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FlyingHigh for Saudi Arabia Level 5

Simon Brewster Paul Davies Mickey Rogers

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Contents UNIT

Page

LeSSONS

gRaMMaR

1 Urban development 2 Looking good 3 Shop till you drop 4 Language for life: climate change

• Order of adjectives • Aspects of quantifiers

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Trends

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Big moments

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1 Personal firsts 2 The interview 3 The big day 4 Language for life

• Expressing obligation / necessity • Prepositions and present participle time expressions

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Crossing cultures

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1 Evaluating tradition 2 The plane journey 3 Listening to advice 4 Language for life: social customs

• Third conditional • Expressing wishes

Life’s a journey

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1 To the Moon and back 2 A near tragedy 3 The War of the Worlds 4 Language for life: making the most of travel

• Would have, should have, could have • Past modals for deduction – could have, might have, may have, must have, can’t have

Stages of life

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1 Learning to be human 2 Goals in life 3 When I’m 44 4 Language for life: scholarships

• Future progressive vs. future simple • Connectors

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Contents

FUNCTIONS

VOCaBULaRY

PRONUNCIaTION

• Describing people / things • Complaining • Giving opinions

• Cities • Clothing • Shopping items

• Linking

• Talking about obligation and necessity • Indicating time • Practicing for a job interview

• Weddings and graduations • Invitations

• Intonation – showing interest

• Talking about past conditions / cause and effect • Expressing wishes and regrets • Talking about customs

• Gender and work • Jobs

• Sentence stress – conditionals

• Weak forms – modals

• Speculating about past events and actions • Telling a story • Talking about travel

• Talking about stages of life • Talking about future events • Talking about how to get a scholarship • Explaining an idea

• People • Life goals • Linking words

• Linking

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Contents UNIT

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LeSSONS

gRaMMaR

The future

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1 Looking back at 2001 2 Tomorrow’s world 3 Your future 4 Language for life: the world of English

• Future perfect • Future forms

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The 20th century

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1 Changes 2 History 3 World figures 4 Language for life: conference-going

• Connectors • Past time clauses

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People and technology

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• Whoever, whatever, whenever, 1 Living with machines wherever 2 Modern science • Word order with multi-word verbs 3 Technology dependence and risks 4 Language for life: technology surveys

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Global versus local 70

A B

Irregular verbs Pronunciation Learner training Spelling rules

1 The real thing 2 International and local food 3 Communicating with the world 4 Language for life: franchises

• Noun phrases • Indefinite pronouns

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Contents

FUNCTIONS

VOCaBULaRY

PRONUNCIaTION

• Speculating about the future • Communicating feelings • Talking about world English

• Developments in technology • Emotions

• Intonation and emotion

• Giving personal opinions on world change • Talking about world figures • Talking about historical events

• Word stress • Words that are both nouns and verbs • Strategies for understanding words

• Talking about technology now and • Multi-word verbs in the future • Science and technology • Giving opinions about scientific advances • Analyzing a company

• Giving opinons about illegal trade • Talking about food and eating customs • Conducting a survey • Making a business plan

• Business and commerce • Food

• Stress with separable multi-word verbs

• Sounds – /eI/, /e/ and /aI/

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Unit 1 Trends A1

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Urban development 1 Speaking

2A

a Work in pairs. Which city do the photographs show? When do you think they were taken? b Discuss the differences between the two photographs. What was the city like in photograph 1? What is it like now (photograph 2)?

2 Listening and speaking a Listen to Trevor Mackay talking about his life in London in the 1970s. Check (✔) the topics he mentions 3 from the list. 4 5 6 7 8 9

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1 museums

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2 clothes

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9 architecture 10 politics

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b Listen again and choose the correct phrases to complete Trevor’s statements and opinions. 3 28 5 30 6 31 7 32 8 33 9 27 29 1 4Trevor was / wasn’t born in London.

