Madeleine Westbrook BA (Hons) Fashion Design and Realisation. 2015/16 How has â€˜fast fashionâ€™ made us keep consuming even though we are aware of the true cost?
Contents: Illustration… page 3 Introduction… page 4 Chapter one: For the sake of the economy… page 6 Chapter Two: Why we consume… page 11 Chapter Three: Life is to be lived not endured… page 16 Chapter Four: The true cost… page 23 Own practice… page 28 Conclusion… page 32 Bibliography… page 33 Appendices… page 36
Figure 1: Blythe, J. (1997) The essence of consumer behaviour. Consumers and segmentation. [Book] Page 6.
Figure 2: i-D magazine, (1990) December addition. DJ of the month- Danny Rampling. [Online] Accessed 16th November] Available at: https://testpressing.wordpress.com/tag/1990/
Figure 3: i-D magazine, (2012) Pre- fall addition. Youthfall [Online] Accessed 16th November] Available at: http://theboombox.com/rihanna-accusedcopying-fka-twigs-look-magazine-cover/
Figure 4: The true cost, (2015) Factory collapse. [Film] screen shot.
Figure 5: The true cost, (2015) Fashion is not degradable. [Film] screen shot.
Figure 6: The true cost, (2015) Another mans waste. [Film] screen shot.
Figure 7: What’s wrong with the world (2013) Slums meet city. [Online Film] Accessed 27th November] Available at: http://www.filmsforaction.org/watch/alan_watts_what_is_wrong_with_our_cu lture/#.VlceTeBTpNk.facebook
Figure 8: What’s wrong with the world (2013) Amongst Junk. [Online Film] Accessed 27th November] Available at: http://www.filmsforaction.org/watch/alan_watts_what_is_wrong_with_our_cu lture/#.VlceTeBTpNk.facebook
Figure 9: Own questionnaire results. (Conducted 21st of October) What percentage of your wardrobe do you actually wear? Conducted on: monkeysuvey.com
Figure 10: Galperina, M. Abstract moldy petri dish art is pretty, gross. (2013) Pretty, gross [Online] Accessed the 17th December. Available at: http://animalnewyork.com/2013/abstract-moldy-petri-dish-art-is-pretty-gross/
Figure 11: Image of own work, (2015) Context of practice. Embroidery
Figure 12: Image of own work, (2015) Context of practice. Sleeve.
Figure 13: Healy, C. Corderiroan, S. (2008) Found flooring from farm house [Online] Acessed the 17th December. Available at: http://www.claireandsean.com/works/Not_under_my_roof.html
Introduction: This piece of writing is going draw attention to our over consumption within the fashion industry. This came about as, personally, over the years of studying fashion a love has grown from the physical skill in making clothes though a dislike has formed towards the industry. This realisation that the media is now addressing some of these issue is a positive. However, the industry has found ways to keep theses issues out of the public eye meaning no really improvements are made. This resulted in wanting to write a peace about a downfall of the fashion industry. Consumption was chosen, as it is a broad subject and can cover a lot of different issues with sustainable fashion. This aim is to uncover the hidden reasons of why we consume excessive amounts even though we are fully aware of the damage it may course. The first chapter draws upon whether the system this county is run on forces us to live a certain materialistic way. Then briefly looking at whether business and advertisement of products is to blame. The flowing two chapters will consider the main focus for this peace of writingâ€Ś us. The consumer, are the people that make up society at fault for over consuming just because it is there for us to take. Carrying out interviews will depict four very different consumer lifestyles. A questionnaire opposed to a broad spectrum of the general public asking about their consumer behaviour. These two primary sources of research will help understand the people that make up today society and what opinions they share or differ in when talking about consumerism. This will also be backed up with secondary research. Looking at other peopleâ€™s theories on consumerism and capitalism taken from books, films and documentary. It is important to note that although sustainability within the fashion industry is touched upon in the conclusion and own practice it is not the main focus. This is because sustainability and how to approach sustainability within own practice has been looked at many times before. Most people in todayâ€™s society know the effects of over consumption and know of ways they could live a more ethical life. Yet we choose not to make a change. Why is this the case? What are the reasons behind are refusal to all come together and fix a problem we have created? We have all the tools and knowledge to make a difference yet the majority of the public choose to ignore it. The end result of finding out the answer to these questions may result in coming up 4
with a better approach to a more sustainable future. This knowledge of knowing what types of consumers there are might help others come up with a sustainable system that can be applied to society. Knowing the reasons behind why we consume could help think of a way of consuming the suits the masses and the planet. This will touch around political, historical and ethical methodology. The main focus is social context, has western society adapted too much to this luxury lifestyle?
Chapter one: For the sake of the Economy. This chapter will discuss some of the political aspects of the economy and how political decisions have shaped the economy. This has an effect not only on the fashion industry but also more generally on society and social policies. Consumption has a knock on effect on other aspects of the economy and society. If you target consumption it brings up other issues such as sustainability. It would have a domino effect on society. It is very important; ‘our intake can’t change as our economy will tank.’ This has been said, written and believed by many over the years without being questioned. What does it really mean? More importantly why can’t it be open to change? Successive governments have relied on this on going promise of a trickle down economy. It is based on the idea that having a lower tax burden and increasing investment would result in business producing more, increasing employment rate and higher workers pay. It could be argued that there is strong evidence to suggest that our economic system is instead being treated like a casino; encouraging risk, being ruthless with public funds in the hope of a big pay out. “ But the study of his own advantage naturally, or rather necessarily, leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantage to the society.” (Smith, 2012. Wealth of nations, (page 443) In a capitalist system everyone strives to get the best position in his or her chosen career path. This naturally benefits the society, as the higher your income the greater the capital that is generated for the country. The economy is fed by us buying into materialistic items the higher our disposable income the better. The economy would not function if business were not here to entice us into buying the newest and latest products. Equally if the desire to buy into the products was not there this could lead to economic collapse. Are the consumers at fault for giving into temptation? Or are the businesses at fault for only being driven by prosperity? They know what makes people buy into their product and will do anything to make sure that happens. If the government issues a law to reduce fat in sweet treats the brands increase the sugar content. It is also why we see weight loss brands having shares in fast food 6
restaurants. They need a continuous flow of over weight people to buy into their product. “ You can criticize everything but the economy system… We need to criticize things in order to fix them. Capitalism could not be questioned.” (The true cost. 2015- spoken by Richard wolf economist) Arguably, people find blame in anything but the system maybe because they are scared of changing a system that has been followed for years. One of the reasons that systems change so slowly is that it individuals and groups are naturally conservative and fear change. However, the system doesn’t necessarily need to change completely rather be adapted to fit in with are changing society. This needs to happen sooner rather than later before the damage of the system has a bigger effect on the planet and us. By reducing our intake by one day a week how badly would it effect are economy? And more importantly what would it save in the long term? *** Capitalism has one prime aim; make as much money as possible and make more money than your competitors. Whether you look at this from company to company or country to country everyone is fighting to be on top. Over the years this method has worked well however in recent years we are now facing something known as the growth dilemma. The government are always striving to increase growth year after year in the hope it will make citizens feel content. Once somebody has done all the developing of life and reaches a point of contentment they now desire more from life. With our population growth progressing at ever-faster rate many of us are searching for more out life. This proves we are living on historical outlooks and laws that no longer benefits humanity in a positive manner. A reform from within would need to be market friendly, necessary and desirable in order to give everyone a comfortable life style. This would mean re-writing these laws in an attempt, to make the capitalist system work better in our ever-changing society. The government is currently torn; they want to improve our consumption to a more healthy level but still need to provide the produce to meet our demands. The government’s moral high ground could 7
be tested here as they would happily send a 15 year old into life threatening gastric band surgery costing the NHS £10,000 but lack the back bone to put a cap on our consumption of high calorie foods. *** Fashion is almost a 3 trillion dollar industry, with the co- founder of Zara being the 4 th richest person and the chairman of H&M being the 28th richest. This makes people working in fashion worth more than people that own oil fields. The population consume 80 billion items of clothing in a year. Fashion used to be an exclusive world, with catwalk shows only being viewed by the world’s richest individuals. Now with the introduction of mass production, fast fashion has been born. Now instead of having two seasons a year fast fashion brands have 52 seasons per year. New produce coming into stores daily in the push to shift more products. When you have low prices the only way to make a profit is to sell more products. As our society becomes wealthier our wants turn into needs. The way we consume these needs has changed. We want things faster and at the lowest possible price. “ There are two kinds of produces; the kind you use, then there are the things you use up. Consumption is all about getting people to treat all the things they use as the thing they use up.” (The true cost. 2015 – theory by Earnest Elmo Calkins) Treating all items as disposable, knowing there will always be an even better replica available than the one you own. Treating the items with no respect without thinking where it will end up when replaced with a newer model even if the old one works perfectly fine. The mass market rarely exists in the 21 st century. There are very few items that are bought by everyone. This is simply because different consumers have different needs. (Figure 1) shows how this grouping can form within the clothing market. The needs of each segmented age group are slightly different. Looking at the diagram today seems quite simple. If you take into account all the different subcultures, the increased interest in sport and night wear as well as the development in individualism the diagram of each age segment could now be spilt into numerous categories especially in the younger age group. This shows that the new generations 8
are becoming more diverse and their wants and needs increasing dramatically. This means the next generation will demand more and more.
