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OneStopDigital OneStopDigital student student support support unique codeevery inside every GeoWorld book provides access to OneStopDigital A uniqueAcode inside GeoWorld student student book provides access to OneStopDigital theversion ebook of version of their title. Macmillan’s OneStopDigital and the and ebook their title. Macmillan’s OneStopDigital student student support support platformplatform contains:contains: ◗ an interactive, page-faithful ebook,tolinked to supporting resources ◗ an interactive, page-faithful ebook, linked supporting resources online to testing to enhance understanding ◗ online◗ testing enhance understanding ◗ interactive crosswords, worksheets and much more! ◗ interactive crosswords, worksheets and much more! OneStopDigitial teacher support OneStopDigitial teacher support OneStopDigital bothand novice and experienced OneStopDigital teacher teacher support support providesprovides both novice experienced teachersteachers with a with a wide of resources in planning, assessing and implementing the wide array of array resources to assisttoinassist planning, teaching,teaching, assessing and implementing the Australian Curriculum. It includes: Australian Curriculum. It includes:

Macmillan Macmillan

Australian Curriculum Australian Curriculum

Uncorrected Chapters Sampler (Chapters 1 & 7) ISBN: 9781 4202 3263 9 Price: $54.99 ea (approx.) Available: November 2013

Content may be subject to editorial revision Let's think: Let's think: Does water have Does water have other significance any otherany significance apart from bringing apart from bringing recreational recreational values tovalues to human beings? human beings?

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Series editor: Susan Bliss

OneStopDigital OneStopDigital

Australian Australian Curriculum Curriculum edition edition

Series editor: Susan Bliss

◗ an interactive, page-faithful ebook of version of the student book,tolinked to supporting ◗ an interactive, page-faithful ebook version the student book, linked supporting resources resources ◗ an electronic markbook track student online test and results and support peer resource ◗ an electronic markbook to track to student online test results support peer resource collaboration with other teachers collaboration with other teachers ◗ downloadable and editable resources, curriculum ◗ downloadable and editable teacher teacher resources, includingincluding curriculum grids andgrids and assessment assessment support support ◗ additional slides, teaching programs, ◗ additional support support material,material, includingincluding teachingteaching slides, teaching programs, instant instant lessonmarking plans, marking rubrics, customisable question-and-answer worksheets, and lesson plans, rubrics, customisable question-and-answer worksheets, and suggested for all GeoActivities. suggested answersanswers for all GeoActivities.

GeoWorld GeoWorld 7 7

GeoWorld 7

FeaturesFeatures ◗ double-page spreads—these on content while also integrating ◗ double-page spreads—these focus onfocus content while also integrating general general capabilities and cross-curriculum capabilities and cross-curriculum prioritiespriorities ◗ literacy-focused—key terms at the start of each chapter ◗ literacy-focused—key glossaryglossary terms are givenare at given the start of each chapter ◗ skills-focused—the sub-sections ‘KeyQuestions’, Inquiry Questions’, ‘Think,Explore’ Puzzle, Explore’ and ◗ skills-focused—the sub-sections ‘Key Inquiry ‘Think, Puzzle, and ‘GeoSkills Focus’ aprovide strong emphasis on geographical inquiry methods and ‘GeoSkills in Focus’inprovide strongaemphasis on geographical inquiry methods and skills skills ◗ student-centred—clear and concise accommodates all levels reading levels ◗ student-centred—clear and concise languagelanguage accommodates all reading ◗ easy-to-use—visually appealing layout bold make images make concepts ◗ easy-to-use—visually appealing layout and boldand images concepts easier toeasier graspto grasp ◗ GeoActivities offer a range of concept and skill-based activities catered for ◗ GeoActivities offer a range of concept and skill-based activities catered for differentdifferent levels oflevels abilityof ability ◗ GeoThink encourages critical and creative ◗ GeoThink encourages critical and creative thinking thinking ◗ GeoLinks directs students to keyresources, online resources, making research ◗ GeoLinks directs students to key online making research easier. easier.

Macmillan Macmillan

GeoWorld 7

GeoWorld is anew brand new Geography series designed to address all key requirements of GeoWorld is a brand Geography series designed to address all key requirements of new Australian Curriculum. the new the Australian Curriculum.

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GeoWorld GeoWorld

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8 ACE 9 ACE 7 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 8 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 9 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 10 ACE 10 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 7 ACE 1 4202 1 4202 1 4202 1 4202 3265 3 3265 3 978 1 4202978 3269 1 3269 1 978 1 4202978 3268 4 3268 4 978 1 4202978 3263 9 3263 9 978 1 4202978 8 ACE 9 ACE 7 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 8 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 9 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 10 ACE 10 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 7 ACE Digital-only Digital-only Digital-only Digital-only version version Digital-only version version Digital-only version version Digital-only version version Digital-only 1 4202 1 4202 1 4202 1 4202 3271 4 3271 4 978 1 4202978 3272 1 3272 1 978 1 4202978 3273 8 3273 8 978 1 4202978 3270 7 3270 7 978 1 4202978 8 ACE 9 ACE 7 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 8 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 9 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 10 ACE 10 ACE GeoWorld GeoWorld 7 ACE Teacher Edition Teacher Edition Teacher Edition Teacher Edition Teacher Edition Teacher Edition Teacher Edition Teacher Edition 1 4202 1 4202 1 4202 1 4202 3266 0 3266 0 978 1 4202978 3267 7 3267 7 978 1 4202978 3262 2 3262 2 978 1 4202978 3264 6 3264 6 978 1 4202978

Series editor: Susan Series editor: Susan BlissBliss


Contents

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Unit 1 Water in the world.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................................... 2 Chapter 1 Environmental resources and water................................................................4

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1.1 Water: use, misuse, overuse and sustainable use..............................................................6 1.2 Water: an environmental resource .........................................................................................8 1.3 What is your water footprint?.................................................................................................10 1.4 Water used in skyscrapers, microchips, jeans ..................................................................12 1.5 Mobile phones: water thirsty gadgets ...............................................................................14 1.6 Water and blood in diamonds................................................................................................16 1.7 Vampire power: water-energy connections......................................................................18 1.8 Thirsty 21st century: hybrid cars and drones....................................................................20 1.9 What you wear requires water...............................................................................................22 1.10 Irrigation for food and fibre ....................................................................................................24 1.11 Agriculture: wasted food wastes water ..............................................................................26 1.12 Ocean garbage patches: misuse of water..........................................................................28 1.13 Overuse and misuse of seas....................................................................................................30 1.14 Using geothermal water...........................................................................................................32 1.15 Surfing tidal bores: using renewable water ......................................................................34 1.16 Maps – Be lost without them! ................................................................................................36 1.17 Fun with map projections........................................................................................................38 1.18 Perspectives: world you have never seen ........................................................................ 40 1.19 Spy in the sky: geospatial revolution ..................................................................................42 1.20 Inquiry process: dung beetles improve water quality.................................................. 44 1.21 Fieldwork: resources in your school ................................................................................... 46 1.22 Geothink........................................................................................................................................ 48

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UNIT 2 Place and liveability.............................................................. 210 Chapter 7 Liveability: living in extreme places.............................................................212

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7.1 Cold and remote........................................................................................................................214 7.2 Floating worlds..........................................................................................................................216 7.3 Nature’s dangerous places.....................................................................................................218 7.4 Humans cause dangerous places....................................................................................... 220 7.5 Superstructures - a lifestyle choice.................................................................................... 222 7.6 Seeking safety in Dadaab: a photo story......................................................................... 224 7.7 Places, resources and jobs.................................................................................................... 226 7.8 Reflecting on liveability......................................................................................................... 228 7.9 Communicating geographical information................................................................... 230 7.10 Geothink...................................................................................................................................... 232 i


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Macmillan

Australian Curriculum

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Let's think:

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7

GeoWorld

GeoWorld 10 ACE 978 1 4202 3268 4 GeoWorld 10 ACE Digital-only version 978 1 4202 3273 8

Series editor: Susan Bliss

GeoWorld 10 ACE Teacher Edition 978 1 4202 3262 2

Water in the world

UNIT 2

Place and liveability

UNIT 1

Landforms and landscapes

UNIT 2

Changing nations

UNIT 1

Biomes and food security

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6

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UNIT 1

Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12

Water Use and Sustainability Valuing Water The Blue Planet Nature of Water Scarcity Managing Water Sustainability Hydrologic Hazards and Responses Liveability: living in extreme places Measuring liveability- social, economic and environmental factors Liveability of Urban, Rural and Remote Settlements Perceptions – Making choices Populations and the Nature of Places Strategies to Enhance Liveability

21/05/13 2:58 PM

grating general

each chapter nk, Puzzle, Explore’ and al inquiry methods and

all reading levels concepts easier to grasp s catered for different

Macmillan

GeoWorld 8 Australian Curriculum edition

GeoWorld 8

all key requirements of

Macmillan

Australian Curriculum

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5

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Geomorphic Landscapes and Protection Landscape Diversity, Values and Protection Geomorphic processes Causes, Impacts and Management of Geomorphic and Landscape Hazards Human Causes of Landscape Degradation and Protection Strategies

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Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10

GeoWorld 10 ACE 978 1 4202 3268 4 GeoWorld 10 ACE Digital-only version 978 1 4202 3273 8

Series editor: Susan Bliss

GeoWorld 10 ACE Teacher Edition 978 1 4202 3262 2

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all reading levels concepts easier to grasp s catered for different

GeoWorld 9 Australian Curriculum edition

Macmillan

Australian Curriculum

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5

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Let's think:

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How can we make agriculture more sustainable? What do you think is the future of world food production?

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GeoWorld 10 ACE 978 1 4202 3268 4 GeoWorld 10 ACE Digital-only version 978 1 4202 3273 8

UNIT 2

Geographies of interconnections

UNIT 1

Environmental change and management

UNIT 2

Geographies of human wellbeing

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Biomes Produce Food (Food Glorious Food) Changing Food Production Food Security and Growing Production Factors Affecting Crop Yields Managing Environments for Future Food Security

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each chapter nk, Puzzle, Explore’ and al inquiry methods and

Macmillan

GeoWorld 9

all key requirements of

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Urbanisation – causes, consequences Australia and USA Internal and International Migration Changing Distribution of Population in China Management and Planning of an Urban Future

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How are people affected by landscape and landform around them?

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Let's think:

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each chapter k, Puzzle, Explore’ and al inquiry methods and

Macmillan

GeoWorld 7

GeoWorld 7

all key requirements of

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OneStopDigital

GeoWorld

9

Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10

The World of Terrific Teenagers Connected by ICT and Transport Production and Consumption of Goods on People and Environments Culturally Connected Travel and Recreational Connections (Surfing the World)

Series editor: Susan Bliss

GeoWorld 10 ACE Teacher Edition 978 1 4202 3262 2

each chapter nk, Puzzle, Explore’ and al inquiry methods and

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GeoWorld 10 Australian Curriculum edition

GeoWorld 10

all key requirements of

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21/05/13 3:01 PM

Macmillan

Macmillan

Australian Curriculum

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8

Let's think:

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How can climate change affect the biodiversity of the marine ecosystem?

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GeoWorld

GeoWorld 10 ACE 978 1 4202 3268 4 GeoWorld 10 ACE Digital-only version 978 1 4202 3273 8 GeoWorld 10 ACE Teacher Edition 978 1 4202 3262 2

Series editor: Susan Bliss

21/05/13 3:02 PM

Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14

Human Induced Environmental Challenges Climate Change Environmental Management Coastal Erosion and Sea Level Rises Marine Resources and the Ocean River Basins - From Mountains to sea Built: Urban Biophysical Environments Land: Land Degradation

Wellbeing and Development Between Places Variations in Wellbeing Within Countries Trends and Issues in Developing Countries Reasons and Consequences of Wellbeing India and Australia Environmental Conflict Over Resources Making difference – Active Citizenship

Note: Correct as at 20 May 2013. Chapter headings may vary slightly from the finalised textbook


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unit

1 Water in the world


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‘Water in the world’ focuses on water as an example of an environmental resource. This unit examines the use, misuse and sustainable use of water as it moves through the environment as the water cycle. The quantity and variability of Australia’s water resources is compared with those in other continents. The nature of water scarcity—and ways of overcoming it—is examined using studies drawn from around the world with a focus on Australia, West Asia and North Africa. Additionally, the environmental, economic, cultural, recreational, spiritual and aesthetic value of water for people— including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and peoples of the Asia region—are covered. The causes, impacts and responses to hydrological hazards, such as droughts, storms, tropical cyclones and floods, are studied using both local and global studies.

Water is one of the most essential environmental resources on Earth. Without it, no living things can survive.

Key inquiry questions • What are some examples of environmental resources? • Why is water so important to people? • How do Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples use water?


1

chapter

Environmental resources and water

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Only when the last tree has died and the last river been poisoned and the last fish been caught will we realise that we cannot eat money.

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Cree proverb

Geovocab continuous resource: resources always available e.g. sun, wind, tides and geothermal developed countries: world’s richest countries, generally located in Northern America, Western Europe, Japan and Australia developing countries: world’s poorest countries, generally located in Africa, Asia and Central and South America ecological footprint (EF): area of land and water required to provide resources and services and to absorb wastes produced by humans

environmental resource: resources occurring naturally within environments: atmosphere (air), lithosphere (land, soil, minerals), hydrosphere (rivers, oceans) and biosphere (plants and animals) fossil fuels: non-renewable resources such as coal, oil and natural gas Geographic Information System (GIS): system for capturing, storing and analysing data about Earth inquiry process: six stages in a geographical investigation


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Earth is a huge storehouse of environmental resources, classified as continuous (e.g. sun, tide, wind and geothermal), renewable (e.g. soil, plants and animals) and non-renewable (e.g. oil). Regardless of where we live, everyone requires air to breathe, soils to produce food, forests to generate oxygen, and water to drink. Water also can be classified as continuous (e.g. water cycle), renewable (e.g. river is constantly fed by precipitation) and non-renewable (e.g. overexploitation of fossil groundwater). Everyday, everywhere, living things require water to survive. Humans depend on water to drink, grow food and mine minerals for computers, cars and drones. Farmers depend on water to irrigate crops, and industry requires water to produce energy from fossil fuels. Sustainable management strategies aim to reduce the huge human water footprint to maintain healthy ecosystems. Otherwise, future generations will be unable to enjoy drinking clean water—a fact of life we now take for granted.

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Think, puzzle, explore

Elephant shower in Kerala, India

non-renewable resource: resources formed slowly—often over millions of years—and once used cannot be replenished in the short-term, e.g. gold, diamonds, coal renewable resource: resource replenished in a relatively short period of time, e.g. plants and animals sustainability: ongoing capacity of Earth to provide sufficient quantity and quality water to maintain human and environmental life now and in the future water footprint (WF): volume of fresh water used to produce the goods and services consumed by humans

• Place Why does the quantity of water consumed vary between places? • Space Why does geothermal and tidal power vary over space? • Environment What are the impacts of overuse of water on the environment? • Interconnection How is water and energy interconnected? • Sustainability How can humans sustainably manage garbage floating in the ocean? • Scale How large is the human water footprint and why does it vary at different scales (local, national and global)? • Change How are changes to food wastes and food miles connected to water?

Geoskills in focus • Observing water use, misuse, overuse and sustainability using the inquiry process • Collecting and analysing relevant geographical data on water • Concluding different perspectives on the use and management of water resources • Communicating ideas using web 2.0 tools, graphs, maps, statistics and photographs • Reflecting on actions to ensure a sustainable water supply


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.1 Water: use, misuse, overuse and sustainable use to adequate drinking water. Water shortages, conflicts over water use and the impacts of anticipated climate change require sustainable management strategies.