2 12 There was more / less traffic in the 1970s. 13 14 15 16 17

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19 21 It often took more time to go somewhere on foot / by bus. 42 4 20 43 44 22 45 23 46 24 46 25 47

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Student fashion changes 35 37 57 7 36 58 59 38 60 39 61 39 62 40 63 a lot / doesn’t change much.

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3 London is more / less polluted now.

5 Students in London nowadays probably can / can’t eat as well as Trevor did. 28 50

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6 In the 1970s there were no / a few very tall buildings.

41 c 42 What are your earliest memories of your home town? Discuss them with a classmate. 43 44 45 46 46 47 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 48 72

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73 Pronunciation: 74 75 76 77 78 linking 79 3

56 a 57 Listen to the examples of linking, and match the linked words to 58 59 60 61 62 63 32

3 the descriptions a–d. 4 5 6 7 8

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I was born in 1948. 65 1 66 67 68 69 70 71 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

a) /r/ to vowel

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73 74 75 76 77 78 79 3 Are you French? Yes, I am. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

c) a ‘back’ vowel (as in too, now, so)

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the Student Council. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

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2 He’s too old to play football. b) consonant to vowel

4 She’s a member of

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d) a ‘front’ vowel (as in I, be, see) is joined to another vowel by /j/ (She is French!)

b Work in pairs. Read 42 3 sentences 1 and 2 and 4 5 6 7 8 9 identify the type of linking 10 11(a, b, c, or d from exercise 12 13 14 15 16 17 3a). Then listen and check your pronunciation. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1 When I was a teenager, I didn’t have my own room. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 2 This apple is absolutely 34 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 delicious. 41

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Trends Lesson 1 4 Reading, speaking and writing a Work in pairs. Look at three pictures of Riyadh and al-Diriyah. Discuss a possible date for each of the buildings in pictures.

AB A

AC

b Read the text. Which picture does it describe?

Riyadh. t 15 km northwest of ou ab s lie ah riy Di alof The historical town of Wadi Hanifa. groves on the edges lm pa of sis oa an It is located in er 500 years ago. Diriyah appeared ov alin nts me ttle se t The firs n center, o an important urba int ed lop ve de d an The town grew st Saudi d the capital of the Fir an ud Sa Al of e nc becoming the reside 8. State from 1744-181 c Write a paragraph about each of the other two pictures. What can you see? What changes have taken place?

Unit 1

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Lesson 2 Trends

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Looking good 1 Word builder: clothing

a Look at the photographs and describe each article of clothing, using words from the three boxes. cufflinks sweatshirt jacket pants headband (agal) sneakers shorts jeans scarf T-shirt suit coat socks ghotrah tie shirt plain striped checked faded glittering

A D G ____________ ___ ____________ ___ ____________ ___ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

cotton leather cord denim woolen silk linen polyester metal b Which clothing articles are not included in the photographs? c Work in pairs. Imagine that you could each pick two items of clothing to wear. Which would you choose? Compare ideas with your partner.

2 Grammar builder: order of adjectives a Look at the examples.

B E H ____________ ___ ____________ ___ ____________ ___ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

a large blue cotton shirt a small red denim bag Based on these examples, number the usual sequence of adjectives.

material ■ color ■ size ■ + noun

b Put these phrases in the correct order.

C F I ____________ ___ ____________ ___ ____________ ___ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ 8

1 2 3 4

ugly / red / an / sweater / woolen large / a / brown / of / leather / boots / pair linen / white / a / jacket / small plastic / black / long / raincoat / a

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Work in pairs. Look at what your partner is wearing for 30 seconds. Then sit back to back and describe your partner’s clothes. You’re wearing a pair of black jeans, a woolen sweater …

Unit 1

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Trends Lesson 2 3 Speaking and reading a In groups, talk about your cell phones. What can they do? What do they look like? What is more important to you, what they can do or how they look? b Now read the article. Check (✔) the sentences below T (true) or F (false).