(Figure one: Consumer and segmentation) “ In one way it is like living the life of pure fashion, for the moment when fashion is fashion. It has no past and no future. The ‘latest’ fashion is also the ‘last’: for now there could be no other.” (Bowlby, 2000. Carried away (page 21) An item never stays fashionable for a long period of time. It can come back into fashion as the season change or as the years go by. Fast fashion brands can label items fashionable and then bring out the same product in a different shape or colour the next week making that item more fashionable and the old item a blip in history. This continuous change in ‘what’s in’ and ‘what’s not’ helps companies shift more stock to the masses in order to stay on the trend. One in six people work in fashion, and this makes it the most labour dependent industry on earth. In most manufacturers of produce the workmanship has been taken over by machine and the cost of raw materials has dropped. In the same length of time
clothing manufacturers has not change at all. The sweatshops resemble the old working mills with poor working conditions and unfair pay. The price of cloth has risen in the proportion to the quality. “ From a consumer point of view is it really democratic to buy a pear of jeans for £20 or are they taking use for a ride? They are making us believe we are rich because we can buy a lot but in fact they are making us poorer. The only person who is becoming rich is the brand owner.” (The true cost. 2015- spoken by Livia Firth ego age) By dropping the cost it means our money appears to be stretching further. The middle class has almost disintegrated. Fast fashion is making us all feel richer. You might not be able to afford basics like a home, car or education but you can buy two T-shirts for five pounds. People seem to believe that if the demand for the item was not there or the price point was marked too high for the masses to afford everything would collapse. However, what would happen is we would learn how to save for the bigger more desirable items instead of wasting our pounds on meaningless goods. The world needs more headspace to think about its future. Perhaps take a step back to a time when products were so desirable but less accessible that we would save every penny to buy and then cherish them.
Chapter two: Why we consume. Now that the basis of our knowledge of where consumerism started has been established, it is time to look at us as consumers. Is there an underlying reason for our love to consume or is it a lack of self-control? After all what is shopping these days, but and unsuccessful struggle against overwhelming temptation? Let’s first look at the product, or rather the amount of variety. Each item offers personality there is no item that could not be of use and nothing you do not long to own. Each item offers its self as meant for usefulness and desirability. Products still offer themselves in this way even if you already have a similar item. Mr Toad syndrome; perfectly happy with the things you have till something newer and better comes along. Having so many options to start with, but always being aware that something better is just around the corner means we can never be content with what we have. If we are aware of this consistent product upgrade, why still buy into a product we know will be out dated in a year or maybe even month’s time? “ Having so much choice means that consumers can now define themselves, there individualism personified by the products they buy, the brands they display.” (Calver, 2007. What is packaging design? (page 15 ) It could be agued that there is not a need for materialism more a need to fit in or stand out. Can anyone actually be an individual when there is always someone consuming in the same items? In advertisements there is a huge struggle to capture reality it is always aimed to capture a desirably lifestyle that arguable does not exist. Arheim a psychologist pointed out that expressive power of images lies in their inability to perfectly represent reality. This can be seen when looking back at the history of magazine covers. The 1990s saw a want from the public for raw natural photography. I-d magazine has since been known for it’s non-editorial front covers. Although I-d magazine is not as stylized as other brands however, when comparing their magazine from the 90’s (figure 2) with a cover from 2012 (figure 3) you can see the shift in how we preserve the ideal. From the editorial pose of the model to the stylized make up and hair all play a part in today ideal image. The unblemished filter and perfect 11
model, these subtle changes paint a very different scene. One that most could relate to and another that always feels out of are reach. Officially are ideal will always change, but where is the point in buying into a reality that does not exist?
(Figure Two: December 1990)
(Figure Three: Pre-fall 2012)
*** Now let’s draw are attention to the shopping experience. The department store that came about in the mid 90’s aimed to bring glamour to the middle class. Described as ‘cathedrals’ they where seen as beautiful environments where women would be treated like royalty. Introduction of shopping days, women like to shop with friends, studies show women spend more time and money when accompanied by someone who eggs them on. Women take pride in perfecting the perfect purchase. They absurd themselves in the retail experience imagining themselves with that item and weighting up the pros and cons so they are fully satisfied with everything they have bought. The items they collect in are baskets or trolls are considered to be theirs, which is demonstrated in the quote below. “Luxury was not thing, but a concept, luxury brings disorder because it destroys harmony and prevents the human being from fulfilling his or her nature.” (Clarke, Doel, Housiaux. 2003. The consumption reader (page 33)
If the whole experience of shopping is looked at as a luxury it makes the enjoyment even stronger. Surrounded by luxury item and preserving the stores as temples makes indulging hard to resist. Treating ourselves was seen as a reward for hard work but now living in a tempting society indulging when it has not been earned. This equals in some not for filling their potential as the brands dangle their products in front of you. In Britten we currently save 6% of are yearly salary compared to china that saves 10 times this. In the UK we are lucky to have pensions, hand outs when we loss are job and free health care. This however means there are fewer reasons to save for the future. Living a luxury lifestyle that we take for granted. The government may see this as us being content with are lives and happy to consume which later feeds are economy. Arguably we have become too comfortable within society. *** Going back to this on going battle to be individual, what roll does the fashion industry play? “ Fashion too supplements a persons lack of importance” (Clarke, Doel, Housiaux, 2003. The consumption reader (page 241). This links back to the point made about buying products to make us fit in or stand out. The fashion industry has always been seen to encouraging individualism. However, if we all following what people class as ‘fashionable’. The leader of a trend is the one that’s unknowing being led by the industry. The fashion industry has the power to say what is in and what is out. They change their mind day by day as the fast fashion industry allows them to shift more stock to people who are conscious to stay on trend. After carrying out an online survey to try and find out why we buy. I apposed the question ‘Do you find the way fashion has marketed this faster cheaper world of purchasing is to blame to why we may struggle to save up for important items?’ Response 32 touches upon a key aspect of social change:
“Personally I feel like its not so much the marketing but a social shift, also houses etc are less affordable now which crushes peoples
hopes so they go for the cheaper alterative such as smaller products.”(Appendix; One) First mentioning about a social shift, younger generations are being born into this faster cheaper world. They have no concept of needing to save for the things they want, as there is always a cheaper version available to them. Going back to this idea of shopping days where women would make shopping a social event. Now young girls can do this with there little pocket money. In addition the more important things such as property have gone up in price making them out of reach for the newer generation to afford. In order to fill this space they overcompensate with smaller items. Response 3 makes another interesting point about what people expect from society today: “Sort of, I think having so many more cheaper options has changed peoples priorities and as the world is so much more fast paced than it was even 20 years ago. People work for instant gratification, saving takes to long.” (Appendix; Two) Society has changed since the Internet evolved. The expectation to find something out or buy something at a click of a button has made us quit impatient. The point made about ‘working for instant gratification’ is quit important to understand. It go’s back to this idea of luxury and how we’re not for filling are full potential due to this luxury lifestyle. Although most of us in Britten live a comfortable lifestyle we still need to get something out of everything we do. Whether these gratifications come from approval of another persons or our pay-check. We seek this gratification ever faster. *** Lastly we are going to look at a theory by Oliver James known as the ‘Affluenza virus’. He believes that people in a developed society suffer from mental distress due to them living in a world where it is natural to place money, possessions, appearance (physical and social) and fame higher up in are values. Many theorists agree that the needs that actually are needed are security, competent, part of a community, autonomous and authentic in order to lead a happy life. If this way of life is knowingly making us unhappy why do we still give in to consumption? Is it because 14
we know no better? Or is it a hidden characteristic we all posses to be able to treat are selves? â€œ Hardin argued that when faced with a shared resource, people will be overrun by their own self desire to consume it, even if they destroying it in the process.â€? (Patel, 2009. The value of nothing (page 93) The tragedy of the commons is where you over consume a source that you knowingly know is running out. Whether its fish, coco, cotton or land we are all aware that are over consumption is going to have an effect in the long run. Yet we do nothing about it. Hardin argument sums up the reason why. Most of us have become selfish; whether you see this as one of are underline characteristic, a product of business or due to the change in society. There is common themes that can be seen are resistance to change, after all why give up a luxury we all enjoy.
