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Table of Contents Pg. 2 – The Typewriter Pg. 3- Telegraph Pg. 3- Steam Engine Pg. 4- Games Pg. 5- Steam Boat Pg. 6- Spinning Wheel Pg. 7- Spinning Jenny Pg. 8- Airplane Pg. 9- Comics Pg. 10- Guillotine Pg. 11- Cotton Gin Pg. 12- Pendulum Clock Pg. 13- Phonograph Pg. 14- Printing Press

The Typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical or invented was made in 1855 by electromechanical devise with Christopher Latham Sholes. a set of keys, that when pressed, cause characters to The main part behind the typewriter was to put the be printed on medium sized paper.

concept of movable type developed by Johann Gutenberg in the invention of the printing press century to a machine for individual use.

The first typewriter was not a great success because the Keys were in ABC order. The keys would over lap and hit your hand. That is why now there are in this order. The first typewriter ever

Telegraph The 1800’s were a time of mass invention, and even the earliest 19th century inventors had experimented with the concept of using electricity to transmit messages over wires. It wasn’t until Samuel Morse, however, that the process was ultimately perfected. In 1832, Morse became obsessed with the telegraph, a piece of equipment which was initially proposed in 1753 and first built in 1774. Up until 1833, the devices were impractical, requiring 26 separate wires, one for each letter of the alphabet. In that year, two German engineers had invented a five-wire model, but Morse wanted to be the first to reduce The telegraph even changed the style of the number of wires to one, and he succeeded. news reporting, permanently. During the Civil War, The coded messages the the machine would when important news was transmitted over make would be recorded on paper tape by an electromagnetic lever moving a pencil up and down undependable or easily damaged telegraph lines, reporters concentrated the imperative information according to changes in the electric current conveyed from a remote transmitter. The dip in the of a news story in the first few paragraphs in order to insure that the most important facts were line had to be de-coded into letters and numbers using a dictionary that Morse himself had created. received in case the transmission was interrupted. Morse then began to hunt for ways to enhance and Today this style of reporting, is still the primary method of reporting the news. improve the device. He had always been a great Before the telephone became an big part of idea man, but his skills as an engineer were our lives, the telegram was the most popular somewhat lacking. For this reason, he received advice from a number of American and European method with which to dispatch a written message telegraphy experts, including his colleague Alfred faster than the postal service. While wire telegraphs Vail. Who helped him to improve his device. By were long ago replaced by new technologies, 1835 Morse had developed a telegraph model and Morse Code is still used by both professionals and in 1838, he had invented a code that used different amateurs in the world of radio telegraphy. The telegraph was the world’s principal numbers to represent the letters of the English alphabet and the ten digits. The system was based communications tool for many years, transmitting on a simple system of dashes and dots which were messages across cities and nations. The invention not only reshaped communications prior to the 20th to used to communicate messages symbolically. This system of symbols, called Morse Code, came century, but laid the groundwork for the technology of the future. Today, Morse’s first telegraph is into its own as an international communication housed in the Smithsonian’s National Museum of system which finally allowed for the efficient American History in Washington, D.C. transmission of messages throughout the world. The electromagnetic telegraph worked by having the message sender click dashes and dots to create or break transmission between the machine’s battery and receiver. The direct-current electricity came from gravity batteries that were the weak point in the 1835 model. Thus Morse replaced the original one-cell battery with a 20-cell battery, and 100 turns of wire were wound around the electromagnet. By Oct. 3, 1837, the device could transmit through 10 miles of wire.

Steam engine

of repairing a Newcomen engine, which was inefficient but the best steam engine of its time. Thomas Savery was an English military engineer That started the inventor to work on several improvements to Newcomen's design. Most and inventor who in 1698, patented the first steam engine. Thomas Savery had been working memorable was Watt's 1769 patent for a on solving the problem of pumping water out of separate condenser connected to a cylinder by a valve. Unlike Newcomen's engine, Watt's design coal mines, his machine consisted of a closed vessel filled with water into which steam under had a condenser that could be cool while the pressure was introduced. This forced the water cylinder was hot. Watt's engine soon became the upwards and out of the mine shaft. Then a cold better design for all modern steam engines and water sprinkler was used to condense the steam. helped bring about the Industrial Revolution This created a vacuum which sucked more water out of the mine shaft through a bottom valve.

Thomas Newcomen was an English blacksmith, who invented the atmospheric steam engine, an improvement over Thomas Slavery's previous design. The Newcomen steam engine used the force of atmospheric pressure to do the work. Thomas Newcomen's engine pumped steam into a cylinder. The steam was then condensed by cold water which created a vacuum on the inside of the cylinder. The resulting atmospheric pressure operated a piston, creating downward strokes. In Newcomen's engine the intensity of pressure was not limited by the pressure of the steam, unlike what Thomas Savery had patented in 1698. In 1712, Thomas Newcomen together with John Calley built their first engine on top of a water filled mine shaft and used it to pump water out of the mine. The Newcomen engine was leading up to the Watt engine and it was one of the most interesting pieces of technology developed during the 1700's. In 1765, James Watt while working for the University of Glasgow was assigned the task


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You found your way congratulations you won a Guillotine!!