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The world’s fresh water supplies from rivers, lakes and groundwater are shrinking due to use, misuse and overuse. As a result, by 2025 approximately 33% of the world’s population will lack access

Agricultural Water is used for: • crops: staple crops (rice, potatoes, wheat) and organic crops • animals: open grazing and feedlots (cattle) • non crops: cotton, tobacco, opium, Christmas trees and biofuel

Transport Water is used by: • local communities e.g. canoes used by indigenous people along the Amazon River • container ships transporting goods such as cars • tourism e.g. speed boats and sailing

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Domestic Water is used for: • drinking • washing • cooking

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1.1.1  Overview of the use, misuse, overuse and sustainable use of water in the world

Energy Water is used to produce energy: • Non-renewable resources: oil, natural gas and coal; rare earth elements used in wind power • Renewable resources: geothermal, tidal, hydropower

Industrial Water is used in: • the conversion of raw resources into manufactured goods • production of mobile phones, computers and microchips • making clothes (such as cotton for jeans) • construction materials for roads, homes and skyscrapers

Economic Water is used: • to produce energy which is essential for economic growth • for irrigation to increase agricultural goods for export • in industrial processes to produce goods, and then to transport goods around the world Healthy water is essential for: • the growth of the pearl industry • wetlands, which produce fish – a source of food • tourism and recreation (e.g. surfing)

Spiritual, cultural and aesthetic Water has spiritual and cultural significance for: • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples • Indigenous peoples around the world • religions such as Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Judaism Water has value for tourists visiting: • World Heritage Sites (e.g. Iguassu Falls) • frozen water environments such as Antarctica and Mount Everest 6

Environment The environment requires water for the functioning of terrestrial (land) and marine ecosystems. Ecosystems support a diversity of species and food webs in wetlands, rivers and oceans (e.g. fish, shell fish and krill). Mining Water is required to mine: • diamonds, gold, silver, copper and rare earths • fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas Misuse • pollution of water from arsenic, mercury, radioactive materials, chemical wastes and sewage • wasted water through vampire power or standby power (when electrical goods are not turned off) • wasted food, which requires water for production Overuse • fossil groundwater – more water is taken out of the ground than renewed • over-irrigation caused decline in the area of the Aral Sea and increased saline soils, killing plants and crops

Sustainable use Increase in population, increased demand for water and anticipated climate change places pressure on water use. Sustainable strategies include: • recycling grey water, desalination plants, storm water harvest and re-use, virtual trade in water, fog harvesting , inter-regional transfer of water, reducing water consumption • use of hydropower, geothermal power and tidal power ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9


1.1.2  Sustainable and unsustainable use of water

DOING IT WRONG

DOING IT RIGHT Rooftop storm water into rain barrel

Rooftop runoff directed to street drain

Oil and gas residue

Take hazardous household waste to waste depot

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Sweep driveway dirt to lawn or garbage not the road

Excessive use of herbicides and pesticides

Wash car at the car wash

Roof top storm water onto gardens

Collect dog waste

Car washing

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Thin soil stores little water

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Excessive use of fertiliser

Rainwater infiltrates gravel

Rainwater infiltrates thick soil

Water is treated in the pond and recycled

Geoactivities 1.1

Knowledge and understanding

1 Why is water an environmental resource? 2 How is water connected to the production of energy? 3 Describe the spiritual, cultural and aesthetic values of water.

Inquiry and skills 4 Refer to 1.1.1. a List the use of water for agriculture. b Name one example when water is misused.

ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9

c What is the difference between misuse and overuse? d What are two examples of the overuse of water? e List some sustainable water strategies. f Explain how water is everywhere, all the time. 5 Refer to 1.1.2. a List how water is misused in the home. b Suggest strategies to use water more sustainably. c Draw a mind map of how water is used in your school.

7

Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.2 Water: an environmental resource

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• Non-renewable resource— – groundwater is withdrawn faster than renewed. In Andhra Pradesh in India depletion of groundwater resulted in the disappearance of springs and streams. – toxic waste such as arsenic and mercury discharged into the Ok Tedi River in PNG made water undrinkable for 50 000 people. – irrigation for cotton saw the southwest lake of the Aral Sea disappear. Water moves between a renewable resource and a non-renewable resource and vice versa. For example, the Cheonggyecheon River, running through Seoul in Korea, was covered and replaced by an elevated freeway in the 1970s. The process was reversed in 2005 when the stream was restored, creating clean water and natural habitats for fish and bird species.

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Water is one of the valuable environmental resources used in the manufacturing of mobile phones, clothes and food. Regardless of where we live, everyone requires water to drink, water in soils to produce food, and water for forests to generate oxygen. Sustainability focuses on the ongoing capacity of Earth to provide sufficient quality water to maintain human and environmental life. The Earth is a huge storehouse of environmental resources, classified as continuous (e.g. sun), renewable (e.g. plants) and nonrenewable (e.g. oil). Water is an integral component of all three classifications:

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• Continuous resource—the water cycle’s continual flow of water around Earth in the form of precipitation, evaporation, runoff, transpiration, infiltration and condensation (PERTIC). • Renewable resource—the Amazon River in Brazil is constantly replenished by 8740 mm of precipitation a year. The river also provides renewable hydro-electricity. 1.2.1  Why water is an environmental resource

Water is an environmental resource because it is…

continuous or inexhaustible Resources will always exist. They are independent of human activity and will not run out in the foreseeable future e.g. solar radiation, wind, tides, geothermal, air, waves, water

renewable Resources are replaced over a short period of time as long as the rate of replenishment or recovery exceeds the rate of consumption. e.g. groundwater, lakes and rivers, soil, plants/trees, animals, fish 8

non-continuous or exhaustible Resources may not exist in the future. Availability of resources is dependent on human activity and could run out in the foreseeable short or long period of time. e.g. drawing limited water from a lake, leaving it dry

non-renewable Resources replaced over a long period of time, such as millions of years. They are formed extremely slowly from a human perspective e.g. fossil groundwater, fossil fuels, such as oil and coal and minerals. Extinct plants and animal species will never return.

ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9


Water footprint

• Coal and nuclear power use over 15 times more water than renewable energy sources. • Global consumption of cotton products requires 256 Gm3 of water per year.

1.2.2  How much water is used in everyday things

Steak dinner – 15 500 L

Cotton used to produce: cotton shirt – 4100 L bed sheet – 9750 L disposable nappy – 810 L

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One barrel of oil – 2.5 barrels of water

One kilowatt hour of power: fossil fuel plant – 140 L nuclear power plant – 205 L

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80% of water is hidden in products we consume: 1 kg rice – 2400 L 1kg bananas – 100 L 1 kg apples – 70 L

Toilet – 20 L per flush

Manufacturing – 10% of water is withdrawn for manufacturing products e.g. construction materials for houses and mobile phones

60W light bulb on for 12 hours every day for a year – 12 000 L

Burger – 2400 L

Old washing machine – 200 L per wash Modern models – 100 L

10-minute shower – 170 L

1.1 tonne car – 400 000 L

ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9

The total amount of water used to produce goods and services consumed is referred to as the water footprint (WF). Agriculture contributes 70% to the global WF with cereals the largest contributor (27%), followed by meat (22%) and milk products (7%). The footprint varies between countries: USA has a large water footprint of 2483 m3 per year per person, Australia’s is 2315, China’s 1070 and Bangladesh’s 769. While the water footprint is high in most developed countries, water scarcity affects over 2.7 billion people for at least one month each year. Most people deprived of access to fresh water live in developing countries. When the global population reaches 9 billion— predicted to happen in 2050—greater demands will be placed on water. Will Earth run out of water, and if so what should be done before it is too late?

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Geoinfo

One sheet of paper – 10 L

Cup of coffee – 1100 L

Geoactivities 1.2 Knowledge and understanding 1 Why is water an environmental resource? 2 Explain how water as a renewable resource becomes a non-renewable resource. 3 Describe how the water footprint varies between countries. 4 Discuss why water leaves a large footprint. 5 Core geographical concepts are included in this section. Give examples of environment, sustainability, place, change and interconnection.

Inquiry and skills 6 Refer to 1.2.1 and distinguish between continuous and non-continuous resources. 7 Refer to 1.2.2. a Discuss how water is contained in everyday things. b List the water in goods you used today. c Suggest strategies to reduce the water footprint. 8 Imagine you were lost on a deserted island. In groups list the environmental resources you need to survive. Present your findings to the class as an oral report or using PowerPoint.

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.3 What is your water footprint?

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1.3.2  The global water footprint

1.3.1  Coca Cola in India

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To produce 1 kg of beef requires 15 500 L of water—the equivalent of taking 57 baths, while producing 1 L of Coca Cola takes 42 L of water. Can you imagine how many litres of water are required to produce 1.7 billion servings of Coca Cola a day? Water is vital to Coca Cola, which could not make its products without this precious resource. In India, Coca Cola has created jobs, changed tastes, and they have been accused of draining water from poor communities leaving water shortages and health problems.

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ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9


Geoinfo • A low flow toilet saves 5 gallons per flush. • A five minute shower uses 25–50 gallons of water.

A water footprint encompasses direct and indirect water:

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Saving water

The Australian Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) scheme labels products for water efficiency, and by 2021 intends to save 800 000 megalitres of water a year from people using more efficient showers, washing machines and toilets. That is more than the water contained in Sydney Harbour.

ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9

1 Explain the water footprint. 2 Explain the difference between direct and indirect water. 3 Describe the composition of the national WF. 4 Analyse how the variation of the WF across the world impacts on people and places.

Inquiry and skills

5 Refer to 1.3.1. a Describe the growth of Coca Cola in India and its impacts on water availability. b Describe the message in the cartoon. 6 Refer to 1.3.2. a Record the WF range of Australia, USA, India, China, Argentina and Sudan b Calculate the difference in the WF between USA and Thailand and the quantity of imported water. c List the countries with the highest renewable water resources. d List the countries dependent on imported water. Explain the reasons for their reliance. e Using research from the internet, differentiate between the WF of chocolate, sugar and coffee. How is water used in the production of chocolate? 7 Inquiry research: a Use an online water footprint calculator to calculate your WF. Compare your WF with the class. In groups design a plan to reduce your WF. Present your findings as an oral report. b Use an online waterfootprint calculator to calculate the WF of Australia. Compare our WF with that of a country located in Asia, Africa and South America. 9 Using research from the internet, discuss the uneven WF around the world. 10 Using research from the internet, find out the global WF of different crops. List ten crops requiring large quantities of water. 11 Research the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) scheme on the internet. What is the aim of the scheme?

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• Direct WF refers to the water consumed and the pollution from its use. • Indirect WF refers to the water required to produce goods and services. National water footprints are divided into internal and external components: • Internal WF is the quantity of water used to produce goods and services within a country, which are consumed by the inhabitants of the same country. Australia is one of the world’s highest users of water per person. • External WF is the quantity of water used to produce goods and services in one country, which are then exported to another country.

Knowledge and understanding

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Components of the water footprint

Geoactivities 1.3

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1.4 Water used in skyscrapers, microchips, jeans

Industry’s thirst

Chips

Modern electronic devices such the computer, 3DS and Wii contain microchips (chips) made by the semiconductor industry. The production of these chips requires water known as ultra-pure water (UPW), which contains no specks of dirt, salts, minerals or viruses. The production of chips uses between two to four million gallons of UPW per day—roughly equivalent to the amount of water used by 50 000 people.

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Approximately 22% of water humans use is devoted to industry around the world. Approximately 59% is consumed in rich developed countries compared to 8% in poor developing countries. With increasing demand for goods, the annual water use for industry is anticipated to increase from 752 km3/year back in 1995 to 1170 km3/year in 2025. Invisible water is embedded in products we use every day. Water is required to produce aluminium, copper and iron ore used to construct skyscrapers

and homes, and to grow forests for wood used in furniture. The conversion of metals into products requires different quantities of water: 1 kg of steel consumes 260 L of water, copper 440 L and aluminium 410 L. When these resources end their useful life, many are either recycled or tossed in landfills where they sometimes release toxic chemicals into the water, air and land.

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Dehydration and death follow if humans are deprived of water for a week. Similarly, farms are dependent on water to grow food, and industries require water to produce plastic, glass, oil, metals, wood, paper and chemicals. Without water these industries would disappear.

1.4.1  Houses require water in the production process of many materials Gutters: aluminium (bauxite) or plastic (petroleum)

Paint: mineral fillers

Door knobs: brass or steel (copper, zinc, iron ore)

Windows: glass (silica, sand, feldspar)

Pool: plastic (petroleum and natural gas)

Toilets and bathtubs: porcelain (clay) over plastic (petroleum)

Carpet: (wool) or synthetic fibres (petroleum)

Electric wiring: (copper, bauxite) aluminium

Exterior walls: stone, clay, concrete (or aluminium)

Foundation: concrete (limestone, clay, shale)

Mortgage or rental contract: written on paper (wood) using a computer (plastics, minerals)

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Interior walls: wall board (gypsum)

Taps and pipes: brass (copper, zinc) or stainless steel (iron, nickel, chrome)

Driveway: concrete, asphalt (petroleum) or gravel (rocks, soil)

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1.4.2  Producing Wii consoles uses ultra pure water

Geoinfo Levi’s recommends placing jeans in the freezer to kill germs responsible for clothing odour, rather than constantly washing them.

Geoactivities 1.4 Knowledge and understanding

Blue jeans

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Approximately 11 000 L of water is required to produce a pair of jeans, including irrigating the cotton crop, bleaching and dying the cotton, and washing them at home. An additional 20 to 750 L of water is essential if they are stonewashed. Imagine the water used every year as one billion pairs of cotton jeans are produced, making an $11 billion profit for the industry. Levi Strauss & Co. developed a Water<Less™ jean which saves 20 million L of water per year. This is equivalent to the drinking requirements for 10 000 people over two years.

1.4.3 Levi’s® jeans cradle to grave water consumption

Cotton (49%, 1704.0 L) Use (45%, 1575.2 L) Cut/ Sew/ Finish (3%, 110.8 L) Fabric (2%, 72.1 L) Logistics/ Retail (1%, 18.1 L) ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9

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Inquiry and skills

5 Refer to 1.4.1. a List six environmental resources used in the construction of a home. b Explain the links between the materials used in the construction of your home and the use of water. 6 Discuss how water is embedded in the goods we purchase. 7 Refer to 1.4.2 and explain why water consumption is highest at the cotton production and consumer phases of Levi’s jeans. Provide amounts and percentages in your answer. 8 List the advantages of purchasing Water<Less™ Levi jeans. 9 Write a diary on the water you use during one day. Present your diary summary as a poster or multimedia presentation such as a Prezi. 10 With a friend, read the labels on your clothes. List the materials written on the labels and write the environmental resources required to make these clothes from when they are created to when you wear them. 11 As a group research the car washing industry. In your answer include the key inquiry questions: How much water is used? What is the impact of car washing on rivers or lakes? How could you reduce the amount of water used to clean a car? 12 ICT: Using Wordle draw a word cloud of water in your daily life. 13 Fieldwork: Using primary research, take photographs of water resources in your local area. Discuss whether they are continuous, renewable or non-renewable.

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Water, the key ingredient in the semi conductor industry, requires sustainable strategies to reduce its large footprint. Some of Google’s data centres and many of the semiconductor industries are recycling water to keep more water in streams vital for fish species.

1 Why is water important to humans and industry? 2 Describe how water is linked to building materials. 3 Discuss the importance of ultra-pure water for microchips. 4 Analyse water use and misuse in the production and utilisation of jeans.

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1.5 Mobile phones: water thirsty gadgets Water in mobile phones

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In the Democratic Republic of Congo the mining and processing of gold and coltan requires hundreds of thousands of gallons of water pumped out of local rivers. These resources are essential for mobile phones. Coltan is used in circuit boards and 3T—consisting of tungsten, tin and tantalum —enables the phones to be small and light and vibrate when someone calls. Mining of these minerals pollutes rivers and oceans through the disposal of cyanide-contaminated waste and acid. As a result it contaminates drinking water and is too toxic to irrigate crops.

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Smartphones and iPods maintain permanent residence in students’ pockets, with some sending 3000 text messages a month. With a tap of the finger these gadgets provide games and music as well as connect students with family and friends via social media. Interestingly, more people in the world have access to a mobile phone than clean water. Mobile phones are made from a variety of non-renewable resources such as copper, gold, lead, nickel, zinc and petroleum. The conversion of these raw resources into a mobile phone requires billions of gallons of water in mining, manufacturing and transport. Additionally, the birth to death lifecycle of the mobile phone has potential adverse impacts on water quality.

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1.5.1  Life cycle of a mobile phone and impacts on water

1. Begin life Environmental resources such as petroleum, copper, gold, silicon and 3Ts are mined and extracted from Earth requiring quantities of water. Large-scale mining results in deforestation, habitat destruction and declining water quality.

Interconnections Transport between each phase generates negative impacts on the environment from the burning of fossil fuels. All phases require water.

4. End life Mobile phones can either be recycled or tossed in the garbage. About 90% are dumped in a landfill or incinerated. During the process toxic substances enter the soil, water and air. Corrosive acid from batteries leach into soil and groundwater, impacting on food produced.

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2. Change life Manufacturers create products requiring water to generate energy. using fossil fuels, nuclear, hydropower, tidal power or geothermal power. Simultaneously, manufacturing creates water pollution.Phones packaged with plastic and cardboard require environmental resources such as trees and petroleum, all relying on water.

3. Useful life People purchase mobile phones. Batteries are recharged using environmental resources such as fossil fuels, which creates water pollution when discarded.

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Geoactivities 1.5

• The manufacturing of a computer and monitor consumes approximately 1500 L of water. 1.5.2  Composition of environmental resources in a mobile phone. Water is required in the production of these resources Cell phone consumption

Plastics 50%

mostly contained in... Circuit boards Case Wires Screen Chips Batteries

Copper 15%

Cobalt or Lithium 4% Carbon 4% Ferrous metal 3% Nickel 2% Tin 1% Other* 3%

0.5% Zinc 0.5% Silver 0.5% Chronium 0.5% Tantalum 0.5% Cadmium 0.5% Lead

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*among them, less than 0.1% of antimony, gold and berrylium

Sustainable use of mobile phones

Mobile phones are a necessity in a globalised world pressed for time. By 2015, mobiles in circulation and those hidden in drawers are expected to reach 15 billion. The recycling of mobile phones reduces the quantity of water required in their production. However, only 10% of discarded mobiles are recycled. Approximately 92% of resources could be recycled into new products. For example one tonne of mobile phones yields 500–700 g of silver and 150–400 g of gold, saving billions of gallons of water. If phones are recycled, their materials can be used in new products such as batteries (cadmium) and stainless steel saucepans (nickel).