Chapter three: Life is to be lived not endured. In the week commencing the 4th of November four interviews were carried out. The aim of this was to understand each very different lifestyle and analyse and then compare each against one another to gain some form of idea of what types of consumers make up our society. Neil Woodford describes himself as coming from a modest background; in his adult years he has built a successful investment company based in oxford. Amabel Grant was born into wealth. The oldest daughter of a duke; she says she will not inherit anything as it all goes to the first-born son. Where she is now is all down to her own hard work. She currently is the managing director of a technology company. It felt important to ask them both about how their background had influenced their lives now. They both felt like they were entitled to some sort of success due to their schooling. They both attended a private or grammar school throughout their education. Attending a more recognized school there is a more positive attitude towards your future after school life. Here it is clear that this positivity is reflected on the childrenâ€™s drive to do well. Joe Barbieri has brought up his family in a religious community based in Texas to subtract them from modern ways of life. He was very open about his background an empty unfulfilling way of life. He was subjected to drugs, alcohol and sex although he believed in god. When he did fully commit to god he chose to raise his family within the community. A key attribute of living this way was that all children were taught that everyone has a â€˜god given giftâ€™. This is similar to the privet school, offering students the hope of exceeding. His children however where told that god gave each person on earth a gift. This shows that these very different lifestyles offer the same sense of purpose. Another interesting similarity picked up on by Woodford and Grant is the fact that money played no part in opening doors for them in the adult life. It was more down to success and
professionalism within their chosen path. This proves that education may have played a part in strengthening their characters but it is more down to determination. Woodford touches upon some key social attributes around social class and the role men play. He explains that his parents’ relationship between money later drove him to want to earn a higher wage than his father. “ My mother had a view that my dad should earn enough money to allow her a certain standard of living.” (Woodford, 9 th of November 2015 (Appendix: Three) This drove Woodford to never wanting to be in this position. When the asked how would you feel if the thing around you suddenly desperate Neil replayed ‘ failed as a father as it is you’re first and foremost objective to provide a secure and nurturing environment for your family.’ (Woodford, 9th of November 2015 (Appendix) There has always been a focus on women’s role within a household. The man’s role gets pushed aside by feminist thinking. This overwhelming sense of pressure for a man to provide a lifestyle for his family is equally as challenging and remains a strong view within all social class. The provider of the home could be seen as the key to a materialistic life for many families. *** Conspicuous consumption has become a part of the western world. We are all knowingly consuming in items whether we notice we are doing it or not. Woodford reference this, he does not like the idea that he conspicuously consumes but he is aware he does. He however likes to believe he consumes in an inverted way. He gives this example about his relationship with cars: “I enjoy planting trees not just because it makes me feel like I am doing something to contradict the fact I drive a fast car. I have consumed lots of fossil fuels in improving the building I live in.” (Woodford, 9th of November 2015 (Appendix: Three)
He describes it like a balancing sheet he knows he consumes but as he says he ‘does stuff’ to mitigate the resource he uses. This was a surprising factor from this interview. Most people have a belief that the wealthy just give money to charity. This shows that Woodford is actively using his wealth to help or improvement his surroundings rather than putting his money in someone else hands. “There are gives and takes though all of us are living and the way we live are lives are actives has detrimental impact on the worlds resources. But at the same time I am not going to opt out of society. I have had life chance and I am exploiting that.” (Woodford, 9 th of November 2015 (Appendix: Three) This is a key point, are society developed in a way to improve our lives in more ways than one. It is only recently that we have found that some of those things have had an effect on are plant. Although we are all aware of this flaw in our plan is there, really, any point in completely undoing everything we have built? After all there is no denying western society is overall a pleasant to live in, as Woodford stated why shouldn’t we exploit something that has taken years to create? It is now time to look at a group of people who did decide to opt out of society. I grow Heathrow is an eco-community that set up in 2007 after protested broke out after 3 rd run way plans. They took over some land that was being used illegally and transformed it into a completely suitable land. From bicycle-powered washing machine to a handmade wind turbine everything was good for the planet. I spoke to Elijah a geography student who says he did not want to fall into an everyday job. He wanted to show alternative values and methods of how to live. Although what they had done with the 4 acres of land was impressive there was a lack of pride in keeping the space tidy. When comparing their site with the church community there was a clear difference in development. The most surprising fact was at I grow Heathrow there were only two work days a week. This was a shock. There were 60 people living on the site who all had strong view against the system- surely you would fight a little harder to get your ideas recognized? This brings us on to a key point mentioned by Grant that is thought by many. 18
“Doesn’t kill me to buy it but I am conscious of it. But I kind of feel there’s is a bigger thing here that I am not going to effect.” (Grant, 4th of November 2015 (Appendix; Five) There is a general view that the sustainable issue has started to feel a lot bigger than all of us and we are not going to make a difference. After visiting I grow Heathrow and seeing that the people who have opted out of society because they feel so strongly about this way of living but then only put in two days week to make their voices heard, maybe Grant has a point. Maybe our lack of confidence in fixing our mistakes is at fault. If we all put equal effort over time we must see some change. In chapter two the point was made that none of us want to give up something we enjoy to help fix a problem we have caused. This came over particularly strongly when conducting Grant’s interview. Her love for technology was hugely present throughout the interview. She liked the idea of the world slowly turning into a Star Trek film. It almost felt like this desire for modern and new was fogging her ideas on are consumption intake. Her passion was great to witness but it does highlight this inner battle between people’s enjoyments and world issues. *** Referring back to chapter one it was necessary to ask each group a question about how they preserve society. When questioning I grow Heathrow about what actions need to be taken forward to live a more sustainable life they were very blunt with their response. “End capitalism, band advertisement in public spaces, only consuming what you need. Stop people telling us we are not good enough. Developed sharing economy. Direct democratic strategies where everyone’s voices are heard and listen to.” (I grow Heathrow , 5th of November 2015 (Appendix: Four) This bullet pointing of quite big controversial issues does not solve anything. They gave no explanation of why or how these ideas could be taken forward into today’s 19
world. On one hand it could be argued that they are living away outside all things they have mentions. This however was a personal choice these methods could not be as easily applied to our Western world as there are too many differences in opinion. Someone is bound to disagree. This is summed up nicely in Woodford’s interview. When asked if he conceded are economic growth a more important investment than other world issue he explained his idea of bad business. “The long and the short of it is first of all there are bad players in Society Corporation will always reflect society. You can’t expect everyone to play how you want them to play. You have to be realistic. It would be wrong to apply a different ethical expectation to a corporation sector than to society. I don’t think environmental are health can be achieved without economic growth. You cannot emphases one at the expenses of another.” (Woodford, 9th of November 2015 (Appendix: Three) Here Woodford has put the matter into a realistic format. Society is full of different minds with different values and beliefs we cannot make everyone happy we cannot make everyone conform. The government can however put in those laws so people are aware what is consider right and wrong. One thing that is clear is money is needed to improve these world issues. To expand I grow Heathrow’s ways of sustainable living that can be adapted to city life we need money. Money can only be gained through business capital. The answer to the next question opposed to I grow Heathrow could be considered bad business. Interestingly when asked how they make money the brand Lush currently sponsors them. This could be seen as hypocritical as they don’t like the notion of capitalism and mass advertisement, which Lush undoubtedly is part of. This here shows that compromise is needed, not everybody wants to conform. Whether you are anti- capitalist or you are a business desperate to gain more capital. Woodford analysis of bad business links to this idea of greedy. People grave more after they have gotten a taste of what they could have. Barbieri quoted (1 Timothy. 6:6-10) from the bible when explaining greed. 20
“But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and harmful lust which drown men in destruction and perdition. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, for which some have strayed from the faith, in their greediness, and pierced themselves with many sorrows.” (Barbieri, 1th of November 2015 (Appendix: Six) Greed is seen as an attribute that leads on to all kinds of evil. Once greed has taken over a person mind they will do anything imaginable to get their hands on money lie, steal, cheat, even murder. Capitalism is essentially run on the notion of greed. Any business now seeks to get the highest profit within their chosen sector. Joe then goes on to state that the media including the news and entertainment are the course of corruption. They can shift people morals in seconds, influencing kids in what is consider right or wrong, pretty or ugly. The point he is make is that these new ways or communicating are filling people heads with too many conflicting ideas making society a confusing place to live. ‘God made the world a good place, man messed it up.’ *** The final key point to mention was the idea of many theorists that money makes people unhappy. Asking Woodford if all the money went would he feel less happy he says ‘Life is holistic thing; it’s about a whole spectrum of things?’ He said there has been a time where he had money and was miserable but that had nothing to do with money it was everything else that was wrong. You can’t blame one thing for your unhappiness. However money could be seen as something that could course a lot of stress of strain weather you have lots of it or not. Finally I would like to go back to Barbieri. He touched upon this idea of having or believing in something higher than yourself making you consider someone other than yourself. This resonated with this idea of people becoming more selfish. As a child we have our parents and teacher to look up to. Once we have developed to a point that matches our elders we have no one to look up to. This may lead to buying into stuff to 21
compensate the fear that there is nothing greater than our sleeves. To conclude this chapter here is a rhetorical question Barbieri used that may make you think about your own lifestyle choices. ‘They are taught be nearly everything in the culture that more is better, and the more stuff you have the luckier or more blessed you are, so why stop to wonder if it’s really true?’ (Barbieri, 1th of November 2015 (Appendix: Six)
Chapter Four: The true cost. Now that are reasoning has been explored its time to face the facts. What effect is over consumption having on the planet? Lets start with the recent factory fires and building collapse. There is huge rivalry between the factories just like any other business. The only difference is they are not fighting to produce the better product it is all about who can give the lowest cost. Having to constantly force price down equals in manufacture having to cut corner. Who ignore safety measures, which resulted in 3 out of 4 of fashion manufacturing deforestation happening this year killing over 1,000 people in each crisis. This destruction can be seen in (figure 4) In the same year fashion had its most profitable records of all time. If the fashion industry is making this much money why can’t it support its workers?
(Figure 4: Factory collapse) The fashion industry main response to this question is ‘ the Sweatshop is the best job out of a bad bunch of jobs. Sweatshops generate the most capital in these countries. To us they seem horrible places to work but we have better choice’. (The true cost. 2015- spoken by Kate ball-young, former souring manger, Joe fresh) Never the less if you had the means to help someone that makes your business or lifestyle possible would you not feel drawn to make that good job a great one? 23
Most fashion brands also favour deniability in this devastation because the fashion brands do not own the manufactures they continue to profit free of reasonability. Taking Gap as an example who have been caught out many times for use of child labour have said theyâ€™re â€˜tryingâ€™ really hard to fix the problem. They have been saying this for the past 2 decades. There are alternative brands that do address this issue that should not be ignored. People tree work along side their producer giving equal pay, proper training and good work environment. However, it could be said that these clothing target a very small part of the market. When they should be aimed at the people actually buying into fast fashion on a regular bases. *** Lets now look at waist within the industry. Living in the west we have a privilege of having are waist out of eye view. Meaning once are clothing have gone to charity or in the bin we can forget about it. Fashion should never be seen as a dissolvable product. Bellow in (figure 5) is a clothing landfill, the clothes you see will take around 200 years or more to decay letting of harmful gases into the air. Instead of throwing something out you might chose to donate the item. However, on a recent study only 10% of clothing we donate gets sold in store the rest gets dumped in other counties, who now, thanks to fast fashion have to many clothes. This can be seen in (figure 6) the clothing you have donated might be in one of those unwanted piles. These two images prove we have made to may items of clothing for the amount of people in the world all because we as consumer want the freedom to express are selves. All the industry is doing is using that desire to make some big money. The fashion industry is currently the second most polluting industry in the world the oil industry being number one.
