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Bursa Construction Fair to offer big opportunities for real estate investors

Snowboard show attracts great interest both at home P5

and abroad

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Bursa attracts great interest at EMITT - The East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel Fair once more

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ISSN 1300-2260

Arınç: “Trustable Turkish economy to continue”

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March 2015 Year: 2 No: 4

Mayor Altepe: “Turkey is a friend of Balkans”

BURSA – Speaking at 3rd RUMELISIAD International Balkan Economy Summit, Bursa Metropolitan Mayor Recep Altepe said, “Balkans see only support from Turkey. We want all of us develop together. Let Turkey earn, let the Balkans earn. Most importantly, let the peace and friendship earn,” and sent friendship and peace message to the entire world.| Page 2

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2 general meeting of EHTTA to be held in Bursa

Historical Thermal City of Bursa is a member of European Historical Thermal Towns Association. The city will host the second general meeting of the association

Bursa city has been approved as a member of European Historical Thermal Towns Association (EHTTA) at the meeting of Technical Committee of EHTTA which was gathered in a SPA city of Belgium on 15 March, 2013. At the end of this, the city has been a part of European Historical Thermal Destination which has been authorized by the Council of Europe. In 2015, Bursa city will host the 2nd edition of EHTTA General Meeting. With its thermal resources branded city Bursa is the 4th biggest city

of Turkey with 10.886 sq meters. The population of the city is nearly 2 million 800 thousand. With its 5000-year history hosting the Empires of Rome and Byzantine, Bursa also became capital city of the Ottoman Emperor. The first council in the history of Christian was met at Hagiasophia Church in Nicaea town. Having a 1500-year historical thermal background, all of traces of the civilizations can be come across in Bursa. Thanks to Cumalıkızık with

its Han and historical shopping areas as candidate for UNESCO World Heritage List, the thermal richness of Bursa has a powerful medical potential along with total of 43 hospitals. The history, culture, nature, art city Bursa includes all tourism richness. With its sea, Mountain Uludağ, mosques, churches and synagogues every region has a different features. Faith, history, sea, skiing, thermal, medical and 3rd age tourism’s all potential are available in the province of Bursa.| Page 13

Leaders to gather and discuss the global agenda at Uludağ Economy Summit Uludağ Economy Summit will be held on March 13-14, 2015 at Uludağ Grand Yazıcı Hotel, Bursa. The meeting will be held by Capital and Ekonomist magazines. Leading spokesmen and businessmen from Turkey and other countries will gather and discuss at the summit.| Page 7

First capital of Ottomans: Iznik Silk production reviving in Bursa Accompanied by Aziz Elbas, of metropolitan municipality of Bursa, Mayor Recep Altepe visited old silk factory in Muradiye and informed about his activities to revitalize the silk industry in Bursa as in the old days of the past and was briefed by Mehmet Unal, the owner of the facility.| Page 3

Located on the shore of Turkey’s fifth largest lake, Lake Iznik, has a humble outlook from outside. But, in the past, so many states had engaged in war to conquer it… Story goes back to 316 B.C. Who owns the city had built precious works here, and mint golden coins in its name. It was so precious and valuable. It was the first capital for Turks when Sultan Alparslan opened the gate of Anatolia in 1071. When founded, it was the first target of Ottoman state’s to conquer.

Having numerous remains and artifacts belonging to the era of Christians and Muslims, the city has now been listed in the UNESCO’s cultural heritage temporarily. Efforts are on the way by ministry of culture, Uludag university, municipality, and governor of Bursa to make it in the permanent list. As Made in Bursa, we went to Iznik and listened the story of the town from its sub-governer, Huseyin Karamese. | Page 14

Tourism and Bursa Bursa, the fourth biggest city of Turkey, is also an important center for tourism industry. Having more investments there are 15,518 beds in total registered by the ministry of tourism. Number of tourists visiting Bursa was about 761 thousands in 2014, of which 250 thousands were from abroad. Occupancy rate of hotels was 42% and guests stayed in Bursa 1.75 days on the average. Touristic activities in Bursa, raised 2.23 % in 2014 on the 2013 data. | Page 12


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News

Gursu municipality took the lead in Boccia sports

March 2015

Mayor Altepe: “Turkey is a friend of Balkans” Bursa Metropolitan Mayor Recep Altepe said, “The biggest friends of Balkans are Turkey and Bursa. We target the welfare and development of Balkans.”

The first in Turkey, a training center built by the municipality for Boccia sports for handicapped people was opened in Gursu. The first championship even was organized in Gursu. The sport helps handicapped people in their intellectual, social and psychological development. Visiting the Boccia national team camped in Bursa, Gursu mayor said, “Our motto is sports unimpeded. We do not forget our handicapped people. We try to make their life easier socially, culturally and physically. Boccia is a good solution for the happiness, peace, joy, selfy-reliance, success and for their smile. The first championship for Boccia clubs in Turkey was organized in our city. The center is the first in Turkey.”

BURSA – Speaking at 3rd RUMELISIAD International Balkan Economy Summit, Bursa Metropolitan Mayor Recep Altepe said, “Balkans see only support from Turkey. We want all of us develop together. Let Turkey earn, let the Balkans earn. Most importantly, let the peace and friendship earn,” and sent friendship and peace message to the entire world.

Pointing out that there are common values in the base of powerful relations between Turkey and Balkans, Mayor Altepe continued, “This summit held in Bursa, the world capital and green city, will help development of cooperation between regions. There are Bursa traces at every corner of Balkans. We want our friends living in Balkans be happy.”

The summit was attended by a large audience comprising of local administrators, businessmen and political personalities of Bursa and Balkans. The program of the summit started with a panel headed by Bursa Metropolitan Mayor Recep Altepe with the title of “Local Administrations and Economic Development”.

Highlighting the fact that the name Bursa is mentioned at every part of the world, Mayor Altepe stated, “The biggest friends of Balkans are Turkey and Bursa. Balkans is a strategic region. It is important that we develop our friendship more. We should develop altogether.” He added that Turkey’s and Bursa’s present were felt at every place in Balkans from Bulgaria to Macedonia, from Kosovo to Bosnia.

Delivering a speech at the summit, Recep Altepe, Metropolitan Mayor of Bursa, said, “There is a heart line between Turkey and Balkans. It is very important that this line should be developed in economic manner too. Turkey has been on a very fast development in last 12 years. Balkans also develops when Turkey is developed.”

After the speeches, mayors of Çayır, Veliko Tarnovo, Starigrad, Preşova and Novipazar mayors made presentation at the panel about their cities with special emphasis on empowering the relations between Turkey and Balkans.

TOBB President Hisarcıklıoğlu visits Bursa BURSA- TOBB(The Turkish Union of Chambers) President Hisarcıklıoğlu visits Bursa. During his speech at the opening of the Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BTSO) Altıparmak Branch Office, TOBB President M. Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu stated that the new service building would bring service to the members and congratulated BTSO Chairman İbrahim Burkay and Bursa Municipality Director Recep Altepe for their contributions to the project.

the Green Mausoleum could not be completed without the china of İznik, Hisarcıklıoğlu said, “The china produced here can’t be replicated anywhere else. This is extraordinary. We must present the standards and quality of the İznik china once more to the world. I’m afraid we haven’t been able to achieve the quality of china crafted during the Ottoman period. We have a duty to İznik and to history; to the Ottoman Empire to do better.”

Attending the opening of the service building at the Altınparmak Stadium Junction were Bursa Municipality Director Recep Altepe, TOBB President Hisarcıklıoğlu, TOBB Board Members, BTSO Chairman İbrahim Burkay, BTSO Council President Remzi Topuk and BTSO Board Members.

İznik Chamber of Commerce and Industry Board Chairman Mahmut Dede gave a presentation on the economy and tourism data of the county as well as the projects they’ve undertaken.

TOBB President M. Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu stated that the new service building built with the contributions of Bursa Municipality Director Recep Altepe would bring service to its members, “There is no limit to service. Quicker access to documents for members here instead of the OIZ is planned. I would like to thank the BTSO Board and our members for this service.” BTSO Chairman İbrahim Burkay also thanked everyone who contributed to the endeavor as well as the former Chairman Celal Sönmez. Bursa Metropolitan Mayor Recep Altepe stated that the new building would greatly facilitate the efforts of the chamber and its members. TOBB President M. Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu attended the “Contributors to the Economy” awards ceremony organized by the İznik Chamber of Commerce and Industry (TSO); he also visited the Yenişehir TSO, Municipality and Commodity Exchange. Hisarcıklıoğlu said in his speech

during the ceremony that businesses contributing to Turkey’s employment rate and beatification should be protected. Emphasizing that businesses awarded so would continue to work with the

same joy and motivation, Hisarcıklıoğlu stated that İznik’s agriculture based economy could be turned into a tourism economy in a single moment. Pointing out that the restoration of

TOBB President M. Rifat Hisarcıklıoğlu, following his İznik visit, visited the Yenişehir Chamber of Commerce and Industry Chairman Orhan Torun and Council Members. Stating that Yenişehir used to be one of the Ottoman Empire’s capitals, Hisarcıklıoğlu stressed the importance of the county, stating that the county has an important place in both agriculture as well as industry. Stating that the most beneficent of men is he who is beneficent unto others, Hisarcıklıoğlu spoke in regards to the mission of entrepreneurs. Reporting that 1 million new people join the workforce each year, Hisarcıklıoğlu said, “If you are able to provide employment to these youths, congratulations!” Touching on the incentives provided as per the Credit Guarantee Fund, the TOBB President reported that there is affirmative action especially with entrepreneurs. Afterwards, Hisarcıklıoğlu visited the Yenişehir Municipality Director Süleyman Çelik and the Yenişehir Commodity Exchange President Saim Bolaca to exchange views.


Economic Newspaper

March 2015

Please mention “Made in Bursa” when writing to advertisers

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Mayor Altepe briefed about new stadium of Bursaspor

Having been in Bursa on the occasion of 2nd Summit of Construction held in Uludag University, famous Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas gave a presentation about his activities. Before his presentation, Fuksas met with Recep Altepe, Mayor of Bursa, who was also briefed about the worldwide activities of famous architects. Fuksas said that he was following the services of the Bursa municipality and was happy to be in the city. He invited mayor Altepe to Rome for mutual cooperation opportunities. Altepe informed about the efforts of his municipality to make Bursa a branded name in the world. He introduced the stadium that had been constructed by Bursa municipality and recently given to Bursaspor club for management. Fuksas liked the crocodile form of the construction, the symbol of the football club.