Function or fashion

T

echnologically, cell phones have reached the point where few improvements can be made. The modern phone does many of the tasks your camera, your camcorder and your computer can do. So how do the manufacturers compete? The answer lies in the “look good” factor. Cell phones stopped being just a useful gadget, and have become an indispensable fashion accessory. The rise of the fashion phone is closely linked to the consumer’s desire to be “different” to other consumers. When buying a new phone the question “What does it look like?” is just as important as “What does it do?” at any given price range. The market is driven by the need for personalization. The catch-phrase “Make it your own” not only sells phones, but also personalized ringtones, wallpapers and decorative cases. Then put a famous designer name – Armani, Gucci, Chanel – on the phone and the cost can increase by hundreds of dollars. Not surprisingly, innovative engineers are not very happy with this trend. As one said: “We do all the hard work, and then a celebrity comes along, puts a new, trendy case on the phone, adds his name and takes all the credit!”

1 We can expect a lot more technological improvements in cell phones.

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2 Different cell phones have very different technological capabilities.

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3 What a cell phone looks like has become as important as what it can do.

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4 Consumers do not like to buy the exact same models as other consumers.

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5 People are making their own cell phones.

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6 Engineers and famous designers work together to create new cell phones.

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c Discuss these questions in groups of three. 1 In groups of three, discuss other products whose ‘image’ is as important as, or more important than, their function. 2 Compare your list with another group.

Unit 1

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Lesson 3 Trends

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Shop till you drop 1 Word builder: shopping items

2 Listening

a Decide which of the four categories is correct a Listen to interviews with four shoppers. Why is for each item in the box. 2 3 4 5 6 each person out shopping? 7 8 9 1 men’s toiletries 3 jewelry Sam 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 2 computers 4 sports __________________________________________ 18

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razor blades

racket

monitor

tennis balls

mouse pad

aftershave

bracelet

watch

deodorant

keyboard

golf club

track suit

earrings

laptop

shaving cream 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 b Listen again and write down the articles each ring 2 3 4 5 6 person bought. 7 8 9

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b Make a list of what you bought last time you 10 11 12 13 14Name 15 16 17 articles went shopping. Working in groups of three, 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Sam compare your lists. Do the items fit into the 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Jim categories in exercise 1a? 72 26

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c Who do you think spent the most and the least 45money? Why? 46 46 47 52

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3 Grammar builder: aspects of 60quantifiers 61 62 63

a Look at the quantifiers in the box and the two 68different contexts. In pairs, answer the questions. 69 70 71 76(not) any 77 78 a lot of 79 all a little a few

(not) much (not) many no some

most

Countable nouns Most bottles are round. Uncountable nouns There isn’t much water in the lake. 1 Which quantifiers from the box are used with countable and uncountable nouns? 2 Which quantifiers are used only with countable nouns, and which only with uncountable nouns?

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Unit 1

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Trends Lesson 3 b In pairs, read and match the sentences. Then answer the questions. 1 2 3 4

I have three sisters. I have two brothers. I have two cars. I have four pairs of sneakers.

Language assistant

a) All of my sneakers are white. b) Both of my brothers like fast cars. c) None of my sisters likes cats. d) Neither of my cars is fast.

With the object of a sentence, not … either is used instead of neither, and not … any instead of none.

1 Which quantifiers are used for two people / things? 2 Which one is followed by a singular verb and which by a plural verb? 3 What is the opposite of all?

My brother has two cars. He doesn’t like either of them.

c Use the words and phrases in the box to complete the sentences.

I have three bicycles. I don’t use any of them.

none all a few both a little neither 1 Ed couldn’t carry the groceries because _________________ of his hands were full. 2 I’ve decided that _________________ of the shirts in any of the stores suit me. 3 We’ve bought two new monitors this week and _________________ of them works! 4 I don’t need any new razors because I still have _________________ left. 5 Did you get _________________ the things from the supermarket that were on your list? 6 I have _________________ money, so I might buy myself that jacket I saw last week.