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1 Describe how mobile phones consume large quantities of water. 2 Discuss the environmental and social problems of mining metals for mobile phones. 3 Discuss how mobile phone recycling offers a viable way to conserve water and protect the environment.

Inquiry and skills 4 Refer to 1.5.1 and calculate the percentages of environmental resources in a circuit board, case and batteries. 5 Refer to 1.5.2 and explain the environmental problems from the beginning to end of a mobile phone’s life. 6 As a group complete the cost benefit sheet of a mobile phone. Analyse the results. Discuss whether a mobile phone is worth the cost.

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Glass, Ceramics 15%

Knowledge and understanding

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Geoinfo

Costs/Disadvantages

Benefits/Advantages

7 Design a survey on the use of mobile phones by youths. Include questions such as: a What is your school year? b Do you have your own mobile? c How many times a day/week do you use your mobile? d Why do use your mobile? Contacting family/ friends? Emergencies? Information? Games? News? Weather? Maps? Buying things? Others? e What functionality would you prefer to have on your mobile? Email? Camera? Skype, Music? GPS navigational system? Internet access? Text messaging? WiFi? 3G? Others? f When buying a mobile what would you consider: Affordability? Popularity? Functionality? Others? g What is the degree of parental control over the mobile phone? Look at contents? Monitor location? Limit minutes you talk on mobile? h What is the average number of texts sent and received per day? i How can the mobile be used in the geography classroom? Collate the answers and present your findings as a PowerPoint presentation, including one graph. 8 Can you imagine a time when there were no mobile phones? How did people communicate? Interview older people about the pre-mobile days and report back to the class as an oral presentation.

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1.6 Water and blood in diamonds Water-intensive mines

Sustainable use of water

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Approximately 26 000 kg of diamonds are mined annually. To unearth one carat of primary source diamonds requires the removal of millions of tons of dirt by huge machines. Afterwards, large volumes of water are used to extract the diamonds from the gravel. Furthermore, secondary source diamonds involve labour-intensive work using shovels and sieves to scour away 2.5 million m3 of soil every day out of rivers and lakes.

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Most carats are mined in Africa (61%). Other large diamond mining countries include Russia (15%), Australia (14%) and Canada (9%).

1.6.1  Formation of diamonds

The Argyle diamond mine located in the Kimberley region in Western Australia caused groundwater pollution and sedimentation in rivers resulting in the loss of marine species. Today the mine is self-sufficient in water—it no longer requires 3500 million L of water a year from Lake Argyle and most wastewater is recycled. De Beers’ companies dominate the global diamond mine industry—they are responsible for 43% of global diamond production (value) and 30% of carats (volume). Approximately 95% of its rough diamond production in southern Africa is located in dry environments. Ensuring more sustainable production, the water footprint has been reduced by recycling water, using seawater for processing alluvial mining operations and reducing waste into rivers aimed to protect aquatic life.

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Diamonds are a non-renewable resource, and huge quantities of water required in their mining and processing go into getting the ‘sparkle’ on an engaged woman’s finger.

Geoskills in focus

The photographs in 1.6.2 are called oblique photographs. The scale near the camera is larger than the scale at the back of the photographs.

B  Surface mining / secondary source: erosion causes loose diamonds to move downhill and be deposited in rivers and then to the ocean.

A  Underground mining / primary source: deposits under the Earth are generally carrot shaped. The larger top of the pipes (top of the carrot) yields large quantities of diamonds. Mining in the narrower end becomes less profitable.

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Knowledge and understanding

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Geoactivities 1.6

1.6.2 b)  The Diavik diamond mine in Canada commenced production in 2001

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1.6.2 a)  The Kimberley Diamond mine South Africa is the biggest hand dug hole in the world with a depth of over 1,000 metres. The mine produced over 3 tonnes of diamonds until it was closed in 1914;

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Inquiry and skills

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5 Refer to 1.6.1. a What are diamonds? b Where are diamonds formed? c What are the differences between primary and secondary sources of diamonds? d Explain the diamond process from the earth to the ocean. 6 Discuss the use of water in the production process of diamonds. 7 Visit the De Beers website and examine their strategies for sustainable use of water in diamond mining. 8 Refer to 1.6.2. The aerial photograph of the Diavik mine has been divided into nine sections: left (L), centre(C) and right (R) along the horizontal axis; foreground (F), middle distance (M) and background (B) along the vertical axis.

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1 Explain why diamonds are classified as nonrenewable resources. 2 Describe how a diamond ring requires large quantities of water. 3 Describe the impact of conflict diamonds on people and countries. 4 ‘Child labour exists from mining to polishing diamonds’. Outline the meaning of this statement.

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a Compare the centre middle distance of the Diavik diamond mine with the left foreground. b Draw a sketch of the Diavik diamond mine labelling natural and human features. c Compare the aerial photograph of the Kimberley Diamond mine in South Africa with the Argyle mine in Australia. Include shape and settlements. What’s more valuable: a flawless, one-carat diamond or 1000 gallons of fresh water? Role play: The following people are part of the diamond industry—child labourer in India, child solider in conflict wars, jewellery shop owner, head of a diamond company such as De Beers, Botswana Government, environmentalist, newly engaged woman and the electronic industry using diamonds. List the advantages and disadvantages of diamonds to their life, country or organisation. Present your findings as an oral report. Design a poster showing different perspectives on diamonds. Present as poster or PowerPoint slide. Research organisations that are working towards a better future for people working in the diamond industry, such as Amnesty International. What are they doing to help? Refer to an atlas or the internet and draw the location of the Argyle diamond mine showing latitude and longitude. Calculate the approximate distance to your school.

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1.7 Vampire power: water–energy connections

Vampire power

Countless household items use standby electricity—or vampire power—when they are not in use, including such as plasma TVs, cordless telephones, security systems, fire alarms, light sensors and automatic sprinklers. The average household consumes 10% more energy when goods are on standby mode, which could be saved by disconnecting these devices from the power points. Moving towards energy and water sustainability requires reducing vampire electricity.

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• Fossil fuels (non-renewable energy), such as oil, natural gas and coal, require large quantities of water in fuel extraction and processing. • Nuclear power (non-renewable energy) requires large quantities of water to cool fuel rods and dispose of waste. As a result, many nuclear plants are located beside oceans, lakes and rivers.

• Hydroelectricity (renewable energy) or HEP is electricity generated using the energy of moving water. HEP provides 20% of the world’s energy. The Snowy Mountains contains Australia’s largest HEP scheme, and in Tasmania HEP provides most of the state’s electricity.

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The industrial sector consumes 20% of global fresh water, of which 57–69% is employed to generate power. As a result, water and energy are interconnected. For example, in USA over 50% of the country’s water cools power plants, and 13% of its electricity moves, heats and treats water supplies. Consequently, conserving water saves energy and conserving energy saves water. Different types of energy contribute to both the production process in the following ways:

1.7.1  Water and energy interconnections Energy for water

Water for energy

• Energy is required to produce, process and distribute water • Energy to pump water from dams to irrigated farms, provide fresh water to homes and pump groundwater • Transport requires energy to move water embedded in goods such as rice and cotton around the world • Air conditioning • Energy used to clean water • Energy used to desalinate water

• Hydropower • Tidal power • Geothermal power • Water required in the mining and processing of Rare Earths for wind power, solar panels and electric car batteries • Water required for the extraction and processing of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas • Irrigation required to grow crops for biofuels

1.7.2  World power mix 2008 (actual) and 2035 (predicted)

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1.7.3  Vampire energy wastes electricity, and therefore water. This graph shows how much electricity is wasted on average per year in kilowatt hours and what it costs. Red lines show passive standby, blue lines show active standby mode.

Geoactivities 1.7

Knowledge and understanding

1 Describe the different sources of energy. 2 List advantages and disadvantages of three energy sources. 3 Discuss why desalination of water is important to water-scarce countries.

Inquiry and skills

4 Refer to 1.7.1 and explain how water and energy are connected. 5 Refer to 1.7.2. a List the items on active standby mode and the electricity cost each year. b List the items on passive standby mode and the electricity cost each year.

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c Name the items in your home using vampire power. Suggest strategies to reduce wasting electricity possibly generated by fossil fuels. 6 Refer to 1.7.3. a List the energy source that increased from 2008–2035. b Name the sources of energy that decreased from 2008–2035. c Discuss whether the energy mix is more sustainable in 2035 than 2008. 7 As a group draw a diagram illustrating the water– energy connections in your school. Convert the diagram into a summary using Tagxedo.

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1.8 Thirsty 21st century: hybrid cars and drones Rare earth elements are non-renewable resources formed over hundreds of millions of years. Despite being called ‘rare’, they are relatively abundant in Earth’s crust, but are difficult and costly to mine. REE is a set of seventeen chemical elements, such as neodymium and lithium. China contains most of the worlds REE (48.3%) followed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In Australia, REE mines are located at Mount Weld (WA), Olympic Dam and Whyalla (SA), Nolans Bore (NT), Mt Isa (Queensland), Dubbo and Nyngan (NSW). Even though there are many REE projects around the world China dominates the global market, accounting for 97% of world’s supplies. In Inner Mongolia, minerals are mined at Bayan Obo then brought to Baotou for processing. Toxic wastes from the mining and production of REE polluted rivers, soil and groundwater. Crops died and farmers moved from the area causing a decline in the population from 2000 to 300 people.

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1.8.1  From dust to high tech mining REE—a man works at a rare earth metals mine in Jiangxi province, China.

Rare earth elements

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Hybrid cars, computers, headphones, iPads, lasers for medical imaging, precision guided ‘smart’ bombs and unmanned drones all require rare earth elements (REE). Their unique properties make TV pictures brighter and electronic parts faster, and they are referred to as 21st century gold. Water is a major component in the process of these products, as the small quantities of REE found in huge quantities of soil must be separated and purified using hydro-metallurgical (water power) techniques and acid baths.

1.8.2  REE in hybrid and electric cars

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Geoinfo

Geoactivities 1.8

• Kenya, South Africa, Malawi and Greenland possess large deposits of REE. • Electric and hybrid cars have twice as many REE compared to a standard car.

1 Define REE. 2 Explain why REE are non-renewable resources. 3 Describe the interconnections between REE and water. 4 China has a disproportionate share of world’s supply of REE but is restricting their export. Explain how the world is responding. 5 Describe why REE are referred to as 21st century gold. 6 Discuss how REE mining has created a huge industry for China at the cost of the environment. 7 Summarise how using REE could shift a world dependant on fossil fuels to using alternative green energy.

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1.8.3  Spatial distribution of REE

Knowledge and understanding

Inquiry and skills

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Un co rr ec te d

Radioactive elements

Our luxurious lifestyle is founded on the availability of REE. Unfortunately they contain radioactive elements, such as uranium and thorium, which contaminate rivers and groundwater. Additionally, arsenic and lead released during the mining process ends life in water sources. The Malaysian community opposes the plan to ship REE from Mt Weld in Western Australia for refining because of adverse impacts of radioactivity on the environment and on people’s health. After residents in Bukit Merah, Malaysia, experienced an increase in birth defects and leukaemia, $100 million was spent cleaning a REE contaminated site. Today mines are developing more environmentally friendly mining techniques, such as recycling water back into the process and converting metals removed from rivers into saleable products. Other long-term fears about REE involve the overuse of water, deteriorating water quality, and the lack of available REE to shift the world to ‘green’ energy, using REE-dependant technologies like wind turbines and solar panels.

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8 Refer to 1.8.2 and explain how hybrid and electric cars depend on REE. 9 Refer to 1.8.3. c Compare the reserves of REE in USA with China and the rest of the world. d List three places in Australia with REE projects. e Calculate the total production of REE in tons in Australia. f List in order the production of REE in tons from largest to smallest location g Research one Australian and one overseas REE project and answer the following inquiry questions: – Where is it? – What are the environmental issues? – Using an atlas or the internet, draw a map locating the mine including scale, latitude and longitude. 10 Construct a table with two columns detailing the costs and benefits of REE. 11 Suggest actions for the sustainable use of REE. 12 While REE plays a pivotal role in many ‘green technologies’, the mining of these metals is dirty business that pollutes the environment. Discuss. 13 Research the internet to answer the following questions. a Describe the use and significance of REE. b Explain why China controls the global supply of REE and anticipated future changes. c Discuss the impact of REE on the environment and people.

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1.9 What you wear requires water

Thirsty cotton

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Natural fibres are renewable resources. These fibres are divided into two components requiring different quantities of water:

In Australia traditional Aboriginal societies separated plant fibres by soaking stems, leaves and bark in water until the non-fibrous tissue rotted away. Afterwards they were used for bags and ritual objects in religious ceremonies. Approximately 700 gallons of water or 22 bathtubs of water are used to manufacture one cotton T-shirt, and 17–20% of industrial water pollution comes from textile dyeing and treatment. The unsustainable use of irrigation led to the decline of the Aral Sea when cotton, referred to as ‘white gold’, became a major crop for former Soviet Russia. In Australia there are 361 cotton farms located in NSW and Queensland. The largest cotton farm in Australia is Cubbie Station. The station has permits to divert and store more than 500 000 ML (megalitres) of water, which is about the same quantity of water required to fill Sydney Harbour.

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Clothes require water in their production, whether they are made from natural fibres (e.g. wool) or synthetic fibres derived from petrochemicals (e.g. polyester). The textile industry is the third largest consumer of water in the world after the paper and oil industries. The industry produces 70 million tons of waste water in a year and up to 600 L of water to dye 1 kg of fabric. When clothes are purchased, additional water is used to wash clothes and at the end of their life they are buried in landfill or recycled.

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• plant fibres e.g. cotton, flax, hemp, sisal and coconut • animal fibres e.g. wool and silk

1.9.1  Use of natural fibres—renewable resources Cotton: world’s most widely used natural fibre and ‘king’ of global textiles industry

Silk: developed in ancient China remains the ‘queen’ of fabrics

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Wool: excellent insulation during colder temperatures

Jute: strong threads used in sackcloth sustains the livelihoods of millions of small farmers in developing countries

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Geoactivities 1.9

Geoinfo • In the production of a cotton T-Shirt approximately 60 kg of water is used and about 45 kg of waste water is discharged per kg of output.

1.9.2  Top 10 cotton producing countries

Knowledge and understanding 1 Explain why natural fibres are an environmental resource and require water. 2 Distinguish between natural and synthetic fibres and whether they are renewable or non-renewable. 3 Explain how fibres were produced by traditional Aboriginal societies. 4 Discuss the importance of promoting environmentally sustainable fibres.

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Inquiry and skills China 34%

USA 13%

Turkey 2% Turkmenistan 1% Syria 1%

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Pakistan 11% Brazil 6% Uzbekistan 5% Australia 2%

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India 25%

Natural fibres and ecofashion Natural fibres play an important role in conserving global resources such as:

• Hemp: the ecological footprint of hemp is smaller than most plants used for fibre. The plant does not require irrigation. • Organic cotton: uses less fertilisers and pesticides and as a result protects the quality of surface and groundwater. Technology is developing self cleaning wool and silk, insect-resistant fibres and plants requiring less water. The Cleaner Cotton™ project aims to produce cotton using less water and chemicals. The fashion industry is highly competitive so it reduces costs by using sweatshop labour (low pay and poor working conditions) and child labour. Organisations such as Clothes for a Change promote non-sweatshop and non-child-labour clothes, and support sustainable cotton production and organic fibres.

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5 Refer to 1.9.1. a Which fibre could possibly replace glass fibres in automobiles? b List the fibres from goats, sheep and silkworms. c Name the fibre suitable to make mattresses. 6 Refer to 1.9.2 and calculate the total percentage of cotton grown in China, India and USA. 7 Investigate ten clothes in your cupboard. Draw a table with two columns: a) where they are made, and b) what fibres are used in their production. Calculate the proportion of clothes made from natural fibres, synthetic fibres and a mixture of the two. 8 Design a collage of different clothes and the resources used in their production. Use magazines or the internet and present your findings as a Prezi. 9 Imagine you are employed as a socially and environmentally conscious worker selling clothes. Explain what this means. 10 Draw up a cost and benefit table for the fashion industry. Include environmental, economic and social aspects. 11 Research Cubbie Station in Australia. Include location, size, use of water and economic returns. 12 Inquiry task: In pairs select one natural fibre and answer the inquiry questions. What is it? Where is it grown or grazed? How does it become a fibre? What is it used for? How much water is used in its production? Why is it a sustainable or unsustainable fibre? Present your report as an essay or web page to the class. 13 Research the use of camel hair for clothing. Where it is produced? How it is made into clothing? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this fibre for clothes? 14 ICT: Using research from the internet, briefly outline the process of wool from the farm to clothes.