(Figure 5: Fashion is not degradable)
(Figure 6: Another mans waste)
“When you have a clear and strong sense of style you make few fashion mistakes with your purchase and that leads to a long lasting sustainable wardrobe” (Eagan, 2014. Wear no evil (page 70) This may seem like an obvious statement however this sums up the fight between trend and style. It is hard for most people to stick to one style when you have creative designer coming up with new trends that they hope people will adopt. Equally it could be said that own style dose not exist. Everyone is copying someone else and that trend has been created and enforced or driven by the industry. Lucy Siegle a journalist sums this up her main focus is the environmental impact of fashion: “And I don't have to come around to your house and have a look to make a good guess at what you've got in your cupboards, because over the past decade and a half not only have we bought more at increasing speed, but our tastes have become increasingly homogenised.” Here she is depicting this copycat world of fast fashion. Everyone has similar peace in his or her wardrobe. This shows that we are using fashion to help express are selves fast fashion allows this to be more easily done. But are we really expressing who we are if someone else down the street is expressing them selves in the same way? *** It is not just the factories that have to bow down to this fast western world. Farming cotton has had to change due to the increase in demand. Crops have been scientifically manufactured to turn the earth into a factory so the plant can grow all year round. The company Mansanto copyright the seed so farms have to buy it from them meaning they can set the price high. These seeds do not deliver in what they said they would do equalling in the farmers have to buy pesticides. The soil becomes addicted to the pesticides meaning you have to apply it more regularly. The farms become in so much debt that one Mansanto has the right to take the land off them. The pesticides contaminate the air meaning an increase in cancer and birth defects in surrounding town. Farmer suicide has increased 250,000 in the last years. A farm drinks a bottle of pesticides every 30 minutes and ends his life currently in India.
This is yet another example of how businesses have squeezed ever pip till it pops in order to shift more produce or meet consumer demands. The final (figure 7) and (figure 8) taken from a short film entitled â€˜whatâ€™s wrong with the world.â€™ that depicts consumer society is an insight to are ever demanding world. What is important to recognize is the workers may bow down to western societies as they may desire to be like them but the natural world dose have its limitations and it will stop producing if we treat it in the same destructive way.
(Figure 7: Slums meet city)
(Figure 8: Amongst junk)
Own practice: The starting point of this body of work was taken from questionnaire results. The questionnaire was carried out to find out the reason behind why the nation consumes. The question â€˜what percentage of your wardrobe do you actually wear?â€™ was asked to gain an understanding of the amount we consume within fashion compared to the amount that is used. The results as seen in (figure 9) shows that half of the people who participated believed they only wore 50% or less of there current wardrobe. This result was the biggest shock and provided huge insights into our relationship with clothing. It touches upon this idea of disposable fashion; the fast fashion industry has opened the doors to cheap clothing that no one has any connection with. From the 50 responses it is also key to point out that 4% said they wore 10% or less which matched the amount of people that said they wore 100%. What we should be hoping for is a greater number of people saying 100%.
(Figure 9: What percentage of your wardrobe do you actually wear?) The result of this finding was the inspiration for the collection to be based on the consumerism within fashion. The collection created alongside this study was directly inspired by the findings of the study and by the need to address the dark side of consumerism in fashion and the consumersâ€™ responsibility for their actions. One of the aims is the create a desire within the audience for the collection which is then off set by their unease at realising that what they desire is actually harmful or conflicts with their morals. This was then developed into the idea of buying something and letting it rust or gather dust at the back of everybodyâ€™s wardrobe. This resulted in creating a variety of different samples that link to the idea decomposing. Samples included rusting, pealing, growing mould, staining and dripping. Mould was taken forward into a range of different samples that influence colour, embroidery and silhouette the development of from initial image to sampling and design exploration can be seen in (figure?, figure ? figure ?). This then evolved into what the aim of the collection was. Apart from having sustainable thinking as the overall mind set there was a conceptual
element that brought the collection into the contemporary. The idea being that the collection will not state the obvious. Each piece will be well constructed and DESIRABLE but up close will be rotting away. This contradiction in desiring an item that is actually is highlighting a downfall in consuming will get the customer thinking about the way they buy into materialistic goods.
(Figure 10: Pretty, gross)
(Figure 12: sleeve)
Then the practice took a different approach of looking at consumption. Space, more particularly how much space one person uses? This came about from looking at Claire Healy and Sean Cordeiroan an artist duo that took the floor plan of an old farmhouse and fixed it to a wall. What is interesting about his work is picture taken of people looking up at the art piece. This puts into perceptive how much space one person can take up. This can be seen in (figure 13) provided below. This was then taken forward into the amount of surface space of fabric is used to create a single garment. Briefly looking into zero- waist pattern cutting where a square peace of fabric is manipulated to fit the body. This however, was felt as a contradiction as you are again using more than you need in order to prevent on wastage.
(Figure 13: Found floor) It was the needed to enforce a different approach to zero-waste. What could be done with the waste? Thinking about the word consumerism a childhood film popped into mind. Marry Poppins, or more specifically her luggage bag. In the film Poppins can pull anything she needs or wants out of the bag. It sums up the act of consuming. This all came together into using the scrap fabric to make a patchwork travel bag. With the hope that this idea could be taken forward into a future business where designer send in their unwanted scraps that can then be turned into a new product. The final development in this body of work took forward historical references to where consumerism all began. The industrial revolution marked the starting point of mass productions. So far the collection is very feminine in aesthetics as it aims to target this very exclusive predominantly female idea of materialism. It lacked something raw and powerful to contrast this. It needed to depict an uplifting force that aims to problem solve. Having outerwear that took reference from the industrial revolution and some military aspects add this needed edge. The industrial revolution was seen as a turning point in the way society was run in a more efficient way. This drive for wanting improvement and change is hopefully captured within the outerwear. Overall the collection draws upon three very key aspects around the topic and translates them in a unique approach using sewing as the only creative output. The hope of having these design aesthetics work together to draw consumers in and above all provoke thought is necessary. 31
Conclusion: Now that we are drawing to a close one thing is very clear. There are two very clear views of opinion in the matter. There are the green activists that are anti-capitalism and the socialist who make up the majority of society. They both have the same moral high ground they just differ in what they consider more important in the hierarchy on human needs. The main issue that would need to be addressed is what green activists call the great bit. The great bit is where instead of measuring growth and profit we should be measuring human wellbeing and happiness. It has however has been addressed in this peace of writing that the economy is important as without money we 32
cannot fix anything. There would have to be compromises from both sides in order to effectively approach a sustainable way of consuming any goods from both parties. Now we have come to the end of this brief journey all that is left to do is answer the question. Are consumers to blame for over consumption? Arguably everyone is to blame, business, government system and consumer. Though that is a bit of a cop out. The one difference is the consumers are the ones with all the power. If the consumer decides enough is enough the government and business have no choice but to follow in order to still generate enough capital to feed the economy. The answer lies with the new generation. Children seek the approval of others and are frequently exposed to images of fame and wealth, which could lead to materialistic aspirations. By addressing the younger audience and making them become less attached to the things around them we could reverse the clock. This is harder for the older generation that have been bought up on wanting to consume. People fabricate the idea of suitable living, as people are reluctant to change. They don’t want to stop consuming in something they enjoy. That is not to say you can’t make a change to your consumer habits. The following question would need to be asked before buying into any product. What is the true cost?
Porritt, J. (2007) Capitalism: As if the world matters. England & America: Earthscan.
Bowlby, R. (2000) Carried away.
Calver, G. (2007) What is packaging design? Switzerland: RotoVision.
Smith, A. (2012) Wealth of nations. England: Wordsworth Editions limited.
Clarke, D. Doel, M. Housiaux, K. (eds.) (2003) The consumption reader. London: Routledge.
Blythe, J. (1997) The essence of consumer behaviour. Eastbourne: Prentice hall Europe.
James, O. (2007) Affluenza. Reading: vermilion.
Patel, R. (2009) The value of nothing. London: Portobello Books Ltd.
Underhill, P. (2000) Why we buy: the science of shopping. New york: Touchstone.
Schroeder, J. (2002) Visual consumption. London and New York: Routledge.
Eagan, G. (2014) Wear no evil. Philadelphia: Running press.
Hethorn, J. Ulasewicz, C. (2008) Sustainable fashion: why now? New york: Fairchild books, INC.
Fletcher, K. (2008) Sustainable fashion and tectiles. England and America: Earthscan.
Siegle, L. Firth, L. (2011) Naked fashion. Oxford: New internationalist publication Ltd
Fed Up. (2014) Film. Directed by Stephanie Soechtig. [DVD]. USA: RADiUS-TWC.
The True cost. (2015) Film. Directed by Andrew Morgan. [DVD]. UK: iTunes.
