Objectives Vocabulary Health; compound nouns; phrasal verbs Grammar Modal verbs Reading You booze you lose; using previous knowledge Listening At the doctor’s Writing An opinion essay Speaking Giving advice
Topic words 1 2
Look at the photos. Are they healthy activities? Why/Why not? Read the health quiz. Are the sentences true or false?
Health Quiz 1 2 3 4 5 6
Eating fast food is quite nutritious. Texting can be painful. Sunbathing can be dangerous, even under a parasol. Smoking fewer than ten cigarettes a day is not bad for your health. Drinking alcohol is always unhealthy. Doing regular exercise is good for your health.
Match the activities in bold in the quiz with the possible effects below. Use a dictionary to help you.
• obesity • skin cancer • dehydration • lung cancer • tendonitis of the thumb • better blood circulation Put words into practice
Listen to two people talking about their lifestyles and answer the questions.
1 How old are they? 2 What healthy activities does the girl do? 3 What unhealthy activities does the boy do?
What healthy and unhealthy activities do you do? Use the Street Talk and words from 2 and 3 to help you. I’m really into basketball, but I have a weakness for sweets.
I have a weakness for … means you like a certain food or drink although you know it’s bad for you. I’m really into … means you like an activity a lot.
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Read the words in the box. How do you say them in your language? burglaries cirrhosis of the liver dehydration drunken violence heart disease high blood pressure street crime
Which of the problems in 1 do you think are alcohol-related?
Read the text. Are the sentences true or false? Quote words from the text to support your answers. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Celebrities encourage binge drinking because it’s glamorous. The UK is not the worst country for binge drinking. Alcohol is the cause of a third of street crime. Teenagers are aware of the health effects of alcohol abuse. There is a high chance your liver will be damaged if you binge drink. The government has launched a campaign to show teens that binge drinking can give you bad skin.
Young people think drinking is glamorous … Heavy drinking can lead to physical injuries … People are more likely to commit a crime … Your skin looks bad … People who drink heavily …
a) b) c) d) e)
when they have been drinking. because they see photos of celebrities when they are drunk. increase their chances of heart and liver problems. because you might fall over or get involved in violence. because you suffer from dehydration.
Match the underlined words and expressions in the text with the meanings below. 1 to exchange 2 is considered 3 give approval for
Think about what you already know about the subject. It will help you understand the text better.
Match the sentence halves. 1 2 3 4 5
Using previous knowledge
4 communicated 5 impressive, attractive or fashionable
Find the following words in the text. 1 2 3 4
a noun with the same root as drink (paragraph A) an antonym for light (paragraph A) an adjective with the same root as face (paragraph B) a noun with the same root as moderate (paragraph D)
What about YOU? 7
What about you? Do you agree that young people copy the behaviour of celebrities? Why/Why not?
True or False There are dry towns in the USA which are alcohol-free. This means that you can’t buy alcohol anywhere, not even in bars.
Healthy living 5
A Celebrities are making binge drinking glamorous, according to a new report. Images of celebrities coming out of nightclubs seem to give the green light to extreme drinking. In a survey of British 18-24-year-olds, young people repeatedly mentioned that they thought the heavy drinking of celebrities was cool. The researchers also said that 5 social networks might have helped reinforce this association as many young people swap party photos of themselves on Facebook and Bebo. B The statistics about teenagers and alcohol abuse are shocking. Young people in the UK are the third worst binge drinkers in the EU (after Finland and Ireland), and it’s not just a hangover that comes with this behaviour. Drunks are involved in 33% 10 of burglaries and 50% of street crime with drunken violence accounting for around 76,000 facial injuries every year. C Crime, however, is only part of the story. The health effects of alcohol abuse are a real cause for concern too. Binge drinking can increase your blood pressure, which might lead to heart disease. Liver damage, which could cause the incurable disease cirrhosis, 15 can also be a consequence. But none of this gets a look in. The only message that seems to be getting through to young people is that alcohol is part of ‘a glamorous lifestyle’. D So what can be done about this? The authors of the report say that the government should start a campaign to make young people more aware of the impact alcohol can have on them. One idea is to remind teenagers that there’s nothing attractive about a 20 hangover as alcohol causes dehydration, which can give you very bad skin. However, it will probably only be when young people decide that moderation is the only sensible approach to alcohol that we’ll really be able to say ‘cheers’ without worrying.
