbia Climate Action Toolkit: Planning and Implementation and Taking Action Sections - Web Address: www.toolkit.bc.ca/tools • Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments – Chapter 11: Implement your preparedness plan - Web Address: http://cses.washington.edu/db/pdf/snoveretalgb574.pdf • City of Los Angeles West Adams-Baldwin Hills-Leimert Implementation Tools - Web Address: https://sites.google. com/site/westadamsncp/Implementing-the-Plan
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
EVALUATION & ACCOUNTABILITY
should have a timeline for implementation and a mechanism for evaluation along with the person or department responsible for seeing the activity through.
It is important to accurately and regularly report on outcome measures. Tracking progress will allow your task force to modify action plans based on measureable progress data, and if needed â€“ the ability to coursecorrect during this phase is driven by accuracy in progress-data tracking.
ADAPT THE PROCESS AS YOU GO Flagstaff set out to create a climate preparedness plan, but changed course and opted for an in-depth study of municipal climate-related risks and vulnerabilities. The study guided the adoption of a resolution, with the goal of institutionalizing resiliency into city decisions. The outcome provided municipal resources, allocated to accomplish that goal.
Periodically re-evaluate your progress, redefine your goals, and research new opportunities.
The task force should document the status of the implementation plan and keep the community informed of progress. Use the communication mediums that correspond to the target audience whos strategies have progress to report. Within the plan, each strategy
FOCUS ON WHAT YOU CAN CONTROL FIRST Flagstaffâ€™s plan focused on internal operations and on how the functions of individual departments will be impacted by climate change. CELEBRATE! Celebrate your progress and recognize others who are making great strides toward achieving shared goals.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
WILDFIRE UNIT INTRODUCTION TO WILDFIRE
IN THIS UNIT
Wildfires are a normal process in nature that can benefit forests and ecosystems. However, rising temperatures, prolonged drought, reductions in spring snowpack and soil moisture contribute to larger more frequent wildfires in the West. The frequency of wildfires in the West has increased dramatically. When compared to wildfires in the 1970’s there are currently 7 times more fires greater than 10,000 acres each year.7
The Wildfire Unit provides a thorough examination of Wildfire Protection Planning with resources and case studies for each section. The major sections include:8 • Wildfire Risk Assessment and Mapping • Homeowner Assistance and Public Education • Regulatory and Planning Activities • Demonstration Projects, Training, and Workshops
Growing populations, particularly in rural communities, push new development further into the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The WUI is the zone where the built environment meets or is within forested lands. As wildfires continue to increase in frequency, building homes and businesses in the WUI endangers the safety of residents and poses significant wildfire risks to people and property. Local governments can implement various actions and strategies to help lower the risk of wildfire in Western communities. Statistic from Climate Central “Western Wildfires 2012” Report: http://www.climatecentral.org/wgts/wildfires/Wildfires2012.pdf Map Source: Susan Steward, US Forest Service, Northern Research Section Page 41: 8 Categories were adapted from “The National Wildfire Mitigation Programs Database: State, County, and Local Efforts to Reduce Wildfire Risk” by Terry Haines, Cheryl Renner, Maragaret Reams, and James Granskog. 2004. 7
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT WILDFIRE RISK ASSESSMENTS AND MAPPING
NFPA SEMINARS Learn the techniques that are most effective in reducing wildfire damage potential in the home itself and everything around it, within 100-200 feet. The courses are based on research and post fire investigations.
Risk Assessment Mapping is a tool for communities to show where the highest risk parcels and assets are located. Many U.S. states have developed risk assessment maps. Assessments at the regional, state, and county level are used to target high-risk areas for intervention. Current intervention practices are based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data using remote sensing and fire behavior models. Take Action: • Research local and regional wildfire policies/safety measures to educate and raise awareness. • Vulnerability assessment of community WUI assets - Using inventory of assets in WUI rank the assets that are most vulnerable and map the findings. • Train fire/forestry staff to conduct evaluations around homes by taking National Fire Protection Association’s (NFPA) Assessing Wildland Fire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone seminar. • Use NFPA’s sample Home Ignition Evaluation Form to assess and reduce the risk at sites in the WUI. CASE STUDY DOUGLAS COUNTY, CO Douglas County responded to severe wildfire danger by adopting a Wildfire Hazard Overlay District, guided by the State Service Standards for Defensible Space. Douglas County mapped out areas threatened by wildfires, based on a site-specific rating and analysis system, which served as the basis for overlay zone standards used to identify new development areas considered for the overlay. The criteria for designating a parcel of land within the Overlay District is based on six classifications: 1. Wildland Urban Interface Boundaries 2. Slope Hazard Rating 3. Structure Hazard Rating 4. Additional Factors Rating 5. WUI Hazard Rating 6. Fuel Hazard Rating. Web Address: http://www.douglas.co.us/land/ regulations-and-procedures/zoning/zoningresolution/
Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone Web Address: http://www.nfpa.org/publiceducation/by-topic/wildfire-and-seasonal-fires/ wildland-fires/wildfire-safety-training-andconferences/assessing-wildfire-hazards-in-the-homeignition-zone-courses/two-day-course Assessing Residential Wildfire One Day Semiar Hazards Web Address: http://www.nfpa.org/publiceducation/by-topic/wildfire-and-seasonal-fires/ wildland-fires/wildfire-safety-training-andconferences/assessing-wildfire-hazards-in-the-homeignition-zone-courses/one-day-course Two Day Seminar
The courses are taught by experienced wildland fire specialists and focus on both the physical and behavioral sciences behind successful wildfire reduction. They are also the only national standardized trainings that offer factual solutions and action strategies regarding modern wildfire reduction. Addressing Community Wildfire Risk: A Review and Assessment of Regulatory and Planning Tools - Web Address: http://www.nfpa.org/news-and-research/firestatistics-and-reports/research-reports/for-emergencyresponders/fire-prevention-and-administration/ addressing-community-wildfire-risk FIREWISE HOME IGNITION ZONE BASICS This resource can be used to identify wildfire vulnerabilities for property and landscaping. Web Address: http://www.firewise.org/wildfirepreparedness/be-firewise/home-and-landscape/ defensible-space.aspx?sso=0 41
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT HOMEOWNER ASSISTANCE & PUBLIC EDUCATION
Community action is necessary and important when managing wildfire risk. Homeowners assistance and direct assistance includes evaluating individual home’s for debris disposal which provide fuel for wildfires. Public education includes wildfire curriculum for K-12 classrooms, work training, and other workshops. Fire officials should conduct community and neighborhood meetings that discuss risks and issues related to wildfire. Take Action: • Wildfire information and homeowner safety tips on your community website. • Mail educational material about defensible space and wildfire risks to WUI homeowners. • Offer WUI homeowners a form to self-assess their vulnerability to wildfire risks. • Offer publications that promote hazard reduction, fire protection/safety, and fire-resistant landscaping. • Encourage homeowner participation in the national Firewise Communities/USA® Recognition program. • Develop a public health information program related to wildfire smoke.
The Fire Triangle is taught to 2nd graders, and is an example of public education. The three sides of the triangle are heat, oxygen, and fuel— take away any one of them and fire cannot burn!