Cowspiracy: The sustainability secret. (2014) Film. Directed by Kip Andersen. (DVD) UK: iTunes.
The secrets of China. How to get rich. (2015) BBC3. Tuesday 8th September. 20:00.
Internet/ websites source:
Oliver, J. (2014) This week tonight with John oliver: Fashion (HBO). [Online Video] April 26th. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdLf4fihP78. [Accessed: August 23th 2015]
Green, M. (2015) How we can make the world a better place by 2030 (Ted Talks). [Online Video] Available from: https://www.ted.com/talks/michael_green_how_we_can_make_the_world_a_b etter_place_by_2030 [Accessed: October 28th 2015]
Watts, A. (2013) Whats is wrong with our world. (Online Video) September 1st. Available from: http://www.filmsforaction.org/watch/alan_watts_what_is_wrong_with_our_cu lture/#.VlceTeBTpNk.facebook [Accessed: November 27th 2015}
Siegle, L. (2011) Why fast fashion is slow death for the planet. ( The Guardian article) May 8th. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2011/may/08/fast-fashion-death-forplanet [Accessed: December 17th 2015}
Interviews: I have conducted.
Woodford, N. (2015) CBE Woodford investment management. Lifestyle and consumerism. [interview]. 9th of November 2015.
Barbieri, J. (2015) What religion says about greed. [interview]. 1st of November 2015.
Grant, A. (2015) Managing director preserve LTD. Lifestyle and consumerism. [interview] 4th of November 2015.
I grow Heathrow- eco community based in Heathrow. (2015) Lifestyle and consumerism. [interview]. 5th of November 2015.
Appendices: Questionnaire: Conducted on Monkeysurvay.com 1. What is your gender? 2. Age:
3. Occupations/ Students 4. What products give you the most pleasure when purchasing? Why? 5. Do you feel a lot of your plans are based around materialistic desires? 6. Have you collected anything from collectable, stickers or shoes? If yes, what made you to start collecting the item?
7. Most people buy items as they offer security. They comfort us and make us feel safe and happy. Would you say you find all the items you purchase offer a feeling of comfort or some have a stronger sense than others? 8. What percentage of your wardrobe do you actually wear? Do you find you never have enough stuff? 9. Fast fashion is making us all feel richer than we are. We might not be able to afford the things we need in life like a home, car and study but we can buy two T-shirts for a fiver. On average the UK only saves 6% of their yearly salary. Do you find the way fashion has marketed this faster cheaper world of purchasing is to blame to why we may struggle to save up for important items? 10. I am basing my idea on clothes that give back. The clothes offer more to customer in order for them to hold onto them longer. As well as giving to an on going project that aims to solves some of fashions issues. If there was a product that told a story, whether it was tailored to your own personal journey or told a story about another person you would be helping. As well as knowing some of the profits are being put towards projects to help address the issue arising. Would you be more inclined to look after and keep the item for longer if it gave more than just bust from spending money?
Appendix One: Response 32: Q1: What is your gender? Female Q2: What is your age? 18 to 24 Q3: What is your occupation? student Q4: What products give you the most pleasure when purchasing? Why? Shoes!! Q5: Do you feel a lot of your plans are based around materialistic desires? Yes, I hope in the future to have to money to buy the things I want
Q6: Have you collected anything from collectable, sticker or shoes? If yes, what made you start collecting them? I have a collection of Iron Fist shoes, they are unique Q7: Most people Buy items as they offer security. They comfort us and make us feel safe and happy. Would you say you find all the items you purchase offer a feeling of comfort or some have a stronger sense than others? When I buy items it gives me a sense of satisfaction, it is like a treat to myself, a kind of 'well done you deserve it' Q8: What percentage of your wardrobe do you actually wear? 50% Q9: Fast fashion is making us all feel richer than we are. We might not be able to afford the things we need in life like a home, car and study but we can buy two Tshirts for a fiver. On average the UK only saves 6% of their yearly salary. Do you find the way fashion has marketed this faster, cheaper world of purchasing is to blame to why we may struggle to save up for the more important things? Personally I feel like its not so much the marketing but a social shift, also houses etc are less affordable now which crushes peoples hopes so they go for the cheaper alternative such as smaller products Q10: If there was a product that told a story, whether it was tailored to your own personal journey or told a story about another person you would be helping. As well as knowing some of the profits are being put towards projects to help address the issues fast fashion has created. Would you be more inclined to look after and keep the item for longer if it gave more than just the initial bust of enjoyment when purchasing? I already hoard all of my clothes but yes I feel it would be more personal and sentimental so I would keep it a lot longer Appendix Two: Response 3: Q1: What is your gender? Female Q2: What is your age? 18 to 24 Q3: What is your occupation? Student Q4: What products give you the most pleasure when purchasing? Why? Makeup and clothes - it's fun to play with your appearance and the concept of having something new feels good. Q5: Do you feel a lot of your plans are based around materialistic desires? Sometimes. Shopping is a fun way to socialise, even if you don't really buy much.
Q6: Have you collected anything from collectable, sticker or shoes? If yes, what made you start collecting them? Not recently, don't really like accumulating junk. Q7: Most people Buy items as they offer security. They comfort us and make us feel safe and happy. Would you say you find all the items you purchase offer a feeling of comfort or some have a stronger sense than others? To an extent yes. I think having new or specific things can make you feel like you 'fit in' with society, depending on the trends. Often these things are disregarded when something new comes along though. Q8: What percentage of your wardrobe do you actually wear? 50% Q9: Fast fashion is making us all feel richer than we are. We might not be able to afford the things we need in life like a home, car and study but we can buy two Tshirts for a fiver. On average the UK only saves 6% of their yearly salary. Do you find the way fashion has marketed this faster, cheaper world of purchasing is to blame to why we may struggle to save up for the more important things? Sort of - I think having so many more cheaper options has changed people's priorities and as the world is so much more fast paced than it was even 20 years ago, people look for instant gratification and saving takes too long. Q10: If there was a product that told a story, whether it was tailored to your own personal journey or told a story about another person you would be helping. As well as knowing some of the profits are being put towards projects to help address the issues fast fashion has created. Would you be more inclined to look after and keep the item for longer if it gave more than just the initial bust of enjoyment when purchasing? Yes. I think something like a wedding dress would be a good example of something tailored just for you (provided it wasn't just off the rack), not just physically but how you feel when you wear it, and it's something people keep for years because of what it symbolises and the association of events. Appendix: (Email sent to interviews a week before) Hi all, With the interviews coming close I have provided a short introduction about my project along with some questions I have prepared. Please have a read through at your own accord. As always looking forward to meeting you all. Youâ€™re sincerely Madeleine. Into-
I am a third year fashion student currently working on my dissertation. I have based my written piece on consumption. This has come about as I am currently at a very important cross road in my life. After studying fashion for the past 4 years I have come to the realisation I love the physical skill of garment making but I have some unresolved issues around the fashion industry itself. My written piece will look at consumption as a whole but the main focus will be on the consumption of fashion. Although the essay is looking at a downside of the fashion industry its aim is also to help me decide what path to take after I finish my degree. My dissertation is laid out in four chapters. Chapter one explores the politics behind consumption, where it all began, how it affects are economy and the role business plays. The second chapter looks at reasons why we consume. This looks at personal reasons, advertising and cultural change. The third chapter is life style. This is where you come in. I will be interviewing four very different people with very different lifestyles to gain a balanced understanding of what each life style has to offer. I am also interviewing a professional that studied at my university and has now created a sustainable fashion brand. My conclusion from this information will help me find which direction I feel comfortable with. The final chapter is a synthesis of my own practice and an exploration of sustainability. The questions I will be asking you in your interview are provided below so you will have a chance to consider your answers in advance. If I am conducting your interview in person I would like to record the interviews as this will help me transcribe them but this is only with your permission and recordings will be erased. Thank you so much for your participation I am hugely appreciative.
Appendix Three: Neil Woodford - CBE Woodford investment management Oxford. Interview date: Monday the 9th of November. (Interview was recorded then typed up in own time) 1. Please introduce yourself, Name, occupation, anything you would like to say before the interview beginsâ€Ś My names Neil Woodford, I am an investment manger, I founded this company year and half ago with my partner Crag Newmen. I have been in the industry for 30 odd years, never had a grand plan through a combination of luck and some skill I have been able to generate some success for myself and the people that work for me. 2. In what way did your background influence the things that later drove you to the life you lead now?