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1.10 Irrigation for food and fibre

Traditional irrigations systems

provide water to settlements located in dry environments. Otherwise referred to as falaj (in Oman), foggara (in Africa), or subak (in Bali), these irrigations systems impacted on the development of settlements and agriculture:

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• The falaj system in Oman, dating back to 2500 bc. Five of the country’s 3000 functioning irrigation systems were listed as World Heritage sites in 2006. Water is channelled from underground to provide water for domestic purposes and to grow date palms, vegetables and corn. Today a full-time falaj worker ensures water sharing is fair and equitable. • The subak system in Bali was used in Bali about 1000 years ago. It moved water from Mt Batur and Mt Agung to the ocean, via an elaborate system of canals, dams, bamboo pipes and tunnels through rice fields. The subak system plays an important role in rice production and improved quality of life for farmers. It distributes irrigation water equitably and is part of Hindu ceremonies. Some areas are divided into areas of 100 hectares with 350– 400 members. The elected head of each subak

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Irrigation refers to the application of water to the land in order to grow crops or pastures. Although only 18% of cultivated land is irrigated, agriculture accounts for 70% of water withdrawn from rivers and aquifers. Approximately 68% of the world’s irrigated area is located in Asia, with large areas located along the Ganges, Indus and Yangtze Rivers. Irrigation is important as it contributes to 40% of global food production. In developing countries irrigation increases crop yields between 100% and 400%, and it accounts for 80% of food production in Pakistan and 70% in China. About 50% to 80% of water is wasted when crops are over-irrigated, pipes leak and water flowing through open channels is evaporated. Improved water management is important to increase food production for a growing global population.

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Ancient Egyptians used the flooding of the Nile River to irrigate fields, and the Incas developed terrace irrigation in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Qanats were used in ancient Persia (Iran) to 1.10.1  The Falaj irrigation in Oman

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1.10.2  The Falaj irrigation in Oman

Geoinfo

(pukasi) is responsible for allocating water to the farms. If a person was murdered over a water conflict, locals believed the evil spirits would disturb the serenity of the rice field, so a cock fight would be performed in the village to appease the spirits.

Modern irrigation systems

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The nature of irrigation has changed with the construction of huge dams and thousands of kilometres of pipes, and the ability to monitor water measuring instruments from satellites. The Great Man-Made River in Libya is the world’s largest irrigation project. It consists of 4000 km of pipes supplying 6 500 000 m3 of fresh water per day to Libya’s cities. Irrigation occupies a small area of land in Australia but provides large quantities of food and fibre for domestic purposes and exports. There are 40 000 irrigators in Australia. The Murray Darling Basin is Australia’s largest irrigation region, valued at $11 billion per year for products and crops produced. Modern irrigation technology includes drip irrigation monitored from satellite, which informs farmers when to irrigate their crops and as a result reduces water waste. To control the overuse of water, the majority of irrigated water is controlled by regulations and licences. Sustainable irrigation practices are the key to Australia’s ability to continue to produce food and fibre as well as conserve the environment.

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• 15% of irrigated land is degraded. • Irrigated land is twice as productive as rain-fed or dry land irrigation. • Most irrigation farms use two to three times more water than required.

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Geoactivities 1.10

Knowledge and understanding 1 What is irrigation? 2 Where are most irrigated areas located? 3 Explain how irrigation contributes to food production. 4 Describe two different traditional irrigation systems. 5 Discuss how modern irrigation systems aim to reduce water waste.

Inquiry and skills 7 Refer to 1.10.1 and explain the movement of water in the falaj system from A to B. 8 Refer to 1.10.2 and draw and label a form line sketch of growing rice in Bali using the subak system. 9 Investigate the irrigation system at home, in the school and used by the local council. Determine whether the systems are water-efficient. If not, suggest solutions to reduce water wastage. 10 ‘Irrigation is critical to providing fresh and affordable food’. Discuss this quote. 11 Discuss the contribution of irrigation to the Australian economy and its impacts on rural areas.

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.11 Agriculture: wasted food wastes water

New technologies saving water

Food waste and food miles

Approximately 33% of food produced globally is wasted or lost each year. Wasted food also wastes water—throwing a kilogram of beef into the garbage wastes 15 000 L of water used to produce the meat. The average Australian household wastes $616 of food a year, or 136 kg per person per annum. About 30% of food produced is rejected before it reaches the shop, and less than 3% of food waste is recycled. Both developed and developing countries waste food, however 25% of food waste in developed countries could feed one billion undernourished people. Food miles is the distance food is transported from production to consumption. Water is essential to produce the energy required to transport the food, and more is required if food requires refrigeration. As many products are transported over long distances, the average Australian supermarket basket contains food that has travelled 70 000 km. Chocolate travels around 13 000 km and tea 8000 km depending on where it is produced. Buying local food is more sustainable as it reduces water use and greenhouse gases. To ensure availability of water for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. Next time you eat, bring your sustainability conscience to the table—waste less, buy locally and compost food scraps.

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In the past, farmers depended on experience and advice of friends to determine when to irrigate crops and locate water for animals. Today, technology enables farmers to be informed about improved agricultural practices, particularly water conservation. For example, soil moisture sensors sends data to irrigation control systems to minimise water waste. Precision agriculture maximises food production, minimises water use and reduces adverse environmental impacts. This is possible using satellite imagery, a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The outcome is higher yields using less water. Agriculture accounts for 65% of water use in Australia. KISSS, an irrigating and water technology company in Australia, provides farmers with a sub surface irrigation system. The technology reduces

water use by 60% as water is delivered directly to the plant’s roots to minimise evaporation and surface runoff.

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Agriculture is a water-thirsty industry, accounting for 70% of water consumed compared to 20% for industry and 10% for domestic use. The challenge to feed 9.2 billion people by 2050 requires increased agricultural production using less water. More efficient use of water is possible by expanding drip irrigation, recycling waste water, growing drought resistant crops, mulching crops to reduce evaporation of water from the soils, and reducing wasted food.

1.11.1  Cost of food waste in Australia

Geoinfo • In Malawi, Oxfam’s community-based irrigation improved the lives of 900 families by transforming low yield crops into high yield harvests providing food and income.

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1.11.2  Food waste as a percentage calculated collectively from production to consumption for USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand

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Geoactivities 1.11

Knowledge and understanding

1 Name the largest water-thirsty industry. 2 Explain the terms ‘precision agriculture’, ‘geographical information systems’ and ‘global positioning system’. 3 Describe how technology reduces water used for agriculture. 4 Discuss the water-energy problems of importing food from overseas countries or hauling it by transport from distant parts of Australia.

7 Explain the advantages of purchasing local food or food produced within Australia. 8 Refer to the picture and explain the message.

Inquiry and skills

5 Refer to 1.11.1. a Rank the states and territories in order from the most food wastage to the least wastage per household per year. b About one third of food produced is lost or squandered. Suggest strategies to reduce food waster and save water. 6 Refer to 1.11.2. a What stage in the supply chain is most food wasted? b Explain the loss of seafood and meat from production to consumption. Include figures in your answer.

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9 Inquiry process: Examine one meal. Where does the food come from? How far away are these places located? How much food do I throw away? Why do I throw food away? Where does food waste end up? How could I eat more sustainably? 10 In groups design a collage showing how agriculture could increase yields and at the same time minimise water use.

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.12 Ocean garbage patches: misuse of water

Great pacific garbage patch

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ocean currents called gyres. These currents move garbage from the coasts of Asia and North America towards the centre of the ocean, referred to as the ‘patch’. It is difficult to clean up, because ‘out of sight and out of mind’ mentality pervades most organisations. What’s more, micro-plastics released by synthetic clothing during washing ends up in the oceans, where it enters the marine food chain.

Plastic from petroleum

Petroleum is vital for the production of nail polish, lipstick, synthetic clothing fibres and plastics. All these consumer goods require water. About 8% of the world’s annual oil production is used to manufacture plastic. Due to its low cost and ease of manufacture, 33% of plastic is a ‘single life product’. The average plastic bag is used for 12 minutes and only one in 200 is recycled. What a waste of water! Humans produce 20 times more plastic than 50 years ago. Asia accounts for 30% of the global

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Every year 7 billion kilograms of rubbish such as cardboard, plastic cups, bottles and cans are dumped into the ocean. Leaking containers of radioactive waste and nerve gas disposed at sea contaminate fish and cause death to consumers. Medical wastes wash up on beaches, while a 3000-passenger cruise ship produces 8 tons of solid waste a week. The top five marine debris items are: cigarettes (28%), plastic bags (12%), plastic food wrappers/ containers (8%), caps and lids (8%) and plastic beverage bottles (6%).

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The Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are important environmental resources but are threatened by floating garbage—90% of which is plastic. Over 18 000 pieces of plastic per square kilometre bobs around in oceans and is consumed by 44% of seabirds and 267 marine species. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, located in the North Pacific Ocean, was formed by slow swirling 1.12.1  The Great Pacific Garbage Patch

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environmental problems. The Say-NO-to-Plastic Bags campaign contributed to 45% reduction in plastic bags provided by supermarkets over the past few years.

Geoinfo Enough plastic bags are produced every year to circle the planet four times.

1.12.2  Impact of different bags (per 1000 bags) Paper bag

Compostable** plastic

Municipal waste

33.9 kg

1.28 kg

Water

1004 gallons

672 gallons

Electricity

649 mJ*

325 mJ

Fossil fuels

922 mJ

1219 mJ

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consumption followed by North America (26%) and Western Europe (23%). Plastic degrades slowly in landfills, but on the other hand it does make cars lighter so they require less oil and emit less CO2. Some plastics are biodegradable and break down upon exposure to water, sunlight, bacteria or algae. Australians consume 4.5 billion plastic bags each year. Biodegradable plastic bags and paper bags are alternatives to plastic bags but have other

Recyclable bag 4.7 kg

40 gallons 148 mJ

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457 mj

*mJ: millijoule is a unit of energy ** Compostable: 90% biodegradation of plastic bags within 180 days in compost

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Geoactivities 1.12 Knowledge and understanding

1 Explain how rubbish ends its life in the ocean— an important water resource. 2 List the advantages and disadvantages of plastic. 3 Describe the links between water and plastic. 4 Discuss how individuals, retailers and companies could reduce the use of plastic and as a result conserve water.

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Inquiry and skills

5 List the top five marine debris items. a Draw the data as a column graph. b Design an advertisement showing how these five items can be reduced. 6 Refer to 1.12.1. a What is the latitude and longitude of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? b Why is it hard to find the exact location of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch? c How large is the patch? d What is the source of the rubbish? e How long does a disposable diaper (nappy) take to photo degrade?

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f What are the impacts of plastic on marine and bird species? g Why are ocean patches difficult to clean? Refer to 1.12.2. a What are the advantages of plastic bags over paper bags and vice versa? b What are the advantages of recyclable bags over paper and plastic bags? c Compostable bags sound environmentally friendly as they self destruct after a few months. Explain their problems. Inquiry task: Research how many plastic bags you use in your home over a week. Report the statistics back to the class. Collate class statistics. Analyse the results. Suggest solutions to reduce their use. ICT: View satellite imagery showing ocean deserts online. What is meant by an ‘ocean desert’ and how does it impact on other environmental resources? Research the organisation Save the Plastic Bag on the internet. What is its aim and how effective is its campaign?

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.13 Overuse and misuse of seas

Coloured seas: red, yellow and black

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The Dead Sea is noted for its salinity, in which animals cannot flourish; the Yellow Sea refers to the colour of silt in its water; and the Aral Sea translates as the ‘Sea of Islands’, due to the 1534 or so islands that once dotted its waters. The Black Sea was called inhospitable because it was difficult to navigate; and the Red Sea is named for its seasonal red blooms. These seas differ in name, but all have been overused and misused by humans. Major threats to the Red Sea include urbanisation, desalination plants, oil refineries, tourism, waste-water treatment facilities, power plants, coastal mining and clearing wetlands. One of the main sources of pollution on Egypt’s Red Sea coast is the discharge of sewage effluents into the marine environment.

1.13.1  Fishing boats lie stranded on the dry bed of the Aral Sea as a result of overuse of water for irrigation

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Water sources have been overused and misused by humans over time. Most water hotspots occur in regions with well-developed irrigated agriculture, such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain in South Asia, parts of the Middle East, the North China Plain and the High Plains of North America. They also occur in areas with rapid urbanisation and industrial development. The overuse and misuse of water threatens the functioning of ecosystems and food security.

The Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was the fourth largest sea in the world, but over time it has lost 80% of its water. The shrinking Aral Sea is an example of the overuse and misuse of scarce water resources in an arid region. In the 1960s the Soviet Government diverted 90% of the Aral Sea’s two inflowing rivers (the Amu Darya and Syr Darya) to provide irrigation water for rice and cotton. Originally the sea brought wealth to communities. However, over 40 years the sea area decreased 65% and the sea volume dropped 80%. As a result salinity increased, killing plants and marine species. Runoff of fertilisers and pesticides from farms and toxins from industry caused deterioration in water quality and increased diseases. A once thriving fishing industry was destroyed and the 30

vessels were left to rust on the former seabed. Winds eroded the salt and polluted the surrounding farmland, killing pasture and leaving little food for grazing animals. Agricultural productivity declined, unemployment increased and people moved away to find jobs. In 1997 the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea began a recovery plan. However, it is unlikely the Aral Sea will be completely restored. Additionally, climate change is anticipated to lower precipitation causing further water problems.

1.13.2  Satellite image of Aral Sea in 1989 (left) and 2008 (right)

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Dead Sea

1.13.4  High salinity keeps people afloat in the Dead Sea

• the construction of dams, reducing water inflows to the Dead Sea • industrial pollution • sewage disposal • mineral extraction. The fall in the level of the Sea has caused the lowering of the water tables (see chapter 3).

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The Dead Sea lies 426 m below sea level at the Earth’s lowest point on land. Tourists flock to the sea to bob up and down in its mineral-rich waters. The Jordan River supplies the Dead Sea with water but it has been reduced to less than 10% over the last 60 years. The decline in water availability is due to:

Geoactivities 1.13

Knowledge and understanding

1 What is the difference between overuse and misuse of water resources? 2 Describe the effects of the overuse and misuse on freshwater resources by humans. 3 Explain how the unsustainable use of water changed the Aral Sea from a wealthy to a poor area. 4 Discuss how humans are changing the Dead Sea.

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1.13.3  Location of the Dead Sea at global and national scale

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Inquiry and skills 5 Refer to 1.13.1 a Draw and label a form line diagram of the photograph. b Describe the scene. 6 Refer to 1.13.2. a What is a satellite image? b What are the advantages and disadvantages of satellite images? c Describe the difference in the area of the Aral Sea from 1989 to 2008. 7 Refer to 1.13.3. a Name the countries surrounding the Dead Sea. b What is the latitude and longitude of the Dead Sea? 8 Investigate the specific recovery plans for the Aral Sea. What success have they had? What will the predicted effects of climate change in the region? 9 Investigate other lakes that are suffering from drying because of irrigation projects, including the Dead Sea, Lake Chad, Mono Lake, Tulare Lake and Urmia Lake. Choose one and prepare a PowerPoint presentation for your class.

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.14 Using geothermal water

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1.14.1  Geothermal tourism in Iceland

1.14.2  Geothermal house

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Geothermal energy is a continuous water resource, generated and stored in Earth’s crust. When groundwater is heated from deep within Earth it moves to the surface to form hot springs or geysers, in countries such as Iceland and New Zealand. Geothermal activity ranges in scale from slow flows suitable for bathing and swimming like at Bath in UK, Beppu in Japan and Mataranka in the Northern Territory, to jet like propulsions towards the sky like in Yellowstone National Park, USA.

Sustainable energy

Approximately 99.9% of Earth’s crust is hotter than 100 °C. Not far below our feet is the power to boil unlimited water and generate renewable energy for our homes. The most active geothermal resources are found along plate boundaries where volcanoes are concentrated, such as the Ring of Fire circling the Pacific Ocean. For centuries New Zealand Maoris cooked ‘geothermally’ and today geothermal resources produce electricity around the world, such as in Landrello (Italy) and Wairekei (New Zealand). In Australia, geothermal energy heats swimming pools, powers 25% of Birdsville in Queensland, and heats the Geoscience building in Canberra. Geothermal power ranges in scale:

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• from large projects e.g. generating electricity to power 725 000 homes from The Geysers in California • to small projects e.g. the Oserian flower farm in Kenya, utilising steam wells to power greenhouses. As Iceland has extensive volcanic activity, about 26% of the nation’s energy is produced by geothermal power plants providing heat and hot water to 87% of the country’s buildings. Geothermal energy heats pavements in the capital city, Reykjavík, and is utilised by the high water-energy consuming Alcoa aluminium processing plant. 1.14.3  Global geothermal electricity production

United States 28.70% Philippines 21.60%

Mexico 10.67% Indonesia 8.92% Italy 8.85% Japan 5.99% New Zealand 4.87% Iceland 2.26% Costa Rica 1.82% El Salvador 1.69% Kenya 1.44% Others 3.17% ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9


Geoskills in focus

Geoactivities 1.14

Hot rocks—future energy

1 List the advantages of geothermal water as a source of energy. 2 Explain why geothermal energy is a continuous environmental resource. 3 Core geographical concepts are included in this text. Give examples of scale, change, environment, sustainability and place in the text. 4 Discuss how Iceland uses geothermal energy. 5 Explain what is meant by sustainable energy.

