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LET’S TALK TYPE The rules and guidelines to typography.


Lets Talk Type Madeline Goss University of Kansas 2014

INTRODUCTION Typography is a central component of design. It gives us an understanding of the heritage behind a graphic designers craft. It’s one of the primary ways we, as a society, pass on information to others. Imagine a website, a magazine or even TV without text. Typography is a subject that raises passions and it can become a consuming obsession. This book will teach you about every rule and guideline to follow when working with typography.


4 // chapter


TABLE OF CONTENTS Rules Checksheet Rule of Typography X-Height Leading and Kerning Quotes, Apostrophes, Dashes Alignments Hyphenation and Justification Special Characters Combining Typefaces Small Caps Numerals and Figures Column Width Grid Structure Paragraph Breaks Headers, Subheads, Crossheads Captions and Notes

04 08 18 32 38 46 52 68 72 86 92 96 100 110 122 152


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RULES CHECKSHEET The following is a compendium of the rules established in this book. You might want to check through them each time you complete a publication or project.


8 // chapter one


lets talk type // 9

Use only one space between sentences. Use real quotation marks. Use real apostrophes. Make sure the apostrophes are where they belong. Hang the punctuation off the aligned edge. Use en or em dashes, use consistently. Kern all headlines where necessary. Never use the spacebar to align text, always set tabs and use the tab key. Leave no widows or orphans. Avoid more than 3 hyphenations in a row. Avoid too many hyphenations in any paragraph. Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns. Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by... Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout. Never justify the text on a short line. Keep the word spacing consistent. Tighten up the leading in lines with all caps or with few ascenders and descenders. Use a one-em first-line indent on all indented paragraphs. Adjust the spacing between paragraphs. Either indent the first line of paragraphs or add extra space between them Use a decimal or right-aligned tab for the numbers in numbered paragraphs. Never have one line in a paragraph in the column or following. Never combine two serif fonts on one page. Rarely combine two sans serif fonts on one page. Rarely combine more than three typefaces on one page. Use the special characters whenever necessary, including super- and subscript. Spend the time to create nice fraction or chose a font that has fractions. If a correctly spelled word needs an accent mark, use it.


2


TYPOGRAPHY RULES The rules of typography defined in detail.


12 // chapter two

INSERT ONLY A SINGLE SPACE AFTER ALL PUNCTUATION Inserting two spaces after a period was common when using a typewriter. Monospace typefaces were designed to occupy the same amount of space no matter the width of the character. Therefore, two spaces were needed to identify the end of a sentence and the beginning of another sentence. With the introduction of digital type, characters are designed proportionately, which allows for correct practice of using one space after punctuation.

USE PROPER ‘EM’ DASHES, ‘EN’ DASHES AND HYPHENS An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash. En dashes are used to denote time.

USE PROPER QUOTE AND APOStROPHE MARKS Use true quotation marks and apostrophes instead of using inch marks and feet marks. Place all punctuations inside the quotation marks to show them correctly.

USE CAPS PROPERLY With options given to you by almost any type family (bold, point size, etc) you will seldom need to use all caps to draw attention to your text. Not all typefaces are legible when set in all caps; esp. true for script and decorative typefaces. Short headlines may be the once exception to this rule.


lets talk type // 13

AVOID UNDERLINED TEXT This was useful back in the days of the typewriter to draw attention to the text. With digital type and their families, you should not need to use underlined text.

USE OLD STYLE FIGURES WHEN APPROPRIATE Old style figures, also known as non-lining figures do not line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. If the body text has a significant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

ELLIPSIS CHARACTER Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

KERNING IN HEADLINES Adjust the space between two particular letters to allow for more consistent negative space.


14 // chapter two

DECREASE LINE LENGTH AND INCREASE MARGINS Line length is a measure of text on one line. Any measure between 45 and 75 characters is comfortable for single column widths. The ideal measure for body text length is 66 characters (counting both letters, punctuation, and spaces.) For multiple columns, a measure between 40 and 50 characters is ideal.

USE COPYRIGHT, REGISTER, AND TRADEMARK MARKS PROPERLY The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should NOT be superscripted and should remain on the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60%.

INCREASE LINE SPACING TO IMPROVE READABILITY IN BODY TEXT Line spacing (aka leading) refers to the space between lines of text. It is important for readability and appearance. Leading is measured from baseline to baseline. As a rule of thumb, allow leading that is 120% of the point size. For sans serif, you may need 130% or more. When setting headlines, solid leading (leading = point size, 12/12) or negative leading (leading =< point size, 12/10) may be appropriate.