It’s a bit like nature and nurture, I have often been asked questions around this. Its hard to really say, I definitely think my early life was very instrumental of how I evolved as a human being as a whole not just as a professional. Came from relatively modest background, my parents where not terribly wealthy. Money was quite tight in my house money was the root of a lot upset. My mother had a view that my dad should earn enough money to allow her a curtain standard of living. Frankly my dad was not capable of delivering that. That coursed a lot of tension, as my mum did not spend on what he could earn but what she thought she should be entitled to enjoy. This drove me, as I didn’t want to be in the situation myself. That suggests that I had a plan when I never did have a plan. Where I am now is product of chance and random stuff. Once I found something I enjoyed I rod with it. Would have never stuck to something I didn’t enjoy. I could never hold back, I could never of cursed through life. I think that bit of me was what a experience at school the teacher and people I surrounded myself with.. Competitive, in a way very driven. 3. What products do you enjoy buying the most? How do they make you feel? Why do you choose to buy them over other things? You properly know a bit about me and my background you may see this to be really hypocritical of me. I actually loth shopping I will do anything but shopping. My wife buys things for me online that she thinks I might like. I then try it on at home if I like it then I will buy it. Loth the whole shopping centre. Conspicuous consumption makes me feel uncomfortable. But I am a conspicuous consumer which is weird, I have a nice priority and some fast cars I do conspicuously consume but in an inverted way. I don’t surround myself with people with my social class that world I could easily be apart of. Have enjoyed spending money on refurbishing my house, which is an old 18 th century cots world stone farmhouse. I have enjoyed restoring an old historical building from ruining. I have spent a ridiculous amount of money on planting trees. I don’t enjoy the act of buying cars. I never leave my desk when I buy a car some people get a kick out of going to a show room and being pampered and flattered by sells people. I enjoy owning the car not the act of consumption. Part of my sense of a legacy. conscious of my a social usefulness in what I do a work and at home and how I spend my money. 4. Interestingly from my research most books state ‘people with money are less happy than the people with less money.’ To me this sounds like an unfear judgement. Surely it must be personally preference. Do you feel like you would be less happy if the money and things around you suddenly disappeared or decreased? There is element of truth in the whole money thing. People officially, because I have witnessed life from both ends of the spectrum. Having being brought up in a home where money was tight compared to now where I don’t have to worry about money not have to worry about spending. It would be wrong to assume that one is unhappy and one is happy. There are so many other things in life that make you happy that are nothing to do with money. Some of the saddest people in the world have been the richest people. I was married before in an unhappy relationship I was still wealthy at the time but the money did not matter it was the rest of my life that was making me unhappy. Money did not compensate for that. Life is a holistic things its about a whole spectrum of
things. But I am fully aware that when money is tight it dose make it harder. If I lost everything thing then I think I would be very unhappy It would have a massive impact on the people who depend on me. 5. Having money and buying things with that money acts as a security blanket for many people. Society has developed in way that we often need these things to make us feel protected from the outside world. Would you feel more worried about your own/ family safety if you didnâ€™t have as much? I agree, with first part as people do surround them selves for example my x wife used to spend money to make her feel happy in the world. She enjoyed the act of consumption as a parative. My family security is dependent on my ability to provide at a certain level for them. Upsetting for the family, the sense I have failed to support them would be a massive disappointment for me personally. It would not be the end of the world as we would get through it, as there are other things that are more important. It would make me feel like I had failed as a father as it is your first and foremost objective to provide a security and nurturing environment for your kids to grow up in. 6. When buying a product, (this can be anything from clothing, technology or your favourite box of chocolates) do you ever consider where the item came from, who made the product and what effect that product may have on the plant and us when using it or after you have consumed it? If yes, does it ever change your mind about buying it? I do think about the impact of what I do. A very probing question yes I do think about the impact it might have on my children. There are gives and takes though all of us in are living and the way we live are actives has detrimental impact on the world resources. But at the same time I am not going to opt out of society. I do enjoy the life I live. I have had a life chance and I am exploiting that. I do think about the impact my lifestyle has on the impact of the suitability of the world. I do stuff around that I think mitigate the impact I have on the environment. For example coming back to my trees. I enjoy planting tree not just because it makes me feel like I am doing something to contradict the fact I drive a fast car. I have consumed lots of fossil fuels in improving the building I live in. In my work I invest and nurture technologies I try to invest in early stage technology that I feel will have an impact on how we live are live in the future. Its like a balance sheet I am aware I am having a detrimental effect on the plant. But on the other hand I try and mitigate those things with what I do with the money I earn and within the business I have created. I think about it all the time. On my way into work there was an item on the news about the increase of the amount of people who spend two hours commuting to work. Because of house prices they have to live further out of the city. To some existent I am guilty of that I live about an hour away from work. But I work two days a week from home sometimes three. Part of that is so I donâ€™t have to spend two hours in a car but it is also means I am not consuming the worlds resources. If No, what do you consider when buying a product? Why are these things more import to you? N/Y
7. Do you feel money has opened more doors for you? This can be socially, for work and for personal ventures? Yeah it has, when I say money I mean success. It has enabled me to do things I would not of been able to do. It has enabled me to Influence people who have an impact on are lives. It has let me help foster and develop technology that will make live better. Socially no, my best friends are the ones I spent time with when I had no money. Everything to do with those peoples nothing to do with money. I have separated myself for the life that most people who earn what I do immerse themselves in. Personal ventures it has enabled me to do things I would not of been able to do with out money. 8. Personally, the fashion industry and other big money making corporation frustrate me because they seem to lack a clear value system. On occasion these values get tested by society e.g. the recent factory fires, but then get forgotten because the industry is good for are economy. Being in your job, where it is all about putting money in the right places. Do you consider are economic growth a more important investment than on going world issues? Very insightful question, this go’s to the heart of what I do really. I think your right people loss sight value system. I hate all those glossy magazines that focus on magazine. In the financial times, which are a paper, I read every Saturday they have this magazine that’s called ‘how to spend it’. It the most obnoxious magazine I rip it up every time. Its like homage to conspicuous consumption but it is fashion orientated that are completely unaffordable to that masses. I understand the importance fashion has on society it means a lot to billions of people in the world. So I am not dissing it but I do believe the industry has a lot of issues that need addressing. Its not unique to fashion it is a product of the world we live in. Where business are seeking to extract maximum profit from the business. They often cut corners, from bankers to Primark. Bad business is bad business it happens all over the world. In my view bad business is bad investment. When I invest it’s not about squeezing every pip till it squeaks. When I invest in to good business they have thought about the impact it will have on the plant. You need to consider the cost to produce the product but also are they doing this in the safest way. Now you can never known everything you need to no. Need to try and minimize exposure to those kinds of events as they cost you money. The long and the short of it is first of all there are bad players in society corporate will alwaysreflecting society. You cant expected everyone to play how you want him or her to play. You have got be realistic. It would be wrong to apply a different ethical expectation to a corporation sector than to society. I don’t think environmental are health can be achieved without economic growth. You cannot emphasize one at the expense of another. 9. Do you feel you over consume? Or do you consume to an extent that suit your lifestyle? Depend on the way you look at it if some looked at me and saw I have two Ferraris then you would believe I am guilty of the first question. Yes I do feel I over consume but I do counteract that. My lifestyle is in part of my consumption. Don’t see that as an excuse. Do you consume more of the worlds resources because of what I earn yes I do. But I am conscious of it so I do try to mitigate it.
10. I understand that you are changing the use of some of your land from farming to a more environmentally friendly use with lots of natural habitats for animals and plants. What motivates you to do this? I own a farm itâ€™s about 1200 acres in the Cotswolds, most people would seek to maximise that land by faming it. But modern farming can add population to worlds has lots of negative side effects. I didnâ€™t need that farm to produce and income. Lets stop try to generate income lets turn it into an environmental land, dose not make me any more it cost me money. Turned it an environmental project add wild grass and natural meadows. Induced rare breed sheep, we have chosen 8 breeds that are the most endangered, nurture and grow those to save from extinction. Create an environment for them not about making money about giving back.
Appendix Four: I grow Heathrow- Eco community based in Heathrow. Interview date: Thursday the 5th of November. (Hand written notes that have been typed up) 1. Please introduce yourself, Name, occupation, anything you would like to say before the interview beginsâ€Ś A guy called Algie took me round, the sight he lived there permanently and has no job. His life is solely based on living a more sustainable way. I grow Heathrow started in 2007 when protest broke out over a 3 rd run way plan. The sight is around 4 acreage and was taken over by them. It is still owned by the previous owner who has tried to evict them, however he was using the land illegally as a general waste sight. They have to raise the flowerbeds, as the soil has been contaminated by what used to be there. They have constructed their own wind turbine that gives energy to the whole site. They have to be careful
how much they use. The washing machine is powered by a bicycle. Wood is given to them by tree surgeons as it cost the tree surgeon money to chuck. People can build their own house on the land. They do grow their own herbs and veg but at the moment they have 60 people living there so is not enough to go around. They get given food by supermarket as unwanted product or look in bins for confectionaries. The space where they grow veg is more of a place to teach the surrounding neighbourhoods how to live of the land. 2. In what way did your background influence the things that later drove you to the life you lead now. I used to live on a farm so I was bought up into this living of the land life style. I also studies geography at school, which taught me about how we are treating the plant. 3. Have you always felt strongly about this way of living or was there something in your life that made you make this change? Why did you choose I grow Heathrow? First visited 2 and half years ago I came to protest about the runway. I did a course in development media (extension on geography), which strengthen my values on how we should be treating the land. Did not want an everyday job where people till me what to do. Liked the idea of showing alternative values and methods. 4. Please decide what sorts of thing you get up to during the day at I grow Heathrow? Tuesday and Thursday is workdays. We have meeting outline the things that need to be done you then volunteer for whichever job you would like to do. Different working groups plan workshops on going projects. Also thinking of ways to us the community around us to fight the runway and eviction, which has been going on for about 10 years now. 5. How much would you say you consume outside of I grow Heathrow? Almost nothing, I only spend my money on travel when we have to go into London to find food. 6. What steps do you feel society need to consider too be able to live more sustainability? End capitalism, band advertisement in public spaces, only consuming what you need. Stop people telling us we are not good enough. Developed sharing economy. Direct democratic strategies where everyoneâ€™s voice is herd and listen to. 7. How dose I grow Heathrow make money? Or is it not about making money more just learning to live of the land? Local fundraising and grants, Lush currently support us and puts money into are projects.
