MA Design for Development Project: DE7 500 – Visioning a Sustainable World ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Discover Phase: Presentation Prompt Sheet ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Discover: Main focus ‐ existing literature and practice on volunteering and building social capital, as well as the attitudes, motivations, and barriers to volunteering. Chosen Definition: Volunteering '…any activity that involves spending time, unpaid, doing something that aims to benefit the environment or someone (individuals or groups) other than, or in addition to, close relatives. Central to this definition is the fact that volunteering must be a choice freely made by each individual. This can include formal activity undertaken through public, private and voluntary organisations as well as informal community participation.' (Volunteering England)
What have I learnt?
‐ Social Capital and the concept of Imagined Social Capital. “Social capital is about the value of social networks, bonding similar people and bridging between diverse people, with norms of reciprocity (Dekker and Uslaner 2001; Uslaner 2001).” ‐ Reciprocity – a relationship involving a mutual exchange. Poetically put: 'the goodwill available to individuals or groups’ and [it] is fundamentally about how people interact with each other.’ Chosen definition: 'the sum of the actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit. Social capital thus comprises both the network and the assets that may be mobilized through that network' (Nahapiet and Ghoshal 1998, p. 243). ‐ Imagined Social Capital: Notes on an emerging concept. Working paper John Field, School of Education, University of Stirling. August 2011 http://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/definition.html The important thing I’ve learnt, is that whether we’re aware of it or not, social capital is the ‘environment’ in which volunteering lives and functions. I studied both successful models of volunteering and ones that failed: for example ‐ ‐ New models can involve more than one feed‐in loop e.g. Building Value .org ‐ Non‐profit Social Enterprise – see notes ‐ New models can be embedded into existing public services e.g. Health Leads USA ‐ Community of Volunteers – see notes
The Enterprising Kitchen – the funds are generated by the product produced by the volunteers, the profits go to training the volunteers professionally. This failed though because of the economic downturn (no one bought the goods being produced).
A sense of collective community ownership e.g. tangible: venue, abstract: the project as a whole i.e. allowing the volunteers control/involvement at the co‐creation stage. Shared, collective investment in the future, collective ownership. The importance of utilising existing resources and building on them, not creating new ones. Demystifying public policy will increase volunteer (community member) understanding of how systems work: the first step to better and more diverse community participation.
‘Citizen Based Initiatives’ and ‘Citizen Sector Organizations’ (Ashoka: Innovators for the Public. A network of Social Entrepreneurs) The power of words and being defined by them, a move away from this and the connections to money or government based language and systems. ‐ Value – The Co‐Production Imperative “…money is how we are accustomed to measuring value… it effectively devalues everything that defines us as human beings. It devalues all those capacities that are not yet scarce; yet those capacities, the ones we all share, are what enable our species to survive. If something is worthless because it has no market value, look at all the universal capacities we are devaluing…” ‐ The power of micro‐volunteerism – i.e. SMS Disease Mapping and crop forecasting. Crowd Sourcing funding ‐ The power of ‘Network Science’ (World Economic Forum: Independent international organisation, network) ‐ The power of existing data and networks. A lot of data exists documenting the reason why people do/do not volunteer ‐ Be careful of qualitative stats, a lot of volunteering is unofficial, also, define what you mean by volunteering (i.e. clubs and societies for example) Rita Serghis – VP Learning and Teaching KU. Nowadays, any organization should employ network scientists/analysts who are able to map and analyse complex systems that are of importance to the organization (e.g. the organization itself, its activities, a country’s economic activities, transportation networks, research networks). Interconnectivity is beneficial but also brings in vulnerability: if you and I are connected we can share resources; meanwhile your problems can become mine and vice versa. World Economic Forum http://www.weforum.org/sessions/summary/power‐networks ‐ ‐ ‐
Time Banking ‐ Cash injection is the fundamental reason it failed in Kingston. T‐mobile pulled. Hand picking volunteers? It it right? Ethical? Successful? Practiced? Discussion with LSVF, KUSU and KU. ‘Empathy‐Altruism Hypothesis’ ‐ Find empathetic people or create an empathetic situation before you ask for help. Description: If we feel empathy towards a person who needs help, we are likely to help them in proportion to the empathy felt without any selfish thoughts. Otherwise, we will help them only if the rewards of helping them outweigh the costs.