IDEAL COLUMN WIDTH For single-column pages, 4.25 inches is ideal. For two-column width, columns can be as narrow as 2 inches. Turning on the hyphenation feature can improve word spacing.


lets talk type // 15

AVOID LETTERSPACING LOWERCASE BODY COPY Don’t letterspace body copy as it really hampers legibility. Use letterspacing when working with caps. small caps, numbers and display text where looser type spacing may increase legibility

WORD SPACING SHOULD BE FAIRLY CLOSE For text meant for extended reading, the amount of space between words in a paragraph should be fairly close–about the width of a lowercase “i.” If the word spacing is too close, it appears as one giant word and legibility is decreased. Keep the spaces between words fairly thin, consistent and even!

CHOOSE THE ALIGNMENT THAT FITS Make sure the alignment chosen for all areas of text are legible and consistent with the design and guidelines. Left-aligned text is easier to read and set. Justified text is harder to set w/o inevitable word spacing problems. Right-aligned and centered are generally not used for body copy.

ALTERING FONTS Don’t alter the original typeface by stretching or condensing the letters improperly. Certain type families provide you with a lot of flexibility, so you should not need to destroy/alter text.


16 // chapter two

RULES OF HYPHENATION Don’t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “ele-gantly” is acceptable, but “elegant-ly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break.

ALWAYS SPELL CHECK Once you are finished with your design, spell check the text using both of the following: a. Use spell=check option that comes with the software you are using for the project.b. Print the document and read it. The monitor and design of the document will make text look perfect when it may not be. Even if text is given to you by a client, check it. Never ever assume that it is correct. Keep a dictionary close as well.

ITEMS IN A SERIES Items in a series do not use a comma before the word “and.” (i.e., ‘peaches, apples and oranges.’) Items in a series do not use a comma before the word “and.” (i.e., ‘peaches, apples and oranges.’)

INDENTS In continuous text, mark all paragraphs after the first with an indent of at least one “em” (3 spaces). Do NOT use three spaces but rather use the tabs or indents option in your software.


lets talk type // 17

JUSTIFICATION OF TEXT Justification can be appropriate in certain places. However, it can create certain problems such as rivers and word spacing. Adjusting size of margins, decreasing body copy size, turning on auto hyphenation and manually hyphenating the text are all examples of possible solutions to the problems.

LEGABILITY OF FONTS Sans serif typefaces work well for headlines and to set text that is aligned to vertical/horizontal lines. Certain sans serif typefaces which are not very geometrical work well for body copy (i.e. Frutiger, Meta, etc.)

AVOID BEGINNING THREE CONSECUTIVE LINES WITH THE SAME WORD Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.

AVOID WIDOWS AND ORPHANS Widows are either single words alone on a line or single sentences alone on a new page. Orphans are single lines of copy alone at the end of a page.


18 // chapter two

USE TRUE SMALL CAPS When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with small caps as a family. Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options available.

ADD LETTER SPACING TO CAPITALIZED TEXT AND SMALL CAPS Letterspacing is the amount of space between characters in a word. Some software programs caller letterspacing tracking. Use positive number values to open up letterspacing to capitalized text and small caps, except when periods are used between characters.

BODY COPY SIZE Body text is set anywhere from 9-12 points. When you print text, it is usually larger than what it looked like on the screen. So, print out your text before finalizing your layout. Type studies will help you determine the proper size before you proceed with your layout.


“Design can be an elusive mistress. Be good to her, don’t rush things, and she’ll probably reward you every time. Tread lightly, however, as she will ridicule you in front of your friends and peers if you cross her.”grid; it is an art that —Justin Hampton


3


X-HEIGHT Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographers strive to maximize to make it the text readable for the reader.


22 // chapter three

X-HEIGHT Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable and seen. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles. As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked ...Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable.

There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/ color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.


lets talk type // 23

As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked:

Who is to read it? Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it? How will it be read? Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.


24 // chapter three

X- HEIGHT: examples 1 ­‑ 4

MEMPHIS S LA B S E R IF

CHOLLA GEOMET RIC SAN S-SERIF

X xh g Xxhg Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Rudolf Weiss x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Sibylle Hagmann x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark


lets talk type // 25

MRS. EAVES TRAN SI TI ONAL SER I F

DIN REAL IS T S ANS-SERIF

X xhg

Xxhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Rudolf Weiss x-height: short character width: narrow color: light

Sibylle Hagmann x-height: tall character width: narrow color: dark


26 // chapter three

X- HEIGHT: examples 5 ­‑ 8 MEMPHIS T R ANS IT IO N A L S E R I F

FUTURA GE OME TRIC SANS -S E RI F

X xh g X xhg Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Hermann Zapf x-height: average character width: average color: average

