GettinG it RiGht
1 Some things won’t have changed Student’s Book p44 Grammar Future continuous Future perfect Function Discussing possible future lifestyles
Craig Cormick, of Biotechnology Australia, believes that people will live until they’re 120 thanks to advances in medicine. ‘The main difference between life now and then,’ he says, ‘is that doctors won’t be treating diseases any longer.’ Cormick sees a world where we’ll be able to wipe out disease by eating a banana. ‘We’ll be growing crops with vitamins and vaccines in them to prevent health problems.’
Pronunciation List intonation Vocabulary Technology Phrasal verbs with out
‘You’ll also be able to change the colour of your cat or dog. We can already carry out operations to put genes into rabbits and fish and make them glow,’ Cormick points out. ‘So it will be perfectly possible to create a glow-in-the-dark cat or a designer dog.’
Optional aids Warmer 1: a few objects which show change over time, eg an audio cassette, a CD and an MP3 player.
Nearly all researchers agree that wireless technology will have developed. Anything large enough to carry a microchip will have one. Scientists will have invented earrings which take our pulses, and glasses on which we watch videos. Instead of wristwatches, we’ll be wearing gadgets which will combine the functions of a phone, camera, MP3 player and computer. In the home, household equipment will have improved – there’ll be fridges which read the use-by date on milk cartons and order new milk when necessary. On the road, we won’t have got rid of cars, but we will have keyless electric cars which we can talk to.
Warmer 1 Past, present, future discussion: Bring in objects which illustrate change over time, eg an audio cassette, a CD and an MP3 player. Write the categories Past, Present and Future on the board and ask students under which category they would put each object. Students then work in small groups to try to think of other examples, speculating each time about the equivalent object of the future. Warmer 2 Game: Word race. In pairs students write lists of all the words they can remember for household equipment (eg fridge) and personal items of equipment (eg watch). They compare their lists and amalgamate them. The pair with the longest list in the class wins.
1 Opener •
The aim is to set the context for the reading. Ask the class if they think it is possible to predict the future accurately. They read the ‘bad’ predictions in the box and discuss with a partner what really happened. Students also discuss what they think life will be like in 2020, using the picture on the page for ideas.
2 Reading •
Students read and listen to the text and compare their own predictions with those of the experts. Encourage them to guess unfamiliar words from context. Clarify the meaning of pulse by showing a pulse point, eg wrist. Be prepared to translate wireless, vaccine and balance. Ask students how similar their own predictions were to the text and also what they learnt about items in the picture. Recording 2020 Vision
Earrings which read our pulse rates and glasses which show videos, or a life expectancy of 120, and cats that glow in the dark? Different experts have different views on how we’ll be living in 2020. Some things won’t have changed much – people will still have to work, but they’ll be working longer and retiring later. Other areas of our life will have changed completely.
Will we get the balance right? Will we have created a bright new future, or will we all be living longer, but no more happily? Only time will tell.
3 Comprehension •
Students read the text again and answer the questions individually. Check the answers together as a class. Answers 1 People will still have to work. 2 No, they’ll be retiring later. 3 Diseases 4 It will contain vitamins and vaccines. 5 Wireless technology will have developed. 6 Gadgets which will combine the functions of phone, camera, MP3 player and computer. 7 They will read the use-by date on the cartons. 8 Keys Optional activities • Fast finishers can write new words from the text on cards with a definition or example sentence on the reverse for the Vocabulary box. • Ask students to close their books. Write one half of two-word expressions from the text on the left of the board, and the other half on the right in a jumbled order. Ask students to remember the combinations. Examples could include pulse rate, life expectancy, wireless technology, household equipment, use-by date, keyless cars, bright future, medical advances.
Unit 4 Grammar •
Ask students to look at the Grammar box and complete the examples. Confident students can complete first and then check, while others can look back at exercise 2 and then complete. Students turn to page 111 of the Grammar Summary to check their answers. Answers They’’ll be working longer. Doctors won’t be treating diseases any longer. Will we all be living longer?
Scientists will have invented earrings which take our pulses. We won’t have got rid of cars. Will we have created a bright new future? continuous perfect
Highlight: – that the future continuous is formed with will + be + verb + -ing and future perfect with will + have + past participle. – the difference between the two tenses by drawing a timeline. Check students’ understanding by asking questions about the examples, eg Scientists will have invented earrings which take our pulses: Will ‘inventing earrings’ be in progress or finished? (finished) Drill the examples for pronunciation, highlighting the ’ll contraction, the weak pronunciation of have /´v/ and the stress on the verb in the -ing form or the past participle. Optional activity To help students practise formulating and pronouncing these tenses, do a drill, eg you say he–work–future continuous and students reply He’ll be working.
5 Grammar Practice •
Optional activities • Fast finishers write two more of their own sentences using the future perfect or continuous to predict the future. • Students discuss with a partner whether they agree with the predictions 1–8 and whether they will have positive or negative effects on our lives.
Students complete the predictions with the future continuous or future perfect of the verbs in the box. Remind the students to choose the tense suggested by the text in exercise 2. Check the answers by asking different students to read out each prediction to the class. Answers 1 will have created 2 will be talking 3 will have become 4 won’t be retiring 5 will be wearing 6 will be watching 7 will be living 8 will … have learnt
6 Speaking •
Tell students that they are going to interview two other students about what they will be doing and will have done in three months’ time. Students read through the questions and think about their answers. Choose two confident students to ask each other an example question from the lists, encouraging them to ask So what/who will you be …-ing? if the first answer is no. Students work in groups of three to ask and answer the questions. Remind them to note down the answers of the other two students. Ask one or two students to tell the class what they learnt about one of the students they spoke to. Optional activities • Students write down two answers given to them by one of their partners. They give the answers to a new partner, who decides which question had been asked, eg Monica will have been to Switzerland (Where will you have been on holiday?). • Books closed, write some of the key words from the questions on the board, eg same clothes. Ask students to try to remember the full questions, eg Will you be wearing the same clothes?
7 Vocabulary •
Tell the students that they have met some of the phrasal verbs 1–5 in this lesson. Ask them to match them with the definitions a–e. Check the answers together as a class, asking students to give an example of those from earlier in the lesson. Answers 1 c (carry out operations) 2 d (missed out on signing the Beatles) 3 e (Cormick points out) 4 b (wipe out disease) 5a Optional activity On the board, write some nouns which commonly collocate with these phrasal verbs, eg a project, an opportunity, the answer to a maths problem, an interesting building, company profits. Ask students to match the verbs to the nouns.
GettinG it RiGht 8 Pronunciation •
Students listen and repeat the sentence, trying to copy the stress and intonation patterns. Highlight the rising intonation on all items in the list, except the last item, which has falling intonation.
Recording Life in 2020 will have changed because of better medicine, later retirement, less disease, fewer health problems, wireless technology, more microchips, and improved household equipment.