8. What does living this way has to offer? Do you think you feel you have more purpose or achievement buy living this lifestyle compared to people living in a more modern way of life? Yes defiantly, coherent with my values and outlooks. Have a lot of challenges living this way but it is more meaning full work. Nice to work with people who have similar values 9. With possibility of being evicted always looming over you. Do you still feel safe in the community? How would you feel if what you have worked so hard to construct was taken away? Can be quit stressful at times but the threat is not too strong at the moment. Would be heart-breaking if it did go but I know people here would be willing to start over in some other land.
Appendix Five: Amabel Grant - Managing director preserve LTD Interview date: Wednesday the 4th of November. (Interview was recorded then typed up in own time) 1. Please introduce yourself, Name, occupation, anything you would like to say before the interview beginsâ€Ś I am Amebel Grant, managing director of a technology company. That specialises in e-commerce which is trading between buyers and suppliers its about a paperless process. Where you buy stuff online and get invoiced for it. Acting as the middleman, takes the paperwork out of it.
2. In what way did your background influence the things that later drove you to the life you lead now. Obviously, this is the question that is the most difficult. Sort of everything and sort of nothing. I have had a hug amount of drive from my background that has been extremely helpful. Like going to privet school like having the assumption you are going to do well. But on the other hand I have not used any of that personally in my career. Which lots of people I know have. Have not used any of that network my own entire network, To answer to the question is the feeling that you are entitled to some success in your life that has differently come from my background. 3. What products do you enjoy buying into the most? How do they make you feel? Why do you choose to buy them over other things? Again that is an interesting question as I have a wide range of products I enjoy buying. I will start with fishing rods, which is one of my favourite activities. All sorts of things I bought a new car recently that I am enjoying. Clothes somewhat I properly enjoy shopping situation more with clothes. When I am on holiday it’s quit nice to browse round shops and buy something. Whereas when I am in the middle of London and I have got to buy something for an event I actually find that quit grilling. I also enjoy buying housing so different things make you feel different. So fishing is about going fishing, housing is a feeling of nesting and clothes it depends. Me: its interesting you mention property in some of the books I have read is that people buy into cheaper items because they can’t afford things like properties, study and cars. So they buy into cheaper items because it makes them feel richer. Yeah I differently understand that, there is differently a Saturday afternoon what are we going to do that’s go shopping lets go to the pound shop as that’s all we can afford. I suppose that up scales when you can afford more. Wouldn’t it be fun to walk along bon street and buy something. 4. When you find a product you really want dose the price effect your decision to buy the product? Within reason I think that depends what bracket you’re in at that moment in time. So it depends I am not going to buy a jet as I defiantly can’t afford it. But if you said to me go and buy a winter coat and the price bracket was £40 to a £1000 and I wanted the £1000 one I would buy the more expensive one. So it depends within my price bracket.
5. When buying a product, (this can be anything from clothing, technology or your favourite box of chocolates) do you ever consider where the item came from, who made the product and what effect that product may have on the plant and us when using it or after you have consumed it? If yes, does it ever change your mind about buying it? N/Y If No, what do you consider when buying a product? Why are these things more import to you?
The honest answer is yes, I consider it or no, yes I listen to it but its doesn’t. So if you tell me tomorrow that Carter is the most unethical company, I properly would think about it. So yes it dose matter to me I mean part of my job is about the supply chain and what that means. So a good example is I know that coco cola is the most unethical company but on the other hand I had some American’s coming to stay the other day and I thought they would probably want, and I knew they didn’t drink alcohol, so I thought what should I get, so I bought some coke. So it doesn’t kill me to buy it but I am conscious of it. But I kind of think there is a bigger thing here that I am not going to effect. 6. Having money and buying things with that money acts as a security blanket for many people. Society has developed in way that we often need these things to make us feel protected from the outside world. Would you feel more worried about your own/ family safety if you didn’t have as much? Yes I agree it is a security blanket but on the other hand I probably worry less about myself than I do about other people. Because if you’re only responsible for yourself it’s a very small thing you have to focus on. If you have to worry about other people that becomes a lot more serious. 7. Interestingly from my research most books state ‘people with money are less happy than the people with less money.’ To me this sounds like an unfear judgement. Surely it must be personally preference. Do you feel like you would be less happy if the money and things around you suddenly disappeared or decreased? Probably yes, I mean one of the things about living in London is its very income dependent. I think somewhere like London happiness is very dependent on that. That’s not the case in other situations. What would bring me greater happiness the hustle and bustle of London having a nice job and earning lots of money or living in the country and having no money what so ever. That is a consent contradiction. 8. Do you feel money has opened more doors for you? This can be socially, for work and for personal ventures? No, interestingly for the sort of background I am from I think background matters more than money. Having said that it doesn’t help if you have absolutely no money. Then doors world never open. It’s properly a combination of background and your professional status really more than money. I would be convinced someone with high social status because they are extremely successful would get just as many social openings as somebody with money. What I do think is that money has not opened any doors for me I think its all about social background and networking. 9. Do you feel like you over consume? Is the door always open for new products on the market? Yes, there is no doubt that I defiantly over consume. I mean whom am I comparing myself with? Is the door always open for new products absolutely! I have this theory that everything in star trek has come true. Honestly we started with the mobile flippers we are now moving on to transferring particles
across in space. Got the hover board so differently. Clothes are an interesting one as they could become part of a technology. Which I find quit interesting, so yes the door is always open. Me: as an add question is thing because you like new modern things? Convince items that make life easier. I am passionate about technology. So I find the question where will be in 30 years time? Really, interesting. What will the integration be then between us and clothing ect. The only scary bit of moderation is everything we will be recorded
Appendix Six: Joe BarbieriInterview conducted through email. 1. Please introduce yourself, Name, occupation, anything you would like to say before the interview beginsâ€Ś My name is Joe Barbieri. I'm 65 years old and have been happily married to my wife, Jeanene, for almost 40 years (anniversary in March). We have raised 6 children here in Central Texas, most of whom live near by. I'm a professional artist working in stained glass and oil painting.
2. You can go into as much or as little detail as you feel comfortable with this question. What was the turning point that made you believe in religious beliefs? Was there a curtain part of the bible that stuck out to you most? In 1975, after having lived a rather profligate lifestyle for many years - you know the typical thing - drugs, alcohol, sex - I found myself feeling particularly empty and unfulfilled. I was 25, had a girlfriend I really cared for, but could not love, being just too immature and selfish, and a meaningless life with no direction. I was not a religious person, nor a very spiritual one either, although I often wondered if there was anything to any of the multitude of various religious choices out there. Some friends had become Hari Krishnas, others bought into scientology, the I Ching, or the latest Eastern pop religion, still others like myself, just kept looking for a higher high. I did believe in a creator God and I could not conceive of a creation without some form of justice at the end - you know He gives heaven to the good and punishment to the bad (which was particularly bad for me as I knew I fell in with the second group!). Anyway, I was really miserable. I had been carrying around with me a deep emotional and physical pain which, looking back on it, was caused by my lifestyle. I drank pretty heavily to kill the pain, but I could not get rid of it. - According to Jesus, who for the pence, I sort of whined out loud and said, "I'm a mess! Look at what God has done to me!" I fully expected Jeanene to say something like, "You're not so bad," but she surprised me and said, "God didn't do this to you, you did it to yourself. My friends who are Christians said that God made the world a good place, but man messed it up." As soon as she mentioned the word 'Christians', I had a flashback to a moment in my childhood that I had long forgotten. When I was nine years old, my mom made me go to catechism classes in the Catholic Church. Sitting in a class one Saturday morning, I had a daydream where I was a little child in Israel, waiting on line so that Jesus could bless me. In my daydream, when it was my turn, I looked up into the face of a man who reached out his hand, placed it on my head and said, "Everything is going to be all right." The memory of this daydream came rushing back to me in living color, and I said to myself, "If that could only be true!" Just then the room began to fill with a bright light. The same man I saw in my daydream walked through the wall of our apartment and stood at the end of my bed. Out of his being came rays of light that seemed to penetrate my body, and as they did, they took out all the pain. He reached out his hand, touched my forehead and said, "Everything IS going to be alright"! I was crying for the first time in years, but these were tears of pure joy. Just as quickly as He appeared, He was gone. But I was changed! The pain was gone. It was there and then I said my first real prayer, "Lord, if this is true, let the pain still be gone in the morning." It was. From that moment until now I have tried to be a follower of Jesus Christ. 3. What dose the bible say about greed? One night, as I was lying in bed, mulling over my horrible exisst 2000 years has been considered one of the most, if not the most, wise men who ever lived (and who I consider, along with tens of millions before me, to be the son of God), said concerning greed, " No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will be loyal to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money." (Matt. 6:24). Here Jesus
is referring to greed when He speaks of the "love of money." By counterpoising the love of God against the love of money, Jesus is saying that greed is a great evil that will ultimately prevent a person from knowing and serving their Creator. What greed ultimately reveals about a person is that they do not believe or trust God, and that the believe there is no ultimate reality behind this material creation. Therefore, the only thing worth living for, or "serving", as Jesus put it, is money - the medium by which we attain all the "stuff" we think is valuable and able to make us happy and fullfilled 4. Why dose god preserve greed to be a sin? Why do you think it is consider being a bad attribute of someoneâ€™s personality? - I partially answered the first question in my answer to number 3, but I would add this. The apostle Timothy wrote, " Now godliness with contentment is great gain. For we brought nothing into this world and it is certain that we can carry nothing out. And having food and clothing, with these we shall be content. But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and harmful lusts which drown men in destruction and perdition. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, for which some have strayed from the faith, in their greediness, and pierced themselves with many sorrows." (1 Tim. 6:6-10). According to Timothy, greed is a "root" that ultimately leads to "all kinds of evil". Greed can cause men to lie, steal, cheat, even murder and do almost anything imaginable to get their hands on money. It is an incredibly destructive sin and has always been considered so (at least until the advent of modern relativist morality). Timothy says that people who yield themselves to this way of thinking "pierce themselves with many sorrows". As the old saying goes "money can't buy you happiness", but that saying doesn't go far enough. Greed can cause great internal sorrow, a loss of meaning and purpose to a life that ultimately fails to seek after the things that truly do matter. Further, it has effects that go beyond just the individual. I think many people today who hold a jaundiced view of capitalism, do so because they see greed as the driving force behind it. They are partially correct. The fall of the housing market in the U.S., and the subsequent world wide recession it caused, with the loss of trillions of dollars, could be directly linked to greed in a relatively small group of men (along with other important factors). So, at least in part, the greed of a few, caused the suffering of millions. Also, greed as a bad character trait, is not just a Christian position. I believe almost all religions and most code of ethics and morality agree, greed is not good. 5. Describe what life was like when living in the commune? What was your daily routine? - Actually our church community was never a "commune" like most people would use the term. It was more like a community - we all owned our own homes, many owned their own land, or shared it with another family or two. Most men have jobs outside the community - like anywhere else. There are farmers, lawyers, plumbers, artists, doctors, college professors, carpenters, mechanics, storekeepers, stay at home moms - it pretty much reflects a crosssection of the surrounding culture, as far as occupations go. The uniqueness of the community is found in this - a shared vision of life, of training their children, of worshipping God, of relating to the world, of theology and so on.