Paul Renner x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark


lets talk type // 27

DIDOT M ODER N S ER IF

UNIVERS NEO- GROTESQUE SANS- SERIF

X x h g Xxhg Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and

Firmin Didot x-height: average character width: average color: light

Adrian Frutiger x-height: large character width: wide color: average


28 // chapter three

X- HEIGHT: examples 9 ­‑ 12

BEMBO O LD ST YL E SERI F

INTERSTATE HU MA NISTIC SA NS-S E R I F

X x hg X x hg Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Francesco Griffo x-height: small character width: wide color: light

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Tobias Frere-Jones x-height: tall character width: narrow color: average


lets talk type // 29

BASKERVILLE OL D STY L E SER I F

X x hg

HELVETICA NEO- GROTESQUE SANS- SERIF

Xxhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

John Baskerville x-height: small character width: narrow color: average

Max Miedinger x-height: tall character width: average color: average


30 // chapter three

X- HEIGHT: examples 13 ­‑ 16

BAUER BODONI MO D E R N SE R IF

TRADE GOTHIC SANS- SERI F

Xxhg

Xxhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Giambattista Bodoni x-height: average character width: wide color: light

Jackson Burke x-height: tall character width: narrow color: light


lets talk type // 31

GOUDY O LDS T YL E SER IF

SCALA SANS HU MANISTIC SANS-SE RIF

Xxhg

X xh g

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Frederic W. Goudy x-height: average character width: naverage color: light

Martin Majoor x-height: average character width: average color: dark


32 // chapter three

X- HEIGHT: examples 17 ­‑ 20 GARAMOND OLD S T Y LE S E RI F

GILL SANS HU MANIS T S ANS - S ERIF

X xh g

Xxhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Claude Garamond x-height: small character width: average color: average

Eric Gill x-height: average character width: wide color: dark


lets talk type // 33

CLARENDON S L A B S E RIF

NEWS GOTHIC REAL I ST SANS-S E RI F

X x hg Xxh g Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradtions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Robert Besley x-height: average character width: wide color: dark

Fuller Benton x-height: tall character width: narrow color: average


4


LEADING AND KERNING Kerning is an adjustement of the space between two letters while leading refers to the space between two lines of text.This section will give you an in-depth look for proper kerning and leading.


36 // chapter four

LEADING Line spacing is the vertical distance between lines of text. Leading is the hot-metal printing term that refers to the strips of lead that were inserted between text measures in order to space them accurately. Leading is specified in points and refers now days to the space between lines of a text block. Leading introduces space into the text block and allows characters to “breathe” so that the information is easy to read. To achieve a balanced and and well-spaced text block, leading usualy has a higher point size than the text it is associated with, for example 9pt text maybe set with 12pt leading and 10pt text maybe set with 13pt text. Most writers use either double-spaced lines or single-spaced lines—nothing in between—because those are the options presented by word processors. These habits are held over from the typewriter era. Originally, a typewriter’s carriage could only move vertically in units of a single line. Therefore, linespacing choices were limited to one, two, or more lines at a time. Double spacing became the default because single-spaced typewritten text is dense and hard to read. But double-spacing is still looser than optimal.

NEGATIVE: 9pt/7pt Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.


lets talk type // 37

SET SOLID: 9pt/9pt

NORMAL: 9pt/12pt

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

EXTREME: 9pt/16pt Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement.


38 // chapter

KERNING Kerning is an adjustment of the space between two letters. The characters of the Latin alphabet emerged over time; they were never designed with mechanical or automated spacing in mind. Thus some letter combinations look awkward without special spacing considerations. Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (W, Y, V, T). In metal type, a kerned letter extends past the lead slug that supports it, allowing two letters to fit more closely together. In digital fonts, the space between letter pairs is controlled by a kerning table created by the type designer, which specifies spaces between problematic letter combinations. Working in a page layout program, a designer can choose to use metric kerning or optical kerning as well as adjusting the space between letters manually where desired. A well-designed typeface requires little or no additional kerning.

METRIC KERNING Metric kerning uses the kerning tables that are built into the typeface. When you select metric kerning in your page layout program, you are using the spacing that was intended by the type designer. Metric kerning usually looks good, especially at small sizes. Cheap novelty fonts often have little or no built-in kerning and will need to be optically kerned which is described below.

OPTICAL KERNING Optical Kerning is executed automatically by the page layout program. Rather than using the pairs addressed in the fontâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s kerning table, optical kerning assesses the shapes of all characters and adjusts the spacing wherever needed. Some graphic designers apply optical kerning to headlines and metric kerning to text. You can make this process efficient and consistent by setting kerning as part of your character styles.


lets talk type // 39

“Good design is a form of respect, on the part of the producer for the person who will eventually spend hard-earned cash on the product, use the product, own the product.” —David Brown


5


QUOTES, APOSTROPHES and DASHES The following are rules regarding the proper use of quotation marks, apostraphes, dashes, hyphens, em-dashes, and en-dashes.


