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MA
Design
for
Development
 Project:
DE7
500
–
Visioning
a
Sustainable
World
 ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
 
 Discover
Phase:
Presentation
Prompt
Sheet
 ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
 
 
 Discover:
Main
focus
‐
existing
literature
and
practice
on
volunteering
and
building
social
capital,
as
well
as
the
 attitudes,
motivations,
and
barriers
to
volunteering.
 
 Chosen
Definition:
Volunteering
 
 '…any
activity
that
involves
spending
time,
unpaid,
doing
something
that
aims
to
benefit
the
environment
or
 someone
(individuals
or
groups)
other
than,
or
in
addition
to,
close
relatives.
Central
to
this
definition
is
the
 fact
that
volunteering
must
be
a
choice
freely
made
by
each
individual.
This
can
include
formal
activity
 undertaken
through
public,
private
and
voluntary
organisations
as
well
as
informal
community
 participation.'

 
 (Volunteering
England)
 
 


What
have
I
learnt?
 


‐ Social
Capital
and
the
concept
of
Imagined
Social
Capital.
 
 “Social
capital
is
about
the
value
of
social
networks,
bonding
similar
people
and
bridging
between
diverse
people,
 with
norms
of
reciprocity
(Dekker
and
Uslaner
2001;
Uslaner
2001).”
 
 ‐ Reciprocity
–
a
relationship
involving
a
mutual
exchange.
 
 Poetically
put:

 'the
goodwill
available
to
individuals
or
groups’
and
[it]
is
fundamentally
about
how
people
interact
with
 each
other.’
 
 Chosen
definition:
 
 'the
sum
of
the
actual
and
potential
resources
embedded
within,
available
through,
and
derived
from
the
 network
of
relationships
possessed
by
an
individual
or
social
unit.
Social
capital
thus
comprises
both
the
 network
and
the
assets
that
may
be
mobilized
through
that
network'
(Nahapiet
and
Ghoshal
1998,
p.
243).
 
 ‐ Imagined
Social
Capital:

 
 Notes
on
an
emerging
concept.
Working
paper

 John
Field,
School
of
Education,
University
of
Stirling.
August
2011

 http://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/definition.html
 
 The
important
thing
I’ve
learnt,
is
that
whether
we’re
aware
of
it
or
not,
social
capital
is
the
‘environment’
in
 which
volunteering
lives
and
functions.
 
 I
studied
both
successful
models
of
volunteering
and
ones
that
failed:
for
example
‐
 ‐ New
models
can
involve
more
than
one
feed‐in
loop
e.g.
Building
Value
.org
‐
Non‐profit
Social
Enterprise
 –
see
notes
 ‐ New
models
can
be
embedded
into
existing
public
services
e.g.
Health
Leads
USA
‐
Community
of
 Volunteers
–
see
notes



The
Enterprising
Kitchen
–
the
funds
are
generated
by
the
product
produced
by
the
volunteers,
the
profits
 go
to
training
the
volunteers
professionally.
This
failed
though
because
of
the
economic
downturn
(no
one
 bought
the
goods
being
produced).


‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
 
 ‐

‐ ‐

A
sense
of
collective
community
ownership
e.g.
tangible:
venue,
abstract:
the
project
as
a
whole
i.e.
 allowing
the
volunteers
control/involvement
at
the
co‐creation
stage.
Shared,
collective
investment
in
the
 future,
collective
ownership.
 The
importance
of
utilising
existing
resources
and
building
on
them,
not
creating
new
ones.
 Demystifying
public
policy
will
increase
volunteer
(community
member)
understanding
of
how
systems
 work:
the
first
step
to
better
and
more
diverse
community
participation.



 ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
 
 ‐

‘Citizen
Based
Initiatives’
and
‘Citizen
Sector
Organizations’
(Ashoka:
Innovators
for
the
Public.
A
network
 of
Social
Entrepreneurs)
 
 The
power
of
words
and
being
defined
by
them,
a
move
away
from
this
and
the
connections
to
money
or
 government
based
language
and
systems.
 
