Issuu on Google+


Accidental lnventions and Discoveries


CON TENTS

Accidental lnventions

Accidental Fun

Module 1

Genre

Comprehension Skill

When Percy Spencer was working with microwaves in 1945, food was the last thing on his mind. Learn more on page 4.

Explanation

Identifying Detail

28

Superglue is amazingly powerful, but when it was first made, its stickiness was Explanation a major problem. Learn why on page 6.

Identifying Detail

30

Slinky®

Explanation

32

Silly Putty®

Mauve A 10 Miraculous William Perkin wanted to create a new kind of medicine. Read this explanation

Explanation

34

Play-Doh®

A 12 Plastic In this explanation, learn how a chemist tried to create a new dye and instead

Explanation

36

The Stylophone

A scientist experimenting on electricity accidentally stumbled upon a hidden world. Learn about amazing X-rays on page 14.

Explanation

38

The Strange Accident of the Piggy Bank

Module 2

Genre

4

How the Microwave Oven Was lnvented

6

Super Glue

8

Cellophane

Jacques E. Brandenberger had an idea and the result was cellophane. Read page 8 to see what he was really after.

to see how, instead, he created a new colour.

created something that changed the world. Check out page 12 to learn more.

14

X-Rays

Accidental Discoveries

Comprehension Skill

Module 3

Genre

Frisbees – round, aerodynamic…and delicious? See page 28 to learn about the original frisbees.

Description

The Frisbee

A toy that astronauts use to study physics? Check out page 30 for this description of the deceptively simple Slinky®. Is it solid? Is it liquid? Is it hard? Is it soft? What is silly putty®? Read this description and take your best guess.

Brian Jarvis was fixing his niece’s piano when an idea hit him. Description Turn to this description for the story of the stylophone. Wait a minute. What have pigs got to do with saving money? Turn to page 38 to find out.

Genre

Fact and Opinion

40

Make a Papier-Mâché Piggy Bank

the Vergulde Draeck A 20 Finding Who owns treasure that has been lost for hundreds of years? Turn to page 20

Discussion

Fact and Opinion

42

Accidental Poetry

Recount

44

Amazing Discoveries Expo!

Discussion

46

Discover a Puzzling World

22 24 26

The Terracotta Soldiers

How far would you go to become immortal? Discover the lengths to which one man went on page 22.

Bomber 31 Found at Last

What happened to Bomber 31, found in Siberia over 50 years after it was lost? Read this discussion and be the judge.

Farmer’s Fossil Find

On page 26, read about a discovery that could change the way we see the past – and the way you see your family tree!

Recount

Recount

Regular Features

Discussion

and have your say.

Description

Everyone has fun with play-doh®, but when it was first made, Description it wasn’t fun at all. Read about its history on page 34.

Years of Mummy Madness A 16 Seventeen When tourists saw a body trapped in ice, they little realised who the unlucky victim was. Discover the Iceman on page 16.

Description

Follow this procedure and you won’t just improve your arts and crafts skills – you’ll save money, too! Read this poem for the story of how a common household item was accidentally invented. Read an account of a contest to find the most brilliant inventor in town! Maybe you have a few ideas yourself… Enjoy these invention-themed puzzles and games.

A = Assessment Text

Procedure

Poetry

Response

Puzzles and Games


CON TENTS

Accidental lnventions

Accidental Fun

Module 1

Genre

Comprehension Skill

When Percy Spencer was working with microwaves in 1945, food was the last thing on his mind. Learn more on page 4.

Explanation

Identifying Detail

28

Superglue is amazingly powerful, but when it was first made, its stickiness was Explanation a major problem. Learn why on page 6.

Identifying Detail

30

Slinky®

Explanation

32

Silly Putty®

Mauve A 10 Miraculous William Perkin wanted to create a new kind of medicine. Read this explanation

Explanation

34

Play-Doh®

A 12 Plastic In this explanation, learn how a chemist tried to create a new dye and instead

Explanation

36

The Stylophone

A scientist experimenting on electricity accidentally stumbled upon a hidden world. Learn about amazing X-rays on page 14.

Explanation

38

The Strange Accident of the Piggy Bank

Module 2

Genre

4

How the Microwave Oven Was lnvented

6

Super Glue

8

Cellophane

Jacques E. Brandenberger had an idea and the result was cellophane. Read page 8 to see what he was really after.

to see how, instead, he created a new colour.

created something that changed the world. Check out page 12 to learn more.

14

X-Rays

Accidental Discoveries

Comprehension Skill

Module 3

Genre

Frisbees – round, aerodynamic…and delicious? See page 28 to learn about the original frisbees.

Description

The Frisbee

A toy that astronauts use to study physics? Check out page 30 for this description of the deceptively simple Slinky®. Is it solid? Is it liquid? Is it hard? Is it soft? What is silly putty®? Read this description and take your best guess.

Brian Jarvis was fixing his niece’s piano when an idea hit him. Description Turn to this description for the story of the stylophone. Wait a minute. What have pigs got to do with saving money? Turn to page 38 to find out.

Genre

Fact and Opinion

40

Make a Papier-Mâché Piggy Bank

the Vergulde Draeck A 20 Finding Who owns treasure that has been lost for hundreds of years? Turn to page 20

Discussion

Fact and Opinion

42

Accidental Poetry

Recount

44

Amazing Discoveries Expo!

Discussion

46

Discover a Puzzling World

22 24 26

The Terracotta Soldiers

How far would you go to become immortal? Discover the lengths to which one man went on page 22.

Bomber 31 Found at Last

What happened to Bomber 31, found in Siberia over 50 years after it was lost? Read this discussion and be the judge.

Farmer’s Fossil Find

On page 26, read about a discovery that could change the way we see the past – and the way you see your family tree!

Recount

Recount

Regular Features

Discussion

and have your say.

Description

Everyone has fun with play-doh®, but when it was first made, Description it wasn’t fun at all. Read about its history on page 34.

Years of Mummy Madness A 16 Seventeen When tourists saw a body trapped in ice, they little realised who the unlucky victim was. Discover the Iceman on page 16.

Description

Follow this procedure and you won’t just improve your arts and crafts skills – you’ll save money, too! Read this poem for the story of how a common household item was accidentally invented. Read an account of a contest to find the most brilliant inventor in town! Maybe you have a few ideas yourself… Enjoy these invention-themed puzzles and games.

A = Assessment Text

Procedure

Poetry

Response

Puzzles and Games


How the

n e v O e v a w o r c i M Was Invented In 1941, British scientists developed a powerful magnetron. A magnetron is a tube that uses magnets to create microwaves. The scientists did not build it because they wanted to cook fast. They built it because they were at war. Microwaves are used in radar. World War II was raging, and the British needed magnetrons to find enemy planes. A company called Raytheon in the United States began to make magnetrons for radar. A British radar operator tracking enemy planes during World War II

ur A machine that heats yo s food in minutes! It seem like an obvious thing to t invent. However, the firs n’t microwave machine was all. designed to cook food at

Soon after the end of the war, a Raytheon engineer called Percy Spencer was standing near a magnetron. After a while, he noticed that the chocolate bar in his shirt pocket had melted. He realised that microwaves from the magnetron had heated the bar. Spencer decided to see what else he could ‘cook’. He found he could make popcorn kernels pop. Unfortunately, his next attempt involved an egg. The pressure inside the shell became so great that it exploded!

Next, Spencer needed a machine that could use the microwaves to cook. He called his project ‘speedie weenie’. The goal was to make a quick-cooking hot dog! Spencer’s test oven was a metal box. He fed microwaves into the box with a magnetron. The box was shielded so the microwaves could not escape. This created intense heat in the box. In 1947, the first Raytheon microwave oven went on sale. It was 1.5 metres tall! It weighed 340 kilograms! Over the next few decades, microwave ovens became smaller. Finally, they became the modern ovens found in millions of homes today.

A hamburger cooked in just 15 seconds – Raytheon’s machine stunned the world.

A Modern Microwave Oven stirrer – distributes the waves evenly in the oven

waveguide – controls the direction of the microwaves

magnetron – creates microwaves

4

Accidental lnventions

Explanation

5


How the

n e v O e v a w o r c i M Was Invented In 1941, British scientists developed a powerful magnetron. A magnetron is a tube that uses magnets to create microwaves. The scientists did not build it because they wanted to cook fast. They built it because they were at war. Microwaves are used in radar. World War II was raging, and the British needed magnetrons to find enemy planes. A company called Raytheon in the United States began to make magnetrons for radar. A British radar operator tracking enemy planes during World War II

ur A machine that heats yo s food in minutes! It seem like an obvious thing to t invent. However, the firs n’t microwave machine was all. designed to cook food at

Soon after the end of the war, a Raytheon engineer called Percy Spencer was standing near a magnetron. After a while, he noticed that the chocolate bar in his shirt pocket had melted. He realised that microwaves from the magnetron had heated the bar. Spencer decided to see what else he could ‘cook’. He found he could make popcorn kernels pop. Unfortunately, his next attempt involved an egg. The pressure inside the shell became so great that it exploded!

Next, Spencer needed a machine that could use the microwaves to cook. He called his project ‘speedie weenie’. The goal was to make a quick-cooking hot dog! Spencer’s test oven was a metal box. He fed microwaves into the box with a magnetron. The box was shielded so the microwaves could not escape. This created intense heat in the box. In 1947, the first Raytheon microwave oven went on sale. It was 1.5 metres tall! It weighed 340 kilograms! Over the next few decades, microwave ovens became smaller. Finally, they became the modern ovens found in millions of homes today.

A hamburger cooked in just 15 seconds – Raytheon’s machine stunned the world.