FIREWISE BROCHURE & BOOKLETS Firewise provides free brochures and booklets for protecting your property from wildfire. Web Address: http://www.firewise.org/wildfire-preparedness/ teaching-tools/brochures-and-booklets.aspx?sso=0 ARIZONA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WILDFIRE HAZARD SEVERITY RATING CHECKLIST FOR
ARIZONA HOMES AND COMMUNITIES This checklist is designed to assess the relative wildfire hazard severity around a home, neighborhood, subdivision, or community. Web Address: https:// extension.arizona.edu/pubs/wildfire-hazard-severityrating-checklist-arizona-homes-and-communities
FIREWISE COMMUNITIES/USA® RECOGNITION PROGRAM The Firewise Communities/USA® Recognition program is a process that empowers neighbors to work together in reducing their wildfire risk. Join the growing network of more than 1,028 recognized Firewise communities taking action and ownership in preparing and protecting their homes against the threat of wildfire. Web Address: www.firewise.org/usa?sso=0
ONLINE FIRE HAZARD TEST FROM FIREWISE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY After you take the assessment and hit submit your hazard rating and some recommendations will appear in a new window. Web Address: http://www.dof.virginia. gov/fire/firewiseva/hazard-test.htm FIRE-RESISTANT LANDSCAPING FACT SHEET FROM COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION This resource provides information about landscaping defensible space or clearing vegetation around a home in order to protect the home and property from wildfires. Web Address: http://extension.colostate.edu/topic-areas/ natural-resources/fire-resistant-landscaping-6-303/
OREGON STATE WILDFIRE SMOKE AND PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGN The Oregon Health Authority created a public health initiative to educate the public about the health impacts from wildfire smoke. In addition, there are some recommedations for how to best protect yourself and your family from the smoke. Web Address: https://public.health.oregon.gov/ Preparedness/Prepare/Documents/OHA_2014_ WilfireFAQs.pdf 42
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT REGULATORY & PLANNING ACTIVITIES
Most regulations and planning exists at a county level, but more cities are adopting plans, ordinances, and other regulations to protect against wildfire risks. Regulatory and planning activities include community wildfire protection plans, zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, and building and fire codes. Take Action: • Develop a community wildfire protection plan. • Hire a wildfire protection coordinator/wildland fire coordinator. • Adopt model standards for new development in wildfire risk areas that require, for example, creation and maintenance of defensible space, fire-resistant landscaping, screens on all chimneys and vents, ignitionresistant or non-combustible roofing and building materials, access for emergency vehicles, water supply for fire suppression, multiple roadways for escape routes, etc. • Adopt fuels reduction strategies on public land and private land in the wildland urban interface. • Conduct regular prescriptive burns to reduce wildfire risk and enhance natural habitats.
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) STANDARDS The NFPA Standards are for communities to use for new development in wildfire risk areas: • NFPA 1141: Standard for Fire Protection Infrastructure for Land Development in Wildland, Rural, and Suburban Areas • NFPA 1144: Standard for Reducing Structure Ignition Hazards from Wildland Fire. Web Address: http://www.nfpa.org/codes-andstandards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-andstandards
PREPARING A COMMUNITY WILDFIRE PROTECTION PLAN HANDBOOK (PDF DOWNLOAD) This handbook is intended to provide communities with a concise, step-by-step guide to use in developing a Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP). It addresses, in a straightforward manner, issues such as who to involve in developing a plan, how to convene other interested parties, what elements to consider in assessing community risks and priorities, and how to develop a protection plan to address those risks. Web Address: https://www.forestsandrangelands.gov/ communities/cwpp.shtml
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT CASE STUDIES
The UCD includes Skamania County and western Klickitat County in Washington State. One component of the UCD is the forest health and Firewise programs, which encourage regular maintenance of home and property in order to reduce wildfire risk. Web Address: www.ucdwa.org/cat/firewise/
PARK COUNTY, MONTANA COMMUNITY WILDFIRE PROTECTION PLAN (PDF DOWNLOAD) In 2006, Park County completed a Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) meeting the requirements of the federal 2003 Healthy Forests Restoration Act. The plan includes maps of the wildland urban interface, fire districts, and fire-risk maps based on historical fire starts, population density, structural density, vegetation, weather, slope, and aspect. The section on structural ignitability focuses on what homeowners can do to reduce risks on their properties. Web Address: http://www.parkcounty.org/pdfs/ FW/2009WildfireProtectionPlan.pdf
BIG BEAR LAKE, CALIFORNIA WOOD SHAKE SHINGLE REPLACEMENT ORDINANCE Due to the flammable nature of wood shake shingles and the wildfire prone conditions of Big Bear Lake, the City Council adopted an Ordinance for structures and buildings with wood shake shingles have five years to replace the existing shingles with shingles that consist of fire-resistant materials â€“ consistent with their Municipal Code. Web Address: http://thinisin. org/shake/index.php/component/content/category/2uncategorised
COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO VEGETATION MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES (PDF DOWNLOAD) The Colorado Springs Fire Department released suggested vegetation management guidelines that homeowners can follow to reduce their risk to wildfire and protect their property. Web Address: https://csfd. coloradosprings.gov/page/vegetation-management
FIRE SAFE COUNCIL OF NEVADA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA CHIPPING PROGRAM The Fire Safe Council of Nevada County has a program that will chip any brush that is cleared from defensible space of any permanent structure and/or 30 feet from any roadside or driveway used for evacuation purposes. For this program, the Council provides limited grant funding to homeowners and land owners who would like to have their brush chipped. Web Address: http://www.areyoufiresafe.com/get-firehelp/chipping/
SANTA FE COUNTY, NEW MEXICO WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE CODE (PDF DOWNLOAD) The Wildland Urban Interface Code provides special regulations to fire and life safety hazards in the wildland urban interface areas in Santa Fe County. The objective of this Code is to minimize the occurrence of fires and the potential threats to life and property from fire and resulting erosion. The Code calls for adequate fire access to control the spread of fire in wildland urban interface areas. Web Address: http://www.santafecountynm.gov/ userfiles/file/resident/UrbanWildland.pdf
CITY OF BOULDER, COLORADO WILDLAND FIRE COORDINATOR Wildfire is a big issue for the region in and around the City of Boulder, Colorado. The City decided that a full-time staff member who works solely on the risks associated with wildland fire in the city would be the best approach for implementing wildland fire management actions in their community. Web Address: https://bouldercolorado.gov/fire-rescue/ wildland-home
U N D E R W O O D CO N S E R VAT I O N D I S T R I C T, WA S H I N GTO N H O M E M A I N T E N A N C E P RO G R A M The Underwood Conservation District (UCD) helps landowners and land managers enhance and protect natural resources on a voluntary basis. 44
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS, TRAINING AND WORKSHOPS
Demonstration projects provide homeowners an opportunity to see fuels treatment in a landscape similar to their own and present an example of the best way to create defensible space around a home. In addition, demonstration projects, training, and workshops educate the public and fire crews on different management strategies, including planting and landscaping with fire-resistant native species. Take Action: • Offer demonstration projects to provide examples of fuels treatment for homes and landscapes. • Train fire crews to fight wildland fires as well as structure fires. • Organize a wildland urban interface fire summit or conference. • Coordinate a regional wildfire task force made up of city and county staff, additional stakeholders, and experts to work on wildfire issues in the community.
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION FIRE FIGHTER SAFETY SERIES The Firefighter Safety Series is a free multi-part information package from the National Wildland/Urban Interface Fire Program. It addresses problems faced by firefighters battling structural and wildland fires, especially those in the wildland urban interface. The goal is to improve knowledge of firefighter safety and survival. Web Address: http://catalog.nfpa.org/Guide-to-the-WildlandUrban-Interface-FirefighterSafety-Series-Workbook-and-Video-Set-P429.aspx
FIREWISE GARDEN IN BOISE, IDAHO The Firewise Garden, located within the Idaho Botanical Gardens, has over 300 native and non-native fire-resistant plants. The garden was developed in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, College of Western Idaho’s Horticulture Program, and the Idaho Botanical Garden. Web Address: http://idahobotanicalgarden.org/gallerypost/firewise-garden/ NEVADA WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE FIRE SUMMIT The Nevada Wildland Urban Interface Fire Summit has been held each year since 2007 to bring together the community, firefighters, and county representatives from each of the extreme-high-moderate-wildfire hazard communities in Nevada. During the Summit, participants discuss ways to help reduce the wildfire risk in their community and promote action at the local level. Web Address: www.livingwithfire.info/wui-fire-summit COLORADO WILDFIRE INSURANCE AND FOREST HEALTH TASK FORCE In 2013, Colorado’s Governor John Hickenlooper created the Task Force on Wildfire Insurance and Forest Health through Executive Order B 2013-002. The group was asked to identify and reach agreement on ways to encourage activities, practices and policies that would reduce the risk of loss in wildland urban interface (WUI) areas and provide greater choice and knowledge of insurance options. Web Address: www.dora.state.co.us/taskforce/ 45
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT ACTION CHECKLIST WILDFIRE RISK ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING
o Research local and regional policy associated with wildfire risks. o Inventory of the community assets in the wildland urban interface (WUI). o Vulnerability assessment of community WUI assets - Using inventory of assets in WUI rank the assets that are most vulnerable and map the findings. o Train fire/forestry staff to conduct evaluations of wildfire risk around homes by taking the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Assessing Wildland Fire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone seminar. o Use NFPAâ€™s sample Home Ignition Evaluation form to assess risk at home sites.