Inquiry and skills

6 Refer to 1.14.1. Imagine you are the manager of a tourist business. Suggest strategies to promote Iceland as an eco-tourist destination. Present findings as an advertisement. 7 Refer to 1.14.2 and explain how a geothermal house operates. Discuss the advantages of this type of energy in your home. 8 Refer to 1.14.3. a List three countries with the highest use of geothermal electricity production. b Refer to an atlas or the internet and locate the countries on a world map. Analyse the correlation of the location of the countries with plate boundaries and volcanic activity. 9 Refer to 1.14.4 and discuss the challenges facing the geothermal industry. 10 ‘Geothermal power is considered renewable because heat extraction is small compared to Earth’s heat content’. Explain this statement. 11 Design a webpage or poster promoting the concept ‘geothermal energy is free and forever’. 13 Go on a virtual fieldwork trip to a geothermal plant and explain how a geothermal plant generates electricity to homes. 14 ICT tasks: a List eight hot springs located across Australia. Using the internet, research one hot spring, such as Mataranka in the Northern Territory, and answer key questions: Where is it? What is its significance? How is it used? b Geothermal energy in New Zealand provides a substantial quantity of electricity. Research online and draw a map locating geothermal resources in New Zealand. Discuss the relationship between geothermal resources and the tourist industry.

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Energy from subterranean heat is no longer limited to volcanic regions. By drilling deep holes into the ground, geothermal energy is available everywhere. Referred to as the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS), the hot rock project in South Australia’s Cooper Basin sends cold water down to hot rocks via drill holes. The water heats up and returns to the surface, where the heat is extracted to generate electricity. Critics argue the process increases the risk of earthquakes. Geothermal resources could supply humans’ energy needs, but only a small percentage has been profitably exploited. In the future, when you blow dry your hair or turn on the air conditioner you could use sustainable geothermal energy rather than non-renewable fossil fuels.

Knowledge and understanding

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A pie graph is drawn from the top of the circle at 12 o’clock. In a clockwise direction the largest segment is drawn first (e.g. United States 28.7%). This is followed from the next largest to the smallest.

1.14.4  Benefits and challenges of geothermal power plants and hot rock technology Benefits

Challenges

• generally, water drawn from Earth is injected back down to resupply the source • does not produce pollution • does not contribute to greenhouse gases • power plants relatively inexpensive to operate • ‘hot rock’ technology not as restricted to location

• site may run out of steam • hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground • initial drilling costs are expensive ($100 million) and process is complex • restricted to certain places e.g. need hot rocks of a suitable type, at a depth where a drill can go down to them • ‘hot rock’ technology causes earthquakes

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.15 Surfing tidal bores: using renewable water

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1.15.1  China’s legendary tidal bore sending massive swells down the Qiantang River and through Hangzhou City.

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Moving water is able to generate hydropower to produce goods and provide recreational experiences such as white water rafting. Imagine the thrill surfers experience when they ride tidal bores 4 m high, for 40 minutes, travelling at 30 km/h along the Araguari River in Brazil. Surfers also encounter 250 tidal bores a year, which carry the adventurous 10 km up the Severn River in UK. Tidal bore surfing sounds fun, but along the Qiantang River in China tragic accidents arise when curious spectators stand too close to the annual 9 m tidal bore travelling at 40 km/h. Tidal bores only take place during extreme tidal ranges and when an incoming tide is funnelled into a shallow, narrow river causing the water to pile up high. These events occur across the world and in rivers such as the Ganges–Brahmaputra (India– Bangladesh), Seine (France) and Daly (Northern Territory). 1.15.2  High potential areas for tidal resources

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Geoinfo • A tidal wave is not a tsunami; it occurs in a river and is predicable with known time and date.

Geoactivities 1.15

Knowledge and understanding

1 Answer the following inquiry questions. a What are tides? b Why do tides occur? c What are the impacts of tides on coasts, rivers and plants? d What are the conditions required for tidal bore surfing? e Why are tidal islands dangerous? f How can tides be sustainably managed? 2 Describe the economic, social and environmental advantages of tides.

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Tides are a continuous environmental resource. They are used for personal (e.g. fishing), economic (e.g. electricity) and environmental (e.g. mangroves) reasons. Areas adjacent to the sea experience tidal changes ranging from a few centimetres in the Mediterranean Sea to 15 m in the Bay of Fundy in Canada and 12 m in King Sound, Derby (NW Australia) during the bi-annual king tide. Tidal power is used as a continuous source of energy. First, a small dam is built across a river or bay. Second, when the tide goes in and out the water flows through tunnels in the dam and turns the turbines to produce electricity. Tidal power stations are located around the world. Unfortunately not all coastal places are suitable for producing electricity, as it requires a tidal range greater than 7 m and a narrow entrance into an inlet or bay. The largest station is in the La Rance estuary (France), supplying 0.012% of the county’s power requirements. The US and UK have sufficient tidal power to meet 15% of their total power needs. Potential tidal power sites include the Severn Estuary in England and Doctor Creek in Derby, Western Australia, which could provide electricity to remote Aboriginal communities.

between Bennelong Island and the mainland was filled in with rocks. and today it is used as a cultural centre attracting tourists.

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Tireless tides

Tidal islands attract tourists

A tidal island is a portion of land connected to the mainland by a natural or man-made causeway exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide. Mont Saint-Michel in France, nicknamed ‘St. Michael in peril of the sea’ is an island connected to the mainland during low tide. As the tide varies 14 m in a few hours, a causeway was built to prevent the annual three million tourists walking across the hazardous sands. Mont SaintMichel also boasts the Benedictine Abbey and was once used as a site of worship. In Australia, Penguin Island in Western Australia and Bennelong Point in Sydney are examples of tidal islands attracting tourists. Tourists travel by ferry to Penguin Island—home to a colony of Little Penguins—since walking across the sandbar is hazardous. Sydney Opera house was formerly on Bennelong Island—a small tidal island used by the Indigenous Eora peoples for its oysters. In the early 1800s the tidal area

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Inquiry and skills 3 Refer to 1.15.2. a Not all coasts are suitable for tidal energy. Explain the reasons for their uneven global distribution. b List four areas where tidal energy is a potential source of electricity. 4 In groups, mind map the impact of a king tide occurring at the same time as a cyclone on Australia’s coastal communities. 5 Fieldwork: Travel on a virtual or actual fieldwork trip to a mangrove and answer the following questions. a Describe the links between tides and mangroves. b Explain why mangroves are an important renewable resource. c Discuss how mangroves can be managed sustainably. 6 ICT task: Use Google Earth to research mangroves in Mexico and the monitoring programs for sustainability taking place.

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.16 Maps—be lost without them!

1.16.1  There is a huge variety of maps

A variety of maps can be used to show the same place, from a simple sketch map to a complex topographic map or Google Earth. Maps communicate information for different purposes, for instance: meteorologists refer to weather maps and charts; Indigenous Australians draw sketch maps to show the location of campsites; engineers study topographic maps before building dams. Today cartographers generate maps using computer programs to such as Google Earth, the Geographical Information System (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS).

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Sketch maps are also called mud maps as they are drawn in the dirt or sand during fieldwork. These maps are roughly drawn without scale.

Which map will I use?

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Whether lost in a shopping centre, requiring the exit in a burning hotel, need directions to the World Cup, or locating important environmental resources such as clean water—maps are your answer! A globe is a true representation or model of Earth’s surface, unlike a map which is a visual representation of Earth’s natural and human elements. Because Earth is round and maps are flat it is impossible to create a map with perfect scale. Maps are drawn to a smaller scale to fit the paper or the computer screen, and a curved shape has to be represented on a flat surface.

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Pictorial maps are called illustrated maps. They provide a simple overview of a place. Often used as tourist maps

Google Earth maps provide fly-over access to nearly any spot on Earth

Australian indigenous maps show an aerial view of campsites and location of water and hunting grounds

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Street directory has maps showing roads, shopping centres, sporting facilities, schools, hospitals and parks in a suburb or city

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Thematic maps show a range of themes such as political boundaries, climate, vegetation, Thematic maps show a range of themes mining population density such asand political boundaries, climate,

vegetation, mining and population density

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Weather maps or synoptic charts are seen on television and the internet. These maps show low and high air pressure systems, cold and warm fronts, temperature, rainfall, wind direction and speed. They are useful for tracking cyclones and working out what we should wear and if the weather is suitable for our favourite sport

Topographic maps are used when bushwalking, planning roads or participating in orienteering. They show height above sea level as well as physical (buildings) and natural (landforms, rivers) features

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Geographical Information System (GIS) maps show layers of natural and cultural information on top of each other e.g. landforms and population density

Geoinfo

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• McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map locates Australia at the top of a world map.

Diagram map or network map shows positions of stations along the line and links with each other

Global Positioning System (GPS) maps are on mobile phones and in cars. They are linked to satellites to enable people to somewhere in relation to their current location

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Geoactivities 1.16 Knowledge and understanding 1 Explain why maps are inaccurate pictures of the world. 2 In your own words explain the terms GPS and GIS. 3 List the advantages of Google Earth for military purposes, synoptic charts for sailors, and GIS for planning the location of homes.

Inquiry and skills 4 In groups brainstorm the types of maps you have seen and used. Present your findings as a Tagxedo. 5 Discuss the importance maps play in everyday lives and the increasing use of technology such as the mobile phone. 6 List ten different types of maps used in the textbook. Compare two maps and explain why they illustrate different information. 7 Draw a pictorial map of your local area or shopping centre.

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Chapter 1

Environmental resources and water


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

1.17 Fun with map projections

Limitless maps

Old Mercator projection

Mercator published his map projection in 1569. It was a map for the sailor, navigator and world traveller. The scale and shape of regions near the equator are accurate but regions closer to the poles appear larger. The Mercator projection is unusable when latitudes are greater than 70° north or south of the equator, at it distorts countries. Greenland is as large as Africa, when in reality it is closer to Mexico in size, while Antarctica appears the largest continent on Earth. Despite these faults, Google Maps and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) use variations of Mercator projections for map images.

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Map projections represent a three-dimensional surface of the Earth on a two-dimensional plane. The transformation includes distortion such as area, shape, direction and distance. Map projections are constructed to preserve one or more of these properties—though not all simultaneously. The challenge when selecting a map projection is whether the information requires accurate shape or size of

objects, but not both. By blending maps or hybrid maps it is possible to create a map balancing the distortion of both size and shape. There are limitless maps, each presenting its own point of view or perspective. As an Australian have you wondered why our island continent is generally located at the bottom or at the edge of world maps? Why not top and centre?

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For over 2000 years people have seen a distorted world through maps, as it is impossible to accurately represent Earth on a flat piece of paper or on a computer screen. Imagine peeling an orange and pressing the orange peel flat on a table. The peel would break as it was flattened. Making accurate maps of the world is also difficult, because it is mathematically impossible to flatten a sphere onto a piece of paper without distorting or cracking it. Geographers aim to choose the best map projection for a topic such as environmental resources studied in this topic.

1.17.1  Common map projections Map

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Projection

Use

Strengths

Weaknesses

Mercator

Popular for navigation

Scale and shape of regions near the equator more accurate

Regions near the poles appear larger than in reality

Mollweide

Thematic maps such as distribution of rainforests and population

Area more accurate

Distortion towards the poles. Poles not shown

Peters

Popular for determining flooded area or area under crops

Area more accurate

Shape exaggerated

McArthur’s

Southern hemisphere at top of map

Different perspective

Can be any projection with the same problems

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1.17.2  What a human head would look like if it were ‘unwrapped’ like a Mercator map projection. Which is more disturbing: the world presented this way or a human head?

Geoactivities 1.17 Knowledge and understanding 1 ‘There is no perfect map’. Explain this statement. 2 Discuss why different maps are used for different geography topics.

Inquiry and skills

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3 Peel an orange into segments and press it flat on a table. Explain the relationship between this activity to globes and maps. 4 Inquiry task: Refer to the photo and answer the inquiry questions.

Future maps

In the past the shape of Earth and its continents were constructed by map-makers using a pen while walking through isolated places, such as the rainforests in Papua New Guinea. Today remote sensing uses satellites and computers to measure Earth and identify physical and human features. Map-makers in hot air balloons used to use primitive cameras to acquire aerial photographs, whereas today high-tech cameras in aeroplanes capture photographs at different angles to create detailed maps of different places. Infrared sensing detects the temperatures of different objects on the ground and helps map living objects, such as the distribution of plant and animal species. A microwave cooks meals, but also provides a map of what exists beneath the Earth’s surface e.g. the distribution of non-renewable minerals. Places can now be mapped using radar sensing when obscured by clouds and rain. A variety of maps, photographs and satellite images help geographers map the world more accurately. By using both technology and fieldwork a clearer picture of Earth emerges, for instance the impact of humans on environmental resources. ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9

a What is a map projection? b What occurs when you flatten a globe onto a flat piece of paper? c Why are their different map projections? d What are the strengths and weaknesses of four different map projections? e Do countries look their true size on all projections? Explain your answer f Why is Australia at the bottom of most world projections? What projection has Australia at the top? g Why does this textbook have Australia in the centre of many of its world maps? h How has technology enabled geographers to obtain a more accurate view of the world? i Imagine you were an alien what does the Earth look like from space?

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Maps help us understand the world around us and our place in it. Maps not only show continents and oceans but a view of the world from a variety of perspectives. Maps generally display one layer of information but GIS integrates many layers, such as landforms, transport routes and land use.

Large and small maps

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Maps can be drawn on paper, bodies, garments and sand. They are drawn using pens or using modern technologies such as Google Earth and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). And they can vary greatly in size. Earth Platinum is the world’s largest atlas. The book is 1.8 m high by 1.4 m wide and weighs 150 kg. As a contrast, Ghent University fabricated a world map on a scale of 1 trillionth, referred to as ‘Terra’ scale. The 40 000 kilometre circumference of the Earth at the equator was scaled down to 40 micrometres. This is half the width of a human hair. The world map is placed in the corner of a silicon chip to enable complex telecommunications, high-speed computing and healthcare functions to operate.

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1.18 Perspectives—the world you’ve never seen

Strange maps

There are an endless number of maps depicting geographical information from a variety of perspectives, as shown in the examples below. • Population size rearranged according to country size. Monaco is the world’s most densely populated country with 16,923 people per km2, contrasting with Mongolia containing 1.7 people per km2. On the map a country with a high population moves to a country containing a larger area. As a result China, with the world’s largest

population, is transferred to Russia, which has the largest area. Australia’s 22.5 million inhabitants move to Spain, and Pakistan moves to Australia. The map illustrates how global population realignment would involve massive migration and changes to lifestyles. • Size of country reflects population size. This map leaves the country where it is geographically located and redraws it in proportion to the

1.18.1  Map extremes: a) World map on body; b) World’s largest Atlas; c) World’s smallest map of world A

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1.18.4  World according to Facebook

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1.18.2  Map of the world’s countries rearranged by population size

Geoactivities 1.18

Knowledge and understanding

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1 Name the largest and smallest maps. 2 Scale varies between the largest and smallest map. Record the map with the largest scale. 3 Answer true or false to the following statements. a There is more land in the northern hemisphere. b Most people live between 20ºN and 40ºN.

population size. Australia is a big country with a small population compared to India—a small country with a large population. • A map of the world of Facebook. Visualisation of Facebook connections around the globe showed USA has the highest concentration of Facebook friendships and Africa the lowest concentration. While most of Russia and Antarctica are not found on the map, the rest of the world is identifiable. 1.18.3  The size of countries reflect their population size

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Inquiry and skills 4 Refer to 1.18.2 and explain what happened to Australia. Where did Australia go? What country replaced Australia? What would be the impact of a larger population on Australia’s environmental resources? 5 Refer to 1.18.3 and list five countries that appear larger on this map than on a Mercator projection. 6 Refer to 1.18.4. a List countries where Facebook is popular. b Locate the greatest Facebook links in Australia. 7 Not everyone in the world has access to ‘all’ the internet. This is referred to as ‘black holes’— some countries have eliminated freedom of press and expression within cyberspace to control information and communication. Research online which countries have black holes. a List 5 countries with internet black holes. b Discuss how limited information impacts on students. 8 Australia is considered a big country. Research the size of Australia in relation to Europe and USA.