42 // chapter five

QUOTES Place all punctuations inside the quotation marks. USE REAL QUOTATION MARKS – never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/ inch or foot marks: use “and” – not “and”. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application – you’ll find a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks.

It is necessary to know how to set smart quotes/ real quotes yourself because sometimes the software doesn’t do it or does it wrong. “ ” ‘ ’

Option [ opening double quote Option [ closing double quote Options ] opening single quote Option Shift ] closing single quote; apostrophe

EXAMPLES:

Bridge Clearance: 16' 7" The young man stood: 6' 2" The length of the all is 153'9"


lets talk type // 43

“We often don’t realize that the people we admire as designers have yet to ‘arrive.’ Their ongoing quests re part of the reason we admire them so much.” —Thomas Vasquez


44 // chapter five

APOSTROPHES There are a couple rules with apostrophes that you should always follow. Apostrophe ’

Option Shift ]

closingsingle quote; apostrophe

FOR CONTRACTIONS: The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store. As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out.

FOR POSSESSIVES: Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says “The camp belongs to the boy.”

The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a possessive NEVER has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” ALWAYS.

It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers and his don’t use apostrphes – and neither should its.


lets talk type // 45

FOR OMMISSION OF LETTERS: In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around — just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not ‘n’).

In a phrase such as

House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o.

In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed — the g is missing.

IN A DATE WHEN PART OF THE YEAR IS LEFT OUT: an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the ’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction — it is simply plural.


46 // chapter five

DASHES Use proper ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes, and hyphens. Never use two hyphens instead of a dash. Everyone knows what a hyphens is —that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use or given text that uses a double hyphen -- to indicate a dash. This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash. An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash. En dashes are used to denote duration (time.)

hyphen en dash – em dash — Hyphen A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.


lets talk type // 47

En dash – To type an en dash:

en dash – Option Hyphen An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word “to.” In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space.

EXAMPLES: October – December

6:30 – 8:45 A.M. 4 – 6 years of age

Em dash — To type an em dash:

em dash — Shift Option Hyphen The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak. It is also used for attribution of text. Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens(or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional. When using an—no space is used on either side.


6


ALIGNMENTS No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing to insure that your text is easily readable.


50 // chapter six

ALIGNMENTS In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are usually read together can stay together. If someone insists that fully justified text is better than left-aligned text, tell them they are wrong. If someone else tells you that left-aligned text is better than justified text, tell them they are wrong. If they are both wrong, then whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right? Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. What works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design.


lets talk type // 51

LEFT ALIGNED, RAGGED RIGHT Speaking just in terms of alignment, left aligned (Flush Left, Ragged Right) text is the most readable. Left aligned text uses the optimum word spacing and letter spacing that the designer built into the font, and the spacing is very consistent so you do not have to struggle through the words at all. And as you read, your key can quickly find the beginning of the next line. Often considered more informal, friendlier than justified text. The ragged right edge adds an element of white space. May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged. Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking from the designer to make it look good). If you bump (soft return) words down, be sure to do it as the last south in your final layout. Otherwise when you edit the text, change the type size or column width, alter the layout in any way, you will ed up with tab spaces, empty spaces or line breaks in the middle of your sentences. Fortunately, in flush left alignments you can easily make type corrections and adjust lines, often without effecting the rest of the text. Because you can control where lines end you can try to avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. And avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by...


52 // chapter six

ALIGNMENTS JUSTIFIED TEXT When you justify text, the computer forces the lines to extend to a certain length by adding or deleting space between the words, and sometimes between the letters. Some programs let you specify the minimum and maximum amounts the spacing can adjust, but the computer will override your specifications if necessary. The greatest problem with justified text, both in terms of readability and aesthetics, is the uneven word spacing and letter spacing: some lines have extra spacing, some less. This irregularity is visually disturbing and interrupts reading. The shorter the line length in relation to the size of the type, the worse this problem becomes because there are fewer words between which to add or delete space. * Please make an example of this in your workbook you can find an example in the folder) One simple rule for determining whiter a line length is “long enough” to justify is this: The line length in picas should be twice the point size of the type. If you are using 12 point type, the minimum line length you should try to justify is 24 picas (6 picas = 1 inch). For many years, justified type reigned supreme as the way to set most text. But the trend over the past couple of decades has been to allow the natural spacing of flush left text to dominate, losing the structured look of the “block” of text and maximizing readability.


lets talk type // 53

CENTERED There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fully-justified text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t center the text. As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible and is legible. There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with final approval still insists on something different instead of the way you first had it.