HOMEOWNER ASSISTANCE & PUBLIC EDUCATION o o o o o o
Add wildfire information and homeowner safety tips onto website. Mail educational material on defensible space and wildfire risks to WUI homeowners. Offer WUI homeowners a form to self-assess their vulnerability to wildfire risks. Offer publications promoting hazard reduction, fire protection/safety, and fire-resistant landscaping. Encourage homeowner participation in the national Firewise Communities/USAÂŽ Recognition program. Develop a public health information program related to wildfire smoke.
REGULATORY & PLANNING ACTIVITIES
o Develop a Community Wildfire Protection Plan. o Hire a Wildfire Protection Coordinator/Wildland Fire Coordinator. o Adopt model standards for new development in wildfire risk areas that require, for example, creation & maintenance of defensible space, fire-resistant landscaping, screens on all chimneys and vents, ignitionresistant or non-combustible roofing and building materials, access for emergency vehicles, water supply for fire suppression, multiple roadways for escape routes, etc. o Establish ordinances or voluntary guidelines requiring or recommending vegetation management to reduce wildfire fuels in home landscapes. o Establish ordinances or programs requiring/encouraging regular/periodic home maintenance to reduce fire risks. o Establish programs to provide financial or technical support for the retrofit of existing properties that are fireprone (e.g. have aging wood roofs or significant amounts of heavy brush or other vegetative fuel). o Adopt fuels reduction strategies on public and private lands in the wildland urban interface. o Conduct regular prescriptive burns to reduce wildfire risk and enhance natural habitats.
DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS, TRAINING, AND WORKSHOPS o o o o
Offer demonstration projects to provide examples of fuels treatment for homes and landscapes. Train fire crews to fight wildland fires as well as structure fires. Organize a wildland urban interface fire summit or conference. Coordinate a regional wildfire task force made up of city staff, county staff, additional stakeholders and experts to work on wildfire issues in the community. 46
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
DROUGHT UNIT INTRODUCTION TO DROUGHT
the summer. Thus, it is possible to suffer an agricultural drought in the absence of a meteorological drought.
Drought is a period of unusually dry weather that persists long enough to cause environmental or economic impacts, such as crop damage and water supply shortages. There are different types of drought:9 1. Meteorological Drought is what we think of most often in relation to precipitation, assessing the degree of dryness (in comparison to a local or regional average) and the duration of the dry period, which is highly specific to a region as average percipitation may vary considerably place to place. 2. Hydrological Drought is how decreased precipitation affects streamflow, soil moisture, reservoir and lake levels, and groundwater recharge. 3. Agricultural Drought is when availabe water supplies are not able to meet crop water demands for a variety of reasons, including low precipitation, timing of water availability, or decrease access to water supplies. For instance, earlier snowmelt may not change the total quantity of water available but can lead to earlier runoff that is out of phase with peak water demand in
The Colorado River is the water lifeline of many Western cities, and the conditions affecting the Colorado River are complex. The decline in the snowpack in Western mountain states caused by lack of precipitation may instigate critical shortages of the Colorado River’s water supply.
DROUGHT MANAGEMENT ACTIONS
The Drought Unit provides a thorough examination of drought management actions that are commonly found in Drought Management Plans and other drought planning activities, audience tailored communications materials, and a series of community specific checklists. The major sections include10: • Emergency Response and Monitoring • Homeowner Assistance and Public Education • Regulatory and Planning Activities Differnt Types of Drought are adapted from Union of Concerned Scientists: Causes of Drought Climate Change Connection 10 Categories are adapted from the American Planning Association Publication “Planning and Drought”. James C. Schwab AICP. January 2014. 9
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND MONITORING
Planning for and managing drought requires regular monitoring of water availability and climate factors to effectively gauge the severity of drought in your community. The following actions can help monitor the drought conditions in your community and also provides emergency response actions to take when drought is severe. Take Action: • Develop an emergency drought rating system that corresponds to your jurisdiction’s water supply. • Adopt water use constrictions. • Establish water hauling programs. • Provide emergency water to domestic well users. • Implement water use restrictions during water emergencies.
WELLOWNER.ORG Private well owners need to be informed about their well’s health and functionality, wellowner.org provides basic information on wells, drought, and tools for regular maintenance.
JOSHUA BASIN, CALIFORNIA WATER DISTRICT WATER HAULING PROGRAM Joshua Tree has areas that remain unconnected to the municipal water system. Water “hauling” remains a second option for obtaining potable water. Web Address: www.jbwd.com/customer-service/waterhauling/
UPPER COLORADO RIVER REGIONAL DROUGHT EARLY- WARNING SYSTEM
SAFFORD, ARIZONA WATER USE RESTRICTIONS The City of Safford has emergency water use restrictions in place when the municipality declares a water emergency. The restrictions indicate that water customers may water no more than two days a week based on a schedule. Web address: www.cityofsafford. us/index.aspx?NID=411
The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) selected the Upper Colorado River basin to pilot the first drought early-warning and information system in the United States. The NIDIS works with the Colorado Climate Center (CCC) on monitoring efforts as well as the development of an early-warning system. This earlywarning system provides timely and effective information that allows communities to prepare for drought, and reduce vulnerability to drought conditions. The NIDIS and the CCC continue to talk with stakeholders and evaluate the system to provide an accessible, “one-stop-shop” data resource. The U.S. Drought Monitor is a national collaborative effort that provides a weekly map of drought conditions for regions in the United States. Web Address: http:// droughtmonitor.unl.edu/
U.S. Drought Monitor Map Intermountain West DEWS As of January 5, 2017 None: No Drought D0: Abnormally Dry D1: Moderate Drought D2: Severe Drought D3: Extreme Drought D4: Exceptional Drought
Source: David Miskus, NOAA/NWS/NCEP/CPC
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT HOMEOWNER ASSISTANCE AND PUBLIC EDUCATION
Community action taken under this category includes providing information and publications to the general public and homeowners to help reduce water consumption and provide general information about drought risks; homeowner assistance and direct assistance for water audits; public outreach demonstration projects such as a waterwise garden and educational materials, fact sheets, and brochures. Take Action: • Add drought and water conservation tips onto website. • Mail educational material on drought, water supply, and water conservation to property owners. • Provide materials and assistance to homeowners to get leaks fixed, to reduce water waste in the community. • Develop drought public education campaign with long-term and short-term strategies. • Create a water wise demonstration garden and/or xeriscape garden. • Provide a list of drought tolerant plants to residents.