Find the word sensible (paragraph D) in the
FRIENDS text. How do you say it in your language?
Which effect of drinking alcohol from page 55 is mentioned in the text?
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Grammar Modal verbs: ability, obligation, prohibition and advice 1
Read the examples in the table. How do you say the words in bold in your language? EXAMPLES
I can swim. I could run faster when I was younger.
must have to
You must do exercise twice a week. I have to go to the dentist tomorrow.
not have to needn’t
You don’t have to go running. You needn’t bring any food.
lack of obligation
You can’t/mustn’t smoke in here.
should ought to
You should/ought to do more exercise. You shouldn’t eat junk food.
Grammar reference pages 130–131
Read the sentences and choose the correct alternatives. Then match them to the uses in the table. 1 2 3 4 5 6
It’s a free download. You don’t have to/mustn’t pay. My mum has to/should work every day from 9am till 5pm. There’s no school tomorrow, so I don’t have to/mustn’t get up early. He’s overweight. He can/should do more exercise. Hey, you’re on a diet. You don’t have to/mustn’t eat chocolate! You can/should stop smoking; it’s bad for you.
Complete the sentences with can, can’t, be able to, have to, don’t have to, ought to and should. 1 A: Do I ___ wear a swimming cap? B: No, you ___ wear one if you don’t want to. 2 A: I ___ run 20km without stopping. B: Wow! Soon you’ll ___ run a marathon! 3 A: What does this say? B: Sorry, I ___ speak French. 4 A: You ___ do more exercise. B: I know. And I ___ eat more fruit.
Careful! The modal verb can is only used in the present tense. To express ability in other tenses, use be able to.
We will be able to help you tomorrow.
Modal verbs: speculation and deduction 4
Read sentences 1-3 and note the modal verbs. Then match them to uses a–c 1 He doesn’t look well. He must be sick. 2 She can’t be his sister. He’s an only child. 3 The doorbell is ringing. It may/might/could be my brother.
a) something that perhaps is true b) something that you’re sure is true c) something that you think is impossible
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Complete the sentences with the correct modal verbs.
1 I’m not sure where your mobile is. It ___ be in your coat pocket. 2 He’s got all their albums and he’s seen them live five times! He ___ love their music. 3 I phoned them at home and nobody answered. They ___ be at home. 4 I don’t know what time he’ll come home. It ___ be late.
I must have lost my ticket. They always refer to the past.
You don’t have to make a donation. 2 Smoking is not allowed in the building. (mustn’t) You … 3 Perhaps he will come back later. (may) He … 4 It’s not a good idea to watch TV for hours. (shouldn’t) 5 I’m certain he is the teacher. He looks older than the others. (must)
Read the text and choose the correct alternatives.
Complete the sentences. Use modal perfects. 1 2 3 4
Exam focus Rewrite the sentences using the modal verbs in brackets. 1 There’s no obligation to make a donation. (not have to)
We form modal perfects with modal + have + past participle
Carrie ___ (may / pass) the exam, but I’m not sure. They are singing. They ___ (must / win) the match. Sorry, I ___ (should / call) you earlier. They ___ (can’t / get) lost. They have a satnav.
Translate the sentences in a into your language. Then match them to the meanings below. a) certainty in the past (x2) b) possibility in the past c) regrets or criticism in the past
Write sentences with the words in brackets. 1 It’s strange Mandy is not at the meeting. She is very punctual. (may/forget) 2 Lola is a driving a car on her own. (must/pass driving test) 3 I didn’t take my coat and now I’m cold. (should/bring) 4 Joe didn’t answer his phone. (can’t/hear)
You (1) could/have to see it to believe it – over 15,000 people walking through London at night wearing decorated bras! This is the MoonWalk, an annual marathon to raise money for breast cancer charities. Walkers (2) have to/ought to walk a marathon. They (3) can/ must be over 13 years old. You (4) don’t have to/shouldn’t enter if you (5) can/can’t walk the distance, and you (6) should/shouldn’t do some training. However, it is not a race, and you (7) mustn’t/don’t have to run. In fact, anybody who runs (8) ought to/won’t be able to collect a medal. MoonWalks are great fun. You (9) can’t/needn’t worry about getting hungry as everybody gets a free pasta meal. Oh, and you (10) don’t have to/shouldn’t be a woman – over 1,000 men take part, but they (11) have to/should wear a decorated bra, too!