Optional activity Dictate some prompts for students to write down, eg My favourite foods are …, The best things in life are … . Ask students to complete each sentence with a list of at least three items and then compare their lists with a partner, using correct list intonation.
9 Writing •
Ask students to look back at the questions in exercise 6 and write two paragraphs about themselves, saying what they will be doing and will have done in three months’ time. Encourage students to link their ideas into coherent paragraphs rather than just answering the questions. Monitor and help as necessary. Students check their own work for spelling, grammar and punctuation, before exchanging their writing with a partner to read and check each other’s work. Optional activity Fast finishers can write a third paragraph about what they will be doing/will have done in three years’ time.
Follow-up activities • Game: Future perfect memory chain. Divide the class into groups of 8–10 students. On the board, write By the end of the year, I’ll have …. The first student in each group says the sentence aloud, adding an activity they will have done. The second student repeats the words of the first student and then adds an extra activity, eg I’ll have visited England and I’ll have taken my exams. Subsequent students repeat the sentences, adding an extra activity each time. Students who forget any of the activities in the chain are out. Groups keep going until only one winning student is left in each. • School reunion: Ask students to imagine that they are going to have a school reunion in the year 2020. Divide the class into groups of 6–8 students. Students work individually to imagine what each person in the group, including themselves, will have done or will be doing by the time of the reunion. Give students some ideas, eg Marco will be playing football in the national team, Emma will have bought a house in New York. Students then share their predictions with their group to see if they agree with each other. homework Ask students to write a paragraph for the class magazine about what will have happened or will be happening in the year 2020. Give students a selection of topics and ask them to choose one as the subject of their predictions, eg food, shopping, fashion, music, holidays, family life, politics. Weblink Students may like to visit this website www.guardian.co.uk/2020 for a special report on life in 2020.
Grammar Summary p111 Workbook Unit 4 Lesson 1 pp38–39
GettinG it RiGht
2 Unless we take action now … 2.3
Grammar First conditional with if and unless Time clauses with when, as soon as and until Function Talking about future possibility Pronunciation
Two-syllable words stressed differently as nouns and verbs Vocabulary Global warming
Optional aids Follow-up activity 1: some pre-prepared first conditional and time clause sentences. Warmer 1 If students did the homework from the last lesson, they can read each other’s paragraphs and discuss in groups whether they agree with the predictions. Warmer 2 Environmental vocabulary brainstorm: Divide the class into two groups. Ask one group to think of any environmental problems they know and the other to brainstorm things we can do to look after our environment. After a few minutes, the two groups share their ideas and see if the suggested solutions match the problems. Write useful vocabulary on the board.
1 Opener •
The aim is to introduce the context for the reading in exercise 2. Ask students what the photo shows and what problem it highlights. Elicit opinions from the students about whether tourism and travel are destroying the environment. Ask students if they know how planes damage the environment in order to elicit carbon emissions. Useful information A person’s ‘carbon footprint’ is the amount of carbon emissions that an individual is responsible for producing, for example through transport, leisure activities, home electricity usage, clothing and food. Around 6% of our carbon footprint comes from holiday flights. We can reduce carbon emissions by flying less, using public transport, choosing renewable energy sources and locally produced goods.
Ask students to read and listen to the text and to check how planes harm the environment (they produce CO2, a greenhouse gas which leads to global warming). Check that students have understood carbon emissions and global warming. Explain that a tonne is a quantity measure. Be prepared to translate offset, compulsory, campaigner and halt.
Recording A Question of Balance Global warming is no longer a threat – it is a reality. Most global warming has been caused by the production of greenhouse gases, in particular, carbon dioxide (CO2). Whenever we turn on the TV, drive a car or take a flight, we add more CO2 to the atmosphere. Today we talk to environmental campaigner Gina Freeman about carbon emissions. Is it too late to do something about carbon emissions? No, it isn’t. And as soon as carbon emissions decrease, air pollution will decrease. But unless we take action now, we won’t reduce the impact of global warming. You’re particularly concerned about the increase in air travel – why? Air travel is a major source of carbon emissions. It’s estimated that by 2020 it will be the single biggest cause of global warming. I believe that we won’t halt global warming until we stop flying. So what can we do? Take holidays closer to home. If we don’t travel so far, we’ll reduce carbon emissions. And if we travel by train, we’ll only produce 12.5% of the emissions of a flight. But how do I visit my grandparents in Canada? I can’t get there by train! One solution is to ‘offset’, or balance, carbon emissions. For example, if you take a return London – Montreal flight, you will produce 1.46 tonnes of CO2. If you pay an organisation to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere by the same amount, you will offset your carbon emissions. There are several organisations which fund carbon offset projects. What kind of projects? For example, planting trees, which absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. So it will be OK for me to fly if I plant enough trees. It’s better not to fly at all. But if you can’t avoid producing carbon, the next best thing is to offset it. In the future when we fly, we’ll pay a compulsory carbon tax. Will carbon offset projects solve the problem of global warming? No, they won’t. But the situation won’t improve unless we all work together. And the future will look brighter when all governments agree to reduce carbon emissions.
3 Comprehension • •
Student’s Book p46
Students read the text again and decide if sentences 1–8 are true or false. Check the answers before students write corrections for the false sentences. Ask students to read their corrections to the class. Answers 1 False. Air pollution will decrease when carbon emissions decrease. 2 True. 3 False. We will halt global warming if we stop flying. 4 False. If we travel by train, we’ll only produce 12.5% of the emissions of a flight.
GettinG it RiGht 5
6 7 8
False. If you take a return London–Montreal flight, you will produce this amount. True. False. They won’t solve the problem of global warming. True.
6 Listening •
4 Grammar •
Ask students to look at the Grammar box and complete the examples. Confident students can complete first and then check, while others can look back at exercise 2 and then complete. Students turn to page 111 – 112 of the Grammar Summary to check their answers. Answers If we don’t travel so far, we’ll reduce carbon emissions. It will be OK for me to fly if I plant enough trees. The situation won’t improve unless we all work together.
In the future when we fly, we’ll pay a compulsory carbon tax. As soon as carbon emissions decrease, air pollution will decrease. We won’t halt global warming until we stop flying.
Highlight that: – the clause beginning with if/unless/when/as soon as/until has the verb in the present simple, not the will form. – first conditional sentences refer to possible, real situations. – the conditional/time clause can follow the main clause, as shown in the second, third and sixth sentences, but there is no comma when starting with the main clause. Check students’ understanding by asking questions about the examples, eg Is it possible to reduce carbon emissions? How? Ask students to transform the unless sentence into two if sentences, ie The situation won’t improve if we don’t all work together. The situation will improve if we all work together. Drill the sentences in chorus, highlighting the ’ll contraction, the pronunciation of won’t and the natural rhythm of the sentences.