SAVE WATER SANTA FE WEBSITE Created by the City of Santa Fe Water Conservation Office, this website is a one-stop resource for anyone interested in learning more about drought management, water saving tips, and searching for incentives that the city and county offers to residents wanting to upgrade to water efficient appliances. Web Address: http://savewatersantafe.com/
CALIFORNIA WATER AWARENESS CAMPAIGN The California Water Awareness Campaign is a yearlong effort by organizations throughout California to heighten public awareness about the conservation, supply, quality, and distribution of water. Web Address: http://saveourwater.com/ CITY OF GLENDORA, CALIFORNIA EXTREMELY WATER WISE DEMONSTRATION GARDEN The Glendora Library installed the city’s first water wise demonstration garden. There are three garden sections: sun, shade, and hummingbird. The plants were donated by a local greenhouse. The garden was created to encourage residents to discover the many diverse and beautiful drought tolerant plants available. Web Address: www.ci.glendora.ca.us/departmentsservices/planning/environmental-services/droughttolerant-landscaping
TEXAS WATER DEVELOPMENT BOARD WATER
CONSERVING TIPS BROCHURE Tips to residents about ways to conserve water inside and outside of your home. Web Address: http://www.twdb.texas.gov/publications/ brochures/conservation/index.asp ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF WATER DROUGHT TOLERANT/ LOW WATER USE PLANT LISTS The Arizona Department of Water Resources publishes extensive lists of native, drought-tolerant and low wateruse plants, trees, and shrubs. The lists are customized for a variety of elevations in Arizona. Also there are specialized lists for Tucson, which is 1,100 feet higher in elevation than the Phoenix area, and for Santa Cruz County, which is at a higher altitude and features a different set of flora. Web Address: www.azwater.gov/azdwr/ WaterManagement/AMAs/LowWaterUsePlantList.htm
DENVER WATER FREE WATER AUDITS Denver Water offers free water audits in order to educate users how their water is used and areas where it can be saved. Web Address: http://www.denverwater.org/ Conservation/single-family-residential-audits/
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT REGULATORY AND PLANNING ACTIVITIES
Regulations exist at both the city and county level. Regulatory and planning activities include drought management plans, water restrictions, landscaping and building codes. Take Action: • Create a drought management plan. • Adopt landscape watering restrictions for water customers, which include mandatory seasonal scheduling and time of day restrictions. • Adopt watering restrictions on community use recreational turf areas. • Adopt outdoor water use restrictions, including vehicle and equipment washing. • Create landscape development codes for new construction. • Adopt conservation provisions for golf course irrigation. • Adopt an emergency water conservation ordinance. • Adopt regulations for man-made lakes, ornamental fountains and other water features. • Research and, if appropriate, develop drought surcharge rates. • Create a monetary penalty system for water waste during high drought times. • Develop incentives and rebates for residents to reduce water consumption, replace existing non-water efficient appliances, and even replace non-native vegetation such as grass. • Coordinate a regional drought management task force made up of city and county staff, additional stakeholders, and experts to work on water and drought issues. • Offer free or discounted water-use audits for property owners.
DROUGHT READY COMMUNITIES – A GUIDE TO COMMUNITY DROUGHT PREPAREDNESS The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) is the go-to resource on anything to do with Drought Planning. The website offers introductory information on key concepts around drought and a list of state and local drought plans to review. This guide provides a step by step process for preparing a community for drought. Web Address: http://drought.unl.edu/Planning/ PlanningProcesses/DroughtReadyCommunities.aspx
SAMPLE OF A MUNICIPAL DROUGHT MANAGEMENT PLAN This is an example of a community drought management plan and what is included, if your municipality is interested in creating your own. Web Address: http://cwcb.state.co.us/technicalresources/drought-planning-toolbox/Pages/%C2%ADDrou ghtPlanningResources.aspx NATIONAL DROUGHT MITIGATION AND MONITORING RESOURCES The NDMC has worked closely with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) on the U.S. Drought Portal (www.drought.gov/drought/). As well as workshops and webinars for stakeholders, planners, and scientists, a national drought forum, and the establishment of regional drought early-warning systems. Web Address: www.drought.gov/drought/content/regionalprograms/regional-drought-early-warning-system
AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA) INFORMATION ON DROUGHT SURCHARGE & RATES Chapter five of the AWWA publication titled Principles of Water Rates, Fees and Charges (2012) provides a comprehensive look at Drought Surcharge Rates and what that means to a water supplier. Web Address: www.awwa.org/portals/0/files/ publications/documents/samples/M1WaterRates-ChV3. pdf 50
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT CASE STUDIES
LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA DROUGHTTOLERANT LANDSCAPING CODE The purpose of the code is to establish minimum standards for the design and installation of landscape, using drought-tolerant plants and native plants that require minimal use of water. These requirements will ensure that the county conserves water resources by requiring landscape that is appropriate to the region’s climate and nature of the use. This code is applicable to all new construction. Web Address: http://planning.lacounty.gov/green
SOUTHERN NEVADA WATER AUTHORITY DROUGHT PLAN LANDSCAPE WATERING The Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) was formed in 1991 by a cooperatives agreement among seven water and wastewater agencies in Southern Nevada. The SNWA Drought Plan was adopted in 2003 and later updated in 2007. The plan has strict landscape watering restrictions which include mandatory seasonal scheduling and time of day restrictions (see below). Drought Watch
Winter (Nov - Feb)
One Assigned Day per Week
One Assigned Day per Week
Spring (Mar - Apr)
3 Assigned Days per Week + Sunday Optional
3 Assigned Days per Week
Summer (May - Aug)
Fall (Sept - Oct)
3 Assigned Days per Week + Sunday Optional
3 Assigned Days per Week
CITY OF TUCSON EMERGENCY WATER CONSERVATION ORDINANCE In order to ensure Tucson Water can maintain adequate water supplies to provide for life safety and fire protection, an Emergency Water Conservation Ordinance was approved by the Mayor and Council in 1995. The Ordinance gives the Council, the Mayor, or his/her designated, the authority to declare a water emergency and to implement mandatory water conservation measures targeting non-essential uses. While a water emergency may never occur, it is prudent to have measures in place which allow the City to prohibit non-essential water use to protect public health and safety. Web Address: http://water.tucsonaz.gov/water/ emergency-ord
The SNWA Drought Plan outlines specific watering restrictions for golf courses. The plan states that “golf courses are required to comply with water budgeting policies in lieu of specific water schedules” (SWNA Drought Plan, 2007). Web Address: www.snwa.com/consv/restrictions.html DENVER WATER OUTDOOR WATER USE RESTRICTIONS Denver Water has adopted a Drought Response Plan that provides a framework for addressing drought. Four levels of drought severity are defined, based on various drought indicators. The basic response to a Stage 1 drought is voluntary; Stage 2 drought results in mandatory restrictions; Stage 3 drought imposes prohibitions on lawn watering; and water rationing stems from Stage 4 drought. Section 15.02.7 of the Ordinance is related to washing of vehicles/equipment. Web Address: www.denverwater.org/OperatingRules/ OperRules15/
DENVER WATER OUTDOOR WATER FEATURE RESTRICTIONS DURING TIMES OF DROUGHT Denver Water has an ordinance that regulates the use of outdoor water features during times of drought in the region. The ordinance states: Customers shall be prohibited from operating any existing outdoor fountain or waterfall that sprays water into the air and the operation of outdoor misting devices shall be prohibited (Ordinance Section 15.02.6). Web Address: www.denverwater.org/OperatingRules/ OperRules15/
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT SOUTHERN NEVADA WATER AUTHORITY DROUGHT PLAN WATER WASTE ENFORCEMENT PENALTIES The SNWA developed a system of penalties that the cities and counties can enforce during No Drought, Drought Watch and Drought Alert times (these categorizations were developed by the SNWA). Web Address: www.snwa.com/consv/restrictions.html CITY OF AUSTIN REBATES The City of Austin offers extensive rebates to residents who want to reduce their water consumption and replace non water efficient appliances, among other things. For a complete list of the rebates for residential customers and business visit the web address below. Web Address: www.austintexas.gov/department/waterconservation-rebates BUTTE COUNTY, CA DROUGHT TASK FORCE A task force was formed to help create and implement the County Drought Plan. The task force monitors hydrologic conditions throughout the water year and reports the findings to the Water Commission and the Board of Supervisors annually in non drought situations, and biannually, quarterly, or monthly as a drought progresses. Web Address: www.buttecounty.net/ waterresourceconservation/DroughtInformation.aspx CITY OF LAS VEGAS WATER SMART LANDSCAPES REBATE Las Vegas offers residents a rebate to replace their existing grass lawns. The Water Smart Landscapes Rebate offers to upgrade grass to water-smart landscaping receive a rebate of up to $1.50 per square foot of grass converted to xeriscape. Web Address: www.lvvwd.com/conservation/ws_ rebates.html
Visit www.EPA.gov/watersense to learn more about the EPA Watersense program and find rebates near you! FIX A LEAK WEEK FROM EPA WATERSENSE Program Fix a Leak Week, which runs each year in March, was created to help show people that finding and fixing household leaks - inside and outside - saves water and reduces water and energy costs. This initiative is a part of the Environmental Protection Agency WaterSense program. Web Address: www.epa.gov/watersense/our_water/ fix_a_leak.html 52
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
DROUGHT MANAGEMENT ACTION CHECKLIST EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND MONITORING
o Develop a emergency drought rating system that corresponds to your jurisdictionâ€™s water supply. o Establish a water hauling program. o Provide emergency water to domestic well users.