A Modern Microwave Oven stirrer – distributes the waves evenly in the oven

waveguide – controls the direction of the microwaves

magnetron – creates microwaves

4

Accidental lnventions

Explanation

5


r e p u S

E U L G Did you know the invention of superglue was a total accident? It took the inventor years to realise how useful his invention was. That’s because he was trying to invent something completely different. He rejected his invention precisely because it was such great glue!

In 1951, Coover was working for the Kodak company. He was trying to create a heat-resistant plastic. It would be used to make canopies for aircraft. Coover re-tested cyanoacrylate. It was just as sticky as before. In fact, it was incredibly sticky. What’s more, it did not need heat or pressure to work. It worked almost instantly and was waterproof. Coover realised it could make his employer a lot of money.

In 1958, ‘Super GlueTM’ came on the market. It was a huge success. Today, people use superglue for simple repairs around the house. It’s easy to forget just how powerful it is. A single spot creates a bond strong enough to lift a car. The glue is used in surgery to bond human flesh. Just don’t get any on your fingers!

In the inset photo, a technician prepares the two superglued pieces of metal that will perform this incredible feat.

Dr Harry Coover was an American chemist. In 1942, he was trying to create a new kind of plastic that would be very clear. The plastic was needed for soldiers in World War II. It would be used to make gun sights, to help soldiers aim their weapons. One of the new substances Coover created was called cyanoacrylate. It was clear enough to see through. However, there was a problem. If it touched anything moist, it would immediately stick to it – and almost all objects have a thin layer of moisture. Cyanoacrylate was useless for gun sights. Coover put it aside. 6

Accidental lnventions

Dr Harry Coover, inventor of the strongest glue in the world

Setting a world record, Super Glue™ holds a truck – with a car on its back – above the ground.

Explanation

7


r e p u S

E U L G Did you know the invention of superglue was a total accident? It took the inventor years to realise how useful his invention was. That’s because he was trying to invent something completely different. He rejected his invention precisely because it was such great glue!

In 1951, Coover was working for the Kodak company. He was trying to create a heat-resistant plastic. It would be used to make canopies for aircraft. Coover re-tested cyanoacrylate. It was just as sticky as before. In fact, it was incredibly sticky. What’s more, it did not need heat or pressure to work. It worked almost instantly and was waterproof. Coover realised it could make his employer a lot of money.

In 1958, ‘Super GlueTM’ came on the market. It was a huge success. Today, people use superglue for simple repairs around the house. It’s easy to forget just how powerful it is. A single spot creates a bond strong enough to lift a car. The glue is used in surgery to bond human flesh. Just don’t get any on your fingers!

In the inset photo, a technician prepares the two superglued pieces of metal that will perform this incredible feat.

Dr Harry Coover was an American chemist. In 1942, he was trying to create a new kind of plastic that would be very clear. The plastic was needed for soldiers in World War II. It would be used to make gun sights, to help soldiers aim their weapons. One of the new substances Coover created was called cyanoacrylate. It was clear enough to see through. However, there was a problem. If it touched anything moist, it would immediately stick to it – and almost all objects have a thin layer of moisture. Cyanoacrylate was useless for gun sights. Coover put it aside. 6

Accidental lnventions

Dr Harry Coover, inventor of the strongest glue in the world

Setting a world record, Super Glue™ holds a truck – with a car on its back – above the ground.

Explanation

7


n a e h p o

Cel l

Today, food is wrapped in sheets of plastic. It is clear, flexible and odour-resistant. It protects against bacteria. However, this is a luxury the people of the past did not have. It did not come about until 1908, when cellophane was invented.

Cellophane was created by a Swiss chemist named Jacques E. Brandenberger. He did not set out to invent cellophane. He wanted to invent waterproof cloth. He came up with this idea at a restaurant after seeing spilled wine soak a tablecloth.

Brandenberger tried to invent a waterproof film that could be used to coat cloth. He used a liquid called viscose that had been invented in 1892. Viscose is made from cellulose. Cellulose is a substance found in the cell walls of plants. It is flexible but rigid. This is what allows plants to grow stiff and upright. Brandenberger sprayed the viscose onto cloth. He found that it formed a thin, waterproof layer. However, it also made the cloth too hard and stiff. The waterproof cloth idea was a failure.

Accidental lnventions

Wood is soaked in caustic soda to extract cellulose.

The cellulose is shredded.

The mix results in viscose.

Then, the cellulose is churned with carbon disulfide.

Then, it is bathed again in caustic soda.

Brandenberger discovered, however, that he had accidentally invented something else. He found that the thin film could be peeled off the cloth. This gave him a tough, flexible sheet. The next step was to build a machine that could produce large quantities of the film. Brandenberger called his invention cellophane. This combined cellulose with diaphane, a French word meaning translucent. Today, cellophane is less common than it once was. People use other kinds of plastic wrapping for food. Since its invention, however, we have been able to use clear, germ-resistant food packaging. Now, if we could just find a way to waterproof our clothes!

8

Cellulose to Viscose

As this ad vertisemen t shows, cellophane changed th e way peo ple shoppe d.

Explanation

9


n a e h p o

Cel l

Today, food is wrapped in sheets of plastic. It is clear, flexible and odour-resistant. It protects against bacteria. However, this is a luxury the people of the past did not have. It did not come about until 1908, when cellophane was invented.

Cellophane was created by a Swiss chemist named Jacques E. Brandenberger. He did not set out to invent cellophane. He wanted to invent waterproof cloth. He came up with this idea at a restaurant after seeing spilled wine soak a tablecloth.

Brandenberger tried to invent a waterproof film that could be used to coat cloth. He used a liquid called viscose that had been invented in 1892. Viscose is made from cellulose. Cellulose is a substance found in the cell walls of plants. It is flexible but rigid. This is what allows plants to grow stiff and upright. Brandenberger sprayed the viscose onto cloth. He found that it formed a thin, waterproof layer. However, it also made the cloth too hard and stiff. The waterproof cloth idea was a failure.

Accidental lnventions

Wood is soaked in caustic soda to extract cellulose.

The cellulose is shredded.

The mix results in viscose.

Then, the cellulose is churned with carbon disulfide.

Then, it is bathed again in caustic soda.

Brandenberger discovered, however, that he had accidentally invented something else. He found that the thin film could be peeled off the cloth. This gave him a tough, flexible sheet. The next step was to build a machine that could produce large quantities of the film. Brandenberger called his invention cellophane. This combined cellulose with diaphane, a French word meaning translucent. Today, cellophane is less common than it once was. People use other kinds of plastic wrapping for food. Since its invention, however, we have been able to use clear, germ-resistant food packaging. Now, if we could just find a way to waterproof our clothes!

8

Cellulose to Viscose

As this ad vertisemen t shows, cellophane changed th e way peo ple shoppe d.

Explanation

9


Miraculous

Mauve Do you own any mauve clothes? Until the mid-nineteenth century, no one did. People could only use natural dyes to colour clothes. Natural dyes had a very limited range of colours. They also faded quickly in sunlight. For years, people tried to make better dyes. When 18-year-old William Perkin finally found a way, though, fashion was the last thing on his mind.

A mallow flower, with mauve-coloured petals

Perkin’s experiments failed. One turned into a nasty, black mess. When he washed the flask out with alcohol, though, it produced an intensely coloured purple liquid. Surprised, Perkin experimented with his discovery. He found that it would dye silk a lovely colour. The colour did not fade like natural dye. After asking for advice from people in the clothing industry, Perkin decided to go into business.

To see the exact shade of mauve, check out this box.

‘Pink trying to be purple’

The new vivid and long-lasting dye was a hit. In 1858, after Queen Victoria wore it to her daughter’s wedding, it took the fashion world by storm. Perkin went on to make artificial dyes of many different colours. However, the first to appear in the new age of fashion was that lovely shade of purple. It did not yet have a name. Perkin named it after the mallow flower, which often has the same shade. He used the French word for the mallow and gave the world a new colour – mauve.

The artist James Whistler, not a fan of mauve

William Perkin, inventor of a colour

Perkin was a British chemist. In 1856, he was trying to make artificial quinine. Quinine is a drug used to treat malaria. At that time, quinine could only be made from the bark of the cinchona tree. It was difficult to produce large amounts. An artificial version of the drug would help more people get treatment. An illustration of people harvesting cinchona bark to make quinine Queen Victoria with her family – many of them wearing mauve!

10 Accidental lnventions

Explanation

11


Miraculous

Mauve Do you own any mauve clothes? Until the mid-nineteenth century, no one did. People could only use natural dyes to colour clothes. Natural dyes had a very limited range of colours. They also faded quickly in sunlight. For years, people tried to make better dyes. When 18-year-old William Perkin finally found a way, though, fashion was the last thing on his mind.

A mallow flower, with mauve-coloured petals

Perkin’s experiments failed. One turned into a nasty, black mess. When he washed the flask out with alcohol, though, it produced an intensely coloured purple liquid. Surprised, Perkin experimented with his discovery. He found that it would dye silk a lovely colour. The colour did not fade like natural dye. After asking for advice from people in the clothing industry, Perkin decided to go into business.

To see the exact shade of mauve, check out this box.

‘Pink trying to be purple’

The new vivid and long-lasting dye was a hit. In 1858, after Queen Victoria wore it to her daughter’s wedding, it took the fashion world by storm. Perkin went on to make artificial dyes of many different colours. However, the first to appear in the new age of fashion was that lovely shade of purple. It did not yet have a name. Perkin named it after the mallow flower, which often has the same shade. He used the French word for the mallow and gave the world a new colour – mauve.