Silk production reviving in Bursa Accompanied by Aziz Elbas, of metropolitan municipality of Bursa, Mayor Recep Altepe visited old silk factory in Muradiye and informed about his activities to revitalize the silk industry in Bursa as in the old days of the past and was briefed by Mehmet Unal, the owner of the facility. Mayor Altepe emphasized on the importance of value production chain of silk starting from mulberry trees to the silk fabric processing factories and pointed out the fact that silk is produced only in Bursa out of domestic silkworm cocoon. He said, “Silk fabrics produced in Bursa were exempt from any taxes in the past. We aimed to revitalize silk business in Bursa to its historical glamorous past. We started to organize the families and their businesses once have been dealing with silkworm cocoon production. They are located especially in Muradiye, Hamzabey, Demirkapi, Mollaarap quarters of the city. By cooperating them and with our Busmek training center we will plant mulberry trees in certain

locations. Then we support them to have modern machineries in their factories. Cocoons will turn into valuable silken fabrics and products. The project will also be a part of larger projects in the fields of tourism and trade.” Owner of the silk factory Mehmet Unal thanked to Mayor Altepe for his sensitivity about the subject and said, “We know only two centers in the world for the production of natural silk, one is here in Bursa and the other is in Fergana in Uzbekistan. Even during the reign of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror silk fabrics were in the currency in Serai. The silk culture that goes back to the fifteenth century is to be revitalized. We offer our appreciations to mayor Altepe.”


Economy

4

March 2015

Arınç: “Trustable Turkish economy to continue”

WCO conveys its global message from Bursa

Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç stressed that the trustworthy economy of Turkey would continue. He objected to the logic of “Let the ruling power quit, the rest is not important”. Attending the 3rd Rumeliisiad International Balkan Economy Summit held in Merinos AKKM in Bursa, Bülent Arınç said that Bursa exported 12 billion 749 million 752 thousand worth of goods to 184 countries in 2014 adding that it wouldn’t be easy to find some of those countries on the map. He also detailed the top export markets as Germany, Italy, England and France.

BURSA-As known, The World Citizens Organization, WCO, emerged spontaneously in 1987 as a civil society movement inspired by the philosophy by WCO Chairman Dr. U Gong Kwaak and to great extent is a natural extension of activities he pioneered, such as his initiatives related to the 1988 Seoul Olympiad serving the purpose to break the ideological wall between East and West.

Talking about investors Bülent Arınç continued: “We are friends and brothers depending on the situation but these words are not enough for a lucrative economic cooperation. Investors and all others to contribute to the employment look for legal reliability in the country they plan to invest. They look for the existence of bilateral agreements, the political stability and incentives for investors. Friendship is not enough by itself. Nobody wants to lose at his or her investments. When they look at behind one or two decades they would like to see a clear view. If they do, they do their best to invest in that economy. If not, they will never tie up their capital to that country. Turkey has a great view for these measures to offer for the investors.” Bülent Arınç said Turkey’s economy gives confidence at all aspects offering an excellent atmosphere for investments. “I believe this confidence will continue. The economy is in safe hands. Don’t worry, this positive atmosphere will continue. Nobody should be wondering where the Turkish economy would be going. With the grace of Allah, we will win the next elections and continue to enthuse. There will be some people to ruin this stability but we will

Group Chairman: H. Ferruh Işık

WCO signifies a future based on peace, democratic rule of global citizenry and on respect to the environment. do our best to maintain this stability and developments at every field.” Speaking at the summit Macedonian Economy Minister Bekim Neziri said, “We are talking about economic cooperation between Turkey and Balkan countries. Macedonia has been trying to get integrated to the world economy. When we look at Macedonian market we see a population of 2 million people. A great number

of free trade agreements are accorded. The number of Turkish businessmen has been increasing every day. The Turkish investments have reached 44 million. The country is very attractive for Turkish and foreign investors. There are very friendly relations. This is very important in the region. It is important for foreign investors. We recorded a 54% increase in exports in one year.”

WCO Chairman Dr. U Gong Kwaak has recently visited Bursa. Dr. U Gong Kwaak has had meetings with the officials of Bursa Metropolitan Municipality in order to determine the themes and place of the next forum. The main topics discussed were: -The preservation of the Silk Road heritage. -The transmission to the themes to younger generations. Dr. Kwaak said: “What we do should make sense, this is the mes-

Top names in construction world convened nd at 2 Bursa construction summit

İletişim Magazin Gazetecilik Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. Adına Sahibi ve Sorumlu Genel Yayın Müdürü Publisher and Editor in Chief: Mehmet Söztutan (mehmet.soztutan@img.com.tr) Editors: Prof. Dr. Ismail Kaya Assoc. Prof. Mehmet Ali Özbudun Ibrahim Kupeli Project Coordinator: Talha Elitez (talha.elitez@imgajans.com) Graphic Design: Tolga Cakmakli (tolga.cakmakli@img.com.tr) Chief Accountant: Mustafa Aktas (mustafa.aktas@img.com.tr) Subscription: Ismail Özçelik (ismail.ozcelik@img.com.tr) Contributing Editors: Dr. Metin Yurdakoş Çiğdem Atalmış

HEAD OFFICE: İhlas Medya Plaza, 29 Ekim Cad. No: 2334520 Yenibosna ISTANBUL / TURKEY Tel: (0.212) 454 25 00 Pbx Fax: (0.212) 454 25 98 www.img.com.tr img@img.com.tr LIAISON OFFICES BURSA: Ömer Faruk Görün Buttim D Blok Kat: 4 No: 1267 BURSA / TURKEY Tel : (90.224) 211 4450 - 51 Fax: (90.224) 211 4481 KONYA: Metin Demir H. Ulusahin Is Mrkz. C Blok No: 603-604-605 KONYA / TURKEY Tel : (90.332) 238 10 71 Fax: (90.332) 238 01 74 PRINTED BY: İhlas Gazetecilik A.Ş. Merkez Mah. 29 Ekim Cad. İhlas Plaza No: 11/41 PK: 34197 Yenibosna - Bahçelievler ISTANBUL / TURKEY Tel: (0.212) 454 30 00 Fax (0.212) 454 34 83

One of the fastest growing segments of the economy, the construction industry was the main focus of recent summit held in Uludag University, Bursa, for the second time. Bursa is known for the second fastest growing construction projects after Istanbul. Bursa summit for construction aimed to discuss developments and prospects in the sector. The summit was participated by minister of environment and municipality Idris Gulluce, mayor of Bursa, Recep Altepe, Inder president Nazmi Durbakayim, and organizing company presidend Serap Kaya. Nazmi Durbakayim, Chairman of Inder, Istanbul constructors association, emphasized on the importance of the sector for the national economy, as it is the locomotive for many other sectors. He said in his opening speech, “About 500 thousand housing is sold annually. There are more potential ahead.” In his address to the guests in the meeting Minister Gulluce emphasized on the production of more projects by the universities. He said, “Our prime minister is also supporting the construction works in Turkey and abroad, where Turkish contractors ranked second among world companies. Among the top 250 largest construction contractor companies in the world are 42 Turkish companies. In our visit to Peru

last month we observed that there is great demand for housing in Latin America. We have been about to complete our works for the cadaster of settlements. We may also export many other services of construction business to other countries to those especially in Africa.

sage for the young generation.” The forum has turned out to be an opportunity to celebrate the Silk Road tradition. The history is closely related to the Silk Road. The history of the road is both an economic, cultural and military history. In the words of Dr. Kwaak: ”We don’t speak about conflict of civilization, but harmony of civilizations. Bursa will establish a media campaign to announce and cover the forum. For the 10th anniversary of the forum, the preparatory Committee has discussed the idea of establishing a first folk festival. Mr. Ahmet Erdönmez, Consultant to Bursa Metropolitan Municipality noted that Bursa was ready to play its part and pave the way for the ideals of The Silk Road initiative. The forum will be held the first week of September. The WCO operates under the motto of “Future built on tradition” – it wants to help build future where people could live free of political tensions and poverty. The WCO wants to help set up cities of peaceful coexistence in most challenging and difficult locations. WCO wants to help achieve prosperity for all people through harmonious coexistence and economic cooperation – like it was possible in the old days of the ancient Silk Road. According to WCO, the world needs more of actual and not only declarative democracy; it needs a system of rule that could be described as a Citizencracy, where the grass-roots global citizens, have the ultimate say in ruling the world as opposed to the present traditional, nationally biased systems dominated by elites and establishments. Citizencracy is supposed to exert larger influence on the prevailing style of the governance and limit the power of some cynical, professional leaders and politicians who claim that they act on behalf of all of us, even if their authority is sometimes difficult to verify. Citizencracy could dramatically change the style in which present national and international organizations are acting now.


Economic Newspaper

March 2015

Please mention “Made in Bursa” when writing to advertisers

Bursa Construction Fair to offer big opportunities for real estate investors

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Mayor Mustafa Dündar, “You will convey peace, friendship and tolerance to the world”

The Bursa Construction Fair, which will exhibit all construction-related innovations and promote new products and services will facilitate movement to trade of Bursa and its surroundings Organized by Tüyap Bursa Fairs Organization Inc. and supported by KOSGEB - Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization, Bursa Metropolitan Municipality and the Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BTSO), Bursa Construction 2015, the 13th International Building, Construction Materials, Installation, Heating, Cooling, Air Conditioning, Natural Gas and Technologies Fair and simultaneously with BURSA DECORATION 2015, the 3rd Furniture, Interior Architecture, Decoration and Accessories Fair will take place at the Bursa International Fair and Congress Center, April 9-12, 2015. To be held with the support of Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BTSO) in April, Bursa Construction Show will bring investors and sector representatives. The Bursa Construction Fair, which will exhibit all construction-related innovations and promote new products and services, has been the biggest, strongest and leading event of the region. BTSO brought the sector representatives together before the event to check the preparations regarding the organization. Speaking at

sa Chamber of Commerce and Industry) have been organizing international buyers delegation programs in this Fair on April 10, 2014. The program includes B2B meetings base on their purchase or cooperation targets.

the meeting, Ibrahim Burkay, Chairman of BTSO highlighted the importance of fairs for the sectors. He stressed that the Construction Fair would offer excellent opportunities for real estate investors and added, “We, as BTSO, attach extra importance on the construction fair. The fair, which will host a great number of international exhibitors, has a big importance for the sector.” He advised that the target audience has to be determined well in fairs. “We fully support this show. We will do our best to make the fair a successful event for everybody. We should host buyers delegations especially from the Gulf countries. We

are ready to offer any help at this regard,” Burkay suggested. With the promotion activities of the fair, visitors from neighboring cities and from other countries, KOSGEB (Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization) and Bursa Chamber of Commerce and Industry especially contractors, architectures, interior designers, urban planners, engineers, end-consumers, company representatives and employees from the sector firms are expected to visit the show. So, KOSGEB - Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization and BTSO (Bur-

Speaking at the BTSO gathering, Namık Ziya Mesçioğlu, Chairman of Building Engineers Industrialists Association (IMSIAD), said that they would support the fair and would do their best to bring all dynamics of the sector together at the fair. He said they would expect especially real estate investors to come to the fair and added, “We are in collaboration with Bursa Real Estate Consultants for this. These fairs generate an excellent enthusiasm in the sector. We are thankful to BTSO for its valuable and effective support.” Speaking on his part Musa Yilmaz, Deputy Chairman of Bursa Chamber of Real Estate Consultants, said that they would also support the fair. “This show is important for us, too. We have been preparing properly. I hope the organization becomes very useful for the real estate sector,” Yilmaz stated.