HOMEOWNER ASSISTANCE AND PUBLIC OUTREACH o o o o o o
Add drought and water conservation tips onto website. Mail educational material on drought, water supply and water conservation to property owners. Provide materials and assistance to homeowners to get leaks fixed, to reduce water waste in the community. Develop drought public education campaign with long-term and short-term strategies. Create a water wise demonstration garden and/or xerioscape garden. Provide a list of drought tolerant plants to residents.
REGULATORY AND PLANNING ACTIVITIES
o Create a drought management plan. o Adopt landscape watering restrictions for water customers, which includes mandatory seasonal scheduling and time of day restrictions. o Adopt watering restrictions on community use recreational turf areas. o Adopt outdoor water use restrictions, including vehicle and equipment washing . o Create landscaping development codes for new construction. o Adopt conservation provisions for golf course irrigation. o Adopt an emergency water conservation ordinance. o Adopt regulations for man-made lakes, ornamental fountains and other water features. o Research and, if appropriate, develop drought surcharge rates. o Create a monetary penalty system for water waste during high drought times. o Develop incentives and rebates for residents to reduce water consumption and replace existing non-water efficient appliances. o Coordinate a regional drought management task force made up of city staff, county staff, additional stakeholders and experts to work on water and drought issues. o Offer free or discounted water-use audits for property owners.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
FLOOD UNIT INTRODUCTION TO FLOODING
These communities must meet certain guidelines and are generally more prepared for flood events than communities that do not participate in the NFIP. The NFIP planning efforts focus on areas known as 100year flood zones, which are more accurately described as areas that have a 1-percent (1/100) chance of being flooded in any given year. The NFIP designates Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) where the purchase of flood insurance is required under the NFIP.
Changes in climate patterns have increased the frequency of extreme storms across the US. In the west riverine floodplains and alluvial fans, flash flood events are a particular concern. When a large amount of precipitation falls in a short time period, there is a risk of flooding. Through the Southwest (including Arizona, Utah, and Colorado) the amount of precipitation falling during the heaviest storm events has increased 5% since 1958, and further north (including Wyoming and Montana) the precipitation falling has increased 16%11. Impervious surfaces, compacted soils, and degraded ecosystems can exacerbate flood risk; and correspond consecutively with urbanization, drought, and wildfire. Urbanization can increase flooding due to the removal of vegetation and increased impervious surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. Severe storm events are expected even in periods of drought, when soil is too compacted reducing infliltration rates and increasing runoff. Simillarly, wildfires are also occurring more frequently, which amplify flood effects by removing vegetation that helps to trap and slow rainfall. Climate models show precipitation during severe storms events is likely to exceed the capacity of current flood control systems, which further compound the issues communities need to address through climate resiliency planning efforts.
Natural floodplains may extend well beyond the NFIP designated SFHAs, so communities should also consider preparing for flooding that occurs in areas outside the SFHAs. In addition, climate trends indicate flood events that, are less likely to occur each year but result in more severe impacts. While the NFIP provides means to protect property, communities must also consider the social and health impacts associated with flooding. These impacts can be addressed through a proactive approach to floodplain management, which often requires collaboration across multiple departments within a single community.
Every community experiences flooding differently depending on their location, development patterns, infrastructure, vegetation, and level of preparedness. It is up to individual communities to determine the appropriate scope of their local flood management efforts. Property owners can purchase federally backed flood insurance in communities that are a part of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). 54
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
FLOOD MANAGEMENT & RECOVERY ACTIONS
Creating community resilience to flooding involves implementing measures to best manage, and recover from flood events. The goal of flood management efforts are to reduce susceptibility to flood damage and minimize social and health impacts to the community. Identifying the high risk areas and vulnerable assets in those areas is the first step in developing flood resilience. Traditional management efforts have focused on elevating structures located in SFHAs for the primary purpose of reducing property damage. However, emerging strategies such as low impact development have additional benefits such as storm water management, water quality improvement, and habitat protection.12 Both traditional and emerging management measures can maximize resilience and improve overall quality of life.