7


HYPHENATION RULES and JUSTIFICATION A few guidelines and examples to use hyphenation and justification properly and effectively.


56 // chapter seven

HYPHENATION RULES Don’t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “ele-gantly” is acceptable, but “elegant-ly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then 4 letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.


lets talk type // 57

HYPHENATION RULES TO PAY ATTENTION TOO: How the text is read avoid widows Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. Never hyphenate a words in a headline Avoid hyphenation in a callout


58 // chapter seven

JUSTIFICATION Justify text only if the line is long enough to prevent awkward and inconsistent word spacing. The only time you can safely justify text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

IMPORTANT REMINDER: A general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you would prefer that.


lets talk type // 59

RIVERS In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justification or monospaced fonts.

WIDOWS AND ORPHANS Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.

WIDOW When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

ORPHAN When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so long, wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit at the bottom of a column and must end itself at the top of the next column, that is an orphan. ALWAYS correct this.


60 // chapter seven

JUSTIFICATION: examples 1-2

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 80% DESIRED: 100% MAXIMUM: 133%

This setting is pretty standard. It works best with a serif font rather than a sans serif font.


lets talk type // 61

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

MINIMUNM: 100% DESIRED: 130% MAXIMUM: 200%

Looks a little awkward with a sans serif font.


62 // chapter seven

JUSTIFICATION: examples 3-4

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 70% DESIRED: 80% MAXIMUM: 100%

This justification is unsuccessful because of the awkward word spacing.


lets talk type // 63

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 80% DESIRED: 85% MAXIMUM: 100%

This justifiction works well because it has minimul rivers and not to many awkward spaces.


64 // chapter seven

JUSTIFICATION: examples 5-6

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 80% DESIRED: 100% MAXIMUM: 150%

This justification is works well because few rivers are present, but it still has a few.


lets talk type // 65

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actionsofasubjectatthesametime.Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;smanifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions asmuseumsandlibraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo TommasoMarinetti.ThenameFuturism,coinedbyMarinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceivedtobethestaticandirrelevantartofthepast andcelebratingchange,originality,andinnovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power,andmovement.Heexaltedviolenceandconflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums andlibraries.

MINIMUNM: 0% DESIRED: 0% MAXIMUM: 20%

This justification is way to tight and makes it hard to read the paragraph.


66 // chapter seven

JUSTIFICATION: examples 7-8

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 20% DESIRED: 50% MAXIMUM: 80%

This justifiction has very little rivers but it is still too tight and makes it hard to read.


lets talk type // 67

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 100% DESIRED: 170% MAXIMUM: 210%

The spacing between words is to wide and there are too many rivers in the text.


68 // chapter seven

JUSTIFICATION: examples 9-10

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

MINIMUNM: 110% DESIRED: 150% MAXIMUM: 180%

This justification is just ok. There are some hyphenation problems, but the type isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t too tight or too wide.


lets talk type // 69

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were chara terized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

MINIMUNM: 60% DESIRED: 70% MAXIMUM: 100%

The type is a little too tight and there is an awkward right rag occuring.


8


SPECIAL CHARACTERS The following is a list of special characters and accent marks. On the following pages are the key combinations for just about every accent you might need.


72 // chapter eight

SPECIAL CHARACTERS A list of all the special characters and their keyboard shortcuts. “ ” ‘ ’ – — … • fi fl © ™ ® ° ¢ € ⁄ ¿ £ ç Ç

Option [ opening double quote Option [ closing double quote Options ] opening single quote Option Shift ] closingsingle quote; apostrophe Option Hyphen en dash Option Shift Hyphen em dash Optoin; ellipsis Option 8 bullet Option Shift 5 ligatureof f and i Option Shift 6 ligature of f and l Option g copyright Option 2 trademark Option r registered Option Shift 8 degree sumbol (e.g, 102° F) Option $ cent symbol Option Shift 2 euro symbol Option Shift 1 fraction bar Option Shift ? inverted question mark Option3 Option c Option Shift c


lets talk type // 73

USE COPYRIGHT, REGISTER, AND TRADEMARK MARKS PROPERLY The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should NOT be superscripted and should remain on the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60% of the size.

ELLIPSIS CHARACTER Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

ACCENT MARKS Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the letter, then press the letter you want under it.

´ ` ¨ ˜

Option e Option ~ Options u Option n Option i


9


COMBINING TYPEFACES When choosing typefaces, combine and Sans Serif with a Serif together.