BURSA- Mustafa Dündar, Mayor of Osmangazi Municipality, Bursa, addressed the audience and the students during the inauguration ceremony held at Ordekli Cultural Center, on the occasion of the new term Academic and Vocational Program of the International Students Academy. He said, “After completing the education program, you would be a voluntary envoy to convey peace friendship and tolerance to the world.” “Peace, friendship and justice have always been our character. We aim at contributing to friendship and solidarity by means of the educational programs. We are confident that you will contribute to peace and friendship globally. Apart from the education program, the cultural activities in which you participate will pave the way for these ideals.” Mustafa Dündar, Mayor of Osmangazi Municipality pointed out. The event was jointly organized by Bursa Branch of Turkish Union of Writers and Presidency of Turks Abroad and Related Communities. Mustafa Baki Efe, Chairman, Bursa Branch of Turkish Union of Writers, Selman Bayer of Presidency of Turks Abroad and Related Communities, and Prime Ministry former Chief Adviser, Cemalettin Kani Torun have also participated in the event. During

the ceremony, Aliya Sharafullina, being a postgraduate student of the program from the Republic of Tatarstan, made a speech by expressing her gratitude and appreciation to the officials of the education and training program. Actually, every year thousands of students come to study in Turkey. A majority of them are from countries considered as kin and related communities, while the rest come from different parts of the world. The Presidency aims to help international scholarship students foster strong ties with Turkey, and to coordinate domestic and international efforts to make sure those relations last even after the completion of their studies, also focuses on international scholarship students, coordinating services such as accommodation, Turkish language instruction and academic counseling, tuition (costfree), medical services (cost-free), monthly stipends, and round trip airline tickets. Among its responsibilities, the Presidency is tasked with producing the conditions for those students on scholarship to successfully continue their education in Turkey, and ensuring the continuity of their relationship with Turkey during and after the completion of their studies. The Presidency puts emphasis on scientific, cultural and social cooperation with kin and related communities abroad.


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News

Snowboard show attracts great interest both at home and abroad

March 2015

President Erdoğan urges for presidential system

BURSA- Jointly organized by Bursa Governorship and BEBKA (Bursa Eskişehir and Bilecik Development Agency), by cooperating with QParks-Turkey, the Snowboard contest has turned out to be a successful event in terms of international standards. Bursa Governor, Munir Karaloğlu said, “We are determined to upgrade the winter tourism events in Uludağ Mountain. Uludağ will become the most charming ground for a series of winter sports. Besides, Uludağ, renowned for four season tourism facilities assumes a great potential more than ever. We will do our utmost best to utilize from this potential.” He noted that Snowboard contest paved the way for Uludağ’s promotion abroad. Bursa Governor, Munir Karaloğlu pointed out, “Attracting attention for its natural beauty as well as its rich cultural heritage, Bursa is also a much preferred holiday resort for winter sports. Uludağ is frequented by both winter and outdoor sports enthusiasts.” The snowboard contestants were awarded by Bursa Governor Munir Karaloğlu, Bursa Deputy Governor A. Hamdi Usta and BEBKA General Secretary Tamer Değirmenci. QParks-Turkey Representative Levent İyici pointed out that the snowboard event organized by Bursa Governorship and BEBKA by cooperating with the European firm Snowpark has been first of its kind in Uludağ. “We promote win ter tourism events of Uludağ abroad through certain organiza-

“Turkey could have achieved more if a presidential system had been adopted earlier” BURSA - A new presidential system has become a topical issue in Turkey as parliamentary elections in June 2015 get closer. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said in Bursa during his visit that Turkey could have achieved more if a presidential system had been adopted earlier. Turkey should shift to the presidential system from the current parliamentary system, President Erdoğan said once. He emphasized the need for a presidential system to see Turkey among the most developed 20 countries of the world. Erdogan made the remarks in Bursa, where he addressed a large gathering.

tions” he added. The winning contestants of pro-category are: Deniz Altınok, Kerem Gürdal and Süleyman Atlı respectively. As for the beginners category, the winners are: Barış Tuncer, Özhan Altıntaş and Murat Ferhat Kayar. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. Since snowboarding’s inception as an established winter sport, it has developed various styles, each with its own specialized equipment and technique. The most common styles today are: free ride, freestyle, and free carve/race. These styles are used for both recreational and professional snowboarding. While each style is unique, there is overlap between them.

He refuted claims that a possible presidential system in Turkey might turn the country into an empire. He described the people who objected to the presidential system as “illiterate,” who argued that that such a system would have no control mechanism in it. “Look at those countries with the ability of making quick decisions. Most of them have the presidential system… If

launched in 2013 to end the decades-old problems. The first ever “Statesman of the Century” award President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan met with representatives of Turkey’s Roma community from the country’s 81 provinces during his visit to Bursa where he received the first ever “Statesman of the Century” award.

we want to see Turkey among the most developed 20 countries, we should discuss these issues.” He also said that Turkey could have achieved more if a presidential system had been adopted earlier. Erdogan also spoke about how the existing parliamentary system, under which Turkey had been governed for decades, affected many government programs. Erdogan has repeatedly expressed his willingness for such a change.

He believes that with the presidential system, the country will make more progress concerning the rights and freedoms. “There are some circles both from inside the country and outside who cannot accept a developingTurkey. Terror organizations on one hand, and the parallel state on the other, have been trying to divide the country,” he said. “They do not want a solution,” he said, and voiced his determination to continue the “solution process,” which was

Erdoğan participated in a local opening ceremony and a “Grand Roma Community Meeting,” organized by the Confederation of the Roma Community in Turkey. Community representatives were present in the meeting at the Merinos Congress Center, where Erdoğan was honored with the first ever “Statesman of the Century” award, said Ahmet Çokyaşar, the Chairman of the Confederation. “The award represents the Roma community’s loyalty to President Erdoğan. As a community, we have great respect for him and consider him to be a role model,” Çokyaşar said.

Denizci is now selling “ice” to Eskimos After working at various companies in Bursa for 16 years, Denizci sold his car for 22 thousand TL in 2006 and made use of that Money as a capital to import curtain fabric to 40 countries today. When he first founded his company, Denizci made use of his home as an office and he said that his first export was to Poland.

Stating that they started to become capable of exporting to 12 countries a year later, Denizci said they expanded their business into the markets of Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Australia, Korea and China. Mentioning about their sales to China, Denizci said: “There is manufacturing everywhere in China. Selling to China is like selling ice to Eskimos. My clients in Uludağ, it is a popular Europe can purchase goods from China. It is difficult to sell goods to China. There center for winter sports such as skiing, and a is foreign language problem. 99 percent of national park of rich flora and fauna. Summer activities, such as the clients in China cannot speak and write trekking and camping, also are popular. Uludağ is the highest mountain of the Marmara region. Uludağ Mountain is particular- in English. Sending goods to China takes 6 or 8 weeks. When we load goods into ly a popular destination for winter skiing. the plane, this period can take less. What is important in China is to find the right Uludağ ski resort has become an attraction center in the Bursa people and to avoid traps. As a result of my province and Marmara region of Turkey and is now part of the researches and studies, I managed to find Uludağ National Park. Many tourists are extremely surprised to a distributor. 30 percent of our export is find the opportunity to enjoy winter skiing so close by and flock consisted of China. We aim at reaching 50 here from Bursa. percent in 2014.”

Stating that they prefer to work in undiscovered markets more, Denizci said: “Last year, Turkey’s export to the Democratic Republic of Congo was 5 thousand dollars. In the last expo, we made a deal for 100 thousand dollars. We are currently working for this.” Ayhan Denizci, who sold his car in 2006 after working at various companies for 16 years in Bursa, has been exporting to 40 countries in total by stepping into new markets in curtain fabric sector. The most important problem of Denizci is China – the focus of attention for many textile businessmen. Denizci thinks that exporting to this country is like selling ice to Eskimos. Ayhan Denizci, owner of Marinero Home Companies of Ayhan Denizci Textile Industry Trading Ltd. Co which was founded in 2006 and working in Ayhan Denizci Textile Industry and Trading Ltd. Co.


Economic Newspaper

March 2015

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Cardelion got full score from French president

Ilka candies company was established in 1991 in Bursa to produce chestnut sweets under Kardelen brand. The brand is known as Cardelion in abroad. In its factory of 3 thousand sqm, that was built in 2007, chestnuts are processed in modern technology that is managed by a professional team of employers.

Leaders to gather and discuss the global agenda at Uludağ Economy Summit newspapers of Germany, Kai Georg Diekmann will make speech at Uludağ Economy Summit. Head of Chamber of Commerce of China-EU Joerg Wuttke, Former Zambian Economy Minister Situmbeko Musokotwane, Founder of Yandex Arkady Volozh, Head of UnionPay China Wenchao Shi also will give a speech at the meeting.

Uludağ Economy Summit will be held on March 13-14, 2015 at Uludağ Grand Yazıcı Hotel, Bursa. The meeting will be held by Capital and Ekonomist magazines. Leading spokesmen and businessmen from Turkey and other countries will gather and discuss at the summit. Deputy Prime Minister Ali Babacan and Finance Minister Mehmet Şimşek are expected to attend to 4th Uludağ Economy Summit. There are also almost 60 spokesmen, 20 of which will attend from other countries. Former President of European Central Bank (ECB), Jean Claude Trichet, also will attend the event.