 ‐ Value
–
The
Co‐Production
Imperative
 
 “…money
is
how
we
are
accustomed
to
measuring
value…
it
effectively
devalues
everything
that
 defines
us
as
human
beings.
It
devalues
all
those
capacities
that
are
not
yet
scarce;
yet
those
 capacities,
the
ones
we
all
share,
are
what
enable
our
species
to
survive.
If
something
is
worthless
 because
it
has
no
market
value,
look
at
all
the
universal
capacities
we
are
devaluing…”
 
 ‐ The
power
of
micro‐volunteerism
–
i.e.
SMS
Disease
Mapping
and
crop
forecasting.
Crowd
Sourcing
 funding
 ‐ The
power
of
‘Network
Science’
(World
Economic
Forum:
Independent
international
organisation,
 network)
 ‐ The
power
of
existing
data
and
networks.
A
lot
of
data
exists
documenting
the
reason
why
people
do/do
 not
volunteer
 ‐ Be
careful
of
qualitative
stats,
a
lot
of
volunteering
is
unofficial,
also,
define
what
you
mean
by
 volunteering
(i.e.
clubs
and
societies
for
example)
Rita
Serghis
–
VP
Learning
and
Teaching
KU.
 
 Nowadays,
any
organization
should
employ
network
scientists/analysts
who
are
able
to
map
and
analyse
 complex
systems
that
are
of
importance
to
the
organization
(e.g.
the
organization
itself,
its
activities,
a
country’s
 economic
activities,
transportation
networks,
research
networks).
 
 Interconnectivity
is
beneficial
but
also
brings
in
vulnerability:
if
you
and
I
are
connected
we
can
share
 resources;
meanwhile
your
problems
can
become
mine
and
vice
versa.
 
 World
Economic
Forum
http://www.weforum.org/sessions/summary/power‐networks
 
 
 ‐ ‐ ‐

Time
Banking
‐
Cash
injection
is
the
fundamental
reason
it
failed
in
Kingston.
T‐mobile
pulled.
 Hand
picking
volunteers?
It
it
right?
Ethical?
Successful?
Practiced?
Discussion
with
LSVF,
KUSU
and
KU.
 ‘Empathy‐Altruism
Hypothesis’
‐
Find
empathetic
people
or
create
an
empathetic
situation
before
you
ask
 for
help.
 
 Description:
If
we
feel
empathy
towards
a
person
who
needs
help,
we
are
likely
to
help
them
in
proportion
to
the
 empathy
felt
without
any
selfish
thoughts.
Otherwise,
we
will
help
them
only
if
the
rewards
of
helping
them
 outweigh
the
costs.
 



…separating
true
altruism
from
selfish
concerns
can
be
very
difficult.
 
 http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/empathy‐altruism.htm
 
 ‐ The
concept
of
Diaspora
Volunteering
–
could
you
employ
this
thinking
on
a
local
level
to
finding
the
right
 volunteers?
(Brain
drain
situation
e.g.)
 


‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
 


Research
 Toi
and
Batson
(1972)
played
a
‘radio
station
interview’
to
students
about
a
disabled
person
who
needed
help.
 Afterwards
they
received
an
anonymous
request
for
help.
When
instructed
before
the
experiment
to
be
objective
 about
what
they
heard,
the
students
were
much
less
likely
to
offer
help
than
when
they
had
been
asked
to
focus
on
 how
the
person
might
be
feeling.
 
 ‐ Intrinsic
and
extrinsic
motivations
–

 ‐ If
you
can
get
someone
to
believe
in
an
idea
or
align
their
values
with
what
you
want,
then
you
 have
set
very
powerful
motivation
in
place.
Seek
to
make
them
feel
good
about
what
you
want.
 Also
minimize
extrinsic
motivation.
So,
for
example,
pay
them
fairly,
then
do
everything
to
keep
 money
out
of
the
equation
of
why
they
come
to
work.
 


The
importance
of
behaviour
change
 ‐

Pro‐social
Behaviours
–
the
importance
of
achieving
behaviour
change.
Behaviour
change
is
change
that
 can
be
sustained,
and
provides
a
means
of
measuring
impact,
this
requires
a
deep
understanding
of
those
 you
want
to
change
(Uscreates
blog:
Measuring
Impact:
Achieving
Behaviour
Change)
–
as
opposed
to
 achieving
increased
awareness
alone.