In other words we found a "common unity" - a community. The nice thing about the community was it enabled us to get to know people on more than just a surface level and it provided a place for us to raise our children among people who were like minded. Often we worked on common projects like building a church building, or preparing the grounds for a fair - so we spent a lot of time with one another. Our day probably started like many Christian families around the world. We would get up fairly early with all the kids and have a time of prayer and sharing. Breakfast - then off to work for me (I owned a landscape business and later became a full time artist), while the kids remained at home and worked on school. Jeanene taught all six of them. We turned a large room of our house into a school room. Some of the kids took online college level classes when they were older. After school the kids had animals to take care of ; we had, at various times, horses, donkeys, cows, goats, chickens, dogs, cats, and fish. We had a large family garden - 60' x 100' with tomatoes, corn, squash, peppers, beans, potatoes, onion and other stuff. So there was plenty to do around there. They also had bikes, a trampoline, a ping-pong table, swimming pool, archery equipment, skeet shooting equipment, they played volleyball and had many friends they had fun with. There were birthday parties and anniversary celebrations, and beautiful, meaningful weddings. The church community offered training and apprenticeships in woodworking , pottery, blacksmithing, furniture making, metal working, carpentry, plumbing welding, dress making, sewing, knitting, weaving, watercolor and oil painting classes, broom making, cooking, music lessons for violin, piano, guitar, brass and woodwinds, voice, and many other activities as well. During the week there were community prayer services and worship meetings. We had church-wide picnics, and Labor Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas events for the surrounding community (Greater Waco area) to be involved in.
6. When selling the things you made together or personally on the commune was it about making money for your family or were the profits but back into the community to be shared equally? - There were essentially two venues to sell the various crafts produced. There was a gift shop which was open to the public six days a week. Here, the crafts produced by the best artisans were sold. As most of these folks made their living either in part or solely through these sales, they kept between 60 to 70 per cent of the profits. The remaining went to the salaries of the people running the shop, and the overhead of running the business. The second venue was a yearly craft and music fair they have in November. Here the crafts produced by the students, ranging in age from 5 to adult, were sold at greatly reduced prices. All student work proceeds went to the church community to offset the cost of the fair and other expenses. 7. What values do you consider to be of most importance? For me the most valuable thing I possess is the knowledge that God exists, that
He sent His Son to save us from our selfish destructive ways, and that, if we trust and obey His word, we will live meaningful, purposeful lives on this earth and have a strong hope for what the Bible calls "eternal life" in the future. Every other value springs from this one source. So values such as loving God and loving your neighbor as yourself, working hard and diligently to produce the best we are capable of, perseverance in the face of difficulties, being responsible stewards of the things we possess, giving of our time, money and whatever to help those in need come to mind. Honesty, faithfulness in marriage, humility, a good sense of humor, treasuring relationships are also important. 8. Are over consumption has been a result from are push to constantly increase economic growth. We have sacrificed a lot whether it be are personal health or the plant in order to make are land appear wealthy. What are your feelings towards how money seems to be valued higher than everything else? There is no question, at least in my mind, that the quest for material gain, which people mistakenly think will bring them, as Francis Schaeffer noted, "personal peace and affluence", has motivated large portions of Western Culture for generations. Not only, as you mention, has this "over consumption" driven many to sacrifice their personal health and even the health of the planet, but also to sacrifice their unborn children, their family relationships, and many values, or good character traits that would empower them to actually live fulfilled lives. I would refer you back to the words of Jesus - "You cannot serve God and money". The two are irreconcilable, they seem to be mortal enemies. Now I'm not saying that all rich people are necessarily greedy - I have known many who were very generous and contributed to the benefit of many. But what were talking about is over consumption - the need to mindlessly gain more and more money and material goods. Even Solomon, perhaps the richest man who ever lived, who decided to drown himself in luxuries and consumption, declared the drive for unending wealth to be "meaningless" and a "vanity of vanities".
9. I understand some of your children have left the commune now but as a father what key things did the community teach your children? Do you feel if they had been brought up in a more western society there morals would have been in the wrong place? If yes, what parts of the modern world do you feel affect us the most. My kids learned the value of hard work. They learned that they had particular God-given gifts and talents that when diligently worked at, would help define their vocation. They learned how to work with, respect, and get along with others. They learned the necessity of leadership and submission to leadership. They learned the value of family and friend relationships. They learned that they are not the center of the universe. They learned to persevere when things are tough. They learned that there is a Creator God who loves them and all others as well. I believe they learned that the pursuit of money at all costs is morally wrong and destructive to relationships and health. While it is
impossible to know what my kids would look like if they had not been raised in the context of Christian community, I can tell you that they would have been subjected to a completely different worldview. We chose to raise our children in a different culture precisely because we did not want them to be subject to the shifting morals of what we perceived to be an increasingly bankrupt and insane culture - one that was becoming increasingly toxic to the Christian worldview that we held. The parts of the modern world that affect all people the most are those institutions that control the information that ultimately shape a persons morality and worldview. Those institutions would include all academia, the media (including news and entertainment media), and now the internet. That is not to say that everything that comes out of these institutions is necessarily corrupt, I feel that most of it is. Through these institutions, which are impossible to avoid unless one makes some rather radical decisions, children learn from a young age what is right and wrong, what clothes are fashionable or not, what food to eat, what constitutes "pretty" and "ugly", what cars are cool and what are not, what our politics should look like, even the role parents should have with their own children, and on and on. Being that we did not agree with most of the stuff being taught in school and released over the airwaves on TV and movies, we opted to go the time tested way to raise our children through the institutions of family and church. 10. Now that you live outside the commune do you feel your consumption intake has increased? If yes, is this because the western world will not allow you to get by with out buying into things. N/Y If no, what things do you think the population needs to keep in mind before purchasing something? Our consumption has not increased per se, but perhaps changed. For example, now that we live alone, we have the internet, through which we can keep track of world events pertinent to our lives. I like to watch sports so I'll go over a friends house to watch occasionally. We like some movies. After leaving the community our basic desire to acquire stuff, or have more money, did not change. I want to emphasize also that we are not against having possessions. We have a nice house , two cars, and live comfortably, but practically. For example, I have 5 pair of jeans; 3 for work and 2 for when I need to dress a little nicer, and a couple pair of slacks. When I buy new shoes, it's because the current ones have become uncomfortable, not because they look worn down. I think that because of mass, ubiquitous advertising, and the consumer mindset acquired through the information institutions mentioned above, it is increasingly more difficult to say no to buying superfluous stuff. The best defense against this onslaught is a different worldview in which the gaining of money is not seen as the avenue to happiness, but a way to provide for one's needs and the needs of one's family and to have something to share with those who have little. A little common sense might go a long way when it comes to purchasing something. Even asking something as basic as "Can I afford this?" might be helpful in curbing our accumulation of stuff. Deeper questions such as, "Why do I really want this item? Is it because I want to project a certain image of myself to others to make it seem like I'm wealthy or likeable or cool or whatever?" An example might be someone who has been invited to a formal
wedding. What might influence someone in their decision as to what to wear? Two obvious thoughts would be 1. To honor the bride and groom and their families by choosing something that shows one's recognition of the importance of this event, and is therefore consistent with the tone which they have chosen. Or 2. To impress all in attendance with the expensive, hot-offthe-fashion-presses nature of one's outfit. But generally speaking, people don't question their motives for consuming this world's goods. They are taught by nearly everything in the culture that more is better, and the more stuff you have the luckier or more blessed you are, so why stop to wonder if it's really true?
Disstation written in my final year of uni in which i was awarded a First. It draws upon reasons why we have not taken further movements in...
Published on Jul 11, 2018
Disstation written in my final year of uni in which i was awarded a First. It draws upon reasons why we have not taken further movements in...