CEO of Google Ideas, Jared Cohen, who was characterized as one of the most important 100 people in the world by Time Magazine and Editorial Director of Bild News, which is one of the bestselling

There are also many prestigious businessmen and businesswomen from Turkey including Bülent Eczacıbaşı, Hüsnü Özyeğin, Cem Boyner, Ümit Boyner, Haluk Dinçer, Ali Sabancı, Nihat Özdemir, Aziz Torun, Fuat Tosyalı, Demet Sabancı, Abdullah Kiğılı, Zeynep Bodur Okyay and Hüseyin

Özdilek will share their experiences about business world. High ranking officials of Turkish banking sector, such as Hüseyin Aydın, Hakan Binbaşgil, Hakan Ateş, Temel Güzeloğlu and Ümit Leblebici will share their predictions related to future economic developments of Turkey. At the summit, leaders’ global and social agendas, importance of being digital firms will be discussed. Opportunities of African and Chinese markets also will be evaluated. During the summit, the question “what Turkey must do to have regional and global power?” will also be discussed.

Proprietor of the company Mumin Akgun, introduced his company and its activities following his participation with a team in the Sial Paris food fair where French president Francoise Hollande also visited and tasted and liked the Cardelion brand of chestnut sweet. “Having a fresh chestnut storage warehouse for 100 tons that is cooled by +5 degrees, chestnut peeling and packaging lines, warehouse for 300 tons frozen chestnut -frozen by – 18 degrees, the factory has an integrated plant for quality production. Our company is the first in having the certificate of food security management system of ISO 22000:2005 and has a growing network of distributors. We offered our products to our customers in many of the fairs and exhibitions held both in Turkey and in abroad. Last year we have been participating in the world’s famous food fair, Sial, held in Paris between 19 to 23 October. 2014 was the fiftieth anniversary of Sial and ours was the first participation in this event. Many visitors have been in the Cardelion booth in the fair, that about 6,000 companies participated and 180 thousand people visited. French president Francoise Hollande also visited our booth and tasted our products. In his brief talk about our product he expressed his views about our chestnut sweet. He said that there were differences between traditional French Maron Galce and Turkish product, which has less sugar and more natural taste that is heavily felt. Other visitors and businesspeople from Turkey and from all over the world also liked our products.” Deniz Utku Ozdemir, trade manager of the company said, “We were more generous in our free offerings and taste tests in the fair than French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese rivals. This will help us to get more feedback and responses from consumers, and develop our products towards general tastes. It also helps us to be known in our market. We have a special taste than our rivals in Europe.”

Mobi Furniture receives an honoree award at interior design “best of year” awards for its Brooklyn Sideboard! Mobi Furniture receives an honoree award at interior design “best of year” awards for its Brooklyn Sideboard! on an area of 6500 square meters in Ocaakca, Bursa, selling its designs in domestic and foreign markets.

the western style has a leading role on the trend of the sector. The high-comfort level of the western world, the fashionable colors, new materials, new lines and the new techniques of the information age are the main factors setting the fashion in this business.

You are doing the work dreamed by many designers. You design furniture and you produce them. What kinds of affects does it have to design directly what you drew in over three-decade adventure of Mobi? What kind of a trend are you pracDesigned by A. Rasit Karaaslan, ticing at the process of designing Sideboard product of MOBI Furniture As I mentioned before I felt the and producing your products? absence of a brand to offer my own was awarded with Interior Design’s 8th “Best of Year Honoree 2014” award in New York. Organized annually by Interior Design Magazine for past years, the prestigious design competition honors the best projects and products of the year. Following is an interview with Karaaslan about their success story:

How did the story of Mobi Furniture start? Could mention about you first? I studied Interior Design and Industrial Design at Istanbul State Academy of Fine Arts in 1970s. I made practices on project design and application fields after the school. I established Mobi as an individual company for brand name in 1983 to produce designs and I later converted it to a limited company. The company is a respectful name operating

works developed as the product of many years of experience I got from various companies. It is a wonderful chance and freedom to have the right to apply the designs. I can easily say that I felt the affect of this impression at every success of Mobi.

What are the factors setting the trends in furniture? The furniture is not changing as fashion, clothing or accessories which are acting in line with life. It is more stabile. There is classic furniture style for instance. It is produced by everybody as reproduction for centuries and used without getting affected by fashion or trends in time. But we can say that trends of daily life, traditional styles, society culture and even climate have an affect on furniture. I can answer your question with this way:

A new collection every year increases our competition power. So, continuality is our principle. We combine new technologies with our talents and we add classic values on the composition. We care for global preferences, functionality and quality in addition to quoting competitive prices. We target to sell our products in different geographies such as Istanbul, New York, London, etc.

fashionable. Natural materials are the ones that never become outdated. So, I am very careful about keeping our own style using natural materials and not-effected lines and styles.

Mobi has different features especially in design. Are there meanings of the objects that you are using? What do you get inspired most when you are designing your products?

What about your export capacity? How many countries Cities and cultural textures always inare you shipping Mobi products spire me. I try to reflect the inspiration to? of those places. I prefer the names at this sense such as Andalucian, Morocco, Brooklyn, Harem, Ottoman, etc.

Your design Brooklyn Sideboard won Interior Design’s 8th “Best of Year Honoree 2014” award in New York. What is the story What kinds of materials do you behind this success? use? What are the most impor- I believe that New York City is a world tant factors to make your prod- city impressing many visitors. Night ucts sought after in the world? view of Manhattan skyscrapers from

Ours is a small-size business on scale but we do it intentionally. We never want to be a big company. We are at the right scale for a company producing these style products. We can control the design and product qualities. We sold products to many different parts of the world. We sold to the USA for 16 years continually even at the times Turkey had very little exports to this market. We are the leading company at this regard.

We are careful to make our products visually not outdated in time and keep their favorite position every time. The new materials, composites, everything which is not natural, become outdated in the meantime and become not

Our leading markets are Qatar, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. We have European markets such as Germany, UK and Austria. Russia and Azerbaijan are also important markets for us.

Brooklyn and the brick walls of Brooklyn have always impressed me. I developed the product with that impression and sent it for that bid. Needless to say that the award made us, the staff and me, very happy.


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Tourism

March 2015

Osmangazi Municipality focuses on historical and cultural heritage of Bursa Hisar Archeopark archaeological excavation project underway

Mustafa Dündar, Mayor of Osmangazi Municipality has recently pointed out that a series of excavation and restoration works on historical and cultural heritage and riches of Bursa are underway within the framework of Hisar Archeopark archaeological project. According to Mayor Mustafa Dündar, Hisar District of Osmangazi possesses diverse range of historical riches dating back to 2700 years ago. Cooperating with Bursa Museum Directorate, the project includes an area of 7000 square meters. The district has been shaped by several civilizations such as the Bythinia, Rome, Byzantium, Seljuqians, and Ottomans. The first marks of the Ottoman Empire exist within Osmangazi where it extended from the foot of Uludağ to the plain of Bursa. Within the boundaries of Osmangazi, approximately 1800 registered historical buildings exist. Bursa was seized by Osman Bey in 1307 and conquered by Orhan Bey, the son of Osman Bey, on 6 April 1335. The capital of the empire was moved to Bursa in 1335 and new development movements were initiated. When Bursa was conquered, the city consisted of the inner castle, but Orhan Gazi had the Orhan Gazi Complex built out of the town. Public buildings such as mosques, baths, soup houses, hospitals, madrasahs were built out of the walls, where new settlements had been initiated, hence a new tradition of settling area had been established. As known, Osmangazi is the largest and central municipality of Bursa Province. It also makes up a district of Bursa Province. On its own, it would be the 8th largest city in Turkey. Osmangazi, the center of social and economic relations for years, is in the crossroad of roads to İzmir, İstanbul and Eskişehir. Osmangazi is the biggest district of Bursa that is on the southwest coast of Marmara Sea. Gökdere River on the east, Nilüfer River and Mudanya Road on the west, Katırlı Mountains on the north, Uludağ and Kirazlı Plateau are the natural and artificial boundaries of the district.


Economic Newspaper

March 2015

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Bursa attracts great interest at EMITT - The East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel Fair once more EMITT, aiming to carry Turkey to much higher levels in tourism, targets to make Turkey one of the three leading tourism centers in the world in the next 10 years. Bursa is ready to play its part in this regard.

ISTANBUL- The East Mediterranean International Tourism and Travel Fair, EMITT 2015 was held in İstanbul. EMITT welcomes destinations and travel buyers from the Eastern Mediterranean region and around the world. The exhibition is a colorful and lively business environment for the inbound and outbound tourism market. During the Fair, Bursa was officially represented by Bursa Governorship and Bursa Metropolitan Municipality. Having record-breaking number of visitors and participants as well as colorful stands, Bursa Governorship and Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were awarded by EMITT officials. Bursa Governor Münir Karaloğlu pointed out: ”Bursa, is a city which was the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Moreover, it has functioned as a bridge uniting the past to the future and it never lost the significance of being a center for embracing humanity and homeland for various civilizations for two thousand years. You should visit Bursa; first of all, because of its hospitality, its charming entourage and its natural wonders.” Bursa Deputy Governor Ahmet Hamdi Usta noted the fact that Bursa is renowned for its charming characteristics. He added: “Bursa as ‘The Birthplace of the Ottoman Empire’ and its ‘multi-layered cultural landscape’ has been added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List.” He also gave information about the membership of Bursa to European Historic Thermal Towns Association (EHTTA). He emphasized that membership was a source of pride for both Bursa and Turkey and added that Bursa became the 26th member of European Historic Thermal Towns Association (EHTTA). He disclosed that thermal tourism centers in Bursa improved their standards in accordance with the membership.” Aziz Elbaş, Chairman, Directorate for Culture and Tourism, Bursa Metropolitan Municipality, focusing on the historical and cultural heritage and riches of Bursa, said that the Municipality launched a series of remarkable restoration and excavation projects to upgrade the existing potential of Bursa.