 Prosocial
behaviour
occurs
when
someone
acts
to
help
another
person…
no
goal
other
than
to
help
a
fellow
 human.
How
do
you
encourage
this
in
cities?
 
 ‐ Reciprocity
Norm
 I
give
something
to
you
or
help
you
in
any
way,
then
you
are
obliged
to
return
the
favour.
 
 This
norm
is
so
powerful,
it
allows
the
initial
giver
to:
 Ask
for
something
in
return,
rather
than
having
to
wait
for
a
voluntary
reciprocal
act.
 Ask
for
more
than
was
given.
You
can
even
exchange
a
smile
for
money.
 
 ‐ Personalisation
in
Care
–
can
we
apply
this
to
The
Volunteer?
 ‐ Consolidating
and
scaling
up
–
is
this
the
correct
conclusion?
Volunteering
Dept.
KU
and
KUSU.
Is
there
a
 critical
mass?
Time
Banking:
Cahn
would
argue
there
is.
 ‐ Business
Social
Impact
Initiative
(BSII)
–
schemes
like
this,
and
initiatives
such
as
the
four
day
week
are
 important
concepts
to
encourage
and
will
be
create
a
better
environment
for
a
sustainable
volunteering
 model.
 ‐ Corporate
Social
Responsibility
 ‐ Social
Enterprise
models
–
can
teach
us
innovative
ways
of
securing
a
financial
stream.
 


Some
conclusions:
 ‐

Increased
awareness
of
who
the
volunteer
is
and
how
they
relate
to
the
local
community,
more
importantly
 how
they
think
they
related
to
the
local
community
is
paramount
and
will
enable
you
to
hand
pick
the
right
 volunteers.
We
can
use
existing
networks
to
extract
data
and
information.
This
should
help
reveal
the
 hidden
Social
Capital.



 Hypothesis:
If
cleverly
designed,
putting
the
volunteer
at
the
heart
of
the
model,
literally,
will
enable
Uscreates
to
 use
it
to
collect
information
about
individuals
in
the
local
community
–
exposing
areas
that
need
addressing
e.g.
 access
to
transport.
It
could
also
enable
the
volunteer
to
see
where
they
fit
into
the
world
of
volunteering
and
in
 turn
how
volunteering
fits
into
the
bigger
picture
of
their
community.



Remember
everything
is
by
case
study
basis
–
the
‘map’
will
different
in
every
location.
 ‐ I
propose:
visually
mapping
the
community
and
its
resources;
both
geographically
and
for
the
purpose
of
 highlighting
the
interconnected
relationships
between
resources
and
stakeholders;
will
put
the
volunteer
at
 the
heart
of
the
system
–
personalisation.
 
 
 What
do
I
need
to
know?
 ‐ More
about
the
barriers
to
volunteers
and
the
barriers
to
organisations.
 ‐ More
about
different
models
and
why
they
fail
or
succeed,
in
particular
Episodic/Ad‐hoc
Volunteering
 (Entrepreneurial
Volunteering/Episodic
Volunteering/Informal
Volunteerism/Mandated
 Volunteerism/Residential
Volunteerism)
 ‐ How
all
of
the
above
fits
together,
make
the
map,
case
study
an
area.
 ‐ Place
volunteering
in
the
context
of
the
whole
–
not
just
placing
things
in
context
within
the
sector.
 
 Where
do
I
intend
to
look?
 ‐ Once
the
model
is
created….
Those
who
do
and
those
who
don’t,
plus
any
other
stakeholder
for
model
 testing
and
extra
insight
purposes.
 
 
 Methods
to
employ:
 
 Create
a
persona
 Stake
Holder
Map
 Volunteer
Journey
Map
 Self‐Ethnography
 Cultural
Probes
 Experience
Prototyping
 A
Day
in
the
Life
 Future
Visioning
 
 



Ann Brown Discover Phase