5 Grammar Practice • •
Students complete the sentences with the present or future simple form of the verb. Check the answers by asking different students to read out each sentence to the class. Answers 1 continue, will get 2 won’t stop, becomes 3 get, will use 4 will have, want 5 will be, take 6 takes, will improve Optional activity Fast finishers try to rewrite one or two of the sentences, using unless instead of if and vice versa.
• • • 2.4
Set the context of the radio phone-in programme by asking students if they listen to this kind of programme and what subjects are typically discussed. Explain that the students should listen and complete the chart. Explain that purpose means reason for the trip, and elicit possible purposes, eg business. Students listen and complete the chart and check their answers with another student. Check the answers together as a class. In pairs, students discuss whether the callers could avoid flying and travel another way. Recording GINA Hello caller – what’s your name? MONTSE Hi, Gina – I’m Montse and I’m calling from Barcelona in Spain. OK, Montse, and where are you travelling to? GINA MONTSE I want to go to Switzerland, to Geneva. Is that for business or ...? GINA MONTSE No, it’s for a holiday. I’m going skiing with some friends. That sounds fun. GINA MONTSE And I wanted to know about the carbon emissions of the flight. Let’s see – if you take a return flight to Geneva, GINA you’ll travel 1,274km ... and you’ll produce 0.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide. MONTSE I see. But do you have to fly to Geneva? GINA MONTSE I’ll think about it. Thank you very much. Thanks – goodbye, Montse. Who’s our next GINA caller? Hello, Gina, my name’s Adam and I’m in Poland. ADAM Hi, Adam – where do you want to go? GINA I want to fly to New York. ADAM Are you going to New York for a holiday? GINA Not really – I’m going to visit my uncle. He’s not ADAM very well. Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. So which city will you GINA fly from? Warsaw, I guess. ADAM OK, if you fly from Warsaw to New York and GINA back, you’ll travel 13,696km. And what will the carbon emissions be? ADAM Your flight will add 1.5 tonnes of CO2 to the GINA atmosphere. That’s quite a lot, isn’t it? Thank you for letting ADAM me know. Thanks for calling, Adam. And now we have GINA a caller in Italy. CLAUDIA Hello – I’m Claudia. Hello, Claudia. How can I help you? GINA CLAUDIA I’m doing an English course in Britain next month, in Oxford. OK, so you’re thinking of flying. GINA CLAUDIA Yes, I want to fly from Rome, but I’m not sure which airport is nearest to Oxford. London Heathrow airport is pretty near. GINA CLAUDIA OK, so from Rome to London. How far is that? Right – if you fly to London and back, you’ll GINA travel 2,888km. CLAUDIA And how much carbon dioxide will that produce? A flight of 2,888km produces 0.4 tonnes of CO2. GINA
Unit CLAUDIA Mm – I wonder if I could get to London another way. Think about it! GINA
Answers Montse: Barcelona – Geneva Purpose: skiing holiday Distance: 1,274km CO2 emissions: 0.2 tonnes Adam: Warsaw – New York Purpose: visit uncle who is ill Distance: 13,696km CO2 emissions: 1.5 tonnes Claudia: Rome – London Purpose: English course Distance: 2,888km CO2 emissions: 0.4 tonnes
7 Pronunciation Elicit decrease from the class by asking what we need to do about carbon emissions. Ask students if it is a verb or a noun and establish that it can be both, showing the different stress in each case. Go through the rule with the students, drilling the words as both nouns and verbs. Students look at sentences 1–6 to decide whether each highlighted word is a noun or a verb and mark the stress accordingly. Play the recording for students to check their answers. Pause between sentences for students to repeat.
Recording and answers
1 2 3
4 5 6
There will be a decrease in pollution when carbon ■
emissions decrease. ■
Our problems increase with the increase in global warming. ■
The soldier deserted the army in the desert. ■
The UK imports a lot of food but also sells food ■
Set the context for the role play by asking students if they would like to go backpacking. Divide the class into two groups, one to take the role of A and the other, B. Students work with a partner from the same group to read the conversation guidelines and think about what they will say. Students can make notes, but not write a complete script. Monitor/help as necessary. Organise students into pairs to do the role play. Ask confident students to perform the dialogue in front of the class.
Optional activity Students work in pairs to create a similar conversation between an interviewer and someone about to take a flight. Confident students could perform their dialogue in front of the class while the other students listen for the purpose, distance and CO2 emissions.
8 Role Play •
Ask students to complete the paragraph in their own words. Remind them to look back through the lesson for useful language and ideas. Be prepared to translate or explain droughts, floods and melt. Monitor and help with vocabulary and grammar. When they have checked their own work, students exchange writing with a partner to check each other’s work and compare with their own. Follow-up activities • Game: Telepathy. Before the lesson, prepare some first conditional sentences and sentences with time clauses. Divide the class into small groups with one ‘secretary’ per group. Read out the first half of one of the sentences. Groups guess and write down the other half. They score three points for guessing the exact wording and one point for the same general idea. Repeat with the other sentences. • Carbon offsetting website. Students work in small groups. Brainstorm items for inclusion on the website, eg interviews with environmentalists, politicians, airline companies and tourists, facts and figures etc. Students pool their work. If you have computer access, the material could be printed out for display.
homework Ask students to write a short letter to a politician to explain their concerns about the environment and suggest ways for the government to help. Weblink Students may like to visit the website www.carbonfootprint.com for tips on how to reduce their own ‘carbon footprint’.
The police suspect the money was stolen and are ■
questioning a suspect. ■
Grammar Summary pp111–112 Workbook Unit 4 Lesson 2 pp40–41
You aren’t permitted to work there without a work ■
Optional activity Read out some of the two-syllable words either alone or in a sentence. Students raise their right hand if they think it was the verb and their left if it was the noun.
GettinG it RiGht
3 If you could choose … 2.6
Grammar Second conditional wish/if only + past simple Function Talking about imaginary or unlikely situations Expressing wishes about the present
Pronunciation Sentence stress and intonation Vocabulary Tourism
Warmer 1 Explain to students that they are going to read an interview with someone who would like to be in Nepal. Show students a world map and ask Where is Nepal? Find out if the students know anything about Nepal, eg the capital, the landscape, the neighbouring countries, the politics and why tourists go there. Useful information Nepal is situated between India and China (Tibet) and its capital is Kathmandu. It’s famous for its spectacular scenery, notably the Himalayas, which include the world’s highest mountain, Everest, at 8,848 metres, along with several of the world’s other highest peaks. The main language spoken is Nepali. Tourism is the largest industry in Nepal.