The artist James Whistler, not a fan of mauve

William Perkin, inventor of a colour

Perkin was a British chemist. In 1856, he was trying to make artificial quinine. Quinine is a drug used to treat malaria. At that time, quinine could only be made from the bark of the cinchona tree. It was difficult to produce large amounts. An artificial version of the drug would help more people get treatment. An illustration of people harvesting cinchona bark to make quinine Queen Victoria with her family – many of them wearing mauve!

10 Accidental lnventions

Explanation

11


Do you know how plastic was invented? Plastic is a story of two different scientists. The first scientist did not get the results he wanted. The second achieved more than he ever dreamed. Adolf von Baeyer

Leo Baekeland

The story begins with German chemist Adolf von Baeyer. In 1872, he was trying to invent a synthetic version of the natural dye indigo. In one of his tests, he tried mixing phenol and formaldehyde. Phenol is a bit like turpentine. Formaldehyde is used for preserving dead bodies. Together, they made an ugly mess. Von Baeyer dismissed it as ‘goo’ and put it aside.

The story continues in 1904 with Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland. He thought von Baeyer’s ‘goo’ might have a use after all. He was trying to invent synthetic shellac. Shellac is a natural resin used for varnish. It also turned out to be a good insulator. This means electricity does not pass through it. It protects against electric shocks. Electric power was becoming widespread. Demand for shellac was now outgrowing supply.

Baekeland tested von Baeyer’s ‘goo’. It was a good insulator. The problem was moulding it into shape. Baekeland needed something soft that could be easily shaped. However, it then had to harden, keeping its new shape. Baekeland built an iron machine. He called it a ‘bakelizer’. It allowed him to control the heat and pressure of the phenol and formaldehyde. Finally, in 1907, he found a combination of heat and pressure that worked. The result was the world’s first synthetic plastic. It was called ‘bakelite’. Thanks to Baekeland, von Baeyer’s ‘goo’ has changed the world. How many things can you think of that use plastic? Don’t start writing a list – you’ll never finish it!

The bakelizer, which used heat and pressure to create an early form of plastic

Tricky Word Plastic in the process of being made – ‘goo’ is the perfect word for it!

12

Accidental lnventions

Synthetic: A synthetic chemical substance is one that is made in a laboratory rather than in nature.

Bakelite was the perfect material to use for new technology such as the telephone.

Explanation

13


Do you know how plastic was invented? Plastic is a story of two different scientists. The first scientist did not get the results he wanted. The second achieved more than he ever dreamed. Adolf von Baeyer

Leo Baekeland

The story begins with German chemist Adolf von Baeyer. In 1872, he was trying to invent a synthetic version of the natural dye indigo. In one of his tests, he tried mixing phenol and formaldehyde. Phenol is a bit like turpentine. Formaldehyde is used for preserving dead bodies. Together, they made an ugly mess. Von Baeyer dismissed it as ‘goo’ and put it aside.

The story continues in 1904 with Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland. He thought von Baeyer’s ‘goo’ might have a use after all. He was trying to invent synthetic shellac. Shellac is a natural resin used for varnish. It also turned out to be a good insulator. This means electricity does not pass through it. It protects against electric shocks. Electric power was becoming widespread. Demand for shellac was now outgrowing supply.

Baekeland tested von Baeyer’s ‘goo’. It was a good insulator. The problem was moulding it into shape. Baekeland needed something soft that could be easily shaped. However, it then had to harden, keeping its new shape. Baekeland built an iron machine. He called it a ‘bakelizer’. It allowed him to control the heat and pressure of the phenol and formaldehyde. Finally, in 1907, he found a combination of heat and pressure that worked. The result was the world’s first synthetic plastic. It was called ‘bakelite’. Thanks to Baekeland, von Baeyer’s ‘goo’ has changed the world. How many things can you think of that use plastic? Don’t start writing a list – you’ll never finish it!

The bakelizer, which used heat and pressure to create an early form of plastic

Tricky Word Plastic in the process of being made – ‘goo’ is the perfect word for it!

12

Accidental lnventions

Synthetic: A synthetic chemical substance is one that is made in a laboratory rather than in nature.

Bakelite was the perfect material to use for new technology such as the telephone.

Explanation

13


s y a R X X-ray images were invented quite by accident. In 1895, German scientist Wilhem Roentgen was experimenting with vacuum tubes. Vacuum tubes are devices that create or modify electrical signals. For one of his experiments, Roentgen had placed a cardboard cover over the end of a tube. He then passed an electric current through the tube, lighting it up.

All of a sudden, Roentgen saw that a nearby screen was glowing. The screen was coated with a substance that glows when light hits it. However, Roentgen knew that, because of the cardboard cover, no light was coming out of the tube. There must be something else – some kind of ray that was passing through the cardboard. Roentgen did more tests and learned that the mysterious rays left imprints on photographic plates. The first photo he took was of his wife’s hand. The strange rays passed through her flesh, but not the thicker bones. The shape of the bones left a dark image. For the first time, it was possible to look inside a human body! Roentgen did not know what the rays were. When scientists cannot identify something, they often call it ‘X’. Roentgen called his discovery ‘X-rays’. Today, we know that X-rays are a form of light. Their waves move at a higher frequency than visible light, which gives them higher energy. That is why they can pass through things that visible light cannot. Since then, X-ray images have helped doctors save many lives. We can all be grateful for X-rays – although it can be a little creepy seeing your own bones. When Roentgen’s wife saw that first picture, she is reported to have cried out: ‘I have seen my death!’

14

Accidental lnventions

Wilhelm Roentgen and his wife Anna – the first X-ray subject

An illustration of an early experiment with electricity and a vacuum tube

A patient undergoing an examination by an X-ray machine

This is an X-ray image of luggage, taken by airport security. Can you tell what the objects are?

Explanation

15


s y a R X X-ray images were invented quite by accident. In 1895, German scientist Wilhem Roentgen was experimenting with vacuum tubes. Vacuum tubes are devices that create or modify electrical signals. For one of his experiments, Roentgen had placed a cardboard cover over the end of a tube. He then passed an electric current through the tube, lighting it up.

All of a sudden, Roentgen saw that a nearby screen was glowing. The screen was coated with a substance that glows when light hits it. However, Roentgen knew that, because of the cardboard cover, no light was coming out of the tube. There must be something else – some kind of ray that was passing through the cardboard. Roentgen did more tests and learned that the mysterious rays left imprints on photographic plates. The first photo he took was of his wife’s hand. The strange rays passed through her flesh, but not the thicker bones. The shape of the bones left a dark image. For the first time, it was possible to look inside a human body! Roentgen did not know what the rays were. When scientists cannot identify something, they often call it ‘X’. Roentgen called his discovery ‘X-rays’. Today, we know that X-rays are a form of light. Their waves move at a higher frequency than visible light, which gives them higher energy. That is why they can pass through things that visible light cannot. Since then, X-ray images have helped doctors save many lives. We can all be grateful for X-rays – although it can be a little creepy seeing your own bones. When Roentgen’s wife saw that first picture, she is reported to have cried out: ‘I have seen my death!’

14

Accidental lnventions

Wilhelm Roentgen and his wife Anna – the first X-ray subject

An illustration of an early experiment with electricity and a vacuum tube

A patient undergoing an examination by an X-ray machine

This is an X-ray image of luggage, taken by airport security. Can you tell what the objects are?

Explanation

15


29 September 2008

Seventeen Years of

Mummy Madness Seventeen years after the famous Iceman was found, the dispute over his body is over at last. In 1991, German tourists Erika and Helmut Simon stumbled across one of the greatest archaeological finds of all time. While hiking in the Ötztal Alps of northern Italy, they spotted a body frozen in a glacier. At first, they thought it was a fallen climber. In fact, what they had found was the body of a man who had lived and died over 5,000 years ago. The Iceman, nicknamed Ötzi after the Ötztal mountains, is one of the oldest mummies ever found. His body and clothes were well-preserved by the ice. Some of his tools were found nearby. Even the food from his last meal was still in his stomach. This made Ötzi very valuable to scientists. They could find out how people lived during the Stone Age.

16

Accidental Discoveries

The Italian province of Bolzano claimed Ötzi. He became a national treasure. Many tourists came to see him. Scientists came to study him. The province has earned a lot of money from Ötzi. However, Erika and Helmut Simon did not see any of it. They asked to be paid a fee for finding Ötzi.

How Ötzi Looked in Life bearskin hat

Under Italian law, those who make a valuable find are entitled to 25 per cent of its value. In 1994, Bolzano offered the Simons a ‘symbolic’ fee of 10 million lire. This is equal to 5,200 euros (A$ 8,500). However, Ötzi has made millions of euros for the province. The Simons rejected the offer. This sparked 14 years of legal battles. Finally, the court ordered Bolzano to pay 150,000 euros (A $244,000). It has come too late for Mr Simon. He died four years ago in an accident.

bow

bronze axe Erika and Helmut Simon with a book about their famous find

flint for making fire arrows

goatskin coat

leather shoes filled with straw

This monument in Austria commemorates the place where Ötzi was found.

Discussion

17


29 September 2008

Seventeen Years of

Mummy Madness Seventeen years after the famous Iceman was found, the dispute over his body is over at last. In 1991, German tourists Erika and Helmut Simon stumbled across one of the greatest archaeological finds of all time. While hiking in the Ötztal Alps of northern Italy, they spotted a body frozen in a glacier. At first, they thought it was a fallen climber. In fact, what they had found was the body of a man who had lived and died over 5,000 years ago. The Iceman, nicknamed Ötzi after the Ötztal mountains, is one of the oldest mummies ever found. His body and clothes were well-preserved by the ice. Some of his tools were found nearby. Even the food from his last meal was still in his stomach. This made Ötzi very valuable to scientists. They could find out how people lived during the Stone Age.