The Flood Unit provides an examination of flood management actions typically found in Flood Management Plans, flood planning activities, and audience tailored communications materials. A checklist of all the actions is located at the end of this chapter. If your community is already a member of the NFIP and their Community Rating System (CRS) then you are likely doing many of these actions. Additionally, if you are a part of the CRS, in particular, your community can get “credit” for going above and beyond the NFIP minimum requirements. This “credit” can provide additional discounts on your community flood insurance premiums among other things. Therefore we encourage you to evaluate the actions and strategies your community is already doing and those that are left to implement. For more information on joining the NFIP and the CRS, visit: www.fema.gov/national-flood-insurance-program The major sections in this unit include:12 • Flood Risk Assessment and Mapping • Regulatory and Planning Activities • Emergency Response, Management, and Recovery • Homeowner Assistance and Public Education
Not all floods are prevented and therefore effective recovery after a flood is critical. Recovery efforts include helping those displaced from their homes and rebuilding property and infrastructure. Last but not least, planners should document the flood events that have occurred in their community as a means to understand their vulnerabilities and improve their planning efforts for future flood events. Walsh, J. et al., 2014: Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 19-67. doi:10.7930/J0KW5CXT. 12 Wright, J., 2007. Floodplain Management: Principles and Current Practices. Federal Emergency Management Agency Emergency Management Institute. 12
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT & MAPPING
Floodplains in the west are typically associated with rivers or valleys. Riverine floodplains are often flat, and were once deemed as prime development areas before flood cycles were well understood. A natural floodplain does not always align with the SFHAs that are mapped by FEMA, and it is important that communities fully understand and identify their local floodplains. This can be accomplished by mapping natural areas around rivers and washes. However, across the country continued growth pressure has pushed development out of the urban core and into hazardous (and often scenic) areas, such as the floodplain and the wildland urban interface. More people living in the floodplain means more people at serious risk when flooding occurs. In addition, critical infrastructure such as wastewater treatment plants should not be located in flood prone areas. In some cases critical infrastructure has been in place for decades and may pre-date modern floodplain management practices. Risk assessment and mapping helps determine what services and planning steps are needed and on what scale to reduce vulnerability. In addition, implementing development standards that reduce the impacts of urbanization and create development patterns that preserve the natural functions of floodplains decrease the likelihood of worsening flood impacts resulting from growth. Take Action: • Assess FEMA floodplain maps (available through the National Flood Insurance Program). • Regularly update your community floodplain maps using best available data including FEMA floodplain maps, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauge data, and other local information. • Inventory community assets and structures located within the floodplain. • Evaluate risk to individual structures. • Evaluate assets in the most vulnerable floodplain areas. Create GIS overlays showing the assets that are in the floodzone. • Consider impacts of urbanizations by mapping changes in vegetative cover and impervious surface. • Develop maps that include natural floodplains, riparian corridors and wetland areas.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT CASE STUDY
ATLANTA, GEORGIA FLOODPLAIN CLASSIFICATION In 2013 the Atlanta, Georgia City Council enacted an ordinance establishing two types of floodplains: traditional floodplains (created by natural forces) and historically modified floodplains (created by manmade alterations to river flow). New floodplain maps have been created by augmenting existing FEMA floodplain maps to reflect these new categories. The maps classify the floodplain in three ways: decreased floodplain risk, moderate floodplain risk, and high floodplain risk. These maps have all been made available online as Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs), enabling homeowners to make more informed choices. Web Address: http://map.georgiadfirm.com/
FEMA FLOOD MAP SERVICE CENTER Database of flood maps from across America. Maps can be looked up by coordinate, address, place name, and zip code. Maps display areas vulnerable to flooding, including areas likely to be affected by the 100-year flood event. Web Address: msc.fema.gov/portal NFIP FLOOD INSURANCE LIBRARY Contains several manuals and handbooks. The Definitions and Summary of Coverage sections, are helpful to property owners trying to understand their flood coverage, and look up the Community Rating System if your community is interested in participating in the program. Web Address: www.fema.gov/nationalflood-insurance-program/flood-insurance-library AQUEDUCT GLOBAL FLOOD ANALYZER This tool shown on the left, provides a starting point to communities looking to assess flood damage and cost. Flood analysis can be performed by country, state, and basin. Features of the tool include: • Expected change in cost due to climate change • Effect on gross domestic product • Population affected. Web Address: http://floods.wri. org/#/
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT REGULATORY & PLANNING ACTIVITIES
A GUIDE TO THE GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE PORTFOLIO STANDARDS (GIPS) & BUILDING STORMWATER RETROFITS GIPS for communities builds stormwater retrofits that cost effectively scale up green infrastructure in developed urban areas to substantially reduce the volume of stormwater runoff and pollutants that enter the sewer system. Web Address: www. sustainablecitiesinstitute.org/Documents/SCI/Report_ Guide/Guide_CNT_UpgradeYourInfrastructure_2012.pdf
Regulatory and planning activities include flood safety plans, zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, flood proofing activities, and building codes as well as other laws and regulations on municipal, county, state, and federal levels. Take Action: • Restrict development in zones at high risk for flooding, especially of critical structures and residential areas. • Utilize “grey” infrastructure such as bridges, culverts, channels, and canals. • Ensure that flood proofing methods, such as dikes, dams, and levees, are adequately maintained and complemented by appropriate flood effect standards. • Include green infrastructure requirements in development standards. • Designate open space or conservation areas along river corridors and in other flood conveyance areas. • Plan for relocation of essential city services and infrastructure out of floodplains. • Adopt building and construction standards such as floodproofing and elevating structures. • When appropriate, remove structures or purchase property within a high flood hazard area.
FEMA BUILDING CODE RESOURCES These specifically address the 2015, 2012, and 2009 International Codes® (I-Codes), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 24 referenced standard, Flood Resistant Design and Construction, and the NFIP requirements. Web Address: https://www.fema.gov/ building-code-resources U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAM The USACE Flood Risk Management Program (FRMP) works across the agency to focus the policies, programs and expertise of USACE toward reducing overall flood risk. Web Address: www.iwr.usace.army.mil/Missions/ FloodRiskManagement/FloodRiskManagementProgram. aspx
data Tracking & Flood Risk monitoring
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT RESOURCES
FEDERAL GRANTS FEMA Flood Mitigation Assistance (FMA) program provides funding to improve the resilience of NFIP insured buildings. Grants are available in three categories: 1. Preparation of flood mitigation plans 2. Projects to reduce flood losses such as elevating or relocating structures 3. Management/Administration of FMA program activities.
NORMAN, OK GREEN SPACE ORDINANCE The city of Norman, Oklahoma utilizes open spaces to provide flood storage and conveyance, reduce flood peaks and velocities, and improve water quality through natural filtration while providing habitat for wildlife and maintaining aesthetic beauty. In order to augment flood mitigation as well as aesthetic value, the City Council enacted Ordinance No. O-0809-3, which mandates that all lots and parcels located within the floodplain and not part of an existing building envelope must be permanently preserved as open space. Web Address: www.ci.norman.ok.us/content/floodhazard-protection
Individual homeowners and businesses may apply through sub-applicants, such as local communities and state agencies, which apply through direct applicants, such as states or territories. Web Address: https://www.fema.gov/flood-mitigationassistance-grant-program
SUSTAINABLE DC WASHINGTON, D.C.’s PLAN Sustainable DC calls for 2 million square feet of green roofs (roofs topped with vegetation designed to absorb stormwater), increased use of green infrastructure along public rights of way, 25 miles of green alleys (alleys with permeable surfaces that recharge local water sources), and establishment of pervious surface minimums in targeted zoning districts, all of which are to help “relieve pressure on stormwater infrastructure and reduce long-term flood risk”. Web Address: http:// www.sustainabledc.org/about/sustainable-dc-plan/
Sample Project Descriptions: https://www.fema.gov/ project-description-samples The FEMA Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program is designed to reduce reliance on federal funds in case of a disaster through hazard mitigation projects. Projects eligible for funding in this category reduce overall risk to people as well as to structures. The application structure is the same as that of the FMA program. Web Address: https://www.fema.gov/pre-disastermitigation-grant-program The FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grant Program provides funds for reconstruction and implementation of longterm infrastructure following a disaster. Such projects contribute to direct relief in wake of the flood and help communities rebuild with resilience for the future. State, local, and tribal governments as well as private non-profits may apply for these funds. Web Address: https://www.fema.gov/hazard-mitigationgrant-program
DENVER, CO CRITICAL FACILITY FLOODPLAIN REQUIREMENTS ORDINANCE The City of Denver defines a critical facility as a “structure or related infrastructure…that if flooded may result in significant hazards to public health and safety or interrupt essential services and operations for the community.” Under this ordinance, critical facilities take priority over other structures. Protective measures include re-location outside of the regulatory floodplain, elevation of the lowest floor (including basement and all equipment) with at least two feet of freeboard, dry floodproofing with at least two feet of freeboard, and continuous access during flood conditions. Web Address: http://cwcb.state.co.us/Documents/ FloodplainRulesRegsUpdate/CWCB_Adptd_FP_Rules_ BasisPurp_%2011172010.pdf
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT EMERGENCY RESPONSE, MANAGEMENT, & RECOVERY
A flash flood can be difficult to prepare for because they happen within a short period of time after a rainfall event or in some cases following a sudden release of water held by an ice or debris jam. Effective regulation and planning makes a tremendous difference in the efficacy of emergency response to these types of events. Other critical factors include communication, both with emergency responders and the general public, and a detailed flood safety plan. After a flood event it is critical to have a plan in place to assist with recovery and rebuild what was damaged or destroyed. The following actions can help ensure that your community is able to withstand a flood emergency. Take Action: • Review existing emergency plans, especially looking for potential communication issues and permanent evacuation measures. • Schedule regular practice drills and tests of communication systems. • Establish regular communication with the public on weather issues. • Set up a flooding/severe weather alert system through different media including news, radio, internet, and cell phones. • Thoroughly document flood events and their aftermath to improve the plan for the future. • Develop a plan or programs for recovery in the event of a flood.