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Vocabulary Compound nouns 1
Match 1-4 with a-d in columns A and B to make compound nouns. A 1 2 3 4
a) b) c) d)
decay ache burn poisoning
blood nose chest ear
a) b) c) d)
bleed infection poisoning ache
Complete the sentences with compound nouns from 1. 1 2 3 4 5
back food sun tooth
B 1 2 3 4
I shouldn’t have stayed on the beach so long, I’ve got ___. I got ___ last time I went abroad on holiday. It must have been something I ate. My dentist says I’ve got ___. It might be all the sweets I ate when I was a kid. Smoking can cause a ____ and even lung cancer. If you cut yourself, clean it well or you might get ___.
Look at the pictures. Diagnose the problems using compound nouns from 1. 1 He must have earache.
Phrasal verbs 4
Replace the words in italics with the correct form of the phrasal verbs in the box. get over give up pick up
pass out put on
take up throw up come round look after fight off
1 2 3 4
I really must stop smoking. It was so hot that he lost consciousness. That smells horrible. I think I’m going to vomit. She was unconscious for a while, but she has now regained consciousness. 5 No sport for you this week while you respond to the illness.
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs in 4. 1 I always ____ some kilos over Christmas. 2 I feel sick. I think I’ve ____ a bug.
across cultures Junk food banned Famous British chef Jamie Oliver started a campaign to make school meals healthier. Now the government has banned junk food from schools. Is junk food banned in schools in your country?
3 I couldn’t see anybody until I ____ the flu. 4 I think I may ____ running. 5 I can’t go out with you tonight because I have to ____ my little brother.
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Listening At the doctor’s 1 2
Read and listen to the words below. How do you say them in your language?
• allergy • antibiotics • a broken arm/leg/rib • a cold • a cough • a migraine • a pain • tablets • a temperature • sneeze • sore throat • a bug • a runny nose Read the sentences and rewrite them in note form. Use abbreviations. Compare your notes with another student’s. 1 I’ve got a sore throat and a temperature of thirty-nine degrees.
throat – temp 39º 2 I’ve got a pain in my foot. It started about three days ago after I played football. 3 Take these tablets twice a day for seven days. Drink plenty of water and fruit juice. 4 You weigh one hundred kilograms, which is overweight.
When you listen in class or an exam, it’s a good idea to take notes.
Listen to a doctor talking to four patients and answer the questions. Take notes as you listen.
Patient 1 1 How does he feel? 2 Does he do much exercise? Why/Why not? 3 How many cigarettes does he smoke? 4 What does the doctor recommend?
Patient 3 1 What symptoms does the man have? 2 What is his temperature? 3 What medicine does the doctor give? 4 How often and for how long should he take the medicine?
Patient 2 1 When did the pain start? 2 What has she broken? 3 How did she break it? 4 What treatment does the doctor recommend?
Patient 4 1 How often does the woman get migraines? 2 What food or drink does the doctor say might cause migraines? 3 What treatment does the doctor recommend?
Listen and repeat the word below. Pay attention to the difference between the /b/ and /v/ sounds. 2/05
Listen and repeat the words in the box. 2/06
advice antibiotics behaviour evidence government liver ribs survey tablets
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Writing An opinion essay 1
Look at the photo. Why do people use sunbeds? Are they dangerous?
Read the opinions in the text and compare them with your answers to 1.
A Sunbeds are very popular in tanning salons nowadays, especially with young people. In my opinion, sunbeds should be banned. B Many people say there is no harm in getting a healthy suntan. However, these beds simulate the sun, and we know sunbathing can be harmful. It can lead to skin cancers such as melanoma. Some people have died from using sunbeds too much. Also, they can be dangerous in other ways. For example, there have been cases of children using sunbeds and getting burnt, so some countries say you have to be over 18 to use a sunbed. It seems to me that having a suntan is just another fashion trend like hair extensions or body piercing. C To sum up, sunbeds are dangerous because you can get badly burnt or even get skin cancer. I don’t think it’s important to have a suntan and I think sunbeds should be banned.
Which paragraph of the text ... 1 summarizes and restates the writer’s opinion? 2 presents the situation and states the writer’s opinion? 3 gives reasons for the writer’s opinion with examples?