16

Accidental Discoveries

The Italian province of Bolzano claimed Ötzi. He became a national treasure. Many tourists came to see him. Scientists came to study him. The province has earned a lot of money from Ötzi. However, Erika and Helmut Simon did not see any of it. They asked to be paid a fee for finding Ötzi.

How Ötzi Looked in Life bearskin hat

Under Italian law, those who make a valuable find are entitled to 25 per cent of its value. In 1994, Bolzano offered the Simons a ‘symbolic’ fee of 10 million lire. This is equal to 5,200 euros (A$ 8,500). However, Ötzi has made millions of euros for the province. The Simons rejected the offer. This sparked 14 years of legal battles. Finally, the court ordered Bolzano to pay 150,000 euros (A $244,000). It has come too late for Mr Simon. He died four years ago in an accident.

bow

bronze axe Erika and Helmut Simon with a book about their famous find

flint for making fire arrows

goatskin coat

leather shoes filled with straw

This monument in Austria commemorates the place where Ötzi was found.

Discussion

17


Let ters to t he Editor

The Iceman has brought many tourists and millions of euros to Bolzano. Of course the Simons should get a share of these profits.

30 September 2008 I can’t believe it took 17 years. It seems very simple to me. If Italian law states that there is a finder’s fee of 25 per cent, that’s what Erika and Helmut should have been given. The court should not have allowed it to go on for so long.

I am very pleased to hear that Erika has received a decent finder’s fee. It’s a shame that it took so long and that Helmut did not live to see justice finally served.

I don’t think the Simons should have been given any money. All they did was see something in the ice. They did not spend any money looking for Ötzi. They did not spend any money getting him out of the ice. It was generous for the province to offer the ‘symbolic’ reward. I believe the Simons should have taken it. They should have been happy that they had found something so amazing to share with the world. The Simons were greedy.

18

Accidental Discoveries

In my opinion, the government was right to challenge the court rulings. After all, they had to pay to excavate Ötzi. They had to provide an air-conditioned, temperature-controlled home for him. This cost them a lot of money. The Simons did not pay for any of this. Therefore, they shouldn’t get any of the profits. I think it is awful that people are fighting over a dead body. Ötzi was once a living human being. His body shouldn’t be fought over. It shouldn’t be dissected or probed. It shouldn’t be on display to tourists. People certainly shouldn’t get money for finding it. Ötzi deserves a decent and respectful burial.

Discussion

19


Let ters to t he Editor

The Iceman has brought many tourists and millions of euros to Bolzano. Of course the Simons should get a share of these profits.

30 September 2008 I can’t believe it took 17 years. It seems very simple to me. If Italian law states that there is a finder’s fee of 25 per cent, that’s what Erika and Helmut should have been given. The court should not have allowed it to go on for so long.

I am very pleased to hear that Erika has received a decent finder’s fee. It’s a shame that it took so long and that Helmut did not live to see justice finally served.

I don’t think the Simons should have been given any money. All they did was see something in the ice. They did not spend any money looking for Ötzi. They did not spend any money getting him out of the ice. It was generous for the province to offer the ‘symbolic’ reward. I believe the Simons should have taken it. They should have been happy that they had found something so amazing to share with the world. The Simons were greedy.

18

Accidental Discoveries

In my opinion, the government was right to challenge the court rulings. After all, they had to pay to excavate Ötzi. They had to provide an air-conditioned, temperature-controlled home for him. This cost them a lot of money. The Simons did not pay for any of this. Therefore, they shouldn’t get any of the profits. I think it is awful that people are fighting over a dead body. Ötzi was once a living human being. His body shouldn’t be fought over. It shouldn’t be dissected or probed. It shouldn’t be on display to tourists. People certainly shouldn’t get money for finding it. Ötzi deserves a decent and respectful burial.

Discussion

19


Finding the

DJ Dan: Wow, that’s terrible!

k c e a r D e d l u Verg DJ Dan: We’re talking to Dr Marina Cousteau about colourful tales of sunken ships and lost treasure. Marina, what can you tell us about the Vergulde Draeck?

Marina Cousteau: The Vergulde Draeck sailed from Holland over 350 years ago. It was bound for Indonesia. However, in 1656, it came to grief on a reef off the west coast of Australia. It went down laden with artefacts and eight chests of silver coins. The wreck, and its treasure, was lost until 1963. Then, a group of divers accidentally stumbled across it while spearfishing.

DJ Dan: Well, I guess it was a case of finders keepers, then?

Cousteau: That’s what one of the group, Alan Robinson, thought. He wanted to recover the wreck himself. In my opinion, he was just after the silver. He didn’t make any effort to protect the wreck. In fact, he used dynamite and destroyed part of it! Where the Vergulde Draeck Was Found 0 km

1,000 Northern Territory Western Australia

DJ Dan: I believe their find sparked a hot debate about ownership rights.

Queensland South Australia

New South Wales Victoria

Ledge Point

Cousteau: It sure did. At the time, Australia did not have laws to say who owned the wreck or treasure.

Tasmania Key: Wreck of the Vergulde Draeck

Cousteau: Yes, it was. The Vergulde Draeck is part of Australian history. So, the Australian government stepped in and passed new laws to protect the Vergulde Draeck and other historic wrecks. They passed the Museum Amendment Act 1964. This law said that the site of any ship that wrecked in Western Australian waters before 1900 was an archaeological site. This was one of the best maritime laws ever passed in Australia because it protected our heritage.

Cousteau: Definitely! Marine archaeologists recovered many of the artefacts for museums. Now, everyone can learn about the Vergulde Draeck. That’s a much better result than seeing it damaged by people like Robinson. DJ Dan: Surely, though, the archaeologists damaged the wreck by removing the artefacts. Bottles and coins recovered from the wreck

DJ Dan: This is confusing. What about the people who accidentally found the wreck? Cousteau: Alan Robinson still believed he owned it. I’m sure he thought the new law was unfair. When his group found the wreck, it was still legal for him to recover it. However, the new law made it illegal. DJ Dan: Yeah, it’s a bit unfair. Still, it seems to me that the artefacts should be in a museum.

Cousteau: No way! Robinson was only after the treasure. He did not care about the site. Archaeologists are interested in far more than just treasure. They believe that every item at the wreck site is valuable, because it tells us about history. DJ Dan: Thank you for your time, Dr Cousteau.

Perth

20 Accidental Discoveries

Discussion (Radio Transcript)

21


Finding the

DJ Dan: Wow, that’s terrible!

k c e a r D e d l u Verg DJ Dan: We’re talking to Dr Marina Cousteau about colourful tales of sunken ships and lost treasure. Marina, what can you tell us about the Vergulde Draeck?

Marina Cousteau: The Vergulde Draeck sailed from Holland over 350 years ago. It was bound for Indonesia. However, in 1656, it came to grief on a reef off the west coast of Australia. It went down laden with artefacts and eight chests of silver coins. The wreck, and its treasure, was lost until 1963. Then, a group of divers accidentally stumbled across it while spearfishing.

DJ Dan: Well, I guess it was a case of finders keepers, then?

Cousteau: That’s what one of the group, Alan Robinson, thought. He wanted to recover the wreck himself. In my opinion, he was just after the silver. He didn’t make any effort to protect the wreck. In fact, he used dynamite and destroyed part of it! Where the Vergulde Draeck Was Found 0 km

1,000 Northern Territory Western Australia

DJ Dan: I believe their find sparked a hot debate about ownership rights.

Queensland South Australia

New South Wales Victoria

Ledge Point

Cousteau: It sure did. At the time, Australia did not have laws to say who owned the wreck or treasure.

Tasmania Key: Wreck of the Vergulde Draeck

Cousteau: Yes, it was. The Vergulde Draeck is part of Australian history. So, the Australian government stepped in and passed new laws to protect the Vergulde Draeck and other historic wrecks. They passed the Museum Amendment Act 1964. This law said that the site of any ship that wrecked in Western Australian waters before 1900 was an archaeological site. This was one of the best maritime laws ever passed in Australia because it protected our heritage.

Cousteau: Definitely! Marine archaeologists recovered many of the artefacts for museums. Now, everyone can learn about the Vergulde Draeck. That’s a much better result than seeing it damaged by people like Robinson. DJ Dan: Surely, though, the archaeologists damaged the wreck by removing the artefacts. Bottles and coins recovered from the wreck

DJ Dan: This is confusing. What about the people who accidentally found the wreck? Cousteau: Alan Robinson still believed he owned it. I’m sure he thought the new law was unfair. When his group found the wreck, it was still legal for him to recover it. However, the new law made it illegal. DJ Dan: Yeah, it’s a bit unfair. Still, it seems to me that the artefacts should be in a museum.

Cousteau: No way! Robinson was only after the treasure. He did not care about the site. Archaeologists are interested in far more than just treasure. They believe that every item at the wreck site is valuable, because it tells us about history. DJ Dan: Thank you for your time, Dr Cousteau.

Perth

20 Accidental Discoveries

Discussion (Radio Transcript)

21


The Globe Times The Terracotta 14 June

Soldiers

The terracotta soldiers, lined up and ready to serve their emperor beyond the grave

Archaeologists explored the site. What they found amazed them. In one vast pit were 6,000 terracotta figures. Two more pits with smaller groups were found in 1976. Since then, more discoveries have been made. In all, nearly 8,000 warriors have been found. There are also hundreds of horses and chariots of war. The soldiers are life-sized. They have been modelled in incredible detail – right down to the patterns on the soles of their shoes. Amazingly, each soldier is an individual. No two faces are the same. Qin Shi Huang ruled from 221 bc until his death in 210 bc. As he grew older, he became obsessed with

escaping death. Experts think he had the huge army made to serve him in the afterlife. It would help him become immortal. In a way, he truly has become immortal. His great, underground army has ensured that people are still talking about him thousands of years after he died.