RAISING FLOOD AWARENESS AND SELF-EFFICACY: FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT A SUCCESSFUL SOCIAL MARKETING PROGRAMME This New Zealand report details effective methods for running campaigns to increase flood awareness and preparedness through social marketing. It also surveys existing programs throughout the UK as well as flood risk management strategies. Web Address: www.floodaware.com/topics/final_report_activity_2.pdf
COMMUNITY RECOVERY MANAGEMENT TOOLKIT FEMA RESOURCES FOR POST-DISASTER RECOVERY Resources to plan for post-disaster recovery assist communities in assessing local needs in recovery, carrying out a recovery planning process, and determining projects to support the community’s future vision and priorities. The Community Recovery Management Toolkit is a compilation of guidance, case studies, tools, and training to assist local communities in managing long-term recovery following a disaster. The materials provided in this toolkit are aimed at providing guidance and resources to help local officials and community leaders to lead, organize, plan for, and manage the complex issues of post-disaster recovery. Web Address: www.fema.gov/national-disasterrecovery-framework/community-recovery-managementtoolkit
CALIFORNIA SAMPLE FLOOD SAFETY PLAN This resource provides templates and examples of acceptable flood safety and emergency response plans, as well as some California-specific issues such as legal challenges and local agency recommendations that may also serve non-California users. Web Address: www. water.ca.gov/floodmgmt/hafoo/fob/rass/Sample_Flood_ Safety_Plan/safetyplan.cfm 60
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT HOMEOWNER ASSISTANCE & PUBLIC EDUCATION
Few Americans believe their home is at risk of flooding, but a majority of Americans have taken at least one step to reduce their flood risk, typically citing a desire to keep themselves and family members safe as the reason. Homeowners can be motivated to take these steps through regulations, information, and financial assistance. Take Action • Regularly evaluate building codes in conjunction with flood risk information to ensure that homes are built at sufficient elevation and have appropriate drainage facilities. • Regularly update and enforce septic and well codes to prevent sewage backups. • Create a guide to familiarize homeowners with sources of funding for flood infrastructure projects. • Gauge community interest in flood planning and identify potential community leaders to participate in a community-based initiative. • Provide resources to educate residents how to recover from a flood event. • Educate the community about the flood warning and alert system.
FLOODSMART COMMUNITY RESOURCES Create materials for the public. Simulators, cost calculator tools, and other resources are available for use on local websites for incorporation into plans and other materials. Web Address: www.floodsmart.gov/ floodsmart/pages/partner/tools_resources.jsp
READY COLORADO The State of Colorado has established emergency preparedness communication with the public through, its ReadyCOLORADO website. The site includes various social media outreach efforts, such as a blog and Twitter account, allowing residents to stay up to date on preparedness measures and the status of emergencies. Also featured on the website are several example plans to help homeowners assemble and execute their own preparedness plans as well as a hazard map, allowing residents to evaluate their own levels of vulnerability. Web Address: www.readycolorado.com/
BOULDER COUNTY FLOOD RECOVERY GUIDE The resource guide includes financial assistance options, Flood Rebuilding & Permit Information Center, debris cleanup information, health and safety resources, information about their home buy-out program. Web Address: www.bouldercounty.org/doc/flood/ floodrecoveryguide.pdf
PHILADELPHIA, PA EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PUBLIC OUTREACH The City of Philadelphia has one of the best emergency preparedness programs in the country, including highly effective communication with citizens. The website also includes interactive, user-friendly tools for estimating potential flood damage to homes and instructional videos featuring emergency preparedness officials. Web Address: https://beta.phila.gov/departments/oem/
COLORADO FLOOD INSURANCE GUIDE This document briefly summarizes what residents need to know about flood insurance. Topics cover, who needs flood insurance, how to figure out if you do, and what flood insurance covers, how to purchase flood insurance, and how the cost can vary. Web Address: http://cdn.colorado. gov/cs/Satellite/DORA-DI/CBON/ 61
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
FLOOD MANAGEMENT ACTION CHECKLIST
FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT & MAPPING
o Assess FEMA floodplain maps (available through the National Flood Insurance Program). o Regularly update your community floodplain maps using best available data including FEMA floodplain maps, USGS stream gauge data, and other local information. o Inventory community assets and critical structures located within the floodplain. o Evaluate risk to individual structures. o Evaluate assets in the most vulnerable floodplain areas. Create GIS overlays showing the assets that are in the floodzone. o Consider impacts of urbanizations by mapping changes in vegetative cover and impervious surface. o Develop maps that include natural floodplains, riparian corridors and wetland areas.
REGULATORY & PLANNING ACTIVITIES
o Restrict development in zones at high risk for flooding, especially of critical structures and residential areas. o Utilize â€œgreyâ€? infrastructure such as bridges, culverts, channels, and canals. o Ensure that flood proofing methods, such as dikes, dams, and levees, are adequately maintained and complemented by appropriate flood effect management standards. o Include green infrastructure requirements in development standards. o Designate open space or conservation areas along river corridors and in other flood conveyance areas. o Plan for relocation of essential city services and infrastructure out of floodplains. o Adopt building and construction standards such as floodproofing and elevating structures. o When appropriate, remove structures or purchase property within a high flood hazard area.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE, MANAGEMENT, & RECOVERY
o Review existing emergency plans, especially looking for potential communication issues and permanent evacuation measures. o Schedule regular practice drills and tests of communication systems. o Establish regular communication with the public on weather issues. o Set up a flooding and severe weather alert system through different media including news, radio, internet, and cell phones. o Thoroughly document flood events and their aftermath to improve the plan for the future. o Develop a plan or programs for recovery in the event of a flood.
HOMEOWNER ASSISTANCE & PUBLIC EDUCATION
o Regularly evaluate building codes in conjunction with flood risk information to ensure that homes are built at sufficient elevation and have appropriate drainage facilities. o Regularly update and enforce septic and well codes to prevent sewage backups. o Create a guide to familiarize homeowners with sources of funding for flood infrastructure projects. o Gauge community interest in flood planning and identify potential community leaders to participate in a community-based mitigation initiative. o Educate the community about the flood warning and alert system. o Provide information and resources to educate residents how to recover from a flood event. 62
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
GLOSSARY OF TERMS ADAPTIVE CAPACITY Adaptive capacity is the ability of a person, institution, system, or community to adjust and re-adjust as conditions shift and change, such as a more unpredictable climate.
CLIMATE VARIABILITY Climate variability refers to the climatic parameter of a region varying from its long-term mean. Every year in a specific time period, the climate of a location is different. See climate change and global warming.
CLIMATE Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the â€œaverage weather,â€? or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands of years. The classical period is three decades, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization. These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.
COMMUNITY WILDFIRE PROTECTION PLANS Local wildfire protection plans can take a variety of forms, based on the needs of the people involved in their development. Community Wildfire Protection Plans may address issues such as wildfire response, hazard management, community preparedness, structure protection, or all of the above. DROUGHT A drought is a period of unusually dry weather that persists long enough to cause environmental or economic problems, such as crop damage and water supply shortages. There are three differnt types of drought: 1. Meteorological Drought is what we think of most often in relation to precipitation, assessing the degree of dryness (in comparison to a local or regional average) and the duration of the dry period, which is highly specific to a region as average percipitation may vary considerably place to place. 2. Hydrological Drought is how decreased precipitation affects streamflow, soil moisture, reservoir and lake levels, and groundwater recharge. 3. Agricultural Drought is when availabe water supplies are not able to meet crop water demands for a variety of reasons, including low precipitation, timing of water availability, or decrease access to water supplies.