Bursa Deputy Governor Ahmet Hamdi Usta


10

History

March 2015

The Tombs of Osman and Orhan Gazi The present tombs in Bursa of the original founders of the Ottoman state, Osman and Orhan, are structures erected in recent times. They were brought to a state beyond repair by the earthquake that leveled Bursa in 1855; following which time they were constructed in their present form after the complete removal of the original buildings. The original tomb buildings are known to have been, essentially, a centuries-old utilization of one or several very ancient Byzantine structures dating to the period prior to the conquest of Bursa. The gathering together of the scattered knowledge we possess concerning these tombs, which belong to one of the most exceptional phases in the history of Turkish civilization, will make possible a thorough acquaintance with the character and original form of these historical tombs. This brief study was intended to collect and analyze, so far as possible, the sources containing information on the tombs of Osman and Orhan Gazi. An article containing a more comprehensive treatment of all the sources utilized can be found in an earlier publication of mine. Bursa was not an easy conquest for the Turks. As related by the chronicler Aşıkpaşazade, the long-desired outcome of the extended siege mounted by Orhan Bey was expressed by Osman Bey in his will where he stated, “Son, when I die, let me be laid to rest beneath the Silver Dome in Bursa.” The Silver (Gümüşlü) Dome was a Byzantine structure situated on an elevated site in Bursa, whose dome was visible from afar and the glimmer of whose lead-covered dome glittered in the sunlight. Mehmed Neşri in his work titled “Kitab-ı Cihannümâ,” (Book of the Whole World) completed in 1492 (898 H.), clearly confırms this event in these words: “Osman Gazi’s last wish made to his son, Orhan, was that when he died he should be laid to rest beneath the silver dome, for the monastery had been newly covered by the infidels and it gleamed like silver and, from a distance, one might believe it was silver” Mehmed oğlu Hasan, however reports in “Cam-ı Cem Ayin” (Ceremony of Worship) that his grave is in his soup kitchen in Bursa. An entry in one of the Council of State (divan) registers records the response addressed to the judge (kadı) concerning a petition regarding the need to expand the mosque of Orhan in 1576 (984 H.) and repair the tomb of Osman Gazi to the effect that the enlargement of the mosque and careful repair of the tomb were approved. But, it is unclear which mosque of Orhan is intended. Though it specifies that the “Imperial Mosque of Sultan Orhan, which is located in Bursa in the center of town and which because the Imperial mosque is too small only a fraction of its congregation can come together..,” it is uncertain whether it refers to the mosque next to the mosque next to the tombs of Osman and Orhan in the quarter of Hisar or the Orhan mosque lower down in the marketplace near the Ulu mosque. Stephan Gerlach, the personal priest of envoy David Ungnad in Istanbul in 1573-78, is known to have vis-

the state (i.e., Osman Gazi) and the second ruler Orhan Gazi, were brought to light from beneath fıve cubits of earth within the actual perimeter of the Davullu monastery, where they had been interred.”

ited Bursa. The journal kept by the priest has not been accessible; thus, it has been possible only to learn that the church that previously occupied the site of the tomb of Orhan was named St. John. Despite the fact that Evliya Çelebi toured Bursa in the month of Muharrem 1050 H. (1640) and generally provides information of value regarding the structures he visits, he offers no sound comments on his “Visit to Osman Han Gazi” and is merely content to state that Orhan Gazi is buried in a “tomb fılled with spiritual light in the mosque of the inner citadel.” At another point in his memoirs, Evliya Çelebi makes brief mention of the Mosque of Orhan as follows: “This mosque each side of which measures 110 feet has a multi-layered minaret and Orhan Gazi is buried here.” It is apparent that Evliya Çelebi is referring not to the mosque with cloister cell in town, but rather the one within the citadel. For the tomb stands next to it. The tombs of Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi and the Orhan mosque nearby first suffered damage in a terrible fire on November 1801 (Şaban 1, 1216 H.) that left two thirds of Bursa in ashes. It is impossible to accept as true the report that the domes of the tombs were covered with silver gilt until this fire, which also burned the Hisar mosque. The mementos and all textiles in the tombs were destroyed in this great fire and it is likely that the structures themselves also underwent significant damage. On this visit to Bursa in 1904, the interpreter for the Austrian embassy, the well-known historian, Joseph von Hammer, found the mosque of Orhan closed. Hammer reports that Osman Gazi “lay buried, with his wife and children, in the Orthodox cathedral, which had been converted to a mosque after the conquest of Bursa. The tomb was fılled with some forty coffins, whose exteriors had been white-washed. This very beautiful church, which had been transformed into a tomb, was faced with marble slabs, arranged in a symmetrical manner. The former altar was raised by four marble steps in the shape of a semi-circle. The six green porphyry columns, which set off the madrasa, were still in place. The bema and all the windows reinforced by columns had been fılled in. The fire that had destroyed Bursa at the beginning of the century had not caused very great damage to this church. With the exception of that of Osman Gazi, all the tombs were in very good condition. But, due to the fallen stucco and fissures of Osman Gazi’s coffin, one could nearly count the bones of the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. (Omitted here are several statements about the rosary and the drum.) We were able to enter the tomb by a window after climbing up a staircase because the key had actually disappeared or so it was so stated.” It appears that Hammer who is still in the early stages of his profession is describing the tomb of Orhan, which he incorrectly identifies as the tomb of Osman. In 1855 (1271 H.), Bursa suffered a terrible earthquake and, in any case, had already undergone great damage in the fıre of 1801. The tombs of Osman and

Both of the current tombs were erected by Sultan Abdülaziz in 1868 (1280 H.) as indicated in the History by Nevres where the inscription on Osman Gazi’s tomb has been given. A.H. Tanpınar writes the following on this matter:

Orhan, which had been somewhat restored, and the mosque of Orhan were torn down because they were beyond repair. On October 12, 1859-that is, a short time prior to the earthquake-A.D. Mordtmann (1781-1879) visited Bursa. In his memoirs, he mentions the terrible destructive force of the earthquake, whose tremors are recorded as lasting from February to May 1855. After noting that the mosque of Orhan was wholly destroyed, he makes brief notice of the tomb of Osman Gazi. Mordtman reports the following on this matter: “The tomb of Sultan Osman I will be rebuilt in as short a time as possible. Earlier this was a very old and small Byzantine chapel. In its place, a very grand building will be constructed; nevertheless, the tomb itself will be rebuilt in its original form and dimensions.” As these statements indicate, the tombs of Osman and Orhan, which had been destroyed, were, as initially envisioned, to be replaced by a very large and impressive tomb or edifıce. At the time, however, Bursa-which, with a tremendous effort, was clearing the ruins and re-building-was unable to undertake the execution of this original project. In a very valuable city plan of Bursa, the particulars of Tophane quarter where the inner citadel and the tombs are located were drawn to a scale of 1.80: 2.35 and published in 1862-63 (1278 H.) under the direction of Suphi Bey. While the site of the Mosque of Orhan is unmarked, the

Şahadet mosque is indicated. Within an area enclosed by a wall and in the place where the tombs are presently found, the Osman and Orhan Gazi tombs are shown in a form that supplies the main outlines of their structures. Since, at this date, the tombs had not yet been built, the simple sketch appearing in the Bursa city plan may possibly reflect the location and general exterior appearance of the old tombs. In his unpublished “Book of Travels” (Seyahatnâme) written in 1864 (1281 H.), Hayrullah Efendi, the chief imperial physician-who visited Bursa prior to the 1855 disaster shortly after the disaster and, for the third time, around 1863-recounts the work executed in Bursa with the support of Ahmet Vefık Efendi (later Pasha) whom he had appointed as inspector as follows: “It has been learned that the sacred tomb of the deceased Osman Gazi, who was the builder of the state edifice, was situated among a number of small and decrepid houses, which now have been purchased from their owners, and the sacred tomb will be enlarged and re-built of the various local kinds of marbles in the resultant square, whatever its size, to be called Osmaniyye square.” In reviewing the fırst decision regarding the rebuilding of the tomb of Osman Gazi, he adds the following remarks concerning the two tombs, thus: “...Removing the rubble that had been heaped up like mountains within the Citadel, both the founder of

“The name “Silver” (Gümüşlü) signifies meaning only for those who know history and Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi lie in those soul-less buildings built in that absurd establishment style of the Era of Reforms (Tanzimat) almost as if they were in exile.” Seventeen coffins are contained here and, though for some of them signs indicate who is buried here, some of them are unknown. Ahmed Tevhid reports in his article on the tombs of the fırst Ottoman sultans that one of the coffins belongs to Savcı Bey (d.1385), son of Murad I. According to the notices, the coffins of Alaüd-din Pasha (d.1331), Şehzade İbrahim and Asporcha Hatun, the wife of Orhan Gazi are lying here, but the remainder are unidentifıed. No inscription for the repairs is present at the Tomb of Orhan Gazi. This tomb contains twenty-one coffıns. Besides Orhan Gazi, the names of Kasım, his son, and şehzade Korkud (d.1513), the son of Bayezid II are inscribed. A.Tevhid reports that he saw no other signs to identify the occupants of the tombs. He notes however that the nine tombs outside the Tomb of Osman Gazi were formerly beneath a dome, but that after repairs they were left in the open. One of these, A.Tevhid indicates, is supposed to be Nilüfer Hatun. It is evident that the situation confirms what has been related by von Warsberg and other travelers and that the names of the owners of the coffins in the tombs were not carefully preserved. The existing inscription clearly indicates that the present tomb was built in 1868. This means that when Warsberg arrived in Bursa in 1864 construction had not yet been completed.” These lines that we have translated above make it apparent that, after the earth-quake, the coffins of Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi were safeguarded in a temporary tomb building. Recent researchers who assume that the existing tomb structure has no historical value feel no compulsion to dwell on the tombs of Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi. The lithographed album published by Mary Walkız recording various sights of Bursa around 1880 allocates one engraving to the new tombs as viewed from the Clock tower. Here, on page sixteen, we come across the name of David Manstır. H.Wilde, who conducted the fırst great art historical study on Bursa, gives very brief and vague information on these in his work. Wilde is content to repeat the information given by Hammer on the tombs of Osman and Orhan and briefly describes the present structures. He furnished no plan of the later edifıce and offered the opinion that their forms suggested they were examples of early Ottoman tombs. No likelihood is grant-