A war chariot drawn by four terracotta horses

Plan of the Terracotta Army Museum

Pit two

Pit three

In 1974, a group of Chinese farmers were drilling in the ground to make a well. Instead, they made one of the biggest finds in the history of archaeology. In the pit that they had found was a huge army of terracotta soldiers. 22 Accidental Discoveries

This army had lain buried for thousands of years. The find was near Xi’an, the ancient capital city of China. Experts realised that it was close to the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China. The soldiers, over 2,200 years old, were his funeral guard.

Pit one

Exhibition hall showing ancient weapons

Gate

Recount (Newspaper Article) 23


The Globe Times The Terracotta 14 June

Soldiers

The terracotta soldiers, lined up and ready to serve their emperor beyond the grave

Archaeologists explored the site. What they found amazed them. In one vast pit were 6,000 terracotta figures. Two more pits with smaller groups were found in 1976. Since then, more discoveries have been made. In all, nearly 8,000 warriors have been found. There are also hundreds of horses and chariots of war. The soldiers are life-sized. They have been modelled in incredible detail – right down to the patterns on the soles of their shoes. Amazingly, each soldier is an individual. No two faces are the same. Qin Shi Huang ruled from 221 bc until his death in 210 bc. As he grew older, he became obsessed with

escaping death. Experts think he had the huge army made to serve him in the afterlife. It would help him become immortal. In a way, he truly has become immortal. His great, underground army has ensured that people are still talking about him thousands of years after he died.

A war chariot drawn by four terracotta horses

Plan of the Terracotta Army Museum

Pit two

Pit three

In 1974, a group of Chinese farmers were drilling in the ground to make a well. Instead, they made one of the biggest finds in the history of archaeology. In the pit that they had found was a huge army of terracotta soldiers. 22 Accidental Discoveries

This army had lain buried for thousands of years. The find was near Xi’an, the ancient capital city of China. Experts realised that it was close to the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China. The soldiers, over 2,200 years old, were his funeral guard.

Pit one

Exhibition hall showing ancient weapons

Gate

Recount (Newspaper Article) 23


Bomber In 1944, during World War II, five American aircraft took off from a small Alaskan island. Their mission was to bomb a small Japanese island 1,200 kilometres away. One of the planes, Bomber 31, never returned. The Air Force believed that the crew had ditched into the sea. The bombers had not been designed to carry the amount of fuel needed to fly such a long distance. Overloaded, Bomber 31 must have crashed.

However, the crew had not ditched. In 1962, a Russian geologist called Mikhail Khotin stumbled across the wreck of a plane. It had crashed in Siberia, the cold eastern region of Russia, then part of the Soviet Union. This was during the Cold War. It was 24 Accidental Discoveries

31

a time when the United States and the Soviet Union did not trust each other. The Soviets did not tell the Americans about the wreck. In fact, they blew up the unexploded bombs still onboard. This damaged the plane even more.

Found at Last The investigators believe that the plane was damaged by enemy gunfire. Unable to get home, the crew chose to crash-land on Soviet soil. The Soviets were their allies at the time. The team found very few bones during their search. There were no graves. Most likely, the bodies were eaten by the brown bears in the area. In 1999, a Russian historian found the wreck by chance. By this time, the Cold War was over. The Russians informed the Americans of what they had found. The Americans sent a team to investigate.

What actually happened will never be known. At least, though, the evidence tells us where Bomber 31 went down. It gives the families of the crew, finally, a hint of what might have happened to them on that last, lonely flight. Discussion 25


Bomber In 1944, during World War II, five American aircraft took off from a small Alaskan island. Their mission was to bomb a small Japanese island 1,200 kilometres away. One of the planes, Bomber 31, never returned. The Air Force believed that the crew had ditched into the sea. The bombers had not been designed to carry the amount of fuel needed to fly such a long distance. Overloaded, Bomber 31 must have crashed.

However, the crew had not ditched. In 1962, a Russian geologist called Mikhail Khotin stumbled across the wreck of a plane. It had crashed in Siberia, the cold eastern region of Russia, then part of the Soviet Union. This was during the Cold War. It was 24 Accidental Discoveries

31

a time when the United States and the Soviet Union did not trust each other. The Soviets did not tell the Americans about the wreck. In fact, they blew up the unexploded bombs still onboard. This damaged the plane even more.

Found at Last The investigators believe that the plane was damaged by enemy gunfire. Unable to get home, the crew chose to crash-land on Soviet soil. The Soviets were their allies at the time. The team found very few bones during their search. There were no graves. Most likely, the bodies were eaten by the brown bears in the area. In 1999, a Russian historian found the wreck by chance. By this time, the Cold War was over. The Russians informed the Americans of what they had found. The Americans sent a team to investigate.

What actually happened will never be known. At least, though, the evidence tells us where Bomber 31 went down. It gives the families of the crew, finally, a hint of what might have happened to them on that last, lonely flight. Discussion 25


s ’ r e m r Fa l i s s Fo Find

Ross Fargher (left) and Jim Gehling (right) examine the amazing fossil find.

Farmer Ross Fargher could see that the tiny fossil he had discovered was unusual. However, he never thought it would change the way we understand the history of life on Earth.

The fossil is 6 centimetres long. It looks like a tadpole. Gehling believes that, when it was alive, it crawled on the bottom of the sea. Interesting – but what makes it so special?

This may be the first vertebrate species that ever lived. That would make it the ancestor of all vertebrates today – including you!

Along the creature’s back runs a long, thin rod, like a fin. In other words, the creature had a backbone. Backbones were a hugely important step in the history of life. They made possible the body shape of all the mammals, reptiles, birds and fish of today. Animals with backbones are called vertebrates. Scientists in China have found a vertebrate fossil that is 530 million years old. It was thought to be the oldest vertebrate ever found – until now. Fargher’s fossil is 560 million years old.

The fossil’s backbone is clearly visible in this photograph.

Vertebrate Relatives amphibians

lobe-finned fishes

reptiles ray-finned fishes

Fargher found the fossil in 1998. He found it while driving around his cattle station. The station is in the Flinders mountain range of South Australia. Scientists have found fossils in these mountains before. Fargher had found them on his farm before, too. Millions of years ago, the mountains were part of the seabed. 26 Accidental Discoveries

Fargher thought this fossil looked different. He took it home and put it on his verandah. Four years later, Dr Jim Gehling, a scientist from the South Australian Museum, heard about the unusual fossil. He went to Fargher’s farm to see it. After studying the fossil, he realised Fargher had found something special.

birds

cartilaginous fishes

jawless fishes mammals

Recount

27


s ’ r e m r Fa l i s s Fo Find

Ross Fargher (left) and Jim Gehling (right) examine the amazing fossil find.

Farmer Ross Fargher could see that the tiny fossil he had discovered was unusual. However, he never thought it would change the way we understand the history of life on Earth.

The fossil is 6 centimetres long. It looks like a tadpole. Gehling believes that, when it was alive, it crawled on the bottom of the sea. Interesting – but what makes it so special?

This may be the first vertebrate species that ever lived. That would make it the ancestor of all vertebrates today – including you!

Along the creature’s back runs a long, thin rod, like a fin. In other words, the creature had a backbone. Backbones were a hugely important step in the history of life. They made possible the body shape of all the mammals, reptiles, birds and fish of today. Animals with backbones are called vertebrates. Scientists in China have found a vertebrate fossil that is 530 million years old. It was thought to be the oldest vertebrate ever found – until now. Fargher’s fossil is 560 million years old.

The fossil’s backbone is clearly visible in this photograph.

Vertebrate Relatives amphibians

lobe-finned fishes

reptiles ray-finned fishes

Fargher found the fossil in 1998. He found it while driving around his cattle station. The station is in the Flinders mountain range of South Australia. Scientists have found fossils in these mountains before. Fargher had found them on his farm before, too. Millions of years ago, the mountains were part of the seabed. 26 Accidental Discoveries

Fargher thought this fossil looked different. He took it home and put it on his verandah. Four years later, Dr Jim Gehling, a scientist from the South Australian Museum, heard about the unusual fossil. He went to Fargher’s farm to see it. After studying the fossil, he realised Fargher had found something special.

birds

cartilaginous fishes

jawless fishes mammals

Recount

27


e h

b e s i e r F

T

Frisbees are fantastic fun. They are round, plastic discs you can throw to your friends. You can throw them forehand or backhand. You can catch them on one finger. You can catch them as you leap. People even show off their skills in frisbee-throwing competitions.

What’s cooler than throwing a frisbee? Nothing!

Frisbees are designed to fly well. They are light, so they can soar through the air. They are circular, so they can spin, which makes them fly straight. Their rounded surface lets air flow faster over the top than the bottom, which lifts them as they fly. Very clever – but why are they called ‘frisbees’? In the 1870s, William Russell Frisbie opened a bakery in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in the United States. Frisbie decided to sell his pies in light, tin pans. He printed the words ‘Frisbie’s Pies’ on the bottoms of the pans. Frisbie’s business did extremely well and he was soon selling pies all over Connecticut.

Among Frisbie’s customers were students at Yale, Connecticut’s famous university. No one knows exactly when it began but, at some point, Yale students found a new use for the empty pie pans – they threw them through the air and caught them. They would yell ‘Frisbie!’ to let people know that there was a metal pan flying through the air!