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1.19 Spy in the sky: geospatial revolution The Google Earth Blog shares satellite images and the Google Earth Community adds place markers such as mines, roads, forests, restaurants and hospitals onto these maps.

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Earth observation satellites

Earth observation satellites show changes in environmental resources, such as deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, melting glaciers, impacts of oil drilling in the Arctic and damage to coral reefs. Satellites track wildlife such as polar bears and hippopotamuses and show the impact of natural disasters such as tsunamis and cyclones. Instant disaster information on an earthquake allows quick emergency responses from international organisations (e.g. United Nations), governments (AusAID) and non-government organisations (e.g. World Vision). Google Earth monitors the environment. It shows before and after satellite images of changing environmental resources via the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and is used by conservation organisations promoting sustainability, such as the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

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You may have dreamed of riding camels through the Sahara desert, surfing giant waves in Hawaii, floating in hot air balloons above the Grand Canyon or climbing Mt Everest. Most people, unable to participate in these activities, instead travel the world via Google Earth. With a finger tap on the computer, Google Earth lets you fly, spin and zoom down to any place on Earth and experience virtual fieldwork by wandering through the Amazon jungle exploring rivers, forests and remote villages. The geospatial revolution uses Google Earth satellite images, aerial photographs and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create geographical knowledge vital to the interconnected global community. Google Earth technology enables people to observe an approaching cyclone on a mobile phone, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) in your car helps you find where to go for your sports match. Google, a corporation specialising in internet searches, processes over one billion search requests a day. It provides geographical information from a variety of perspectives and includes geographical tools such as photographs, graphs and statistics. 1.19.1  Google Earth as a geographical tool: A weather satellite image shows tropical cyclone Yasi in the Coral Sea approaching the coast of Australia on 1 February 2011

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High-tech tribes Google Earth Outreach provides non-profit organisations with resources to visualise environmental problems and potential solutions. The Surui in Brazil and the Wayana and Trio in Suriname face threats to their forest and culture. These tribes have been trained to 1.19.2  A big herd of hippopotamuses swimming in a river in Tanzania caught on Google Earth

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Geoactivities 1.19 Geoinfo

Knowledge and understanding

• Some 6578 satellites have launched into orbit since 1957. • Since 2002, all geostationary satellites move to a graveyard orbit at the end of their operational life. 1.19.3  GPS helps Amazon tribes fight exploiters

1 ‘Smile, you’re on satellite imagery!’ What do you think this means? 2 Explain how Google Earth can be used in the geography classroom. 3 Google Earth helps geographers understand the use and misuse of environmental resources. What does this mean? 4 Discuss the advantages of Google Earth Outreach to indigenous communities in isolated locations.

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5 Refer to 1.19.2 and estimate how many hippopotamuses are in the photograph. Explain why they congregating at this place. 6 ‘The Geospatial Revolution examines the world of digital mapping and how it changes the way we think, behave, and interact’ (National Geographic). Explain this quote. 7 Fieldwork: Organise a geography geocache activity at your school. 8 ICT tasks: Google Earth a Using Google Earth track the routes of chimpanzees in the Gombe Forest in Tanzania. What should be done to conserve the chimpanzee? b Measure the distance from home to a mine in the Pilbara using a Google Earth ruler. c Plan a holiday to three countries. Collect three photographs of each country and write a summary of their main environmental resources. 9 Virtual fieldwork: a Take a virtual trip in the Amazon and describe what you observed. b Take a virtual ride in the Tour de France. What environmental resources do you pass on your journey? 10 ICT task: Refer to the Google Earth Blog and complete the following activities. a Tour with geographers on the job around the world. Describe the different jobs requiring geography. b Take a tour of Asian countries. Provide an overview of the environmental resources in three countries. c Complete the orientation quiz. 11 Why is the United Nations Environment Programme Atlas of our Changing Environment a useful site for environmental managers and geography students?

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use GPS, map their land and locate resources such as medicinal plants and hunting grounds. Additionally, GPS assists these tribes to guard against threats to their environmental resources from logging, drug lords and mining operations. The Jane Goodall Institute uses Google Earth to monitor forest projects and chimpanzee populations in Tanzania and Uganda. Using satellite collars, Save the Elephants organisation uses Google Earth to track and protect elephants from poaching. In 2010, Defenders of Wildlife used Google Earth to view millions of litres of crude oil gushing out of the BP well in the Gulf of Mexico and to show its impacts on marine and bird species.

Fieldwork: geocaching

Geocaching is an outdoor game using GPS coordinates (latitude and longitude) to find the geocache hidden at a location. Geocaches are placed in over 100 countries and there are more than five million geocachers worldwide. The geocache contains geographical questions for students to answer before moving onto the next location.

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1.20 Inquiry process: dung beetles improve water quality

Inquiry process

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There are six stages in a geographical investigation or inquiry process: observe, question, collect, analyse/ conclude, communicate and respond. Investigations need not follow every step in the diagram, but may follow loops where geographers return to ask more questions and undertake more analysis, similar to an interconnected jigsaw puzzle.

After observing environmental resources, geographers generate questions to be addressed in the inquiry, for example an inquiry into how dung beetles conserve water (1.20.2). Now, fired with questions, information is collected from different sources using primary and secondary data then collated and processed into maps, tables, graphs and diagrams. The information is analysed and a conclusion made after balanced judgement. Research findings are communicated using a variety of methods, such as verbal, audio, text, graphs, statistics, photographs, maps and information and communication technologies (ICT). At the conclusion of the investigation geographers reflect on research findings and decide if action is required in relation to the sustainability of environmental resources.

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Geographers are curious people who ask endless questions about environmental resources such as water: Some questions covered in this chapter include: What are the different uses of water? When does water change from a renewable resource into a non-renewable resource? How much water is used in a pair of jeans? How is water embedded within modern gadgets such as mobile phones? Why should we manage water sustainably? Finding answers to these questions involves working through the inquiry process.

1.20.1  Jigsaw inquiry process

1 Observe

6 Reflect Respond

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2 Question Plan

5 Communicate

3 Collect Record Evaluate Represent

4 Analyse Conclude

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1.20.2  Geographical inquiry questions on dung beetles

1 Why are dung and dung beetles environmental resources?

2 What is the relationship between dung and dung beetles?

3 How are dung beetles conservers of water?

4 How do dung beetles improve water quality and soil health and reduce diseases?

7 What should I do about promoting dung beetles as conservers of water and excellent recyclers?

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6 What primary and secondary sources would you use to find out further details on dung and dung beetles?

Dung beetles the clean team

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Dung beetles do not drink water. They reduce nutrient runoff into rivers and dams and reduce algal blooms in water sources. They assist root penetration, increase water infiltration through the soil, decrease irrigation and decrease water contamination. Dung or animal faeces have been used as fertilisers on farms for centuries. Today the Maasai in Africa burn cow dung to repel mosquitoes and in Tibet cow dung lines walls to keep homes warm and produce biogas to generate electricity and heat. Dung beetles recycle animal faeces. Within a few hours of elephant dung hitting the ground, beetles turn the dung into balls and bury them. As a result the soil becomes more fertile and crop productivity increases reducing the need for artificial fertilisers. In Kruger National Park in South Africa more than 7000 beetles in a single pad of elephant dung are found busy recycling waste. In Australia, every hour 12 000 000 cow pats are dropped on the ground. Dung beetles recycle cow dung contributing to the decline in dung feeding flies. Buffalo flies attracted to the pats cost the Northern Territory beef industry $13 million a year due to hide damage and lost production.

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8  How will I present my research?

5 Why are dung beetles demanded in the 21st century around the world?

1.20.3  Primary and secondary sources Primary sources

Secondary sources

Original material collected by the researcher

Collected by someone else besides the researcher

Interviews, surveys, questionnaires, measurements and photographs. Also field sketches, diagrams, maps and statistics

Internet material, newspapers, journals, magazines, photographs and images from Flikr and Wikipedia, maps, diagrams, sketches, tables, statistics

Geoactivities 1.20 Knowledge and understanding 1 List the main stages in the inquiry process. 2 Distinguish between primary and secondary sources.

Inquiry and skills 3 Refer to the information on these pages and answer the inquiry questions in figure 1.20.2. 4 Numerous questions on water were mentioned on the previous page. Investigate two of questions following the inquiry process.

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1.21 Fieldwork: resources in your school

1.21.1  Environmental resources in your yard or playground.

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1 Geographical skill: location and maps a Draw a map locating your school or home with surrounding streets, transport routes, shopping centres, sports facilities and parks. Use a key to identify natural and cultural features, and include a scale to measure distance. b What direction does your school ground face? Draw in the north direction on the map. c Use an atlas or Google Earth to locate your home and school and record their latitude and longitude. d Calculate the distance from school to your home using both roads and as the crow flies (straight distance). e If you used an atlas in question c, find your school on Google Earth.

Are water resources managed sustainably? If not, as active citizens what can we do to conserve the use of water for future generations?

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Water is interconnected with other environmental resources, including the atmosphere (air), lithosphere (land and soil) and biosphere (plants and animals). Water cannot be studied in isolation if it is to be managed sustainably.

2 Geographical skill: photograph interpretation a Sketch the school ground in this photograph and label the natural and human features. Include terms such as left, centre, right, foreground, middle distance and background. b After this activity sketch your school ground and label the natural and human features. c Is this photograph an aerial or ground photograph?

3 Lithosphere (land) and hydrosphere (water) a Describe the landform of your backyard or school ground, e.g. flat, gentle, steep or split levels. b Do you have a creek running through your yard/ school ground? Are the creeks permanent or intermittent? In which direction does the water run when it rains? c Collect water after it has rained and flowed across your yard/school ground. Measure its pH. Does the water contain fertilisers, pesticides or sewerage sludge? d Can the drains cope with heavy rain?

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Geoactivities 1.21

• Not in my backyard—or NIMBY—is a phrase used when people do not want something near them, like a nuclear power station or a garbage tip. • Sustainable Schools Project cultivates responsible, informed citizens, engaged in building sustainable communities.

1 Distinguish between actual and virtual fieldwork. 2 List the advantages of seeing something in the field over reading about it in a textbook.

Inquiry and Skills 3 Fieldwork: primary research a Refer to 1.21.1 and research the environmental resources in your home or school by completing the inquiry questions. b Prepare an environmental audit on your home or school to determine whether environmental resources such as water are managed sustainably. For example: i hydrosphere: water use—recycle waste water, drip watering system, half flush toilet system? ii Lithosphere: saving water—use of mulch? iii Atmosphere: water use—air conditioners (CFCs), solar or fossil fuel energy? iv Biosphere: water use—native versus introduced species? v Others: saving water—recycle waste, reduce water pollution by using phosphorous free detergents? Water– energy links—how many cars, refrigerators, computers, TVs, computers and mobile phones in the family? c Present findings to the class either using PowerPoint, web 2.0 tools or as a play. 4 Primary and secondary research in groups: a Secondary research: describe your local council’s programs that aim to conserve water resources and reduce water pollution. b Primary research: interview the mayor about the council’s water resource program. Present findings as an oral report.

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6 Human interactions a Who originally inhabited your backyard/school ground? What changes have occurred in this place over time? What sustainable projects are taking place in your home/school?

Knowledge and understanding

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Geoinfo

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5 Biosphere: Plants and animals a Describe the type of plants found in your yard/school ground b Collect vegetation samples. Place on cardboard. Press and label them. Describe their leaves (e.g. thin, broad, waxy and hard). Determine whether they are native (e.g. acacia) or introduced (e.g. lantana) species. c Describe the animals and birds in your yard/school ground and whether they are native or feral (e.g. rabbits). d Explain the problems of introduced and exotic species.

4 Atmosphere a Temperature: Using a thermometer, record the indoor temperature and outside temperature in the shadiest and the most exposed area in your yard/ playground. Record your three findings on a chart for two weeks. Calculate the range in temperature (difference in temperature). b Precipitation: Use two rain gauges or two small jars. Place one jar under trees and another in an exposed area. Record your findings for two weeks. Give reasons for the differences in the precipitation at different places in your yard/school ground.

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Geothink

Knowledge and understanding 1 Where is Samsø located? 2 Why is Samsø called an energy self-sufficient island?

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straw fired plants? What happens to excess energy produced? Why are wind turbines and solar power panels referred to as renewable resources? Explain how reducing food wastes and composting food scraps reduces water used or improves the environment. Explain the interconnections between energy and water on Samsø. Discuss the energy processes operating on Samsø compared to your home.

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1.22.1  Samsø: The energy self-sufficient island

onshore wind turbines on Samsø

b How many households receive heating from

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Samsø is an energy self-sufficient Danish island. Wind turbines and solar power produce energy for the 4000 inhabitants, and 40% of the energy produced is exported to the mainland. The island obtains hot water from renewable energy, and saves water because the transport of fossil fuels from the mainland is no longer required. Wastewater and sewage is recycled using renewable energy and food scraps are composted. Samsø is experiencing seawater intrusion into its freshwater aquifers. With rising sea levels, salt penetrating the aquifers could present a future risk to available water.

Inquiry and skills 3 Refer to 1.22.1. a Calculate the combined number of offshore and

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Eco-energy island conserves water

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Multiple uses of water

1 Refer to 1.22.2. a From the diagram, list two environmental

d How can energy-efficient buildings reduce the use of water?

e Describe where water could be overused and

resources for each type of resourceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; continuous, non-renewable and renewable. b List the different uses of water. c Explain the interconnections between water and mining minerals for goods such as mobile phones.

1.22.2â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Water use in daily life

Forests Rehabilitation wetlands absorb wastes

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misused unless managed sustainably. f Identify the factors that enrich human life.

Farm crops and cattle

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Energy-efficient buildings

Species

Air

Solar energy

Wind energy Processing natural gas

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Hydroelectricity

Sun

Open cut mining

Export natural gas Water

Geothermal energy

Mineral processing

Smelting and refining

Underground mining Underground coal gasification

Coal-fired power Gas

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Coal seam gas

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unit

2 Place and liveability


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‘Places are for living in’ focuses on the factors that influence the decisions people make about where to live, and their perceptions of the liveability of places. The unit examines the influence of accessibility to services and facilities, and the environmental quality on the liveability of places. People make choices where to live influenced by culture, age, income, social connectedness, community identity and perceptions of crime and safety. Strategies used to enhance the liveability of places—especially for young people—are examined. The unit includes local and global examples, with a focus on Australia, Europe and countries of the Asia region.

Santorini is Greek island in the southern Aegean Sea. Santorini remained after a volcanic explosion, which destroyed early settlements and created the current geological caldera

Key inquiry questions • How do places affect liveability? • Which is the most liveable city in the world? • What strategies can be taken to improve liveability?


chapter

7

Liveability: living in extreme places

Anywhere is paradise; it’s up to you.

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Author unknown

Geovocab cosmopolitan: mixture of cultures ecological footprint per capita: amount of land used to provide each person with their needs ghost town: once-flourishing town wholly or nearly deserted, usually as a result of the exhaustion of some natural resource Global Positioning System (GPS): space-based satellite navigation system nomadic: moving from place to place, usually when seasons change

population density: number of people for every square kilometre of land refugee: In 1951 the UNHCR defined a refugee as someone who ‘owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country’


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People live in some extreme and sometimes dangerous locations on the planet. Many of these locations have harsh natural environments, such as freezing cold temperatures, or are threatened by natural hazards such as volcanoes. Other locations are made extreme by their remoteness or human activities including war or the use of technology like nuclear power. To many people these places are unliveable because they do not offer the conditions we are prepared to live with. While some people have very little choice about where they live, most people make their locational choices for a variety of social, cultural, economic, environmental, political and technological reasons.

Two women in Afghanistan, waiting on a dirt road for a four-hour drive from their village to a hospital for the birth of a baby.

sea gypsy: nomad, constantly moving around the oceans fishing and collecting seafood, and living most of their lives on boats or homes built in the sea sense of place: feeling of belonging to a place and of a place being a part of a person’s identity Web 2.0 tools: websites that are not static and allow input from the user

Think, puzzle, explore • Place What are the factors that affect a place where people live? • Space What does liveability mean to different people? • Environment Why do people live in extreme places? • Interconnection What are the interconnections between the environment and liveability? • Change Why do people change where they live?

Geoskills in focus • Planning a geographical inquiry into extreme places that people live in. • Collecting and interpreting geographical data sources. • Evaluating and analysing geographical data on some extreme places in which people live. • Concluding and communicating information using a range of texts. • Reflecting on the inquiry process and responding to an issue.


GeoWorld 7: Australian Curriculum

7.1 Cold and remote 7.1.2  Location of Nunavut Territory

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Spectacular and wild places capture our imagination. They include the highest, driest, hottest, coldest and wettest environments on Earth, where population densities are very low. People have lived in these environments for thousands of years. Indigenous communities such as the Bedouin in the Sahara Desert and the Yanomami in the Amazon Rainforest live in extreme places because:

Nunavut: homeland and supermarket

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• sacred ancestral sites are located there • they have developed a common sense of identity in these locations through culture, language and lifestyle • traditional ecological knowledge enables them to live there sustainably • they possess legal title to the land.