Answers to exercise 1 guesthouse, hostel, overland, scenery, traditional, trekking
3 Comprehension •
Students re-read the text and match the beginnings 1–8 with the endings a–k. Point out that there are three extra endings that students do not need. Answers 1 k 2 f 3 d
1 Opener •
Recording If you could choose … Vic Gerrard, student, London
If you could choose … where would you be now? In Kathmandu, in Nepal. It’s a magical place with the world’s highest mountains and some of the most beautiful scenery. how would you get there? If I had enough time, I’d travel overland. That’s the way the hippies went there in the 60s. And in theory you could still do it in 18 weeks from London to Kathmandu if you really wanted to. But at the moment it would be safer to fly to India and go overland from there. where would you stay? I’d stay in the International Hostel, which is where I stayed last year. It’s a traditional Nepali guesthouse – lots of handcarved wood, endless tea and no TV. If I could, I’d go back there because it’s got a lovely garden. And the guy who runs it has always got time for tea and a chat. If only people were like that in London! what would you do? If I was in Nepal for a short time, I wouldn’t leave Kathmandu – it’s a mad mixture of East and West, and you meet the most amazing people. But if I had more time, I’d definitely go trekking – Nepal’s a fantastic country to do it. who would you take with you? I wish I could take all my friends! No, not really. The whole point of travelling is meeting new people. So if I took all my friends, I’d spend all my time with them and not meet anyone new.
Optional aids Warmer 1: world map. Follow-up activity: a few blank slips of paper per student.
Warmer 2 Game: A place I’d like to visit. Give students clues about a place you would like to visit, but haven’t yet, eg There’s lots of water, You can eat good pizza there, You can see great art there (Venice). Ask students to think of their own example and clues. They read their clues to their partner, who tries to guess the place.
Student’s Book p48
The aim is to set the scene for the text in exercise 2 and pre-teach some useful vocabulary. Ask the students to look at the words in the box and predict which they will find in the text. Clarify or translate words that they are unsure of, but do not confirm which are in the text yet.
4 j 5 i 6 e
7 h 8 b
Optional activity In pairs, students discuss whether they would like to visit Nepal, and say why, or whether they have visited other countries with beautiful scenery where you can go trekking.
2 Reading •
Students read and listen to the text, looking for the words from exercise 1. Be prepared to translate handcarved. Explain that hippies were famous in the 1960s as people who believed in love and peace, often had long hair and dressed in a particular style. Check which words students found in the text.
4 Grammar •
Ask students to look at the Grammar box and complete the examples. Confident students can complete first and then check, while others can look back at exercises 2 and 3 and then complete. Students turn to page 112 of the Grammar Summary to check their answers.
Unit Answers If I had enough time, I’d travel overland. If I was in Nepal for a short time, I wouldn’t leave Kathmandu. If you could choose, where would you stay?
I wish I could take all my friends!
If only people were like that in London. second i f w i sh
6 Listening •
Highlight that: – second conditional sentences are formed with if + past simple + would + infinitive. Contrast this with the first conditional, which expresses future possibility, rather than an imaginary present or unlikely future situation. – the condition and result clauses can be reversed, but no comma is used in this case. – if only and wish + past simple express a hope or desire for a situation in the present to be different. – the use of the past tense expresses a hypothetical meaning, rather than past time. – both was and were are possible after I/he/she/it, but were is more formal. Check students’ understanding by asking questions about the examples, eg Is it possible for him to take all his friends? Is he in Nepal or is he just imagining? Drill the examples, highlighting the ’d contraction, and the stress on wish and only to convey the strength of the hope/desire. Useful information Wish can be used in a variety of ways. If students’ sentences with wish sound unnatural, point out that: • we don’t use wish to refer to things which we feel are possible in the future. Instead we use hope, eg I hope I pass the test. • wish + would is used, instead of the past simple, to express annoyance with someone else’s actions, eg I wish you would stop laughing.
5 Grammar Practice • •
Students complete sentences 1–8 with the correct form of the verbs in the box. Check the answers by asking different students to read out each sentence. Answers 1 had 2 was/were 3 knew 4 had 5 knew 6 could 7 had 8 looked
Set the context of the radio phone-in programme and explain that the four callers have problems and secret wishes. Ask the students to look at the chart and see if they can guess any of the missing information. Students listen and complete the chart. Check the answers with the whole class. Students say what the callers’ secret wishes were and what the callers believe. Ask some students to say their sentences to the class. Recording PRESENTER Hi, is that Karen?You’re through to Secret Wishes and I’m Jane. So what’s your secret wish, Karen? Well, I know you can’t do anything about it – no KAREN one can. And it’s a terrible thing to say… It’s hard. Really hard. PRESENTER Go on, Karen, you can tell me. It’ll be good to get it off your chest. It’s my sister, you see. She’s much quicker and KAREN cleverer than me. So when we have friends around people don’t talk to me. They ignore me and all talk to my sister. PRESENTER And your wish? I wish I was an only child. I wish I didn’t have KAREN a sister. There, now I’ve said it. If my sister wasn’t there, people would talk to me. PRESENTER Have you tried discussing this with …
* * * PRESENTER Will, I’m Jane and you’re live on Secret Wishes. What can we do for you? I’m not sure you can do anything. I know it WILL sounds silly, but my problem is that I seem to spend all my time on buses. We live a long way from school and I have to take two buses to get there. That’s an hour and a half each way every day. It takes ages. Absolutely ages. PRESENTER That’s a long journey – fifteen hours a week on a bus. Plenty of time to do your homework though! No, the worst part is that I can’t read on buses. If WILL I read, I feel sick. PRESENTER Oh, dear. And what do your parents think? They don’t see the problem. You see, my dad’s WILL a bus driver and … PRESENTER So what’s your wish? It’s simple. I wish I lived nearer the school and WILL never had to get on a bus again, ever! PRESENTER Is there another …
* * * ALICE Hello? Is that Secret Wishes? PRESENTER Yes, it is. You’re Alice, aren’t you? I’m Jane, all ready to help you with your problem if I can. OK – it’s this. I have too many friends. They’re ALICE always on the phone or coming round to see me. It sounds silly. Extremely silly. But … PRESENTER Too many friends? People usually ring us when they don’t have enough friends! It’s nice of course, and I try to be polite and ALICE listen to them. But they go on and on – if it’s not one thing, it’s another. I never have any time for myself.
GettinG it RiGht PRESENTER So you would like to … Be more unpopular. If I weren’t so popular, I’d ALICE have more time for myself. PRESENTER Well, have you thought of …
* * * PRESENTER Hello? I believe there are two of you on the line – Sally and Frank. Is that right? That’s right, but I’ll let Sally do the talking. FRANK Frank and I have been going out together for SALLY nearly a year now, but there’s a problem with our parents – his parents and mine. They say they aren’t happy with our relationship – they think we’re too young. They get angry. Very angry. PRESENTER I see. We just wish they understood what we mean to SALLY each other. If they understood what we meant to each other, they’d be happy with our relationship. That’s right. FRANK PRESENTER It’s very difficult when … Answers Name
Karen Will Alice Sally and Frank
People don’t talk to her. They all talk to her sister.
Spends all his time on buses. Feels sick when he reads on buses.
Has too many friends. Never has time for herself. Their parents aren’t happy with their relationship.
SALLY FRANK PRESENTER
Possible answers Have you tried discussing this with your sister? Is there another way to get to school? Have you thought of talking to your parents? It is very difficult when parents don’t understand.