In 1957, Wham-O, the toy company that made hula hoops, started producing a plastic flying saucer called the ‘Pluto Platter’. When Wham-O heard about the craze at Yale, they changed the name to ‘Frisbee’. Today, people play with frisbees all over the world. However, they don’t throw metal pie pans anymore!

The Physics of frisbees The curved shape allows air to flow fast, creating low air pressure.

Air flows more slowly underneath, creating high air pressure and pushing up.

28 Accidental Fun

Description 29


e h

b e s i e r F

T

Frisbees are fantastic fun. They are round, plastic discs you can throw to your friends. You can throw them forehand or backhand. You can catch them on one finger. You can catch them as you leap. People even show off their skills in frisbee-throwing competitions.

What’s cooler than throwing a frisbee? Nothing!

Frisbees are designed to fly well. They are light, so they can soar through the air. They are circular, so they can spin, which makes them fly straight. Their rounded surface lets air flow faster over the top than the bottom, which lifts them as they fly. Very clever – but why are they called ‘frisbees’? In the 1870s, William Russell Frisbie opened a bakery in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in the United States. Frisbie decided to sell his pies in light, tin pans. He printed the words ‘Frisbie’s Pies’ on the bottoms of the pans. Frisbie’s business did extremely well and he was soon selling pies all over Connecticut.

Among Frisbie’s customers were students at Yale, Connecticut’s famous university. No one knows exactly when it began but, at some point, Yale students found a new use for the empty pie pans – they threw them through the air and caught them. They would yell ‘Frisbie!’ to let people know that there was a metal pan flying through the air!

In 1957, Wham-O, the toy company that made hula hoops, started producing a plastic flying saucer called the ‘Pluto Platter’. When Wham-O heard about the craze at Yale, they changed the name to ‘Frisbee’. Today, people play with frisbees all over the world. However, they don’t throw metal pie pans anymore!

The Physics of frisbees The curved shape allows air to flow fast, creating low air pressure.

Air flows more slowly underneath, creating high air pressure and pushing up.

28 Accidental Fun

Description 29


One day, as James watched, one of the coiled springs fell off a shelf. It appeared to move in steps as it arched from one spot to the next. The idea for a unique, flip-flopping toy was born.

It moves in leaps and turns, as if it was somersaulting. It can even somersault down a flight of stairs. It does this all on its own, without power from batteries or a plug. It is called Slinky ® and it is an unusual toy! You might even mistake it for part of a machine.

Slinky® was invented quite by accident in 1943. Richard James, an American naval engineer, was trying to find a way to keep instruments on moving ships steady. The instrument would sit on top of a coiled spring. The spring would move with the ship. This would stop the instrument from vibrating.

Slinkys® have been popular with kids since they were invented in the 1940s.

30 Accidental Fun

Over the next two years, James experimented with a steel ribbon coiled into a tight spiral. Soon, he was ready with his new invention. His wife, Betty, named the toy ‘Slinky®’, after finding the word in a dictionary. It means ‘sleek and graceful’. In 1945, the James’s demonstrated their toy in a department store. Within 90 minutes, they had sold 400 Slinkys® – every one they had! Since that day, hundreds of millions of Slinkys® have been sold around the world. Science teachers sometimes use Slinkys® in classrooms to teach physics. A moving Slinky® shows how potential energy converts to kinetic energy. NASA scientists have even used Slinky® for experiments in space. Slinky® isn’t your average toy, but today, six decades after it was invented, it is as popular with children as ever.

A Slinky® in action

NASA astronauts demonstrating the effects of weightlessness on a Slinky®

Description

31


One day, as James watched, one of the coiled springs fell off a shelf. It appeared to move in steps as it arched from one spot to the next. The idea for a unique, flip-flopping toy was born.

It moves in leaps and turns, as if it was somersaulting. It can even somersault down a flight of stairs. It does this all on its own, without power from batteries or a plug. It is called Slinky ® and it is an unusual toy! You might even mistake it for part of a machine.

Slinky® was invented quite by accident in 1943. Richard James, an American naval engineer, was trying to find a way to keep instruments on moving ships steady. The instrument would sit on top of a coiled spring. The spring would move with the ship. This would stop the instrument from vibrating.

Slinkys® have been popular with kids since they were invented in the 1940s.

30 Accidental Fun

Over the next two years, James experimented with a steel ribbon coiled into a tight spiral. Soon, he was ready with his new invention. His wife, Betty, named the toy ‘Slinky®’, after finding the word in a dictionary. It means ‘sleek and graceful’. In 1945, the James’s demonstrated their toy in a department store. Within 90 minutes, they had sold 400 Slinkys® – every one they had! Since that day, hundreds of millions of Slinkys® have been sold around the world. Science teachers sometimes use Slinkys® in classrooms to teach physics. A moving Slinky® shows how potential energy converts to kinetic energy. NASA scientists have even used Slinky® for experiments in space. Slinky® isn’t your average toy, but today, six decades after it was invented, it is as popular with children as ever.

A Slinky® in action

NASA astronauts demonstrating the effects of weightlessness on a Slinky®

Description

31


®

What comes in an egg, has travelled to the moon and has been played with by millions of children? It’s silly putty®! Silly putty® is best described as a kind of elastic dough. However, it’s hard to describe – because nothing is quite like silly putty®!

Silly putty® provides hours of entertainment for both children and adults. There’s not much that silly putty® can’t do. It can bounce higher than most rubber balls. It is heavier than water, so you can make it sink, but if you shape it like a boat, it will float. When pressure is applied quickly, silly putty® acts like a solid, so you can hit it with a hammer and it will keep its shape. When pressure is applied slowly, silly putty® acts like a liquid, so you can squish it with your fingers.

Silly putty® is adhesive, which means you can use it to stick things together. Astronauts have used it to keep their tools from floating around in zero gravity. It is also one of the most stretchable things around. If you tug it slowly, you can wrap an egg of silly putty® right around your body, but if you tug it fast, it will snap cleanly. What other toy can do all these things?

This popular toy only came into existence by chance. It was invented during World War II. In 1943, the United States needed rubber. However, its rubber supplies had been cut off. An engineer called James Wright was trying to create synthetic rubber. One of his tests produced a gooey substance that bounced. It was not a good substitute for rubber – but in some ways, it was even better!

…Or is it? You can’t do this with a rubber ball!

Silly putty® is just like a rubber ball.

32 Accidental Fun

Is it solid? Is it elastic? It’s both those things, and a lot more!

Description 33


®

What comes in an egg, has travelled to the moon and has been played with by millions of children? It’s silly putty®! Silly putty® is best described as a kind of elastic dough. However, it’s hard to describe – because nothing is quite like silly putty®!

Silly putty® provides hours of entertainment for both children and adults. There’s not much that silly putty® can’t do. It can bounce higher than most rubber balls. It is heavier than water, so you can make it sink, but if you shape it like a boat, it will float. When pressure is applied quickly, silly putty® acts like a solid, so you can hit it with a hammer and it will keep its shape. When pressure is applied slowly, silly putty® acts like a liquid, so you can squish it with your fingers.

Silly putty® is adhesive, which means you can use it to stick things together. Astronauts have used it to keep their tools from floating around in zero gravity. It is also one of the most stretchable things around. If you tug it slowly, you can wrap an egg of silly putty® right around your body, but if you tug it fast, it will snap cleanly. What other toy can do all these things?

This popular toy only came into existence by chance. It was invented during World War II. In 1943, the United States needed rubber. However, its rubber supplies had been cut off. An engineer called James Wright was trying to create synthetic rubber. One of his tests produced a gooey substance that bounced. It was not a good substitute for rubber – but in some ways, it was even better!

…Or is it? You can’t do this with a rubber ball!

Silly putty® is just like a rubber ball.

32 Accidental Fun

Is it solid? Is it elastic? It’s both those things, and a lot more!

Description 33


Play-Doh

Play-doh®, the modelling material used in classrooms around the world, came about by accident. In 1955, a man called Joseph McVicker heard from a teacher that the ordinary modelling clay used in classrooms was hard for her students to mould. McVicker’s company in Cincinnati, in the United States, made wallpaper cleaner. He remembered that it was very easy to mould. He gave a can of wallpaper cleaner to the teacher, who tried it out in her classroom – and the children loved it!

®

McVicker showed his wallpaper cleaner to other schools. Soon, schools all over Cincinnati were using it. Then, it caught on with department stores. In 1957, it began to feature on a popular children’s TV show called ‘Captain Kangaroo’. The original wallpaper cleaner was an off-white colour. By this time, however, it came in red, blue and yellow. McVicker’s wallpaper cleaner – which was now called play-doh® – went on to become one of the most popular toys of all time. Today, millions of cans are sold each year in more than 75 countries.

Children love play-doh® because it is perfect for modelling. It is smooth, soft and easy to mould. It is not sticky. You can roll it, cut it, squash it and pull it. You can shape it into almost anything you like – a cat, a butterfly, a flower… You can use it over and over. Play-doh® is non-toxic and easy to clean up. You can wash it off with soapy water. If you want the shapes you have made to harden, just leave them out to dry. All this – and if you need your wallpaper cleaned, it can do that, too!

Play-Doh® Colour Combinations Leave them to dry and your play-doh® artworks will become permanent decorations.

green

yellow

leaf

purple

white

plum

yellow

magenta

sunset

blue

white

sky

soft blue

white

sea

The creative possibilities of play-doh® are endless.