76 // chapter nine

COMBINING TYPEFACES When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one shroud try and match the characteristics of form and type color: proportion, x-heights. â&#x20AC;&#x153;There is not binding recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience. Expert typographers, as well as careless amateurs permit themselves combinations that would horrify colleagues with more traditional sympathies.â&#x20AC;? Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. {Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea}


lets talk type // 77

“There is not a binding of recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience.” —Anonymous


78 // chapter nine

COMBINING TYPEFACES examples 1-2

GARAMOND REGULAR AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

GILL SANS REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


lets talk type // 79

CHELTENHAM BOOK AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

AKZIDENZ-GROTESQUE LIGHT AND SUPER 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the


80 // chapter nine

COMBINING TYPEFACES examples 3-4

BASKERVILLE REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

FUTURA MEDIUM AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure.


lets talk type // 81

MRS. EAVES ROMAN AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

SCALA SANS REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


82 // chapter nine

COMBINING TYPEFACES examples 5-6

DIDOT REGULAR AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

CENTURY GOTHIC REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


lets talk type // 83

BAUER BODONI ROMAN AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

HELVETICA REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


84 // chapter nine

COMBINING TYPEFACES examples 7-8

PRIORI SER REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

INTERSTATE REGULAR AND BLACK 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


lets talk type // 85

NEW BASKERVILLE REGULAR AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

NEWS GOTHIC REGULAR AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


86 // chapter nine

COMBINING TYPEFACES examples 9-10

MEMPHIS LIGHT AND BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

DIN REGULAR AND BLACK 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had I


lets talk type // 87

ROCKWELL REGULAR AND ITALIC 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal. I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

ROTIS SANS SERIF LIGHT AND EXTRA BOLD 11/13 I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.

15/17

I was very angry. Somehow they always made me angry. I know they are supposed to be amusing, and you should be tolerant, but I wanted to swing on one, anyone, anything to shatter that superior, simpering composure. Instead, I walked down the street and had a beer at the bar at the net Bal.


10


SMALL CAPS Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface.


90 // chapter ten

SMALL CAPS Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface. Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs can generate small caps for a any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which me and that they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong. When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with small caps as a family. Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options. Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines. Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly) Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.


lets talk type // 91

The following is a list of common rules to follow when working with small caps in design and typography.

Use small caps for Acronyms. Use small caps for abbreviations. Use true small caps fonts.


92 // chapter ten

SMALL CAPS WHERE TO USE SMALL CAPS If you set acronyms in regular all caps, their visual presence is unnessarily overwhelming. One standard and practical place to use small caps is in acronyms such as FBI, NRC, CBS, or SIMM. Traditionally, “A.M.” and “P.M.” are set with small caps. If you were taught to type on a tyewriter (or if you were taught on a keyboard by somone who was taught on a typewriter), you probably learned to set these abbreviations in all caps because there were no small ccaps on typewriters. But now that you have the capability, you can and should set them properly.

EXAMPLE OF NO SMALL CAPS ON:

Harriet, an FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M. EXAMPLE OF CAPS ON.

Harriet, an fbi agent, turned on cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 P.M. The capital letters in the middle of the sentence call to much attention to themselves. Notiice how the small caps blend in with the text. The capital letters for P.M. are much too large… the abbreviationis not that important.

The Wicked Are Very Weary. The weight of the computer-drawn small caps is thinner than the weight of the regular initial (first letter) caps.


lets talk type // 93

TRUE DRAWN SMALL CAPS: There are quite a few font families that include “truedrawn” small caps — letterforms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thickness of the uppercase. These families are often called “exper” sets of perhaps “small cap” sets. The result is a smooth, uniform, undisturbing tone throughout the text.

The Wicke d Are Very Weary True-drawn small caps are specially drawn to match the weight of the capital letters in the same face.

SERIF SMALL CAPS Caslon Granjon Walbaum Palantino Bauer Bodoni Mrs. Eaves

SANS SERIF SMALL CAPS Meta Neutra Text Scala Sans


11


1

NUMERALS AND FIGURES Oldstyle figures are a style of numeral which apâ&#x20AC;&#x2018; proximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders.


96 // chapter eleven

NUMERALS AND FIGURES Oldstyle figures, also known as non-lining figures do not line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. Oldstyle figures are a style of numeral which approximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from the more common “lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic look and are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one. Unlike lining figures, Oldstyle figures blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle figures; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites. If the body text has a significant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

SERIF OLD STYLE NUMBERS Sabon Palantino Walbaum

SANS SERIF OLD STYLE NUMBERS Meta Cholla Scala Sans


lets talk type // 97

NOTICE HOW LARGE AND CLUNKY THESE NUMBNERS APPEAR: Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505. NOTICE HOW BEAUTIFULLY THESE NUMBERS BLEND INTO THE TEXT: Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage.Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505. 12 12.5 134 134.0 17 17.8 1023 102.3 323 323.0


12


2

COLUMN WIDTH A column is one or more vertical blocks of content positioned on a page seperated by gutters or rules.