Once upon a time there was a Phonograph named ______ and he loved to _______. He had a best friend named _____ and he was a Rifle and he loved to ______. So one _____ they found a Cotton Gin named ______ and he loved to ______ also. So _____ and _____ got along very well, but _____ did not like that because he didn't want to lose ______. So he walked up to _______ and said “I don't think that you should be _____ friend because I feel like I am going to use you to _____ and I don't want that to happen”. Okay _____ I will spend more time with you but I am still going to be friends with _____ and and I want you to be fine with that,” ______ said. “Well okay we can all be friends okay got to go my mom the Guillotine by see you later.”

Steam Boat By:Keelyn Hughes

using steam for water locomotion. His models utilized various combinations of

The Steam Boat was one of the greatest propulsive force, including ranked paddles (patterned after Indian war inventions in the industrial revolution time period. It opened up knew

canoes), paddle wheels, and screw

transportation ways, which was the main propellers. While his boats were mechanically successful, Fitch failed to point of the steam boat, although also with knew trade routs.

pay sufficient attention to construction and operating costs and was unable to justify the economic benefits of steam navigation. Robert Fulton (1765-1815) built his first boat after Fitch's death, and it was Fulton who became known as the "father of steam navigation." The steam boat is still used today, and is very valuable. It is important to out daily lives.

The steam boat was created successfully by John Fitch, and later improved and patented by James Watt. John Fitch was granted his first United States patent for a steamboat on August 26, 1791. However, he was granted his patent only after a battle with James Ramsey over claims to the same invention. Both men had similar designs. John Fitch constructed four different steamboats between 1785 and 1796 that successfully plied rivers and lakes and demonstrated, in part, the feasibility of

Spinning Wheel A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from its natural fibers. The

woolen-spun yarns; the flax wheel, which is a double-drive wheel used with a distaff or

earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel spinning linen; Saxony and upright wheels, allcome from Baghdad (drawn in 1237), China

purpose treadle driven wheels used to spin

( 1270) and Europe (1280), and there is

worsted-spun yarns; and the Charita, native to

evidence that spinning wheels had already


come into use in both China and the Islamic World during the eleventh century. According to Iran Habib the spinning wheel was introduced into India from Iran in the thirteenth century. The spinning wheel replaced the earlier method of hand spin with a spindle. The great wheel is an example of this type, where the fiber is held in the left hand and the wheel slowly turned with the right. Holding the fiber at a slight angle to the spindle produced the necessary twist. The spun yarn was then wound onto the spindle by moving it so as to form a right angle with the spindle. This type of wheel, while known in Europe by the 14th century, was not in general use until later. In general, the spinning technology was known for a long time before being adopted by the majority of people, but making it hard to fix dates of the improvements. Leonardo Da Vinci was said to sketch out the first spinning wheel. Numerous types of spinning wheels exist, including the great wheel also known as walking wheel or wool wheel for rapid long draw spinning of

The Spinning Jenny

The invention was made with a When the bars returned the medal frame with eight wooden thread on the spindle. A spindles at one end. A set of

pressing wire called a faller was

eight rovings were attached to used to guide the threads onto a beam on that frame. When the rovings extend it passes through two horizontal bars, of wood that could be clasped together. These bars could be drawn along the top of the frame by the spinners left hand making it to extend the thread. The spinner used his right hand to rapidly turn a wheel which caused all the spindles a thread, to be spun.

the right place on the spindle.

Airplanes The first airplane that was flown was athat. glider. A glider is a non-motorized flying machine and it was very hard to control. Early gliders were launched from high places like cliffs and floated on the wind to the ground. George Cayel made the first glider that flew. His first glider didn't have a passengers seat or a pilot seat. It was too small and couldn't fit anyone in it. He made another plane that flew his coachman crossed a small valley. It was not launched from a cliff either.