34 Accidental Fun

Description 35


Play-Doh

Play-doh®, the modelling material used in classrooms around the world, came about by accident. In 1955, a man called Joseph McVicker heard from a teacher that the ordinary modelling clay used in classrooms was hard for her students to mould. McVicker’s company in Cincinnati, in the United States, made wallpaper cleaner. He remembered that it was very easy to mould. He gave a can of wallpaper cleaner to the teacher, who tried it out in her classroom – and the children loved it!

®

McVicker showed his wallpaper cleaner to other schools. Soon, schools all over Cincinnati were using it. Then, it caught on with department stores. In 1957, it began to feature on a popular children’s TV show called ‘Captain Kangaroo’. The original wallpaper cleaner was an off-white colour. By this time, however, it came in red, blue and yellow. McVicker’s wallpaper cleaner – which was now called play-doh® – went on to become one of the most popular toys of all time. Today, millions of cans are sold each year in more than 75 countries.

Children love play-doh® because it is perfect for modelling. It is smooth, soft and easy to mould. It is not sticky. You can roll it, cut it, squash it and pull it. You can shape it into almost anything you like – a cat, a butterfly, a flower… You can use it over and over. Play-doh® is non-toxic and easy to clean up. You can wash it off with soapy water. If you want the shapes you have made to harden, just leave them out to dry. All this – and if you need your wallpaper cleaned, it can do that, too!

Play-Doh® Colour Combinations Leave them to dry and your play-doh® artworks will become permanent decorations.

green

yellow

leaf

purple

white

plum

yellow

magenta

sunset

blue

white

sky

soft blue

white

sea

The creative possibilities of play-doh® are endless.

34 Accidental Fun

Description 35


E N O H P O L STY

THE

The singer Little Boots performing with a stylophone

Have you ever heard of the stylophone? It was a miniature synthesizer, or electronic piano. However, you did not play it by pressing keys down with your fingers. Instead, you pressed a metal keyboard with a stylus. A stylus is a writing tool. Instead of making a mark in ink or graphite, a stylus simply presses down. Today, people use a stylus to operate mini-computers and touchscreen phones. Did people really use them to play music? Strange, but true!

The stylophone was invented by Brian Jarvis. Jarvis was one of the founders of the electronics company Dübreq. One day, in 1967, his niece asked him to fix her electronic piano. Finding that the little hammers on the piano keys had broken off, Jarvis replaced them with electric contacts. When the electricity flowed through, the keys played. The idea for the stylophone was born. Electricity flows through a circuit. The power must be able to go from the source all the way around the circuit and back to the source again. This is

called a closed circuit. Jarvis’s electronic keys were open circuits. There was one circuit for each note. To make a noise, you had to close the circuit. How? By pressing the metal keyboard with the metal stylus! This completed the path that the power needed to make a sound. You won’t see many stylophones these days, but when they were big, they were very big. In six years, three million stylophones were sold. In 1969, David Bowie even used one in his song ‘Space Oddity’. Maybe it’s time the stylophone came back!

How Does an Electric Circuit Work? An Open Circuit

A Closed Circuit

Power Source

Power Source

The stylophone doesn't look like any other musical instrument you’re likely to see.

Circuit is open. Power cannot flow.

Stylus closes the circuit. Power can flow. Stylus

36 Accidental Fun

Description 37


E N O H P O L STY

THE

The singer Little Boots performing with a stylophone

Have you ever heard of the stylophone? It was a miniature synthesizer, or electronic piano. However, you did not play it by pressing keys down with your fingers. Instead, you pressed a metal keyboard with a stylus. A stylus is a writing tool. Instead of making a mark in ink or graphite, a stylus simply presses down. Today, people use a stylus to operate mini-computers and touchscreen phones. Did people really use them to play music? Strange, but true!

The stylophone was invented by Brian Jarvis. Jarvis was one of the founders of the electronics company Dübreq. One day, in 1967, his niece asked him to fix her electronic piano. Finding that the little hammers on the piano keys had broken off, Jarvis replaced them with electric contacts. When the electricity flowed through, the keys played. The idea for the stylophone was born. Electricity flows through a circuit. The power must be able to go from the source all the way around the circuit and back to the source again. This is

called a closed circuit. Jarvis’s electronic keys were open circuits. There was one circuit for each note. To make a noise, you had to close the circuit. How? By pressing the metal keyboard with the metal stylus! This completed the path that the power needed to make a sound. You won’t see many stylophones these days, but when they were big, they were very big. In six years, three million stylophones were sold. In 1969, David Bowie even used one in his song ‘Space Oddity’. Maybe it’s time the stylophone came back!

How Does an Electric Circuit Work? An Open Circuit

A Closed Circuit

Power Source

Power Source

The stylophone doesn't look like any other musical instrument you’re likely to see.

Circuit is open. Power cannot flow.

Stylus closes the circuit. Power can flow. Stylus

36 Accidental Fun

Description 37


The Strange Accident of the

Piggy Bank Do you have a piggy bank? ‘Piggy bank’ is the traditional name for a container, shaped like a pig, that holds small amounts of money, usually coins. You may have saved money in a piggy bank – until you had enough to buy something you wanted!

Have you ever thought, however, about how piggy banks got their name? ‘Bank’ makes sense – a bank is a place for keeping money. Why the pig shape, though? What have pigs got to do with saving money?

38 Accidental Fun

Many people think that the word ‘piggy’ actually has nothing to do with pigs at all. Instead, it comes from the mediaeval English word pygg. Pygg was a kind of clay used for making containers. People stored small amounts of money in containers made of this clay, which were known as ‘pygg jars’. By the early eighteenth century, people had started calling them ‘pig banks’ and, at some point, somebody had the idea of making them in the shape of an actual pig. Over the years, it became traditional to have a pig-shaped jar for coins.

Others think the name comes from the traditional practice of keeping a pig to eat food scraps that people could not use. The pig would grow bigger and bigger from eating the scraps. People saw that the way they kept their money was the same. They would put small coins that they could not use into a container and their savings would gradually grow bigger and bigger. At some point, somebody had the clever idea of calling these containers ‘pigs’. Those are both pretty good stories, so what do you think? Which one sounds right to you?

Containers like this, made from orange pygg clay, were common in the Middle Ages. Piggy banks look cute and cuddly – just like this real pig, right?

Recount 39


The Strange Accident of the

Piggy Bank Do you have a piggy bank? ‘Piggy bank’ is the traditional name for a container, shaped like a pig, that holds small amounts of money, usually coins. You may have saved money in a piggy bank – until you had enough to buy something you wanted!

Have you ever thought, however, about how piggy banks got their name? ‘Bank’ makes sense – a bank is a place for keeping money. Why the pig shape, though? What have pigs got to do with saving money?

38 Accidental Fun

Many people think that the word ‘piggy’ actually has nothing to do with pigs at all. Instead, it comes from the mediaeval English word pygg. Pygg was a kind of clay used for making containers. People stored small amounts of money in containers made of this clay, which were known as ‘pygg jars’. By the early eighteenth century, people had started calling them ‘pig banks’ and, at some point, somebody had the idea of making them in the shape of an actual pig. Over the years, it became traditional to have a pig-shaped jar for coins.

Others think the name comes from the traditional practice of keeping a pig to eat food scraps that people could not use. The pig would grow bigger and bigger from eating the scraps. People saw that the way they kept their money was the same. They would put small coins that they could not use into a container and their savings would gradually grow bigger and bigger. At some point, somebody had the clever idea of calling these containers ‘pigs’. Those are both pretty good stories, so what do you think? Which one sounds right to you?

Containers like this, made from orange pygg clay, were common in the Middle Ages. Piggy banks look cute and cuddly – just like this real pig, right?

Recount 39


Make a Papier-Mache

Piggy Bank

What You Will Need -

What to Do -

6. Use the plastic cup to make the pig’s nose. Attach it with sticky tape.

1. Mix the cup of flour with 1 cup of water and stir until the mixture is runny.

7. Cover the balloon in layers of paste and newspaper. Make the covering smooth. You must wait for each layer to dry before you add another layer.

2. Stir in 4 cups of boiling water. Simmer for 3 minutes, then let the mixture cool. Now, you have paste. 3. Tear the newspaper into small strips and place them in the bowl.

8. When you are happy with the shape of your pig, add one last layer – this time of white paper.

4. Add the paste to the bowl and mix it with the newspaper.

♦ A blown-up balloon ♦ Newspaper

9. Paint and decorate the pig in any way you choose.

♦ White paper ♦ Coloured paper ♦ Paints ♦ A plastic cup ♦ 4 cardboard tubes

5. Use the coloured paper and cardboard tubes to make the pig’s ears and legs. Attach them with sticky tape.

10. Ask an adult to help you make the slit on the top where money can be put into the pig. 11. Pop the balloon!

♦ A large bowl ♦ Sticky tape ♦ 1 cup of flour ♦ 5 cups of water

40 Regular Features

POP!

Procedure 41


Make a Papier-Mache

Piggy Bank

What You Will Need -

What to Do -

6. Use the plastic cup to make the pig’s nose. Attach it with sticky tape.

1. Mix the cup of flour with 1 cup of water and stir until the mixture is runny.

7. Cover the balloon in layers of paste and newspaper. Make the covering smooth. You must wait for each layer to dry before you add another layer.

2. Stir in 4 cups of boiling water. Simmer for 3 minutes, then let the mixture cool. Now, you have paste. 3. Tear the newspaper into small strips and place them in the bowl.