7 Pronunciation •
to live nearer the school.
to be more unpopular.
* * * So you would like to… Be more unpopular. If I weren’t so popular, I’d have more time for myself. Well, have you thought of …
It sounds silly. Extremely silly. ■
They get angry. Very angry.
them to understand what they mean to each other.
* * * So what’s your wish? It’s simple. I wish I lived nearer the school and never had to get on a bus again ever! Is there another …
It takes ages. Absolutely ages. ■
Recording PRESENTER And your wish? I wish I was an only child. I wish I didn’t have KAREN a sister. There, now I’ve said it. If my sister wasn’t there, people would talk to me. PRESENTER Have you tried discussing this with …
Recording and answers
It’s hard. Really hard.
Optional activity Dictate similar phrases, eg absolutely delicious, extremely expensive. Students write down the phrases and then tell a partner an example of something they would describe in these ways, eg chocolate is absolutely delicious.
Play the second part of the recording to hear each caller’s final words again. Ask students to suggest how to complete the presenter’s final sentence to each caller.
Tell students that they will hear some sentences from exercise 6 and that they should mark the stressed words. Play the recording, pausing after each sentence for students to repeat, emphasising the stressed word. Ask students which words were stressed (Answer: really, absolutely, extremely, very). Remind students that we stress these words to convey a strong meaning.
Secret Wish: would like …
to be an only child.
* * * We just wish they understood what we mean to each other. If they understood what we meant to each other, they’d be happy with our relationship. That’s right. It’s very difficult when …
8 Speaking • • •
Tell students that they are going to interview three students using the questions from exercise 2. Students work in groups of four to ask and answer the questions, and take notes. Ask some students to tell the class what they learnt about the students they spoke to.
9 Writing •
Students write a paragraph each about two of the interviews from exercise 8. Encourage students to link their ideas into coherent paragraphs rather than just answering the questions. Monitor and help with vocabulary and grammar as necessary. Students check their own work for spelling, grammar and punctuation, before exchanging writing with their interviewees to read and check each other’s work.
Unit Follow-up activity Game: Who would â€Ś? Give each student some blank slips of paper. Read out a question using the second conditional, eg Who would you go on a dream date with? What would you buy if you had a million pounds? What would you change in this country if you were President? Students write their answer on separate pieces of paper. The papers are mixed up and passed to other students, who guess who wrote which answer, eg I think Simon would buy a Ferrari. Students confirm if their guesses are correct. homework Students interview a friend or family member using the questions in the interview in exercise 2. The interview can be done in their own language but written up in English. Weblink Students may like to visit the website www.welcomenepal.com for more information about Nepal.
Grammar Summary p112 Workbook Unit 4 Lesson 3 pp42â€“43
GettinG it RiGht
4 Integrated Skills
Debating an issue Student’s Book p50 2.9
Skills Reading For and against: Direct Action article Listening Listening to a debate to complete notes Speaking Debate Writing A balanced account of a controversial issue
Vocabulary Politics Formal debate Useful expressions
‘Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.’ Mahatma Gandhi ‘Non-violence is the answer to the crucial political and moral questions of our time.’ Martin Luther King ‘We have to free half the human race, the women, so that they can help free the other half.’ Emmeline Pankhurst
Warmer 1 Game: Password. Organise the class into teams of about eight students. One student from each team sits with their back to the board, unable to see what is written there. Choose a word from the Vocabulary box and write it on the board. The teams give a definition of the word to their team member who cannot see it. The first student to guess the word wins a point for their team. Continue with different students as the ‘guesser’ and different vocabulary items.
So what are the arguments for and against direct action? Supporters of direct action say that their methods get results. For example, they claim that anti-GM food demonstrations have made people aware of the dangers of genetically modified food. And the world knows about the cruelty of whale hunting thanks to direct action against Japanese and Norwegian whaling ships. They also argue that direct action involves people who can’t or don’t vote in elections, such as those who are not registered or who are too young to vote. What’s more, they say there is evidence that when the media report direct action, for instance, a million people on an antiwar march, politicians listen and act. Opponents of direct action point out that non-violent protest can lead to violence as protestors and police clash, as has happened in anti-globalisation demonstrations. They also claim that it is easy for small groups of protestors who feel strongly about a particular issue to ‘hijack’ demonstrations. In addition, they argue that the whole point of a democracy is that we elect representatives to take decisions for us. If we feel strongly about an issue, we should make our case with the elected representatives and not on the streets.
Warmer 2 Write the names of some famous people who have changed the world in some way. Use the examples in the Direct Action text, or others your students will know. Ask students to discuss what they know about these people and their influence.
1 Opener •
The aim is to set the context for the reading. Ask students what is happening in the photo at the top of the page. Elicit protest and ask students what other issues people protest about. Be ready to give some examples: animal testing, nuclear power, war etc. Useful information The biggest protests of recent years that students may be familiar with were the ‘Don’t attack Iraq’ protests of February 2003. These anti-war protests took place in many cities, including London and Washington, with the biggest demonstration being in Rome. They may also remember the protests outside the G8 Summit at Gleneagles in Scotland in July 2005, demanding action from the world’s richest nations to tackle poverty and debt in developing countries.
Reading 2 •
Students read the text and complete it with phrases a–g. Encourage them to guess unfamiliar words from context and tell them that the meaning of the highlighted words will be dealt with in exercise 3. Be prepared to translate democracy, generate, publicity and anti-globalisation. Play the recording for students to check their answers. Ask students which words in the phrases helped them complete the gaps.
Recording DIRECT ACTION For three famous people, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Emmeline Pankhurst, direct action was the only way to achieve their aims. They organised demonstrations and marches, sit-ins and hunger strikes, and generated enormous publicity. Largely as a result of their direct action, India became independent (1947), racial segregation ended in the USA (1964 and 1965), and women in Britain got the vote (partly in 1918 and fully in 1928).
Answers 1 g 2 a 3 c 4 b 5 f 6 d
Ask the students to match highlighted words in the text with definitions 1–10. Answers 1 moral 2 hijack 3 demonstrations 4 crucial 5 genetically modified 6 hunger strikes 7 clash 8 racial segregation 9 in harmony 10 sit-ins
Unit Optional activity Fast finishers put the words on cards for the Vocabulary box, with a definition or example sentence on the reverse.
Ask students to discuss with a partner if they agree with the ideas in the quotations.
5 Linking words Ask the students to find an example of also, in addition and what’s more in the text, and find out which two usually come at the start of a sentence. Students then find for example, for instance and such as in the text. Ask which of the expressions cannot come at the start of a sentence.
Answers They also argue that direct action What’s more, they say there is evidence They also claim that it is easy for small groups In addition, they argue that For example, they claim that anti-GM food … vote in elections, such as those who are not registered the media report direct action, for instance a million people In addition and what’s more usually come at the start of a sentence; such as cannot come at the start.