Read the tip and the three alternative introductions to the essay. Which one is not a good introduction to an opinion essay? 1 I know lots of people who use sunbeds in tanning salons. They don’t have problems, so I don’t think they should be banned. 2 I agree that sunbeds should be banned. 3 Sunbeds were invented before we knew the dangers of sunbathing. In my opinion, they should be banned.
Don’t just say your opinion in the introduction. Try to think of an interesting angle.
Read the sentences from the essay. Rewrite them using the modal verbs in brackets. Which one is a recommendation and which is a rule? 1 Sunbeds should be banned. (ought to) 2 You have to be over 18 to use a sunbed. (must)
Healthy living 5 Useful Language: Giving opinions with reasons and examples
Find the underlined linking words and phrases in the essay. Which one do we use to … 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
show a contrasting idea? (x1) introduce a personal opinion? (x4) give an example? (x3) introduce a conclusion? (x1) indicate a reason? (x1) indicate a result? (x1) add another idea? (x1)
Read the sentences and choose the correct alternatives. 1 2 3 4
I often use sunbeds because/however I like to have a suntan all year round. Most people are aware of the risk of sunbeds because/so they don’t use them for too long. Some countries like/for example France have restricted the use of sunbeds to people who are over 18. Tanning salons should give information to sunbed users. Also/However, they should control the time users spend on the sunbed.
Complete the short essay with linking words or phrases from 6. In my opinion, sunbeds shouldn’t be banned. People use sunbeds (1) _____ they want a suntan. It seems to me that most people are sensible. They don’t stay a long time on the sunbed, (2) _____ they don’t get burnt. (3) _____, I think there should be some rules, (4) _____ an age limit. (5) _____, I don’t think children under 14 should use sunbeds. (6) _____, I think sunbeds are safe if people use them sensibly.
Your writing task Should smokers be allowed to smoke in public places and at work? Write an essay giving your personal opinion. Write 100-120 words.
Step 1 THINK
Make a list of any facts you know about smoking and passive smoking and think about your personal experiences. Decide on your opinion and think of an interesting angle for the introduction.
Step 2 PLAN
Organize your ideas into three paragraphs. Use the linking words and phrases in 6.
1 a short, interesting introduction with your opinion 2 the main paragraph with reasons for your opinion with examples 3 summarize and restate your opinion
Step 3 WRITE
Write your essay. Use vocabulary from the unit. Include at least one recommendation with should and one rule with must.
Step 4 CHECK
Check your writing. Use the Writing checklist to help you.
Writing reference page 141
Writing checklist I have followed the writing steps. I have written three paragraphs. I have used linking words and phrases. I have used some modal verbs. I have checked the essay for mistakes.
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Speaking Giving advice 1
Match the problems to the words of advice below. 1 I don’t want to go on holiday with my parents, but they say I have to go with them. 2 My boyfriend has started smoking and I hate this nasty habit. 3 I need to do more exercise, but I don’t like sport. a) Why don’t you tell him you can’t be close to him if he smokes? He’ll soon give up. b) You could say that you’ll text them every day while they’re on holiday. c) The best thing to do is to join a gym.
Read and listen to the dialogue. Which problem from 1 are they talking about? What does Lena decide to do in the end? 2/07
Mike Lena Mike Lena Mike Lena Mike Lena Mike
Hi Lena. What’s the problem? I went to the doctor this morning and I need to exercise more. And? Why don’t you take up a sport? The thing is I don’t really like sport. You should join a gym then. You could do Pilates or street dance or you could just work out. That’s an option, I guess. The best thing to do is to go to the gym and ask for information. You may like some of the activities. Good idea. Thanks Mike. No problem.
Note the expressions in blue in the dialogue. Which ones are used to give advice and which ones are used to make recommendations?
Before you do the task, write down a list of expressions and ideas which may be useful for the task.
Rewrite the sentences in bold in the dialogue using the modal verbs in the box. ought to might have to
Your speaking task Step 1 THINK
Look at the problems in 1 and try to think of more problems that a friend might have.
Step 2 PLAN
Think of the language you need to give advice and make recommendations. Use vocabulary from pages 55 and 60 and check the Useful Language box.
Step 3 PRACTISE
In pairs, choose a problem. Talk about it and try to find
Step 4 SPEAK
Tell the class about your problem and your solution. Do other students think it is a good idea?
LANGUAGE • Can you give me some advice? • Maybe you should/shouldn’t … • You don’t have to … • You must … • Why don’t you …? • Shall I …? • You could … • The best thing to do is …