March 2015

Economic Newspaper

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11

ed to the possibility that the Tomb of Osman Gazi, which was a Byzantine building that was circular and whose likenesses are often encountered in Late Antiquity, might have had an influence of the Turks who possessed a very ancient tomb architecture. They note only that the Tomb of Orhan displays a resemblance to the Tomb of Murad. Both S. Çetintaş in his volume on the early Ottoman monuments of Bursa and E. Hakkı Ayverdi in his numerous articles and books on works of the Orhan Gazi period works fail to mention these tombs. In publications of a general nature, only the modern city receives attention and the information regarding the historical monuments is quite inadequate. A. Gabriel in his great monograph on the works of the Ottoman period in Bursa, he gives cursory notice of the tombs of Osman and Orhan and treats the Orhan mosque briefly. The writer reveals that the information supplied by the books of travels is unsatisfactory; he then claims that at the time of the conquest of Bursa, that is in 1326, a church and an octagonal building were in existence and reports that they were converted into a tomb and a mosque and offers several suppositions as to their original forms. The consensus reached by all these publications is that a Byzantine monastery stood where, today, the Tomb of Osman Gazi is situated and that these tombs came into being by assigning new functions to the chapel and church of this monastery. At one time, C. Texier asserted that one of these-the circular structure-may have been dedicated to the prophet Elijah. Much later V. Schultze proposed a new hypothesis. Assuming that all ancient references to thermal springs of Pythia meant Bursa, he sought to locate here the cited palace of Pythia. In Schulze’s opinion, the church of Archangel Mikael built by Emperor lustinianos was also here. Schultze, subsequently, granted that the round church that was converted into the tomb was the church of St. Mikael and asserted that the “eli” in the name “Mikhaelieon” was, in reality, based on “Elia” (that is, Ilyaz). If this hypothesis were true, we would have concluded that the building of the Tomb of Sultan Orhan was actually built in the first half of the sixth century Justinian. But, the hot springs of Pythia are not in Bursa, but in Yalova; hence the construction that Prokopios states was conducted here should have no relationship with Bursa. We know that, towards the middle of the tenth century a monastery called the “Great” monastery was constructed within the city walls of Bursa. The Catholic monk of Bursa, Bernardin Menthon, claims that this monastery was in the vicinity of the Üftade mosque and that, in fact, this mosque was none other than the church of the monastery itself. He also maintained that the building of the Orhan tomb belonged to the former cathedral and that the Şehadet mosque in this area was also the remains of a Byzantine church. These guesses which are based no reliable

sources or serious study whatsoever are incorrect. What was the original architectural form of the building or buildings that housed the Tomb of Osman and Orhan? One of the tombs here, that of Orhan Gazi, was a building in the form of a Greek cross, typical of the Middle Byzantine period, with projecting apse and a dome supported by four columns. The other building next to it, which was also used as a tomb is the structure whose plan and section exist: It was on a circular plan with dome, preceded by a narthex and had niches on the interior. The plans, sections and pictures of various details that C. Texier collected at one time in Anatolia and Rumelia were brought together by Popplewel Pullan in England. In this fırst published work on Byzantine architecture, he included the plan and section of this second building in Bursa, which was called the Church of Ilyaz. The description, however, which was taken in a very hasty and careless manner from the book of travels by Texier, belongs not to the published picture, but to the fırst building, that is, the one with four columns. This confusion prompts hesitation in assigning the tomb whose picture exists to either Osman or Orhan, but it is a valuable record from the perspective of identifying a work whose historical value is very high. While none of the foreign travelers are not very accurate in their descriptions, it is evident that Osman rested in a domed circular plan building and that Orhan was laid to rest in a small church with four columns on the interior near a mosque bearing his name. Consequently, the plan and section that Texier drew and was later published belongs to the tomb of Osman Gazi that is, the Silver Tomb with Pyramidal Roof (künbet). Further this matter is supported by the forms of the tombs that were built during the reign of Sultan Abdülaziz. No doubt, with the objective of continuing an ancient tradition, the tomb of Osman Gazi is on an octagonal plan and that of Orhan Gazi with a dome supported by four columns was on a rectangular plan. Though all Ottoman sources and

writings on the renowned “Gümüşlü Künbet” have been lost, a record that can reliably enlight en us on the appearance and architecture of the structure is available. It is a pity we do not possess such perfect documentation for the other tomb. Of these two tombs which originally date to the Byzantine period, the plan and section we possess of the Osman Gazi tomb indicates that it was a building on a cir-cular plan that was typical in the relatively early periods of Byzantine architecture. In our estimation, the vestibule-that is the narthex-was a later accretion when it was made into a chapel. This would suggest that the building was originally a baptistery or more likely, a martyrium. The original structure that became the Tomb of Osman Gazi was probably not built, as we earlier stated, later than the sixth century. Both the various descriptions and its current form make it certain that the Tomb of Orhan Gazi must have been a Byzantine church with four supporting elements. The thick walls of the Byzantine structure, that is, the Tomb of Osman Gazi, have niches on the interior and exterior; double columns have been placed between niches on the interior. This building, constructed on a structural model commonly used from the Roman period onward, has a high drum and a compressed do The interior was illuminated by eight windows pierced in the drum. It is aln impossible to determine the original form of the Tomb

of Orhan Gazi based on information provided by travelers. The building, however much it may have had an apse, four columns and a dome and on the interior a synthronos for the seating of the priests, information concerning its architectural style lacks full clarity. The descriptions could apply to a church on a Greek-cross plan or to a baptistery f the fourth or fifth century. For an ancient baptistery was discovered at Side near Antalya distinct from the Greek-cross plan churches in terms of covering system, which had four columns. It is evident that this building could not have been a basilica with six columns as Gabrial assumand. A church that boasted four columns and a dome resting on piers and a church that contained two rows of three piers each prove incompatible from perspective if it measured one hundred-ten feet as was daimed by Evliya Çelebi. Almost all travelers agree that the dome here tested on four columns or piers. Only Miss Pardoe increases the number of piers to six; we believe that this latter count includes the two corner piers demarcating the side apses. Rearkably when the present tomb buildings erected at the command of Abdülaziz Sultan in 1868 are compared with the earlier buildings on the same site certain come apparent. The Tomb of Osman Gazi, like its predecessor, is octagonal. The interior diameter is approximately ten meters and the thickness of the walls is 1.56 meters. The present entrance is in the form of an overhang. The sides are now open in the area where tombs are located, which in Texier’s plan was the narthex. The current form of the Tomb of Osman Gazi generally reflects the main scheme of the earlier building. If we exclude a column capital on the ground beside the door, the interior and exterior of the present Tomb of Osman shares no point of commonality with the original building or which recalls Byzantine architecture, other than that its central space is in octagonal form. The Tomb of Orhan Gazi in its present form measures 16.80 meters on a side on the exterior. Three

windows have been inserted in all the facades, one of which is replaced by a door. Towards the close of the last century, photographs show that an entrance overhang existed on the exterior in front of this door; this is no longer extant. The spatial area within the outer shell whose thickness measures one and measures 14 meters on a side in a square form.Four thick columns, whose capitals and trunks are painted in the Tanzimat style set off the central space. Hence, on the interior an aisle 2.60 meters wide, covered by a barrel vault is joined by four arches to a central space covered by a dome. This system occurs in almost identical fashion in the Tomb of Murad I and is repeated in that of Murad II. Here, also, part of the original building was removed in the course of restoration, such as the projecting apse and narthex, but it suggests that the principle lines of the original and even perhaps the foundations were preserved in the new structure. But, very precious evidence exisis regarding the Tomb of Orhan Gazi, built on the former site of a Byzantine structure, which confırms the truth of the observations of the early travelers: The floor possesses the remnants of a pavement of mosaics. This pavement has not survived as a complete whole; pieces are missing in a number of places and patching has been done with a random selection of ordinary stones. Because this mosaic composition in situ, it may be regarded as concrete proof. De-

spite its incompleteness, the main scheme of the composition can be made out. The pattern of the pavement, which was formerly covered by mats and carpets and could not be fully described, is an interlace of colored stone bands. Besides the round colored slabs enclosed by these band, mosaic of small units are interposed. In addition to the round interlace, the floor area was covered, as was customary in Byzantine art and as can be observed from the remaining examples, by rectangular marble slabs. Other Byzantine examples of the same system and technique in pavement decoration occur in the churches of Koimesis and Ayasofya in İznik, Ayasofya in Trabzon, a building whose identification is unknown in Konya and the mosques of İmrahor Zeyrek, Hagia Sophia and Fenâri İsa, all converted churches, and in many other places. It is, therefore, a certainty that the Tomb of Orhan Gazi was constructed on the site of a former Byzantine church. Osman Gazi and Orhan Gazi, the founders of the Ottoman dynasty, were laid to final rest in two ancient Byzantine structures, which underwent drastic alteration or were even completely rebuilt after the earthquake of 1855. Two Ottoman sultans of the seventeenth century were also both laid to rest in a Byzantine building. Sultans Mustafa I and İbrahim now lie in coffins in a baptistery converted to a tomb next to Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.


12

Wellness

March 2015

Private Medical Park Bursa Hospital operates at European Tourism and standards Bursa Bursa, the fourth biggest city of Turkey, is also an important center for tourism industry. Having more investments there are 15,518 beds in total registered by the ministry of tourism. Number of tourists visiting Bursa was about 761 thousands in 2014, of which 250 thousands were Mehmet Haluk Beceren from abroad. OccuChairman of Gumtob pancy rate of hotels was 42% and guests stayed in Bursa 1.75 days on the average.

Medical Park, the largest hospital chain of Turkey, accommodates the health services thereof developed each passing day thanks to its vast knowledge and experience in the health sector under the motto of “health for everyone� representing its policy.

Touristic activities in Bursa, raised 2.23 % in 2014 on the 2013 data. Bursa has a wide range of touristic activities in the fields of thermal, health, historical, culture, winter, belief and congress tourism. Restoration works that are running out recently have made the city like an open air museum. They are serious steps towards making it a valuable historical and cultural asset. Profile of tourists in the world in general can be defined as that they are exploring new destinations, imagining tourists, researching tourists, online buying, experiencing and social media active tourists. We and other authorities in the city have to consider these segments while planning their investments. Bursa an Iznik has valuable historical assets belonging to early Christianity and the Ottoman era. Iznik and Uluabat (Apolliont) lakes are ideal for swimming, canoeing and surfing. Uludag is another milestone of Bursa tourism. Since 1950’s Uludag has been an important center for winter tourism attracting more and more investment for years. Began in the hotels area as plateau tourism, activities in Uludag have expanded to other areas with the inclusion of ski and congress and the aim of investments have changed. In line with the number of domestic guests that come to Uludag for skiing, number of groups coming from abroad are increasing, among them are the Russians, tourists from Nederland and Germany. Recently tourists from Arab countries are increasing. Activities aiming to proliferate the kinds of tourism in Uludag will make the mountan active all year along. That also means more tourists and more income coming to Bursa. Nature tours, trekking, plateau and congress tourisms are alternative tourism activities for Uludag. Uludag National park is an important venue for daily tours and for campers. Skirts of the mountain are ideal for jeep safari and for private car tours. There are more locations in Bursa awaiting to be explored. Natural scenery, waterfalls, caves and authentic villages in Golyazi, Cumalikizik, Misi, Suuctu and Saidabat falls, Ayva cave are some of them. In thermal tourism, Bursa have historical spas from Roman era are used health centers centered in Cekirge area. Spa tourism covers more activities than health purposes. It is a part of wider concept. Bursa has great potential for health tourism. Private hospitals, Uludag university school of medicine, state hospitals, that are being built in the city have high standards in their services for their guests who seek rest, entertainment, besides healthy thermal treatments, Tourists may have both enjoyed during they stay for their health while visiting historical and cultural venues of the city. Sulfurous thermal waters in both Cekirge and Kukurtlu area have been used in the facilities that they serve as cure centers and for health tourism.