Optional activity Give students a selection of topics, eg the environment, geography, music, world problems. Students choose one and write a paragraph on it, using three expressions for adding information and giving examples.
6 Listening •
Explain to students that they are going to listen to a debate. Ask them to read the introduction and find out the subject of the debate (Answer: taking direct action to protect the environment). Be prepared to translate make someone aware of something, and campaign. Play the recording and ask students to listen for the result. Check the answer with the whole class.
• • 0
Recording CHAIR Hello, my name’s Jan and I’m chairing this debate. The motion today is: ‘If necessary, we should take direct action to protect the environment’. Tim is proposing the motion and Helen is opposing it. Tim, would you like to start? What I’m going to argue is that direct action can be TIM necessary. Firstly, because big business is so powerful that even governments can’t stop it. Secondly, because direct action makes people aware of problems, take whales for example. And thirdly, because it is often the only way to save an animal or the environment before it is destroyed. The first argument for direct action is the power of
big business. Large multi-national companies have more money and power than many small governments. It can be hard for a government to oppose, for example, exploration for oil by a big company even though it may damage the environment. This is where ordinary people have a role in stopping harmful development. Secondly, direct action is reported in the media and this makes people aware of environmental problems. A very good example of this is the Greenpeace campaign to save the whale. If Greenpeace didn’t take direct action, many people around the world wouldn’t know the danger whales are in. The third point is to do with time. Governments act slowly but individuals can act quickly. Take road building for instance. Protestors can stop a new road from damaging the environment by living in trees or tunnels along its route and by lying down in front of equipment – simple but very effective action. What I’ve argued is that direct action can be necessary. Firstly, I pointed out that big business is so powerful that even governments can’t stop it. Secondly, I showed how direct action can make people aware of problems. And thirdly, I showed how it is often the only way to save an animal or the environment before it is destroyed. Thank you Tim. Now Helen to oppose the motion. What I’m going to argue is that there are better ways than direct action. Firstly, if everyone looks after their own environment we won’t need direct action. Secondly, many protestors are better at getting publicity than actually changing anything. And thirdly, political action is better than direct action – the environment is too important to be left to protestors. To start with it’s clear that if everyone did what they could to protect the environment, by recycling, for example, or saving energy then there would be no need for direct action. We must all take responsibility for the environment in our daily lives. Then we have to look at the effects of direct action. Tim claims that it brings issues to people’s attention. However, in my opinion, many of these ‘eco-warriors’ get publicity for themselves but they don’t really help protect the environment. Finally, what is the point of having elections and voting if we don’t let the politicians do the job we chose them for? I believe democracy is the best protection for the environment. So what I’ve argued is this. Firstly, if everyone looked after their own environment we wouldn’t need direct action. Secondly, many ‘eco-warriors’ are better at getting publicity than actually changing anything. And thirdly, that political action is better than direct action – the environment is too important to be left to protestors. Thank you both very much. Now you have one sentence each to sum up your argument before we have a vote. We’ve only got one world. Let’s use direct action to save it.
GettinG it RiGht HELEN Show by the way you live your life that you care about the environment. CHAIR And now raise your hands to vote. Those in favour of the motion? Thank you. And those against? Thank you. The result is ten votes for the motion and ten votes against! Answer The result is ten votes for the motion and ten votes against. •
Ask the students to listen to the recording a second time to complete the speakers’ notes. Check the answers as a class.
Real english 9 • •
The aim is to learn language for communication. Students read the expressions A-I and cross out the extra words. In pairs, students check if their expressions are the same. Play the recording. Students listen and check their answers. Play the recording again. Students listen and repeat. Make sure that they copy the stress and intonation correctly.
• • •
Answers 1 powerful 2 whales 3 destroyed 4 everyone 5 publicity 6 protestors Optional activity Students discuss with a partner how they would vote in this debate.
7 Speaking •
8 Writing •
Students write two paragraphs giving the arguments for and against the topic of their debate in exercise 7. Remind students to look back at the text in exercise 2 for useful language. Monitor and help with vocabulary as necessary. Students check their own work and then exchange writing with a partner to read and check each other’s work.
The aim is to practise the expressions from ex. 9 in context. Tell students to ignore the gaps and read the dialogue for general understanding. Students read the dialogue again and complete the gaps with the expressions from ex. 9. Students compare their answers in pairs.
• • •
Play the recording for students to listen and check their answers to ex. 10. Students role-play the dialogue in pairs. Ask two volunteers to role-play the dialogue in front of the class.
• • 2.1
With a large class, divide the students into two or three smaller groups, each to have a debate. With a smaller class, keep the students together as one group. Give the group(s) a few minutes to agree on which of the three topics (or their own topic) they would like to debate. Choose three confident students per group to be the Chair and the two speakers. Give the speakers a few minutes to prepare their speech. Encourage the other students to work with them to help them prepare their arguments. The group(s) have their debates. Ensure the Chair gives each speaker chance to speak and then summarise what he/she has said. The Chair organises a final vote among the students in the group. If there is more than one group, students can tell the other group(s) the result of their debate.
Recording and answers Only time will tell. So what can we do? But what if I …? If only people were like that … You meet the most amazing people. The whole point is … It takes ages. It sounds silly. What’s more …
Recording and answers 1 A: So you think direct action is justified? B: Yes! What’s more, I think it’s often necessary. 2 A: Doctor, is he going to be OK? B: It’s difficult to say now. Only time will tell. 3 A: The only problem with travelling to Asia is that it’s such a long flight. B: I know! It takes ages. 4 A: I think direct action can influence people a lot! The whole point is to make them change their way of thinking. B: Really? I thought it was to annoy them. 5 A: His vision of the future is quite possible. B: Really? I don’t believe a word of it. It sounds silly.
Optional activity 1 Ask students to study the expressions in ex. 9, then close their books. Read out the first word or two and elicit the rest of the expressions. You can set it as a contest. Students may continue in pairs.