7.1.3  An Inuit hunter uses a satellite phone

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The Inuit are Indigenous people who live in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Siberia and North America. The Arctic experiences a polar climate with long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Precipitation is low and mostly falls as snow. For thousand of years the Inuit have lived as nomadic fishers and hunters using traditional knowledge to survive. Their culture was based on seasonal cycles of the land and sea. The use of igloos and dog sleds in winter changed to animal skin huts

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5

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0

-5

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

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−15

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−20 −25

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Rainfall in millimetres

Temperature in °C

7.1.1  Average rainfall and temperatures in Iqaluit (Nunavut), Canada

Temperature in °C Rainfall in millimetres

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Liveability: Living in extreme places

Knowledge and understanding

1 List three reasons why the Inuit live in the Arctic. 2 Explain the high cost of living in Nunavut. 3 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living in Arctic and Sub Arctic regions. 4 Suggest reasons why young Inuit would think the Artic was an unsuitable place to live. What is meant by the term ‘bright lights’? 5 Do the Inuit live in Nunavut for economic, social, cultural, political or environmental reasons?

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Animism and stories of supernatural creatures are important to Inuit culture and an important reason for many Inuit to live in Nunavut. The Aurora Borealis is believed to be the images of relatives and friends dancing in the afterlife or the souls of killed animals. These beliefs contribute to the Inuits’ sense of place and belonging.

Un co rr ec te d 7.1.4  Aurora Borealis and an Inukshuk—a stone figure of a human traditionally used by the Inuit for various forms of communication

Inquiry and skills

Chapter 7

Families separated from their villages and hunters unable to reach bears and seals because of melting ice are warning signs that climate change is threatening traditional lifestyles. Ancestral knowledge, scientific research and technology are being used to create liveable and sustainable Inuit communities for the future. Traditional knowledge is taught in schools, tribal elders are honorary teachers, and architects are designing buildings for a world affected by climate change.

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• In Inuit language, Nunavut means ‘our land’.

Geoactivities 7.1

Sense of place

Climate change?

Geoinfo

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and kayaks in summer. The traditional diet of the Inuit consists of whales, walruses, seals and fish, because most plants cannot grow there. Today Inuit live and work in permanent communities along the coast. Homes are modern and connected to the internet via satellite. Hunting parties use GPS and motorised vehicles to move between communities where there are no roads or rail lines. Everything arrives or leaves by plane or sea, adding to the cost of food and clothing. The Inuit still rely on hunting and fishing as their supermarket.

6 Refer to Refer to 7.1.1. a Describe the climate of Iqaluit. What are the hottest and coldest months, annual temperature range and annual precipitation? b What would it be like in Iqaluit in January? Draw a table with three columns labelled ‘feel’, ‘see’ and ‘hear’. Complete the table with your answers. c What would happen to the Arctic Ocean around Nunavut in winter? d How do people make cold climates more liveable? 7 Refer to 7.1.2. a Calculate the distance from Iqaluit to Cambridge Bay. b What percentage of Nunavut is above the Arctic Circle? 8 Refer to 7.1.3 and 7.1.4 and explain how technology and the Aurora Borealis affect the liveability of Nunavut for Inuit people. 9 GIS: Use an interactive map at to create a map showing Nunavut communities and two other layers of your choice e.g. transportation links, seals, whales, oil and gas resources.

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7.2 Floating worlds Coastal islands and cities such as the Maldives and New York may become unliveable in the future because of climate change. While the Netherlands continues to build structures to hold back the sea, Dutch architects are now designing floating cities like the lilypad to house climate refugees. The Indian and Pacific Oceans are already home to thousands of nomadic fishermen and hunters. The Bajau Laut and the Moken are two of Asia’s sea gypsy communities. They live on small boats with no fixed address and rely on the sea for food and trade.

Reed islands

7.2.1  Young sea gypsies in Semporna, Borneo. Today many sea gypsies still live in small communities built on stilts in shallow coastal bays

7.2.2  Lake Titicaca

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Islands made from floating aquatic plants can be found in Lake Titicaca, Peru. The Uros people made permanent islands from layers of totora— a thick reed. The reeds were used to make homes, watchtowers and boats and the Uros survived by fishing, hunting and collecting birds’ eggs. Storms were the biggest threat to the liveability of the islands. Today the lake is home to several hundred Uros. Traditional activities are still important but life has modernised with solar power, television, the internet and motorised boats.

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Sea gypsies: body and soul

Cultural survival

Sea gypsies have developed unique physical adaptations. They can free dive to over 20 m, slow their heart rate to 25 beats per minute to reduce buoyancy, and have extraordinary underwater vision. The Moken and Bajau have a spiritual bond with the sea. Bajau thank the God of the Sea for good catches and use mediums to remove bad spirits. Overfishing and piracy are threatening the safety and food security of the oceans, while young people are seeking employment and a sustainable lifestyle on land.

The Uros moved their islands to safe locations near shore after violent storms in the 1980s— they could work and study in Puno, and tourism expanded. Uros showcase their culture to 200 000 tourists a year with 80% of the population now in tourism-related employment. These changes have improved the islands for younger generations who now study hospitality, foreign languages and tourism. While the Uros have been criticised for allowing the ‘disneyfication’ of their culture, tourism may guarantee the future liveability of the islands and the survival of the Uros culture.

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Liveability: Living in extreme places

A floating future

Geoinfo

Scientists warn of rising sea levels placing several areas of the globe in danger of vanishing from the map, disappearing under water. Society must adapt and perhaps floating houses are an option.

• Many sea gypsies are stateless, meaning they do not belong to a country. • When sea gypsies step on solid ground they often suffer land sickness.

7.2.3  Lilypad islands—possible future floating worlds A central lake collects and purifies rainwater

Recycles waste

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Mountains and forests provide scenic variety

Floats on ocean currents

Geoactivities 7.2 Knowledge and understanding

Houses 50 000 people

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No roads and cars. Transport is by boat with three marinas

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8 Refer to 7.2.1. a Is there any evidence of sanitation in the photograph? What do you think happens to human waste? b As a class discuss the basic needs of young children. Create a list of these needs. c Watch a YouTube clip or documentary on sea gypsies. In pairs, undertake a further investigation of sea gypsies and their children.

Consider education, culture, safety and health. Decide whether the basic needs of sea gypsy children are being met. Draw a conclusion about the suitability of the ocean as a place for children to live. 9 Refer to 7.2.2. Using an atlas, the internet or Google Earth, locate Lake Titicaca in Peru. a What is the latitude and longitude of Lake Titicaca? b Measure the distance from Puno to Conima. c What is the length and breadth of Lake Titicaca? Calculate the area of the lake. 10 Collect images of lake Titicaca, the Uros people and the reed islands to make a digital photo collage. Add captions to your images. 11 Refer to 7.2.3. a What features of the Lilypad make it a sustainable option for living in a world facing climate change? b Would you consider living on a floating island? What would be the advantages and disadvantages? c Where might people living on floating islands get employment? d What would the island need to contain to be an attractive place for teenagers?

Chapter 7

1 Explain why the Dutch are planning floating cities such as the Lilypad. 2 List three examples of the connection sea gypsies have with the sea. 3 What two issues are threatening the liveability of oceans for sea gypsies? 4 Suggest ways that tourism would guarantee the survival of the Uros culture. 5 Create a definition for the term ‘disneyfication’. 6 How important is culture as a location factor for the Uros and sea gypsies? 7 What factors make the reed islands of Lake Titicaca liveable places for young indigenous Uros people?

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Sources of power include solar panels on mountainsides, wind turbines and wave power generators. Produces more power than it consumes and is carbon neutral

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7.3 Nature’s dangerous places

• volcanic soils are rich in nutrients important for agriculture • they provide employment in tourism (e.g. hot mud baths), construction (e.g. providing stones for buildings) and mining (e.g. sulphur is used in medicine) • they provide geothermal energy.

Volcanoes—life and death

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7.3.1  The world’s most dangerous volcanoes

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Indonesia sits along the Ring of Fire—where Earth’s tectonic plates collide and cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Some 240 million people live in the shadow of Indonesia’s active volcanoes, where ash clouds, mudflows, poisonous gases, lava

7.3.2  Indonesians live with volcanoes every day

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There are over 1500 active volcanoes in the world—an average of 20 erupt daily. Although volcanoes are linked to destruction and death, millions of people choose to live near them because:

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7.3.3  Ash clouds travel the globe

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Why take the risk?

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• there are often many years between eruptions • modern technology monitors volcanic activity • early warning systems reduce the risk of death. The economic benefits of living near volcanoes, cultural beliefs and benefits of modern technology make these dangerous locations liveable for millions of people. Not all people are happy living with volcanoes, but many can’t afford to move.

Is Australia safe?

In 2010 and 2011, volcanic eruptions in Iceland and Chile produced millions of tonnes of ash, which circled the globe and delayed air travel in Europe, South America and Australia. Australia’s proximity to the ‘Ring of Fire’ puts people at risk. Indonesia sits beneath the aviation corridors linking Australia to Asia and Europe. Darwin’s global ash-monitoring centres issued over 1700 advisories to airlines on threats from active volcanoes in 2011. The Bureau of Meteorology stated it was ‘virtually impossible to fly in and out of Australia without going over volcanic activity’.

Knowledge and understanding 1 What are the economic benefits of living near volcanoes? 2 Explain the disadvantages of living near volcanoes. 3 Indonesians accept volcanic activity for cultural reasons. What does this mean? 4 How has technology reduced the danger of living near volcanoes? 5 How are Australians affected by volcanic activity? 6 Why do you think the economic benefits of living near volcanoes seem to be more important to Indonesians than the risk to life and property?

Chapter 7

About 500 million people across the planet live on or near volcanoes, but consider themselves to be safe because:

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Geoactivities 7.3

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flows and tsunamis threaten lives and livelihoods. In 2011, clouds of ash from mount Merapi caused the evacuation of over 50 000 people. Volcanoes have cultural and economic significance. Indonesians believe that rumbling volcanoes signal restless gods. People perform rituals in which they offer rice, money and chickens to the gods to appease them, and Balinese sleep with their heads toward nearby volcanoes. Hindu priests climb Mt Agung in Bali and collect hot water to sprinkle on rice farms to ensure a profitable harvest. Volcanic eruptions might destroy crops and livestock, but the rich soils allow farmers to harvest three crops of rice a year.

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• Ash clouds are responsible for 28% of volcanorelated deaths. • About 50–60 volcanoes erupt every year.

Inquiry and skills 7 Refer to 7.3.1. a Where is the Ring of Fire located? b Discuss the relationship between Indonesia’s volcanoes and the Ring of Fire. 8 Refer to 7.3.4. a Explain how a volcanic eruption affects people living in distant places. b How long did it take the Chile ash cloud to reach Australia each time? c Use a world globe to explain the direction the ash cloud travelled the world. 9 Creativity: Create a multimedia presentation called ‘Living dangerously with volcanoes’, using a webpage, PowerPoint, Prezi, animation or movie. Refer to specific countries and volcanoes in your presentation.

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7.4 Humans cause dangerous places

Nuclear neighbours

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electric power as an alternative to coal-fired power stations. In July 2012 there were 435 nuclear power plant units in 31 countries, with another 62 under construction. Although reactors are built to the highest safety standards, accidents can cause death, sickness, starvation and environmental contamination. Natural hazards, human error, increasing population, war, terrorism and ageing plants create safety risks. In 2011, the Fukushima Daiichi plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and tsunami.

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Human behaviour can make places unsafe to live in. Colombia’s killings and Rio de Janeiro’s ‘quicknappings’ have contributed to these places being labelled as dangerous. In Rio people are abducted and taken to ATMs to pay their ransom. People live in dangerous places because they are poor. About 5000 people live in a squatter settlement at Tudor Shaft in South Africa. Their homes are built on radioactive ground, where radiation is 15 times higher than normal. One wonders: is it better to have a home located in a dangerous place or be homeless?

7.4.1  The path of radiation

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Approximately 1 million people live within a 30 km radius of a nuclear power station. After the 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima, Japan, people questioned the safety of living adjacent to these plants. Nuclear power provides clean, cheap

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7.4.3  A bullet hole in the window of a family home in Afghanistan

Geoinfo Contaminated tuna from Japan’s nuclear accident have been caught in California.

7.4.2  Will Japan’s evacuees return home?

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61.3%

Decontamination is difficult

83.1%

Concerned about government-set safety standards

65.7%

Difficult working and living conditions Already found new employment

Opposition from family members

41.6%

7.1%

14.6%

War zone: Afghanistan In every war zone, civilian lives are at risk. The United Nations has declared Afghanistan an extremely dangerous place. Between 2008 and 2012, 8000 civilians have died in Afghanistan. People in war zones often seek safety in camps for Internally Displaced Persons or refugees where conditions are poor but they are safe.

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Knowledge and understanding

1 Construct a mind map showing potential threats to the safety of nuclear plants. 2 Suggest reasons why people live close to nuclear power plants. 3 What made the area around the Fukushima power plant unliveable? 4 Explain why Afghanistan is a dangerous place for civilians.

Chapter 7

Resolution of nuclear crisis is unclear

Geoactivities 7.4

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The effects of the world’s worst nuclear accident in 1984, at Chernobyl in Russia, continue today. Radioactive isotopes spread across 200 000 km2 of Europe, causing 134 workers to die and thousands of children to develop cancer. The land became too contaminated to farm. Farmers are currently growing radioactive crops to make biofuels—the crops suck up radioactive materials, making the soil suitable to grow food within decades rather than hundreds of years. For many people, the fear of a nuclear accident would prevent them from living beside a nuclear neighbour. After the clean-up of the Fukushima area, evacuated people will decide whether they should return home.

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After an accident

Inquiry and skills 5 Refer to 7.4.1. a Explain three ways someone could be contaminated by radiation. b List three possible impacts on the health when people are contaminated by radiation . 6 Refer to 7.4.2. b Discuss the influence of age on people’s plans to return home. c Would you return knowing what the radiation risks are? 7 Survey your class: a Develop a questionnaire with 3 questions that will reveal the attitude of your classmates to living near a nuclear reactor. b Graph the results, analyse them and make a concluding statement. 8 Which do you consider to be the most liveable place: a war zone or adjacent to a nuclear power plant? Discuss with a classmate and come to a consensus. Present your opinion to your class.

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7.5 Superstructures—a lifestyle choice

Dubai: desert transformed

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You are sitting in your 92nd floor luxury apartment in the world’s tallest building, overlooking the world’s largest human-made islands and a spectacular sail shaped skyscraper. You’ve visited the world’s largest shopping mall, had an indoor ski and seen the world’s largest marina. You are in Dubai, one of seven emirates that are the oil-rich United Arab Emirates (UAE). Dubai transformed from a desert port to a cosmopolitan city of over 2 million people in two decades. A city irresistible to businesspeople, diplomats, workers, sports lovers and tourists was the vision of Dubai’s royal family. Engineers overcame extreme environmental challenges including intense heat, violent storms, strong winds and wave erosion to make the vision a reality. Now Dubai claims to be one of the world’s most liveable cities. It boasts record-breaking superstructures including the Burj Khalifa, Palm Islands, World Islands and Dubai Mall (complete with ski run).

7.5.1  The Burj Dubai (now called Burj Khalifa) is the world’s tallest building

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Technology is making skyscrapers one of the most liveable and sustainable types of housing in cities. China aims to build a new skyscraper every five days for the next three years. To provide heat, light and electricity to these buildings, China opens a new coal-fired power station every ten days. To reduce their ecological footprint, eco towers or green buildings are mushrooming across the planet.

Very liveable city

Most people living in Dubai are expatriates— citizens of other countries. They make up 90% of Dubai’s retail, financial, trade, construction and tourism workforce. Only 17% of Dubai’s population is Emirate. Dubai is an economic and lifestyle choice. In addition to employment, luxury accommodation, shopping, entertainment, recreational and

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sporting facilities, Dubai offers tax-free incomes, a high standard of living, a safe environment, low crime rates and educational facilities. Located between Europe, Asia and the Americas, Dubai is an ideal base for overseas travel.

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Geoinfo

Environmental costs

7.5.3 The Burj al-Arab is a sail-shaped luxury hotel

Urban settlement

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Grid pattern roads

Artificial harbor for recreational boats Artificial island Burj al-Arab

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1 Why is Dubai a cosmopolitan city? 2 What was the vision of Dubai’s royal family? 3 Why does Dubai make a popular retirement destination? 4 Discuss the factors that make Dubai a liveable city for both rich and poor. 5 Suggest why skyscrapers are energy- and waterhungry buildings. 6 Explain why the UAE is not ecologically sustainable.