8. When you are happy with the shape of your pig, add one last layer – this time of white paper.

4. Add the paste to the bowl and mix it with the newspaper.

♦ A blown-up balloon ♦ Newspaper

9. Paint and decorate the pig in any way you choose.

♦ White paper ♦ Coloured paper ♦ Paints ♦ A plastic cup ♦ 4 cardboard tubes

5. Use the coloured paper and cardboard tubes to make the pig’s ears and legs. Attach them with sticky tape.

10. Ask an adult to help you make the slit on the top where money can be put into the pig. 11. Pop the balloon!

♦ A large bowl ♦ Sticky tape ♦ 1 cup of flour ♦ 5 cups of water

40 Regular Features

POP!

Procedure 41


Accidental Poetry

Paper strips wound round his pencil, glued together – poof! A new invention.

This is a poem about another useful, but accidental, invention. After reading the poem, you may like to find out more!

Eventually sealed with wax, preventing leaks,

The Straw – 1888

Castle building, dreaming, pure play

by Drew Lamm

one person wondering on any old day .

What

might

you

A simple sipping instrument. s p r u n g

f r o m 42 Regular Features

Marvin Stone’s

swilling spirals leading lemonade to puckered lips.

i

m

i

t

a

n

o

g

v

d

ina

e

a

t

n

Y

t

?

i o n .

Poetry 43


Accidental Poetry

Paper strips wound round his pencil, glued together – poof! A new invention.

This is a poem about another useful, but accidental, invention. After reading the poem, you may like to find out more!

Eventually sealed with wax, preventing leaks,

The Straw – 1888

Castle building, dreaming, pure play

by Drew Lamm

one person wondering on any old day .

What

might

you

A simple sipping instrument. s p r u n g

f r o m 42 Regular Features

Marvin Stone’s

swilling spirals leading lemonade to puckered lips.

i

m

i

t

a

n

o

g

v

d

ina

e

a

t

n

Y

t

?

i o n .

Poetry 43


! o p x E s e i r e v o c s Amazing Di

e competition! th in jo d n a o p x E e • Come along to th om inventors! fr d te vi in re a s e • Entri , everyday item? ry a in d or n a r fo se a new u • Have you found ve ousehold task? Ha h e m so o d to y a a better w ep the world? e • Have you found sw l il w at th y it leisure activ you devised a new ceive a fabulous re l il w n io it et p m e Expo co ern Inventor od • The winner of th M in nt e m e is rt ve d a free ad monetary prize an Magazine. e assembly hall of th in r e b m e pt e S e held on 10 • The Expo will b en at 9 a.m. op l il w rs oo D l. oo Sch North Park Primary ced at 5 p.m. n ou n n a e b l il w r e • The winn

Categories :

Best Invention for around ention v n I the Home l l a r e v Best O Best New Toy Best Accidental Discovery

R O F Y D A E R D L R IS THE WO YOUR GENIUS ?

44 Regular Features

Review of the Amazing Discoveries Expo Last Saturday, the Amazing Discoveries Expo was held at North Park Primary School. There were a great many inventions on display, as well as groundbreaking ideas for new uses of old items. It was eye-opening to see how inventive and intelligent our local residents are. If only the judges had the same kind of vision. Their stunning lack of imagination led them to reject many worthy inventions. For example, they overlooked my own idea to use helicopter rotors to dry laundry. The winner, 10-year old student Hannah Beck, took first place with her invention of a solar-powered doorbell. In her acceptance speech, Hannah explained how the idea for the solar-powered doorbell had come to her, and how she had gone about actually making it. It was very interesting. However, many other inventions were interesting, too.

Hannah Beck, the second-best contestant, received the first prize for some reason.

While interesting, Hannah’s solar-powered doorbell cannot solve the problem of wet laundry.

One day, the Dry-O-Copter will get the attention it deserves. After I work out the details, I will submit it again. Bring on next year’s expo!

Response 45


! o p x E s e i r e v o c s Amazing Di

e competition! th in jo d n a o p x E e • Come along to th om inventors! fr d te vi in re a s e • Entri , everyday item? ry a in d or n a r fo se a new u • Have you found ve ousehold task? Ha h e m so o d to y a a better w ep the world? e • Have you found sw l il w at th y it leisure activ you devised a new ceive a fabulous re l il w n io it et p m e Expo co ern Inventor od • The winner of th M in nt e m e is rt ve d a free ad monetary prize an Magazine. e assembly hall of th in r e b m e pt e S e held on 10 • The Expo will b en at 9 a.m. op l il w rs oo D l. oo Sch North Park Primary ced at 5 p.m. n ou n n a e b l il w r e • The winn

Categories :

Best Invention for around ention v n I the Home l l a r e v Best O Best New Toy Best Accidental Discovery

R O F Y D A E R D L R IS THE WO YOUR GENIUS ?

44 Regular Features

Review of the Amazing Discoveries Expo Last Saturday, the Amazing Discoveries Expo was held at North Park Primary School. There were a great many inventions on display, as well as groundbreaking ideas for new uses of old items. It was eye-opening to see how inventive and intelligent our local residents are. If only the judges had the same kind of vision. Their stunning lack of imagination led them to reject many worthy inventions. For example, they overlooked my own idea to use helicopter rotors to dry laundry. The winner, 10-year old student Hannah Beck, took first place with her invention of a solar-powered doorbell. In her acceptance speech, Hannah explained how the idea for the solar-powered doorbell had come to her, and how she had gone about actually making it. It was very interesting. However, many other inventions were interesting, too.

Hannah Beck, the second-best contestant, received the first prize for some reason.

While interesting, Hannah’s solar-powered doorbell cannot solve the problem of wet laundry.

One day, the Dry-O-Copter will get the attention it deserves. After I work out the details, I will submit it again. Bring on next year’s expo!

Response 45


Discover a Puzzling World Please do not write on these pages. The activities are reproduced as photocopiable pages in the Literacy Network Middle Primary Teacher Resource Book. The answers can also be found in the Teacher Resource Book.

2. Mix ‘Em Up How many words can you make using the letters in ACCIDENTAL?

3. Time to Make a Discovery Use the coded clock below to unearth these accidental inventions.

1. Discovery Crossword

R

Use the clues to complete the crossword. 1

2

4

3

5

6

6. A strong, sticky substance used for joining objects

7 8

7. Play-…

9 10 11

12

13

14

10. Ötzi is 5,000 years… 11. A photograph of the inside of something

A. 6.00, 12.00, 3.00, 9.00, 1.00

E G

S

ACROSS 1. Hardened remains of animals or plants

A

V

B. 9.00, 1.00, 11.00, 5.00, 1.00, 7.00, 11.00, 12.00, 5.00, 1.00

U L

P B

M

C. 10.00, 3.00, 8.00, 1.00, 11.00, 2.00, 4.00, 3.00, 1.00

T

12. Creates something new

4. Every Picture Tells a Story

15. Not on purpose

Solve the picture puzzle.

15

DOWN 1. A flying disc 2. A musical instrument 3. Ship found accidentally by spearfishermen 4. Very thin, transparent plastic 5. Ancient statues of soldiers were made from this

46 Regular Features

8. Fast cooking can be done in a microwave… 9. The first microwave was a metal… 13. Title given to something or someone

The Terra… ________ …ta

un…________ …ed by

________ …iers were

__________…ers who were

14. Silly putty can be hard or… ________ …ging

a _________ . Puzzles and Games 47


Discover a Puzzling World Please do not write on these pages. The activities are reproduced as photocopiable pages in the Literacy Network Middle Primary Teacher Resource Book. The answers can also be found in the Teacher Resource Book.

2. Mix ‘Em Up How many words can you make using the letters in ACCIDENTAL?

3. Time to Make a Discovery Use the coded clock below to unearth these accidental inventions.

1. Discovery Crossword

R

Use the clues to complete the crossword. 1

2

4

3

5

6

6. A strong, sticky substance used for joining objects

7 8

7. Play-…

9 10 11

12

13

14

10. Ötzi is 5,000 years… 11. A photograph of the inside of something

A. 6.00, 12.00, 3.00, 9.00, 1.00

E G

S

ACROSS 1. Hardened remains of animals or plants

A

V

B. 9.00, 1.00, 11.00, 5.00, 1.00, 7.00, 11.00, 12.00, 5.00, 1.00

U L

P B

M

C. 10.00, 3.00, 8.00, 1.00, 11.00, 2.00, 4.00, 3.00, 1.00

T

12. Creates something new

4. Every Picture Tells a Story

15. Not on purpose

Solve the picture puzzle.

15

DOWN 1. A flying disc 2. A musical instrument 3. Ship found accidentally by spearfishermen 4. Very thin, transparent plastic 5. Ancient statues of soldiers were made from this

46 Regular Features

8. Fast cooking can be done in a microwave… 9. The first microwave was a metal… 13. Title given to something or someone

The Terra… ________ …ta

un…________ …ed by

________ …iers were

__________…ers who were

14. Silly putty can be hard or… ________ …ging

a _________ . Puzzles and Games 47


5. What a Laugh! I was standing in the park, wondering why a frisbee gets bigger as it gets closer. Then, it hit me. Patient: OK, Doctor, what does the X-ray of my head show? Doctor: Absolutely nothing!

6. A Noisy Invention Use these sample equations as a clue to help you discover the name of a noisy invention. For example: A+3=D, C-1=B R+1 Z-6 V+3

H+4

N+1

K+5

M-5 N+1

S-5

A+4

7. An Amazing Find Delete the letters Q, X, J and Z from this puzzle to read about an accidental find.

48 Regular Features

J

T

H

E

X

V

E

R

G

U

L

D

E

Z

Q

Q

D

R

A

E

C

K

J

W

A

S

X

J

X

Z

Z

D

I

S

C

O

V

E

R

E

D

Q

B

Y

J

X

S

P

E

A

R

F

I

S

H

E

R

M

E

N



Accidental Inventions and Discoveries (Literacy Network)