Unit Optional activity 2 Students choose one of the mini-dialogues from ex. 10 and write its continuation using the expressions from ex. 9. Ask volunteers to read out their dialogues to the class. Follow-up activities • Design a protest poster. Ask students to choose a subject that they are opposed to and design a protest poster. They should choose a memorable slogan and include their reasons for opposition. Topics could be serious or light, eg Stop animal testing, Peace not war, Say no to homework, etc. Students present their posters to a small group, explaining why they chose the issue and discussing the topic in their group. • Role play: Good cop, bad cop. Students work in A/B pairs. Read out a subject which has both advantages and disadvantages, eg single sex schools, living with your parents, air travel. Student A thinks of the advantages and student B thinks of the disadvantages. Students A and B then tell each other their arguments. Ask a few pairs to report back on who had the stronger arguments, before changing to a new subject. homework Ask students to research and write a paragraph about a famous person who took direct action, eg those mentioned in exercise 2 or someone else of their choice. Weblink Students can find out more about the Greenpeace protest campaigns to save the whales at www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns/saveour-seas-2/save-the-whales
Unit 4 COMMUniCAtiOn ACtiVitY Student’s Book p107 and p117 Aim: To practise asking and answering questions about the future using future perfect and future continuous. • Organise the students into A/B pairs. Give students a few minutes to read their instructions and example questions and plan the questions they need to ask their partner in order to complete their chart. Check that they understand use up all the oil (finish the world oil supply). • Remind students not to show their chart to their partner. Students work in A/B pairs to ask each other their questions and complete the chart. • Students show each other their charts at the end and confirm that they completed them accurately. Encourage students to discuss with their partner whether they agree with the predictions in the chart. Answers still drive cars use up all the oil live until we are 150 make the perfect robot discover life on another planet still watch TV enjoy Moon holidays every summer kill the last whale
✔ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✔ ✘ ✘
✔ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✘ ✔ ✘ ✘
✘ ✔ ✘ ✔ ✘ ✘ ✔ ✔
Workbook Unit 4 Lesson 4 pp44–45
Learner independence • •
The aim is to encourage students to think more about ways of learning vocabulary. Ask students if they know any ways of learning and remembering new words and phrases. Ask them to read the suggestions. Find out if any students have already used these techniques. If time, the students try the technique in the classroom. Otherwise they do so at home and report back next lesson on which worked best for them. Make a copy for each student of the Learner Independence activity – Unit 3. See page 200.
GettinG it RiGht
Student’s Book pp52–53 2 JILL
Optional Aids Znajomość środków językowych, ex.6, Optional Activity: Prepare handouts with 5 sentences in English for every student A and the same 5 sentences in Polish for every student B. Use the sentences from exercises 5 and 6, p. 53 as a model.
MARK JILL MARK JILL MARK
Warmer 1 Choose 6 cities, countries or famous sights. Write the names up on the board. Tell students to rearrange the names, starting with the place they would like to visit the most and finishing with the one they would like to visit the least. Students then work in pairs and tell each other why they would like to visit each place. Have feedback with the class.
JILL MARK JILL
Warmer 2 Write the following quotation up on the board: “But the only possible guarantee of the future is responsible behavior in the present.” – Wendell Berry. In pairs, students make a list of different responsible deeds the author of the quotation might have had in mind, eg saving energy and water, recycling, protecting endangered plants and animals, educating children, preserving works of art etc. Have feedback with the class.
Słuchanie 1 •
The aim is to set the context for the listening and listen for gist. Students look at the pictures and try to predict what the two texts are going to be about. Play the recording. Students listen and check their predictions.
• • 3
Recording 1 Attention all students! Next Friday, our school is organising a ‘Clean up the World’ action programme. We’ll be clearing rubbish from the schoolyard, the local park and the nearby forest. We want to make sure that the place we live in is rubbish free. We are meeting on Friday morning, at eight o’clock sharp, in front of the main entrance. You don’t have to bring anything – plastic bags and rubber gloves will be given out on the spot. Make sure you’re on time as there might be no gloves or bags left for latecomers. It doesn’t matter if you’re under 10 or over 15. We are inviting students of all ages. You don’t need to be a keen environmentalist to join us! Remember – Friday, eight o’clock! For all those engaged in our action programme, we’ve prepared some evening entertainment – a concert by The Blades. Come along, clean up the world and then enjoy an evening of fun and good music.
Come on, Mark. Don’t fall asleep on your desk. We’ve still got plenty of work to do on this project and I want to go home as soon as possible. I know… But can’t we have a short break? OK, five minutes. All right, all right. I really wish I were somewhere else right now. Oh yeah, and where would that be? OK, if I could choose and money was no problem, I would go to Bali in Indonesia. Why there? To start with, there’s a guarantee of good weather. And it’s one of the world’s most famous surf spots. You know, I tried surfing last year and I absolutely loved it! I spent my last holidays in London. And if I could choose, that’s where I would be. I love everything about it. Really? What would you do there? I’ve heard it rains all the time in London. That’s not true! And if I were there, I would be visiting museums and art galleries. I’d also go to the London Dungeon and Madame Tussauds. Sounds boring. Don’t worry, I wouldn’t take you anyway. I’d take someone who would appreciate it. If only my budget wasn’t so tight … If I could afford it, I would run to the travel agency to book the tickets straight away … OK, enough daydreaming. It’s time to get back to work. I want to get it over with and go home. It’s not that I don’t want to go home, but you really know how to spoil a moment …
2 • • • • •
The aim is to listen for gist and specific information. Tell students to read the multiple choice questions to the texts 1 and 2. Advise students to mark the answers from memory. Play the recording. Students listen and choose the best answer A, B or C. Nominate different students to read out their answers. Answers 1 A 2 C 3 B 4 A 5 B 6 A
Unit Follow-up activity Ask students if they ever drop litter. Why? Why not? Find out if they have ever taken part or would be willing to join a Clean Up the World campaign. Why? Why not? In pairs, students think of a slogan to teach people that they shouldn’t drop litter, eg From the Tatras to the Baltic Sea let’s keep Poland litter free!
Optional activity Find out if students have read/watched 1984. If they have, ask whether they liked the novel/the film. If they haven’t, ask whether they would like to read the book and why. Elicit/Explain totalitarianism: ‘form of government that subordinates all aspects of its citizens’ lives to the authority of the state, with a single charismatic leader as the ultimate authority. The term was coined in the early 1920s by Benito Mussolini, but totalitarianism has existed throughout history throughout the world.’ http://www.answers.com/topic/totalitarianism Brainstorm titles of contemporary films about totalitarianism, eg The Star Wars Trilogy; The Day After Tomorrow; The Matrix Trilogy; Pleasantville; Minority Report; Children of Men; The Island, V for Vendetta etc. In pairs, students talk about the films they have watched.
Useful information Clean Up the World is a global campaign which motivates people to clean up and preserve their environment. The campaign, which mobilises an estimated 35 million volunteers from 120 countries once a year, is supported by the United Nations Environment Programme. Thus, it is the largest community-based environmental campaign in the world. The London Dungeon is a popular London tourist attraction. It opened in 1974 and was intended as a museum of horrific history. Now, it is an actor-led interactive experience presenting exhibits about various medieval tortures. It recreates bloody historical events using special effects and rides.
Useful information George Orwell was the “pen name” of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), an English writer and journalist. He wrote fiction, polemical journalism, literary criticism and poetry. He is best known for his two books: Nineteen Eighty-Four (published in 1949) and Animal Farm (1945).