Inquiry and skills

7 Refer to 7.5.1. a How does temperature differ between the top and the bottom of the tower? Give a reason. b Why would the temperature difference create a demand for electricity? c What other features of the building would create a high demand for energy? d Dubai is in a desert. Where would the building materials come from? e What would attract people to live in the Dubai Tower? 8 Refer to 7.5.2. a Draw and label a line drawing of the Burj al-Arab. b What features in this scene add to Dubai’s liveability? 9 ICT: Use Google Earth to find Dubai. a Change to the hybrid image. Identify some of Dubai’s superstructures and draw a sketch map to show the location of Dubai’s main road and settlement pattern plus the superstructures. Label the main features on your map. b Go to the panorama gallery and view the panoramic tours of Dubai and the Palm Islands. Describe what Dubai looks like as you travel across the city. 10 Research the top ten energy efficient skyscrapers. Locate these skyscrapers on a world map. 1 1 Describe how skyscrapers can be built to conserve environmental resources. 12 List the advantages and disadvantages of living in skyscrapers.

Imported sand for surfers

Chapter 7

Persian Gulf

Knowledge and understanding

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Behind Dubai’s wealth, however, are thousands of poor construction workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the Philippines, making up 85% of Dubai’s expatriates. Wages are low and housing is in crowded labour camps. The UAE has one of the highest ecological footprints (EF) per capita. High CO2 levels, traffic congestion, water use and waste disposal are problems. Dubai is very liveable but has yet to prove that it can also be ecologically sustainable.

Geoactivities 7.5

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• 15–20% of the world’s cranes are operating in Dubai. • The Dubai World Cup is the world’s richest horse race

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7.6 Seeking safety in Dadaab: a photo story On arrival they join the queue to be processed. The United Nations Human Rights Commission, or one of 18 non-government organisations in Kenya, such as Red Cross and Care, run the camps.

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7.6.1  Life in a refugee camp

Families walk over the border into Kenya. Over 1000 Somali arrived at Dadaab each day during the 2011 famine.

Families are provided with food rations and other essentials including tents, kitchen sets, firewood and fuel-efficient stoves.

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In a drought it is children that suffer the most. Many require rehydration and inoculation. Most are malnourished.

In the dry season the camps become a hot dustbowl and water is scarce. In the wet season flooding rains mean people have to relocate and water borne disease becomes an issue.

When the camps have been declared full new arrivals construct houses outside the camp boundaries using whatever resources they can find.

Families wait for news that it is safe to return home. Some who returned home to Somalia returned in the drought crisis of 2011. Some never leave. 224

Queuing up for food and water takes many hours each day.

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Geoactivities 7.6 Knowledge and Understanding

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1 What is a refugee? 2 Why do Somali refugees have no choice about where they live? 3 How do officials ensure the basic needs of refugees are met? 4 Why have some Somali refugees been in camps for 20 years? 5 Why do many refugees require medical attention on arrival at Dadaab? 6 Why do you think refugee camps can be dangerous places for orphaned children and women? 7 Do you think safety is a major factor for Australians choosing a place to live? 8 What do you think the photojournalist meant when he said that the Somalis are ‘accomplished survivors’?

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Escaping to a refugee camp is the decision of desperate people facing conflict, persecution or starvation. Leaving your home and crossing the border into another country to seek refuge is a last resort for people whose homes have become unliveable. Refugee camps are built as temporary places to live, where people have their basic needs for shelter, food, water, medical supplies and safety met until they can return home. When going home is impossible, some refugees are resettled in other countries. The Kenyan government opened its borders to refugees from Somalia fleeing conflict in 1991. Twenty years later, the three Dadaab camps—the world’s largest—are home to over 400 000 people, mostly from Somalia. Children born in the camps are ‘stateless’ as they do not belong to any country. Although refugee camps are set up as safety haven, they can still be dangerous places for orphaned children and women.

Geoinfo • Women and children make up about 80% of the Somali refugees in Dadaab. • Many children born in the camps have never been to their ‘home’ country.

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Inquiry and skills 9 Refer to 7.6.1. a Use the photographs to describe the physical environment and living conditions at Dadaab. b Create a simple flow diagram to show the steps involved for a refugee fleeing from Somalia to Dadaab and their return home or resettlement. c Investigate the Dadaab camps in more detail online. d Present your findings in a Podcast or as a newspaper clipping using an online clippings generator. e Think about the possessions you own. Create two lists. In one list put possessions you would take with you if you had to flee your home on foot not knowing when you could return. The other list will be what you leave behind. 10 Refer to 7.62. a Graph the current population of individual refugees at camps in Kenya as a pie graph. b Suggest why there are more Somalis at the Dadaab camp than at Nairobi or Kakuma. 11 ICT tasks: a Research the current status of the Kenyan refugee camps. b Assess whether the situation has changed since 2012.

Chapter 7

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7.6.2  Somali refugee crisis, with numbers of refugees at the camps (2012)

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7.7 Places, resources and jobs

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7.7.1  Abandoned buildings at Bodie

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Saloons, gambling halls and opium dens were all features of life in Bodie—a thriving Wild West gold rush town of 10 000 people. Settlers came from across the globe, but when the gold ran out the town was abandoned. Bodie soon became USA’s most famous ghost town.

Resources attract people Human migration and settlement are linked to the availability of environmental resources. Populations concentrate around resources that provide employment. New towns emerge with the discovery of minerals like in the Pilbara, WA.

7.7.3  Local resources provide jobs for poor people in developing countries

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Rubbish pickers at a dump in Brazil

Camel caravans transport salt to the Ethiopian Highlands

The Afar mining salt at Lake Assal in Djibouti, East Africa

Ship cutters at Alang in India

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Necessity and choice

Geoactivities 7.7 Knowledge and understanding 1 Draw and complete the following table for 5 locations mentioned in these pages. An example has been completed for you. e.g. Big Bell

Country

Australia

Resource being exploited

Gold

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Place

Trash is treasure

In developing countries millions of city residents live in slums near garbage dumps where they work as waste pickers. An estimated 1.5 million waste pickers in India collect materials such as plastic, metals and e-waste which they sell for as little as $1 a day. They are exposed to poisons, chemicals and disease, but without education, access to transport and other opportunities there are no other work options. Young men move to Gaddani (Bangladesh) and Alang (India) where the 800 ships that become obsolete each year are grounded. They work as ship breakers, facing death and disability each

Geoinfo • Each camel in a ‘camel caravan’ carries twenty 7 kg slabs of salt. • Waste picking is known as the industry that is always hiring.

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Necessity or choice for workers

Choice

Key concepts

Ghost town Resource exhausted

2 Name two jobs dependent on Lake Assal’s resources. 3 Create a simple flow diagram to illustrate the development of ghost towns. 4 Which would be worse, waste picking or ship breaking? Justify your answer after considering the advantages and disadvantages of each job.

Chapter 7

At Lake Assal—a desert salt lake in Djibouti (East Africa)—salt provides an income for the Afar people. Temperatures reach 55 ºC and there is no shade or fresh water. Work starts at 4 am and finishes by 8 am to avoid the heat, and while water is delivered once a week by truck. Camel caravans transport the salt across the desert to towns in the Ethiopian highlands. In a country with 60% urban unemployment there are few other job opportunities. In Australia high wages attract thousands of workers to remote places such as the Kimberly and Bass Strait. Money compensates workers for difficult environmental conditions and isolation. In USA, ‘ice road truckers’ deliver critical supplies to remote oil communities like Deadhorse, Alaska. Treacherous conditions including blizzards, whiteouts, steep icy slopes and rockfalls cause serious accidents and deaths. This dangerous job attracts people to Alaska prepared to risk danger to make money.

day. Rusty machinery, jagged steel and chemicals like mercury create hazardous working conditions. On one occasion a worker was cut in half by a moving cable. Many Australians would never consider living in some of these places. Would you?

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Ghost towns appear when a resource is depleted (e.g. Big Bell, WA) or when railroads and roads bypass them. In developing countries, garbage dumps become liveable because waste creates employment.

Inquiry and skills 5 Refer to 7.7.1 and 7.7.2 and Geoinfo. a What resources made Bodie and Deadhorse liveable places? b Why would waste picking be called the industry that is always hiring? c Why would waste picking be considered a health hazard? d Why do many of the world’s poorest people work in places that Australians would consider unliveable? 6 ICT tasks: a Use Google Earth or other satellite imagery online to look at Alang. b Use the image to count the number of ships grounded at Alang. Draw and label a sketch map. Find a more recent image using Google Earth. Make a comparison.

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7.8 Reflecting on liveability Personal factors (About you)

Location factors (What the place is like)

age aspirations culture family gender income language lifestyle occupation sporting and cultural interests phase of life

affordability climate employment friendliness human rights quality of the environment recreational, cultural, health and educational facilities resources transport and communications urban or rural

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7.8.1  This Wordle contains a comprehensive list of factors for you to consider when completing the GEOactivities

7.8.2 Factors affecting locational choices

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Throughout chapter 7 you have been investigating what makes extreme places liveable for different people. The focus has been on places that are considered extreme due to factors such as remoteness (Nunavut), climate (Lake Assal), technology (Dubai), danger (Afghanistan) and poverty (Bangladesh). Many people, however, do not live in extreme places, and they make choices about where they live many times during a lifetime. Some people choose to stay in the same place their whole lives, while others move frequently. What factors will make one place more liveable than another for you?

Factors affecting where we live

Our decisions are affected by a combination of personal and location factors such as income or climate. The importance of different factors will vary between individuals and will change over time e.g. access to schools. Some factors, e.g. personal safety, are important in all phases of our lives, while in recent years environmental quality has become more important.

Everyone wants to live in a place where their quality of life (QOL) is the best it can be. Global surveys are conducted annually to determine the most liveable cities. In 2011, according to one survey five of the top 10 liveable cities were in Australia. Each years’ results are widely debated due to city rivalry (e.g. Sydney vs. Melbourne), and national pride (e.g. Canada vs. Australia). Community leaders now use liveability to plan better places for people to live.

Criteria for liveability Human rights such as freedom, the availability of goods and services, personal safety, education, health care, culture, environment, recreation, employment, political-economic stability, public transportation, climate and access to nature can influence an individual’s perception of liveability. In one survey, residents were asked to determine the importance of employment, crime and safety, local hospitals and local schools in their ideal community. There were some surprising results. In London these features were not considered as important as they were in Jakarta (see figure 7.8.3).

Geoinfo • In 2011 Melbourne and Adelaide were each ranked first in different liveability surveys. • Vancouver ranked first on a global liveability survey in 2011 but ranked 29th in a national survey.

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Chapter 7

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7.8.3  An ideal community—different cities’ perspectives on health and wellbeing

Geoactivities 7.8

Knowledge and understanding

1 Why do the factors affecting people’s decisions change over time? 2 Do you think ‘liveability’ and ‘quality of life’ mean the same thing? Explain. 3 List factors that would be important to you but are missing from the Wordle.

Inquiry and skills 4 Refer to 7.8.2. Make a list of the personal and location factors that affect where you and your family currently live.

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6 Refer to 7.8.3. a Choose 3 cities on the pictograph. Convert the information into a table. You will need 3 rows— one for each city, and 4 columns—one for each factor. Use the values ‘Very important’, ‘Important’ and ‘Less important’ to compare cities. b Write a paragraph comparing the differences between Tokyo and Jakarta. Suggest reasons for the differences. c Create a pictogram for yourself using the same 4 criteria.

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7.9 Communicating geographical information

7.9.1  Geographical inquiry involves presenting data

Communication Graphical information

Display data in graphs, tables, maps or statistics

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Using base maps you can add travel paths, photographs, a legend or create outlines of places with movable boundaries and labels. You can export, send and print the maps.

Use geographical vocabulary, concepts an conventions

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Use appropriate methods including ICT

Scribble maps

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Online presentation tools are known as web 2.0 tools. These tools provide exciting ways to for geographers to communicate geographical inquiry or research findings and results. Web 2.0 tools allow you to create: • graphs using your own statistics e.g. Create-a-graph • surveys that can be collated for analysis and converted to graphs e.g. Survey Monkey, Edmodo • interesting maps e.g. Scribble maps • movies, photo-stories, animations e.g. Animoto, Xtranormal, Tubechop • presentations with links to visual material you have created or found e.g. Prezi, Glogster, Infographics • summaries and evaluations in an interesting format e.g. Wordle and Tagxedo Online tutorials make the use of these tools very simple. Some useful and fun tools are listed below.

Statplanet StatPlanet creates interactive maps with existing data you import into the program. It also produces interactive graphs, charts and infographics. A simple interactive map can be created using can use StatPlanet Lite while more advanced features are available at StatPlanet Plus.

Use written, oral, visual and/or graphic forms

Google Earth

Google Earth contains many tools for both research and presentation. You can choose your own satellite images and add information, create maps by adding layers of information, and create guided tours and 3D images.

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Animaps

Infographics

Animaps allows you create maps featuring moving markers, pop-up images and text, and changing lines and shapes. Animaps play like a video and can be paused, slowed or fast-forwarded.

Infographics present information visually and graphically using geographical tools such as maps, graphs and diagrams as well as short pieces of text. A lot of information is presented in a small space and in a visually attractive format. You can create your own infographics on sites such as such as Visually and Infogr.am, while Wordle and Tagxedo can be used for simple infographics like word clouds.

Allows you to select parts of video clips and other movies to put into your presentations. It also allows you to add sections from different clips together to create a new presentation.

Xtranormal Create an animated conversation on your topic. Turn your information into a conversation or debate and show different perspectives.

Survey monkey

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Tubechop

You can create surveys, email the link to your participants and receive completed surveys online. Results can be presented as graphs or tables.

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Geoactivities 7.9

Glogster

A ‘glog’ is an interactive online poster used to present a variety of information using maps, graphs, posts, and active links to information in video clips such as YouTube and to websites.

Prezi Prezi is a zooming presentation tool that allows photographs, Word documents, PDF files, video clips, graphs, tables and other tools to be integrated.

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1 What are web 2.0 tools? 2 Why are web 2.0 tools useful in Geography? 3 Name 4 web 2.0 tools that can be used to create maps. 4 List 3 tools that can allow you to include video clips such as YouTube. 5 Explain the advantages of Survey monkey over traditional survey methods. 6 Explain why infographics are an interesting away to display information. 7 How is an infographic different to a Glogster? 8 List 4 uses of word clouds. 9 Visit Google Earth. Make a list of the different types of images and maps that can be produced using this tool. Create a map of your local community. Add placemarks and photographs. Zoom in on a satellite image of your house and take a screenshot. Include this image on your map.

Chapter 7

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Knowledge and Understanding

Inquiry and skills 10 Creativity: Visit one web 2.0 tool that interests you. Look at samples from the gallery if one exists. Follow a tutorial on creating your own presentation. Create a simple presentation about you and the place where you live. Add features that make your place liveable.

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Geothink 1 Read the scenario. It gives you some information

about who you are and a question to answer. 2 Use the Geographical Inquiry Process to complete steps 2 to 5. Step 1: Your question—Which city is the most liveable for you, Berlin or New York?

Scenario:

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John Doe

Step 3: Analyse You should do a SWOT analysis for each location before making your decision. Divide a page into 4 sections. Label them Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Draw a conclusion about which place best suits your needs. Which place is the most liveable for you? Make your decision.

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Pack your bags—criteria based decision-making

You cannot believe your luck. You work for a company with overseas branches in New York and Berlin. They are offering you a 2-year contract overseas. You get to choose the city you want to live in.

About you:

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Single and 25 years old. You have never travelled overseas. You like open spaces, outdoor activities and sport. In Australia you do a lot of water sports, soccer and cycling. You have always wanted to visit the ‘Big Apple’ but love the idea of skiing in Europe, and you like cold climates. You want to do a lot of travelling to visit as many countries as you can. The company pays you well for your age but you will have to be careful with your spending. You love history and geography, so visiting museums, historical sites and interesting places is important to you. You only speak English but learnt a bit of German at school. The company will fly you to your destination and home again at the end of your contract. You have 7 days to make a decision.

Step 2: Collecting, recording, evaluating and representing data Investigate New York and Berlin using the information provided on these pages and research on the internet. You could look up official tourist sites, infographics and expat blogs. You need information on: location (including distance from Australia, neighbouring countries), climate, transport, cost of living/ affordability, language, entertainment/recreation, places of interest to visit (cultural and natural environments). Put your information into a table as you collect it. Think about which liveability criteria are the most important for you.

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Step 4: Communicate To help the next person from your company facing the same choice, present your judgement about the liveability of New York and Berlin using ICT tools such as: • an animated film using the program Xtranormal. • a Glogster page • a Prezi • a report for a Travel Magazine with text, graphics and pictures using a publishing template. Step 5: Reflect and respond Is there other information about each city you thought would have been useful in making your choice? Have you learned new skills doing this activity? Would you do things differently next time? ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9


Liveability: Living in extreme places

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Chapter 7

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7.10.2â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Infographic on cost of living in different countries

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7.10.1â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Climate of New York City and Berlin

ISBN 978 1 4202 3263 9

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GeoWorld 7 for the Australian Curriculum