Medicalpark Bursa Hospital, empowered through the professional service delivery approach of Medical Park in the health sector, responds the changing health needs of its esteemed clientele at the highest level by virtue of its concept of best structuring targeting the best health care through constant development and transformation. Medical Park Bursa works for 24/7, with its renewed clinics and persistently innovative and expanding academic staff, cutting-edge medical equipment, modern methods of diagnosis and treatment and sophisticated planning every detail of which prepared with a patient-focused view. Surgeries carried out in departments of Neurosurgery, Orthopedics and Traumatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Heart and Vascular Surgery, Ophthalmology, Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Pediatric Surgery, General Surgery and Aesthetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery results are at European standards. T he health care provided in international standards are accommodated thanks to two surgery rooms with laminar flow ventilation system and special surgery equipment allocated for heart and vascular surgery and a team vastly experienced in the field of cardiovascular surgery. The neonatal intensive care unit, setting an example for all neonatal intensive care units in Turkey, serves 24 hours a day continuously with the ventilator, open bed, transport incubator, phototherapy device and monitors ensuring the monitoring of the vital functions of all patient thereof. Medical Park Bursa, also accommodating the valued patients thereof with outpatient and inpatient care has 27 chemotherapy units with single-bed rooms

in the medical oncology section as well as a separate laboratory for blood tests. Our team of physicians consist of academics in all surgical branches each an expert in the branch thereof and they carry out all kinds of aesthetic plastic and reconstructive surgery including nose, stomach and facial aesthetics, mammoplasty, hair transplantation, liposuction, hand surgery (microsurgery), face fracture treatment as well as applications of botox and fillers successfully in the hospital. All kinds of eye treatments are performed carried out in the Eye Diseases Center thanks to employment of modern technology and by virtue of an expert team. Angiography and stent applications are conducted with success in the coronary heart disease unit while highly sophisticated cardiovascular surgeries can be achieved in the cardiovascular center. All kinds of gynecological treatments and birth operations

are carried out and services as to risk pregnancy follow-up and postpartum newborn intensive care services are achieved in the gynecology and obstetrics center. Treatments for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, gastrointestinal disorders, sleep disorders and sleep apnea are applied within international standards. All known dental treatment procedures including orthodontics and smile aesthetics are performed in the oral and dental health unit. Medical Park Bursa is beside you in health within lat-

est technology, patient-focused and smiling friendly services.

MEDICAL PARK BURSA VIP Service Unit composed of International Patient Experts 17,000 m2 covered area 21 floors 214 beds 75 intensive care units 7 surgery rooms Two delivery rooms Parking / Cafeteria


Economic Newspaper

March 2015

Please mention “Made in Bursa” when writing to advertisers

nd

2 general meeting of EHTTA to be held in Bursa

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By Associate Professor Sedat Demir General Manager, Bursa Medical Park Hospital

Health tourism, a natural value in Bursa

Historical Thermal City of Bursa is a member of European Historical Thermal Towns Association. The city will host the second general meeting of the association

Today, health tourism has important share in tourism revenues of the several countries. It is a wellknown fact that health tourism revenues of some developing countries are much more higher than their any other tourism incomes.

Bursa city has been approved as a member of European Historical Thermal Towns Association (EHTTA) at the meeting of Technical Committee of EHTTA which was gathered in a SPA city of Belgium on 15 March, 2013. At the end of this, the city has been a part of European Historical Thermal Destination which has been authorized by the Council of Europe. In 2015, Bursa city will host the 2nd edition of EHTTA General Meeting. With its thermal resources branded city Bursa is the 4th biggest city of Turkey with 10.886 sq meters. The population of the city is nearly 2 million 800 thousand. With its 5000-year history hosting the Empires of Rome and Byzantine, Bursa also became capital city of the Ottoman Emperor. The first council in the history of Christian was met at Hagiasophia Church in Nicaea town. Having a 1500-year historical thermal background, all of traces of the civilizations can be come across in Bursa. Thanks to Cumalıkızık with its Han and historical shopping areas as candidate for UNESCO World Heritage List, the thermal richness of Bursa has a powerful medical potential along with total of 43 hospitals. The history, culture, nature, art city Bursa includes all tourism richness. With its sea, Mountain Uludağ, mosques, churches and synagogues every region has a different features. Faith, history, sea, skiing, thermal, medical and 3rd age tourism’s all potential are available in the province of Bursa.

Health tourism, which means to procure health care from another countries due to certain reasons, may also be a significant potential source of income in developing countries. Our country experienced some fundamental health problems that could not overcome in the past. However, in line with successful implementation of health care reform, health tourism has become a crucial item on the agenda. Those people who are unable to reach to medical services in their own countries divert their health demand to other countries. The duration and very long process of treatment is another reason for health tourism demand.

The European Route of Historical and Thermal Towns. Ourense Vichy Le Mont-Dore Royat - Chamalieres Chatel-Guyon La Bourboule Bagnoles-de-l’Orne Luchon Cauterets Enghien-les-Bains Evian Bath Spa Budapest Karlovy Vary Region (Karlovy Vary, Marianske Lazne, Frantiskovy Lazne) Bursa Salsomaggiore Terme Acqui Terme Fiuggi Montecatini Terme Baden-Baden Wiesbaden Daruvar Techirghiol

When we look at our country in general and Bursa in particular, we can say that we are able to offer competitive health services and medical treatment in terms of quality and price.

Associate members La Route des Villes d’Eaux du Massif Central La Fédération thermale et Climatique Française ASSOCIAZIONE NAZIONALE COMUNI TERMALI

We are convinced that Bursa’s successful performance in health tourism will increasingly continue and Bursa will be capital city of Turkey as far as health tourism is concerned. Our country and Bursa in particular provide good health care services to Muslim countries which we have common culture and religion. Therefore this fact is a pride and honor for Bursa.

Dr. Metin Yurdakos, a specialist of Rommer Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Center, points out the importance of early detection of serebral palsi, a disease that limits body movements due to the injury in the brain.

So, thermal capacities have the number of 7 thousand beds. Currently and new revealed thermal water potential, 14,000 bed capacities are aimed to reach in the near future in Bursa. Thanks to EHTTA membership of Bursa’s thermal tourism brand has been registered.

European Historical Thermal Towns Association (EHTTA) was established by 6 founder countries including France, the UK, Spain, Belgium in 2009. As a nonprofit association, international and borderless periodical association EHTTA’s principal objectives is to constitute a powerful network of partnership between cities and thermals by sharing experience of different countries and cities. Also making up a European thermal destination and encouraging the system at European level involving institutions with support of European programs.

The health services demand directed to our country arise mainly from the African countries and the Turkic Republics. Bursa, being renowned for its unique geographical position, natural beauties and climate, including its proximity to sea and Uludag, has turned out to be an ideal place for quality health services. Health services produced in Bursa are competitive in terms of price and quality, judged by the international standards. Bursa has been able to combine health services and tourism in an ideal way. So, Bursa attracts diverse range of tourists demanding health and medical services in recent years, with its modern and competent hospitals which comply with most up to date technology and know-how.

Importance of early detection of serebral palsi

With its current historical thermal spa and facilities and geothermal drilling works which made in recent years, Bursa city has thermal water of 300 lt/second.

Renowned as “Green Bursa” with its seeable natural richness, green texture, nearly one thousand monument trees and remedied spas with its thermal waters, this historical city has attracted attention of lots of travelers and historians in the past, as well as today. The city was route for the historical Silk Road and renowned with its silk fabrics. The tiles of Nicaea, which are the town of Bursa, have been used in the works of civilizations. Featuring with its distinctive tastes İskender Kebab, Kemalpaşa Dessert, Chestnut Candy and peaches have a great fame.

Health care is very expensive and not easily reachable in the world’s many most developed countries, It is known that an appointment, even for very simple operations can be given after several months. Our country has turned out to be efficient in this regard. Native

and foreign patients can benefit from quality health care in return for reasonable prices. Therefore, our country is preferred with a rapidly increasing demand of health care from abroad.

Serebral palsi may have been caused during pregnancy, birth giving and after birth for babies because of the chronic disease of the mother that were not treated, such as high blood pressure, glucose, goiter and other infections. The medicines used by mother may have case the palsi. During the birth, cord entanglement on the neck of the baby, and long duration of birth, early births, too small babies, and other factors may cause oxygen deficiency in the brain that results serebral palsi. To encourage, promote and develop the analytic research and statistics within the spa industry focusing primarily on the history and artistic heritage, cultural, legal and legislative aspects. “European Historical Thermal Towns Association” (EHTTA) was established by 6 countries in 2009. *Founder Members; France (Vichy), Italy (Acqui Terme), Britain (Bath), Spain (Ourense), Italy (Salsomaggiore Terme), Belgium (Spa). *Partner members; Massive Central Thermal Towns Destination (France) *EHTTA members; Ourense, Vichy,Le Mont-Dore, Royat - Chamalieres, Chatel-Guyon, La Bourboule, Bagnoles-de-l’Orne, Luchon, Cauterets, Enghien-les-Bains, Evian, Bath, Spa,

Budapest, Karlovy Vary Region (Karlovy Vary, Marianske Lazne, Frantiskovy Lazne), Bursa, Salsomaggiore Terme, Acqui Terme, Fiuggi, Montecatini Terme, Baden-Baden, Wiesbaden, Daruvar TechirghiolThe first action of the European Historical Thermal Towns Association is to make up European Historical Thermal Cities Destination by the approval of the Council of Europe. European Historical Thermal Cities Destination is a way to re-pursuit of places where thermal culture is invigorated and developed. This route aims to recover quality of thermal waters and to get benefit wider and more effective by linking thermal cities’ cultural and historical heritages.

According to Dr.Yurdakos, babies who have serebral palsi are subject to unintentional heavy cramps on any muscles either by hipotonically and involuntarily. Continual uneasiness, insomnia, cramps, closed fists, using its one hand are the main symptoms of serebral palsi, and the baby should be immediately inspected by experts. If it can not hold its head in three mounths, could not sit when it is nine months old, could not walk in fifteen months, when hold under its arm it crosses its legs, trying to move by using only its hands, are important signals for the brain injury that may have been incurred.

Treatment of the injury requires close cooperation of a team of experts including those in the fields of pediatry, neurology, physical treatment, rehabilitation, physiotherapy, dietician and psychology. Physical treatment and rehabilitation are important to heal the problems related with moving elements of the body. It helps to relax the cramping muscles, and contraction and relaxation of muscles, and to improve the senses necessary for, moving, balancing and coordinating of the limbs. Physical treatment improves quality of life of the patients.