Czytanie 3 • • • •
The aim is to read for gist. Students read the text and choose the best title A-C. Advise students to ignore unknown words and concentrate on the general meaning of the text. Students compare their answers in pairs. Have feedback with the class. Ask students to justify their choice. Answer B
Znajomość środków językowych 5 • • •
Answers 1 skończę odnawiać 2 ludzie będą podróżować 3 chyba że będziesz się pilnie uczył 4 Jeżeli nie przyjdzie na czas 5 Szkoda, że mam 6 Gdyby moje kieszonkowe było większe 7 Gdybym tylko był/była 8 pojechałbym/pojechałabym 9 Szkoda, że moja siostra nie jest 10 jak tylko będziesz miał
4 • • •
The aim is to read for detail. Students read the sentences 1-4 and find the information in the text. With a less confident class, you may need to preteach: surveillance, subordinate, obedient, civil servant, repression, censorship, bleak. With a more confident class, encourage inferring meaning from context or peer-teaching. Students decide whether the sentences 1-4 are true or false and compare their answers in pairs. Have feedback with the class. Ask students to justify their answers. Answers 1 T 2 F 3 F 4 F
The aim is to develop students’ language awareness and revise the grammatical structures they have learnt in unit 4 by translating them into Polish. Students translate the fragments of the sentences on their own and then check them in pairs. To check their answers, nominate different students to read out the sentences.
6 • •
The aim is to develop students’ language awareness and revise the grammatical structures they have learnt in unit 4 by translating them into English. Students translate the fragments of the sentences. Remind them that their sentences must be logical and grammatically correct. Students mustn’t use more than 4 words. Students compare their answers in pairs. To check their answers, nominate different students to read out the sentences. Encourage peer-correction and peer-teaching.
GettinG it RiGht Answers 1 If she was/were slimmer 2 unless you hurry up 3 I had more time 4 If only I was/were 5 we will be living 6 If it rains 7 I would be more 8 I will have read Optional activity Prepare handouts with 5 sentences in English for student A and the same 5 sentences in Polish for student B. You can use the sentences from exercises 5 and 6 or write completely new sentences. Students translate the sentences on their own and then in pairs, check if their sentences are the same as their partner’s. Monitor and help where necessary. Have feedback with the class.
Wypowiedź pisemna 7 • • •
The aim is to teach students how to write an informal letter/e-mail by making them aware of typical mistakes. Students read the e-mail. They find and cross out six unnecessary words and compare their answers with a partner. Nominate a student to read out the letter to the class. Answers Dear my Maggie, I’m writing to tell you about a debate that we had in the our science class last week. We discussed the consequences of scientific developments. Some students claimed inventions are good because they make our lives more easier. Others said that some developments may become dangerous. At the first, the class was divided, but later the group in favour of science convinced the rest that scientific development was positive. I was ‘for’ science from the beginning. I don’t think we could live without inventions. It is true that scientists shouldn’t interfere to with nature, but we should let them do their jobs. And what do you think about it? Please write back to me. Best of wishes, Peter
8 • • • • •
The aim is to practise writing an informal letter describing a debate. Remind students that they have to write a letter of between 50 and 100 words and sign it XYZ. Students read the exam task and write their letters. Allow some time for the activity. Monitor and help where necessary. Collect students’ work and mark it at home. Have feedback with the class during the following lesson.
homework • If you are short of time, assign ex. 8, p53 as homework. • Students imagine they are taking part in a debate about recyclable and biodegradable ecological bags. Students write 5 arguments for using such bags and 5 arguments against. Have a debate as a class during the next lesson. Weblinks Students may like to visit the following website where they can learn more about the campaign Clean Up the World: http://www.cleanuptheworld.org/en/ Students may like to visit the following website where they can read about the campaign: Zero Tolerance On Litter: http://www.tiptonlitterwatch.org/showcontent.php?id=43 Students may like to visit the following website where they canread the blog about travelling around the world in 13 months: http://www.thirteenmonths.com/index.htm Students may like to visit the following website where they canread about the London Dungeon: http://www.the-dungeons.co.uk/london/en/ attractions/what-is-london-dungeon-attraction.htm Students may like to visit the following website where they canread about Madame Tussauds: http://www.madametussauds.com/London/ You may like to visit the following website where you will find lesson plans for 1984, Animal Farm, and other books by George Orwell: http://www.webenglishteacher.com/orwell.html You may like to visit the following website where you will find tips on how to organize a foreign language class debate: http://www.howtodothings.com/education/how-toorganize-a-foreign-language-class-debate
Unit ReViSiOn and eXtenSiOn
Make a copy for each student of the Revision and Extension activity.
Lesson 1 Students’ own answers
ReViSiOn for more practice
Lesson 1 Lat exercise 6 on page 45. Write sentences about one of the students you interviewed.
Possible answers Montse wants to go to Geneva for a skiing holiday. If she flies, she’ll travel 1,274km and her flight will produce 0.2 tonnes of CO2. Adam wants to go to New York to visit his uncle, who is ill. If he flies, he’ll travel 13,696km and his flight will produce 1.5 tonnes of CO2. Claudia wants to go to London for an English course. If she flies, she’ll travel 2,888km and her flight will produce 0.4 tonnes of CO2.
In three months’ time, Jon won’t be wearing the same clothes. He’ll have bought some new jeans. Lesson 2 Look at your completed chart in exercise 6 on page 47. Write sentences about Montse, Adam and Claudia.
Montse wants to go to Geneva for a skiing holiday. If she flies, … Lesson 3 Look at your completed Secret Wishes chart in exercise 6 on page 49. What did the callers say? Write two or three sentences for each person.
Karen: People don’t talk to me. I wish I was an only child. If my sister wasn’t there, people would talk to me. eXtenSiOn for language development Lesson 1 Imagine yourself in ten years’ time. Write two paragraphs saying what you will be doing and what you will have done.
In ten years’ time, I’ll be working … Lesson 2 Complete these sentences about yourself. 1 When I leave school, I … 2 If I go to university, I … 3 … unless I work hard. 4 As soon as I have enough money, … 5 I won’t get married until … Lesson 3 Imagine you’re alone in a strange place with no map or mobile phone. You’re hungry and thirsty but you don’t have any money. Write sentences: I wish/If only … If I …, I would(n’t) …
I wish I wasn’t alone. If I wasn’t alone, I wouldn’t feel so nervous.
Lesson 3 Possible answers Will: I spend all my time on buses. I feel sick when I read on buses. I wish I lived nearer the school. Alice: I have too many friends. I never have time for myself. If I weren’t so popular, I’d have more time for myself. Sally and Our parents aren’t happy with our relationship. Frank: We wish they understood what we mean to each other.
eXtenSiOn Lesson 1 Students’ own answers Lesson 2 Students’ own answers •
Remind students not to use will in the clause beginning if/unless/when/as soon as.
Lesson 3 I wish I had a map. If I had a map, I wouldn’t be lost. If only I had my mobile phone. If I had a phone, I could call home. I wish I had some food. If I had some food, I wouldn’t feel hungry. If only I had a bottle of water. If I had some water, I wouldn’t be thirsty. I wish I had some money. If I had some money, I could buy something to eat and drink. •
Remind students to use the past simple where necessary.
Grammar Summary pp111–112 Workbook Unit 4 inspiration Exam! pp46–47