CLIMATE ADAPTATION Climate adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that occur over several decades or longer. CLIMATE MITIGATION Climate mitigation is any action taken to eliminate or reduce the long-term risk and hazards of climate change to human life and property. 63
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT For instance, earlier snowmelt may not change the total quantity of water available but can lead to earlier runoff that is out of phase with peak water demand in the summer. Thus, it is possible to suffer an agricultural drought in the absence of a meteorological drought.
GREENHOUSE GAS EFFECT Greenhouse gas effect is the trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the Earth’s surface. Some of the heat flowing back toward space from the Earth’s surface is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the atmosphere and then reradiated back toward the Earth’s surface. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases rise, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will gradually increase.
DROUGHT TOLERANT PLANTS A drought-tolerant plant is quite different form a truly xeric one. A drought-tolerant/resistant plant uses a survival mechanism, such as defoliating or going dormant, to survive abnormally dry conditions, but it needs moisture to resume its normal lifestyle (flowering, setting seed, looking great).
INTERMOUNTAIN WEST The Intermountain West, or Intermountain Region, is a geographic and geological region of western North America, in the Western United States. It is located between the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada on the west.
FIRE RESISTANT PLANTS In spite of the fallibility of lists of “fire-resistant” or “fire-prone” plants, there are some general guidelines that do relate to species selection. Plants with fine foliage have a high surface-to-volume ratio and there fore are more quickly heated through to an ignition temperature than are larger leaves. Conversely, plants with larger, thicker leaves are slower to ignite. Plants with resinous sap are chemically more volatile than plants with watery sap. Conifers (except for redwoods) are generally fairly flammable. Species that accumulate dry litter are a hazard. But even these guidelines are relatively minor factors in reducing flammability.
PRESCRIBED FIRE (ALSO KNOWN AS CONTROLLED FIRE) Prescribed fire is the knowledgeable and controlled application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish planned resource management objectives. These fires are managed in such a way as to minimize the emission of smoke and maximize the benefits to the site. RESILIENCE/RESILIENCY A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment.
GLOBAL WARMING A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. See climate change and climate variability.
VULNERABILITY Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed; its sensitivity; and its adaptive capacity.
GREENHOUSE GAS Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT WATER CONSERVATION Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies, and activities to manage water as a sustainable resource, to protect the water environment, and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used in a community. WATER RESTRICTIONS An outdoor water-use restriction is a ban or other lesser restrictions put into effect that restricts the outdoor use of water supplies. It can affect the irrigation of lawns, car washing, recreational uses such as filling swimming pools and using water slides, planting of grass or control of the types of grass planted, and hosing down pavement areas. WILDFIRE A wildfire, or forest fire, is a large, uncontrolled fire that can burn through brush and forest, with the possibility of endangering homes and other structures in surrounding communities. The difference between a wildfire and a prescribed fire, sometimes referred to as a controlled burn, is that a wildfire is unplanned, unpredictable, and dangerous while a prescribed fire is started deliberately by professionals under specific circumstances to reduce the risk of a catastrophic wildfire or generally improve the forest ecosystem. WILDLAND URBAN INTERFACE Wildland urban interface (WUI) is defined as areas where homes are built near or among lands prone to wildland fire. XERISCAPE (XERISCAPING) Xersiscape (also known as xeriscaping) is a style of landscape design requiring little or no irrigation or other maintenance, used in arid regions.
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT
WEBSITES FOR FURTHER READING CASE STUDIES
• Webinar: Climate Change Preparedness Planning - Web Address: https://sonoraninstitute. org/?s=webinar • British Columbia Climate Action Toolkit: Sustainability Checklist - Web Address: http://www. toolkit.bc.ca/tool/sustainability-checklist • Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments – Chapter 5 build and maintain support to prepare for climate change (PDF Download) Web Address: https:// cig.uw.edu/publications/preparing-for-climatechange-a-guidebook-for-local-regional-and-stategovernments/
• Successful Communities Online Toolkit information exchange (SCOTie) - Web Address: www.scotie.org • EPA Climate Showcase Communities Program Web Address: https://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/ climate-showcase-communities-program
CHAPTER ONE • EPA Climate Showcase Communities Program - Web Address: https://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/ climate-showcase-communities-program • NOAA Regional Climate Centers (RCCs) - Web Address: www.ncdc.noaa.gov/customer-support/ partnerships/regional-climate-centers • EPA Climate Change Impacts by State - Web Address: https://www.epa.gov/climate-impacts/ climate-change-impacts-state • Yale Project on Climate Change Communications: Extreme Weather, Climate & Preparedness - Web Address: http://environment.yale.edu/climatecommunication/article/extreme-weather-climatepreparedness/ • EPA Climate Change Impacts and Adapting to Change - Web Address: https://www.epa.gov/ climate-impacts • Georgetown Adaptation Clearinghouse - Web Address: www.georgetownclimate.org/adaptation/ clearinghouse
CHAPTER THREE • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation: How to Set Up a Climate Smart Coordinator or Task Force - Web Address: www.dec. ny.gov/energy/65489.html • Vermont Energy and Climate Action Network: The Town Energy and Climate Action Guide - Web Address: www.vecan.net/forming-and-maintaininga-town-energy-committee/ CHAPTER FOUR • National Climactic Data Center - Web Address: www. ncdc.noaa.gov/ • United States Drought Monitor - Web Address: http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/
CHAPTER TWO • Lessons Learned: Creating the Chicago Climate Action Plan (PDF Download) Web Address: https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/progs/ env/climateaction.html 66
RESILIENT COMMUNITIES STARTER KIT DROUGHT RELATED • Union of Concerned Scientists Web Address: http:// www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_ impacts/impacts/causes-of-drought-climate-changeconnection.html#.WG-984WcGUk
CHAPTER FIVE • Webinar: Climate Change Preparedness Planning - Web Address: https://sonoraninstitute. org/?s=webinar
WILDFIRE RELATED • Union of Concerned Scientists Wildfire Infographics Web Address: http://www.ucsusa.org/global_ warming/science_and_impacts/impacts/infographicwildfires-climate-change.html#.WG_3D4WcGUk • Fire-Resistent Landscaping Web Address: http:// www.cnps.org/cnps/conservation/pdf/fire/ frem38.2_38.3_schettler.pdf • California Wildfire Mitigation Guide Web Address: http://ucanr.edu/sites/Wildfire/
CHAPTER SEVEN • EcoAmerica’s Communicating on Climate 13 Steps and Guiding Principles - http://ecoamerica.org/ research/#13steps • ICLEI Climate Communication for Local Governments - Web Address: http://icleiusa.org/ publications/#guidebooks • George Mason Center for Climate Change Communications - Web Address: www. climatechangecommunication.org/ • Yale Project on Climate Change Communications - Web Address: http://environment.yale.edu/climatecommunication/ • Talking Climate - Web Address: http://talkingclimate. org/guides/communicating-climate-change/ • Climate Access - Web Address: http://www. climateaccess.org/tips-and-tools • Smart Chart Organizer - Web Address: http:// smartchart.org/ • Midwest Academy Resources - Web Address: http:// www.midwestacademy.com/manual/ CHAPTER EIGHT • Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments – Chapter 11: Implement your preparedness plan (PDF Download) Web Address: https:// cig.uw.edu/publications/preparing-for-climatechange-a-guidebook-for-local-regional-and-stategovernments/ • British Columbia Climate Action Toolkit: Planning and Implementation and Taking Action Section www.toolkit.bc.ca/tools • City of Los Angeles West Adams-Baldwin Hills-
The Resilient Communities Starter Kit The Resilient Communities Starter Kit explores many exciting resilient systems being created in communities across the nation that demonstrate how we can live more sustainably, and in community, while respecting Natureâ€™s limits. More than just inspiring stories, this Starter Kit contains toolsâ€”practical, tested, hands-on ways you can begin making your community more resilient.
WesternLands and Communities A Joint Ventur e of the Lincoln Institute of Land Polic y & Sonoran Institute