14

County

March 2015

First capital of Ottomans: Iznik

Iznik is the reflecting face of Bursa, one of the famous five cities mentioned by Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar, a Turkish author, of the lake having the same name. It is like an open-air museum. Hosted to many different civilizations history pops up at every point you touched. It is a town that the Turks have unforgettable memories about. Located on the shore of Turkey’s fifth largest lake, Lake Iznik, has a humble outlook from outside. But, in the past, so many states had engaged in war to conquer it… Story goes back to 316 B.C. Who owns the city had built precious works here, and mint golden coins in its name. It was so precious and valuable. It was the first capital for Turks when Sultan Alparslan opened the gate of Anatolia in 1071. When founded, it was the first target of Ottoman state’s to conquer. Having numerous remains and artifacts belonging to the era of Christians and Muslims, the city has now been listed in the UNESCO’s cultural heritage temporarily. Efforts are on the way by ministry of culture, Uludag university, municipality, and governor of Bursa to make it in the permanent list. As Made in Bursa, we went to Iznik and listened the story of the town from its sub-governer, Huseyin Karamese.

Will you please briefly mention about Iznik? What is the origin of its name, and the importance of it in the past?

Archaeologists Mehmet Hasan Bozkurt

Bursa is a province that smells history and having beauties of every kind. Among the towns of Bursa, Iznik is the number one that may be a brand and a face of Bursa. If we try to promote Bursa, it cannot be possible without mentioning about Iznik. It is a city that embraces a long history of mankind. Many historical names have lived here, Romans, Byzantians, Seljukians, and Ottomans have left historical traces. Iznik is known as Nicaea, Nikaia in the Old Age. It sounded as Eis ten nika ieon, or Eis and Nik parts were sounded as Isnik, than it turned into Iznik. The city was first built by Frig satrab Antigonus of Iskender, when he renovated the town on the shore of Askanya lake in 316 B.C. Then its name was changed by Lysimakhos, satrab of old Trace, when he got the reign, as her wife’s name, Nike, as Nikaia. Depending on Bithynia kingdom in 293 B.C. the city was enriched by important architectural structures and began to be mentioned as the Golden City. Many years later, the warring Romans got the capital Nikaia.

Christianity has formed in Iznik

Iznik has an important place from the historical and belief tourism point of view. The first council of Christianity was held in this city where the present form of this belief was emerged. Emperor Constantinius convened the first council here and declared Christianity as the official religion of his state. Many legends are told. The sixteen principles that were agreed upon is important for Christians. The council also combined many of bibles that have been in the currency into the four famous

Archaeologists Mehmet Hasan Bozkurt

books, namely, Johanna, Matte, Marcos and Luca.

The first capital of Turks in Anatolia

Turks that entered in Anatolia in 1071 have made the city as capital in 1076. The great honour is one of the most important symbols of Iznik. Reigned by Turks for 40 years, the town were reigned by Byzantines. Then comes the era of Ottomans that conquer the city in 1331 leaded by Orhan Gazi.

Land of scholars

Ottomans has built the first madrasa, the Orhan Madrasa, here in Iznik. So it is also known as the land of scholars. The first head muderris of Ottomans, Hadrat Davud-u Kayseri, is buried in Iznik. Also, many famous men of science and religion, including Hadrat Ebul Fadl Musa and Hadrat Abdullah Rumi of Esrefoglu have lived here and left valuable works. Kitab-i Muzekkin, a book of Esrefoglu, is the most read book of tasawwuf.

Archaeologists Mehmet Hasan Bozkurt

Will you mention about some of the remaining buildings in the city? I want that all of these valuable remains in Iznik should be known all over the world. We are doing our best to introduce and promote Iznik city as a valuable historical site and important center for art. We are continuing our renovation works to restore all the buildings remaining in the city.


Economic Newspaper

March 2015

Please mention “Made in Bursa” when writing to advertisers

Archaeologists Mehmet Hasan Bozkurt

Saint Sophia Museum

A venue for the VIIth ecumenical council held in 787 A.C., the church is important in Christianity. Located at the center of the city on the crossroads reaching four gates of the city, the building was rebuilt by Justiniaus in the 6th century. When conquered by Orhangazi in 1331, the basilica church was made mosque that was restored and a minaret was added by Mimar Sinan during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificient. It is now serving as museum.

Green Mosque

It is the foremost symbol and one of the magnificent cultural heritage of the city. It takes its name from the color of turquoise tiles and brick minaret. It is one of the best samples of Seljukian minaret style and Ottoman art; the mosque has been built by Halil Hayrettin Pasha of Candar to Mimar Haci Musa. It is one of the most magnificent symbols of the single domed mosques of early Ottoman era with marble front and blue and green tiles on the wall.

Sulaiman Pasha Madrasa

Built by Sulaiman Shah, son of Orhan Gazi, in 1332, it is the oldest building remained in Iznik from the Ottomans. Formed as classical U style of classical Ottoman madrasas, it contains 11 cells and a classroom that its walls dates back to the first half of 14th century and and its domed covers dates back to the second half of 15the century.

Archaeologists Mehmet Hasan Bozkurt

Historical gates

A symbol of Iznik, these gates were built by Vespasianus (69-79) and Titus (79-81), both Emperors of Rome. It was restored in 123 during the Hadrianus era, of the remaing three are known as gates of Istanbul, Lefke, Yenisehir. Lake Gate is ruined. They reflect the technique and style of Roman era. Iznik is also a center of art: Tiles and Iznik It is impossible to introduce Iznik without mentioning about the valuable tiles made in the city. The most beautiful tiles of the world were developed and produced here, the summit of tile art, in the 15th century. Tiles have been used in architect since the first half of 3000 B.C. They then became a precious material for Islamic architects in the 9th century A.C. Tile art in on these soils reached its summit in the 13th century during the reign of Seljukians when the walls of mosques, madrasas, tombs and palaces began to be adorned by valuable tiles. The oldest Ottoman tiles that adorn the walls of Iznik Green Mosque built along the years 13781391, though they are the descendants of Seljukian tiles in terms of technique and patterns, have richer color tones than their predecessors. With their turquoise and green colors that name the city are so attractive.

Archaeologists Serkan Gündüz

Do you have tourism project for Iznik?

We have applied for the world cultural heritage to Unesco. The project we started is supported by Bursa governorship, municipality and Uludag university. Later on ministry of culture have assumed this project and we got result soon. Unesco put our name in its temporary list. Our target is to be included in the permanent list.

Lake Iznik will be open to tourism

This has been built by 1st Murat Han in the name of his mother, Nilufer Hatun in 1388, the building is now serving as a museum. One of the beautiful samples of 19th century Ottoman architectural style, is known as the first revers T plan building.

In 14th century, tile art has gained a new dimension in Anatolia in line with the Ottomans. During the 15th to 17th centuries Iznik has become an important center for tiles and ceramics production that were delivered to the new capital Istanbul to adorn the walls of buildings and palaces. Historical records prove that tiles used in Istanbul came from Iznik.

Had been used as imaret, a kind of soup kitchen, by the end of the nineteenth century, was deeply ruined by Greeks during their occupation before the establishment of new Turkish republic. The building was restored recently in 1960 and made a museum.

Known as Milet, Damascus and Rhodes type of tiles all originated from Iznik. Motives of tulips, hyacinths, pomegranates, cloves were mostly used Iznik tiles, besides the figures of humans, birds, fishes, rabbits, dogs and ships. Blue, turquoise, green and red are used most in the tiles.

Visiting Iznik museum, tumulus and burial sites Seeing walls and gates of Iznik Visiting Saint Sophia church where 7th council were convened Seeing famous mosques adorned by tiles Buying tiles of Iznik….

Nilufer Hatun Imaret (Iznik Museum)

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The lake in Iznik is one of the important destinations in the city. It was an attractive center since the ancient times. We are preparing plans to open the lake to touristic activities such as boat tours, swimming lanes, waters sports, etc.

Do not leave Iznik without…

Archaeologists Mehmet Hasan Bozkurt


16

History

March 2015

Cumalıkızık houses attract interest more than ever Cumalikizik is a village that has preserved the texture of residential Ottoman architecture until the present time. These historic houses are now protected. Cumalıkızık was one of the first places settled by the Ottomans when they moved into Bursa. There are totally 270 historical houses in the village. Some of these houses are in process of restoration and maintenance. 180 of them are still being used as dwellings.

The living section is accessible from the outer courtyard or directly from the street surrounded by wooden columns on which the upper floor is perched on. The ground is paved with flat and wide stones. Living section is the most widely used part of the Cumalıkızık houses. The productions which are reaped are temporarily stored, separated and arranged there. Chestnuts are shelled there. Wedding ceremonies are arranged there. Also the supplies of the heat are carefully stowed there. If the living section is higher than normal, a mezzanine will be constructed to store and keep the materials for a long time here.

Generally, the houses in Cumalıkızık have three story rooms; used by relatives to share them together in total cooperation and harmony. This village has 270 houses, which 180 of them are still in use. The privacy of the families was the primary concern during the construction of these houses. The ground floor, courtyard and the first floors of these houses were built by rubble and wooden walls in total accordance with the flooring of the street. The framework of the upper floor is filled with half-timbered wall and covered with tiles in the Ottoman style. It is not possible to see the inside of the house from outside. Upper floors are decorated with bay windows. Two types of layout generally are observed for Cumalıkızık houses. One of these is the exterior courtyard surrounded by a high wall built by rubbles. Passing through this courtyard, one will encounter the entrance door, which prevents direct connection to the street. However there is no courtyard in the second type of these houses. Living section of the house is directly available through the street door.

The depots, kitchen, lavatory, stable, hut and stove are on the ground floor, where the most of houseworks were carried out. The first floor with a lower height, in where the bedrooms, siting rooms, baths and stoves are located and the households were resided during the winter months.

The outside wall is strengthened with a horizontal beam embedded to it and there is also lightning and ventilation. The living area enables accessibility to the inner courtyard, stable, storages and stairs. The entrance door of the house is opened to both directions. These wings

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of the door generally made of walnut tree are attached by wrought iron braces and nails with large knobs. Door handles and knockers are also of wrought iron. The construction of the doors serves for the purpose of easiness while carrying the products and vehicles of agriculture inside.

The second floor is used during the summer months. Along the hall, there are rooms, eyvan (a vaulted room with one side open to the court), doorsteps and sofas. The main room is the most carefully arranged on the upper floor. The flooring of the house is made by using beams and veneers nailed on them. Heating of the houses are provided by stoves. The roofs with two or four inclinations are covered by the tiles of the Ottoman/ Turkish style.

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