100 // chapter twelve

COLUMN WIDTH Having the right amount of characters on each line is key to the readability of your text. It shouldn’t merely be your design that dictates the width of your text, it should also be a matter of legibility. The optimal line length for your body text is considered to be 50-60 characters per line, including spaces. Reading takes place in small leaps of 5–10 characters at a time. 55–60 characters per line could be considered an appropriate line length, allowing the eye 6–12 quick stops on each line. Narrower lines would cause the reader to have to switch from line to line unnecessarily often, and they also cause problems with the way justified columns appear. If a line of text is too long the visitor’s eye will have a hard time focusing on the text. This is because the length makes it difficult to get an idea of where the line starts and ends. Furthermore it can be difficult to continue from the correct line in large blocks of text. If a line is too short the eye will have to travel back too often, breaking the reader’s rhythm. Too short lines also tend to stress people, making them begin on the next line before finishing the current one (hence skipping potentially important words).


lets talk type // 101

20 CHARACTERS

40 CHARACTERS

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and

60 CHARACTERS Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the

80 CHARACTERS Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.


13


3

GRID STRUCTURE When designing a layout and working with text or images, the use of a grid is essential, as it is the basis on which information is organized and clarâ&#x20AC;&#x2018; ified, ensuring legibility.


104 // chapter thirteen

GRID STRUCTURE When Designing a layout and working with text and/or images the use of a grid is essential, as it is the basis on which information is organized and clarified, ensuring legibility. The grid provides a framework where text, image and space can be combined into a cohesive and structured manner. A grid subdivides a page vertically and horizontally into margins, columns, inter-column spaces, lines of type, and spaces between blocks of type and images. These subdivisions form the basis of a modular and systematic approach to the layout, particularly for multipage documents, making the design process quicker, and ensuring visual consistency between related pages. At its most basic, the sizes of a grid’s component parts are determined by ease of reading and handling. From the sizes of type to the overall page or sheet size, decision-making is derived from physiology and the psychology of perception as much as by aesthetics. Type sizes are generally determined by hierarchy—captions smaller than body text and so on—column widths by optimum word counts of eight to ten words to the line, and overall layout by the need to group related items. This all sounds rather formulaic, and easy. But designers whose grids produce dynamic or very subtle results take these rules as a starting point only, developing flexible structures in which their sensibility can flourish. Grids often need to be designed to give more flexibility than the single column of text per page (Jan Tschichold’s grid). This is due to to a change in our reading patterns. Grid structures have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than a grid using only text and may utilize more modules. The design of the grid had to be relevant to the purpose it serves.


lets talk type // 105

“The grid system is an aid, not a guarantee. It permits a number of possible uses and each designer can look for a solution appropriate to his personal styl. But one must learn how to us the grid; it is an art that requires practice.” —Josef Müller-Brockmann


106 // chapter thirteen

TSCHICHOLDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GRID This example shows a grid where the proportions of the text areas are established from the shape of the page, i.e. the height of the text area is the same as the width of full page. Note that the text area will always remain the same, regardless of the scale of the page.


lets talk type // 107

FIBONACCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S SEQUENCE The Greeks used the golden section to establish balance in the tdesign for architecture, for example the Parthenon, and it was re-discovered by artists and architects during the Renaissance period. The golden section is constructed through math calculations: the ration being 1:1:61803. The Fibonacci sequence is a mathematical series discovered in the 12th century by Leonardo Fibonacci and is used to establish proportion. The sequence of numbers demonstrate that the sum of two numbers establishes the next number.


108 // chapter thirteen

MODULAR GRID Modular grids are associated with swiss typography or the ‘International style’ of the 1950’s and 1960’s. As well as a vertical division of space, modular grids divide space hormonally too, creating units or cells. The depth of the cell may depend upon the size of the text type and leading being used. Multiples of the line depth (leading size) form a good basis on which to construct the cells.


lets talk type // 109

ASSYMETRICAL GRID This type of grid is known for asymmetrically organizing the design elements in a mathematically-constructed way to create visual unity in a composition, but in a more expressive light. This is opposite of the symmetrical grid style.