…separating true altruism from selfish concerns can be very difficult. http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/empathy‐altruism.htm ‐ The concept of Diaspora Volunteering – could you employ this thinking on a local level to finding the right volunteers? (Brain drain situation e.g.)
Research Toi and Batson (1972) played a ‘radio station interview’ to students about a disabled person who needed help. Afterwards they received an anonymous request for help. When instructed before the experiment to be objective about what they heard, the students were much less likely to offer help than when they had been asked to focus on how the person might be feeling. ‐ Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations – ‐ If you can get someone to believe in an idea or align their values with what you want, then you have set very powerful motivation in place. Seek to make them feel good about what you want. Also minimize extrinsic motivation. So, for example, pay them fairly, then do everything to keep money out of the equation of why they come to work.
The importance of behaviour change ‐
Pro‐social Behaviours – the importance of achieving behaviour change. Behaviour change is change that can be sustained, and provides a means of measuring impact, this requires a deep understanding of those you want to change (Uscreates blog: Measuring Impact: Achieving Behaviour Change) – as opposed to achieving increased awareness alone.
Prosocial behaviour occurs when someone acts to help another person… no goal other than to help a fellow human. How do you encourage this in cities? ‐ Reciprocity Norm I give something to you or help you in any way, then you are obliged to return the favour. This norm is so powerful, it allows the initial giver to: Ask for something in return, rather than having to wait for a voluntary reciprocal act. Ask for more than was given. You can even exchange a smile for money. ‐ Personalisation in Care – can we apply this to The Volunteer? ‐ Consolidating and scaling up – is this the correct conclusion? Volunteering Dept. KU and KUSU. Is there a critical mass? Time Banking: Cahn would argue there is. ‐ Business Social Impact Initiative (BSII) – schemes like this, and initiatives such as the four day week are important concepts to encourage and will be create a better environment for a sustainable volunteering model. ‐ Corporate Social Responsibility ‐ Social Enterprise models – can teach us innovative ways of securing a financial stream.
Some conclusions: ‐
Increased awareness of who the volunteer is and how they relate to the local community, more importantly how they think they related to the local community is paramount and will enable you to hand pick the right volunteers. We can use existing networks to extract data and information. This should help reveal the hidden Social Capital.
Hypothesis: If cleverly designed, putting the volunteer at the heart of the model, literally, will enable Uscreates to use it to collect information about individuals in the local community – exposing areas that need addressing e.g. access to transport. It could also enable the volunteer to see where they fit into the world of volunteering and in turn how volunteering fits into the bigger picture of their community.
Remember everything is by case study basis – the ‘map’ will different in every location. ‐ I propose: visually mapping the community and its resources; both geographically and for the purpose of highlighting the interconnected relationships between resources and stakeholders; will put the volunteer at the heart of the system – personalisation. What do I need to know? ‐ More about the barriers to volunteers and the barriers to organisations. ‐ More about different models and why they fail or succeed, in particular Episodic/Ad‐hoc Volunteering (Entrepreneurial Volunteering/Episodic Volunteering/Informal Volunteerism/Mandated Volunteerism/Residential Volunteerism) ‐ How all of the above fits together, make the map, case study an area. ‐ Place volunteering in the context of the whole – not just placing things in context within the sector. Where do I intend to look? ‐ Once the model is created…. Those who do and those who don’t, plus any other stakeholder for model testing and extra insight purposes. Methods to employ: Create a persona Stake Holder Map Volunteer Journey Map Self‐Ethnography Cultural Probes Experience Prototyping A Day in the Life Future Visioning