In 1890 Cl`ement Ader took off on the first steam powered plane that he had built himself. Around the same time another inventor, Hiram Maxiam, built a steam powered flying machine. He tested his airplanes, but never really got them off the ground because they were too heavy and he could not control the flight. In 1911, Calbriath Rodgers made the first flight across the United States. He flew from Sheepshead Bay, New York to Long Beach, California. The 84 days of flying, Rodgers crashed at least 70 times. He had to replace almost every part of the plane before he reached Long Beach. All together this journey took 3 days. Airplane travel has improved a great deal since the first efforts of the Wright Brothers. Airplanes now travel thousands of miles at altitudes of more than 7 miles, carrying over three hundred passengers. Those passengers rest in comfortable seats instead of on their stomachs like Orville did. Jet engines have replaced propellers and speeds are greater than 600 miles per hour. Just think how the Wright Brothers think about

The Guillotine By: Olivia Ray

Joseph Guillotine was the maker of the Guillotine. He made it because he thought it was a more humane way of execution. King Louis the XVI banned the Breaking Wheel. In France before the Guillotine members of the Nobility would be beheaded by a sword or an ax. When the commoners were hanged it was a form of death that would take minutes or even longer. Other methods that were even worse were used too like the wheel and burning at skate many more were used. Some times it would take more that one hit to sever the head. you may slowly bleed to death form your cuts before they even sever the head. The Guillotine was the only legal way of execution in France.

Cotton Gin Eli Whitney was the inventor of the life much easier for people because it cotton gin. He was born in Westboro, was faster and easier. It was a very Massachusetts, on December 8th, 1765 good invention for this time period. It and he died on January, 8th, 1825. He made a big impact on farmers lives. graduated from Yale college. He was also a pioneer in the mass production of cotton. Eli Whitney had a very big interest in machinery.

The cotton gin was invented in North Carolina. The cotton gin was a very simple invention, but it di a lot. The cotton gin was a machine that separated the cottonseeds from the cotton fiber. It caused massive growth of the production of the cotton in the united states. It also did the work of one hundred men. The earliest version of the cotton gin consisted of a roller made of iron or wood an a flat piece of stone or wood. The cotton gin made

Pendulum Clock By:Keelyn Hughes By my staircase in the front of my house is Revolution, daily life was organized around a pendulum clock which has been passed the home pendulum clock. More accurate pendulum clocks, called regulators, were down from generation from generation in my family. Every fifteen minutes it chimes. installed in places of business and used to The reason this is, is because each time a schedule work and set other clocks. Until the quarter of the time has gone by, it chimes. 1800s, clocks were handmade by This musical timekeeping device was individual craftsmen and were very invented by Chrisatiaan Huygens in 1656. expensive. These handmade works of art Until the 1930s, the pendulum clock was were very beautiful. By the 1800s, factory the world's most accurate timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use. They production of clock parts gradually made pendulum clocks affordable by middle are now kept mostly for their decorative class families. Pendulum clocks remained and antique value. Galileo had the idea for the world standard for accurate a pendulum clock in 1637, partly timekeeping for 270 years, until the constructed by his son in 1649, but neither lived to finish it. Chrisatiaan Huygens was invention of the quartz clock in 1927, and were used as standards through World encouraged by Galileo's theory, that War 2. Huygens decided to invent a pendulum clock, and succeeded. During the Industrial Still to this day pendulum clocks are still made,still used, and still listened to. The ancient pendulum clocks are very valuable in this time.

Phonograph The famous phonograph was the fourthFrench inventor Leon Scot demonstrated. It device for Recording and Replaying sounds. used a diaphragm sensitive enough to Thomas Alva Edison may have beenrespond to strong sound waves, attached to influenced by the then-existing wordsa fine stylus, which pressed against a moving phonographic and phonography. In 1852 Theglass cylinder (later flat glass plates would New York Times carried an advertisementbe used by others) The glass cylinder was for "Professor Webster's phonographiccoated with black carbon (smoke) and class", and in 1859 the New York Staterotated, recorded sound as a wavering line. Teachers' Association tabled a motion toThe phonograph, or gramophone, was the "employ a phonographic recorder" to recordmost common devices for playing recorded. its meetings. In the late 19th and earlyThe phonograph was developed as a result 20th century, the alternative term talkingof Thomas Edison's work on two other machine was sometimes used. This term wasinventions, the telegraph and the telephone. more in line with Thomas Edison's early view that his invention was better suited for spoken recordings such as dictation than for musical recordings. There was sound recording before the phonograph, but not sound reproduction. About 1856 years before the invention of the phonograph,

Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg invented the effects on many cultures around the movable type printing press. He was world when this was invented. This an inventor and a printer. Gutenberg was a very good invention. It changed was born in Mainz, Germany and he so many people's lives. People began was the third child in his family. He to read so much more. The printing was born around 1398. No one knows press made books a lot cheaper and the exact date. more affordable.

He invented the movable type printing press in 1448. The movable type printing press changed the lives of printing. The bible was the first thing to be printed on the printing press. A lot of church documents were printed on the printing press. It made so many peoples' lives easier because it was so much better than hand writing everything. Their were big

The New Airplane!!!! By: Caroline Kelly Keelyn Hughes

The airplane is now ready for take off! Take a ride and view main street from up above. Don't wait come this Saturday!! Only $20.00. Don't miss out on this cool ride!!