110 // chapter thirteen

BASELINE GRID Modular grids are created by positioning horizontal guidelines in relation to a baseline grid that governs the whole document. Baseline grids serve to anchor all (or nearly all) layout elements to a common rhythm. Create a baseline grid by choosing the type size and leading of your text, such as 10-pt Scala Pro with 12 pts leading (10/12). Avoid auto leading so that you can work with whole numbers that multiply and divide cleanly. Use this line space increment to set the baseline grid in your document preferences. Adjust the top or bottom page margin to absorb any space left over by the baseline grid. Determine the number of horizontal page units in relation to the number of lines in your baseline grid. Count how many lines fit in a full column of text and then choose a number that divides evenly into the line count to create horizontal page divisions. A column with forty-two lines of text divides neatly into seven horizontal modules with six lines each. If your line count is not neatly divisible, adjust the top and/or bottom page margins to absorb the leftover lines.


lets talk type // 111

“The moment clients realize that the revisions are not all-you-can-eat buffet, suddenly, they realize they are not hungry.” —Soonduk Krebs


14


4

PARAGRAPH BREAKS Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader in the way that they read the text. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The over all page feel will be influenced by your choice.


114 // chapter fourteen

PARAGRAPH BREAKS: examples 1-2

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


lets talk type // 115

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


116 // chapter fourteen

PARAGRAPH BREAKS: examples 3-4

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


lets talk type // 117

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


118 // chapter fourteen

PARAGRAPH BREAKS: examples 5-6

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


lets talk type // 119

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. BUT IS IS THE MOVEMENTS which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTI'S OPENING MANIFESTO for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


120 // chapter fourteen

PARAGRAPH BREAKS: examples 7-8

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


lets talk type // 121

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


122 // chapter fourteen

PARAGRAPH BREAKS: examples 9-10

FUTURISM was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. BUT is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


lets talk type // 123

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today-was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


15


5

HEADERS, SUBHEADS AND CROSSHEADS Head is the main title of a layout and is typically the most visually prominent element of the hierarâ&#x20AC;&#x2018; chy; while a subhead is a subordinate subdivision of the heading.


126 // chapter fifteen

HEADERS: HEADER: A line or block of text that appears at the beginning of a page or document.

SUBHEAD: A heading given to a subsection of a piece of writing.


lets talk type // 127

“Graphic art is my secret garden, the place where I can get lost but also find territories I did not even know existed.” —Kari Pippe


128 // chapter fifteen

HEADERS: examples 1-2

WORDS IN LIBERTY a prologue to futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

radical mix of art and life

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any


lets talk type // 129

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue To Futurism

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

BUT IS IS THE MOVEMENTS which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTI'S OPENING MANIFESTO for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who


130 // chapter fifteen

HEADERS: examples 3-4

Words In Liberty A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM FUTURISM was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE BUT is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today-was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

lets talk type // 131


132 // chapter fifteen

HEADERS: examples 5-6

WORDSINLIBERTY a prologue to futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

radical mix of life and art

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who


lets talk type // 133

Words.In.Liberty A Prologue To Futurism

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


16


CAPTIONS AND NOTES Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing.


136 // chapter sixteen

CAPTIONS AND NOTES FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re also frequently used by writers of fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges. Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page. These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic presses and journals can be sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with your client or publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet that must be followed.)

NUMBERS AND SYMBOLS Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

SIZE Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.


lets talk type // 137

“[Our account] said it was a terrible idea to go into business with your best friend. So we got a new accountant.” — Emily Oberman and Bonnie Siegler


138 // chapter sixteen

CAPTIONS: examples 3-4

WORDS IN LIBERTY a prologue to futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

radical mix of art and life

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical.


lets talk type // 139

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue To Futurism

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

BUT IS IS THE MOVEMENTS which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTI'S OPENING MANIFESTO for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself


140 // chapter sixteen

CAPTIONS: examples 3-4

Words In Liberty A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM FUTURISM was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE BUT is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself


1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today-was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

lets talk type // 141


142 // chapter sixteen

CAPTIONS: examples 5-6

WORDSINLIBERTY a prologue to futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

radical mix of life and art

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty), by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 . selbst = himself (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


lets talk type // 143

Words.In.Liberty Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Par-

A Prologue To Futurism

Radical Mix

is newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical


Designed by Madeline Goss. Class project for Typographic Systems at the University of Kansas, Spring 2014. The text was compiled from the following sources: Elements of Typographic Style by Robert Bringhurst, Getting it Right with Type: the Doâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ts of Typography by Victoria Square, Mac is Not A Typewriter by Robin Williams. This book is not to be sold to the public and to only be used by the designer for their reference and student design portfolio.

Lets Talk Type  

The rules and guidelines a designer should always follow when working with typography.

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