4 Reading, speaking, and writing a Read this e-mail. In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Why is Khalid writing the e-mail? 2 What problems does he mention? 3 What information does he need? INTERNET QUESTIONNAIRE Back

Forward

Address

Favorites

Refresh

Home

Stop

Mail

Tools

Library

www.bargainonline.com/my order

History

Search

Scrapbook

Page Holder

Dear Sir, I am writing to complain about a recent order I placed with your company. Almost two months ago, I ordered a flat screen monitor (E-732, 17 inches), a cordless keyboard, and two computer games. Unfortunately, there is a problem with the monitor and neither of the computer games has arrived yet. The monitor gets extremely hot and turns itself off after 20 minutes of use. It also seems to have problems displaying some colors correctly. I would be grateful if you could tell me how to return the monitor and how soon I could have a replacement.

b Imagine that you have bought something online. There is a problem with your order and you want to write an e-mail to the manager to complain. In pairs, make notes to answer these questions. What did you order? What is the problem with your order? What else do you want to mention? What do you want to happen now? c Write your e-mail. When you have finished, swap your e-mail with a partner and read each other’s. Do you think the manager would respond positively or negatively to the e-mails?

Could you also let me know when I can expect the computer games to arrive? The Web site gave a delivery time of 14 days, but I have now been waiting for over seven weeks. I look forward to hearing from you. Khalid Rasheed

Unit 1

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Lesson 4 Trends

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Language for life: climate change 1 The problem In small groups discuss what you know about the causes and effects of climate change.

2 The destruction of the rainforest 2

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Listen to the radio interview with an expert on climate change. Then listen again, and complete the chart. 6 7 8 9

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estimated number of years left for rainforests rainforests absorb 61

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3 Cause and effect Put this explanation of the causes and effects of the contraction of the Arctic Ice Cap into the correct order. Scientists say that Arctic sea ice is declining at 9% per decade. It could disappear by the end of this century. Why is this happening, and what will be the effects?

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As a result, there is a real danger of flooding of islands and coastal cities areas.

This means that the oceans are getting warmer.

This melting means that there is less ice and more open water.

This, in its turn, creates further and faster loss of ice.

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Rising world temperatures means that the ice has started to melt.

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Open water absorbs more solar energy.

Unit 1

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Trends Lesson 4 4 How’s your environmental knowledge? In pairs, discuss and answer these questions. If you don’t know, then guess the answer you think most likely.

The environmenT 1

U.n. scientists predict that by the end of the century temperatures could rise by as much as: a 3.6°% b 5.8°% c 6.5°%

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What has been the average global temperature change over the last 100 years? a about + 0.5° b about + 1° c about + 2°

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b 30–40% c 40–50%

b 100 c 500

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What is the biggest contributor to world Co2 emissions? a aviation b electricity c motor vehicles

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A monitor left on all night for a year uses the equivalent of how many electric kettles boiling? a 50

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What percentage of animal and plant species is at risk of extinction if global temperatures continue to rise? a 20–30%

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how much will sea levels have risen by 2080 at the current rate of increase? a 5 cm b 10 cm c 50 cm

7 how many people in Asia could face a major water shortage if current rates of carbon emissions continue?

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a 10 million b 50 million c 1 billion

8 A dripping tap can waste enough water in a day to run a shower for:

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a three minutes b five minutes c seven minutes

9 how long does it take for a plastic bag to decompose?

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a 10 years b 50 years c 100 years

10 Which country produces the highest carbon emissions per person?

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a the U.A.E. b the U.K. c the U.S.A. now check your answers. Your score:

0–3: oh dear! Be careful – time is running out for you to save the planet! 4–7: not bad. But remember – being aware of the problems goes at least some of the way to doing something to prevent them. 8–10: Well done! i hope you are putting your knowledge to good use to help save the planet!

■ ■ ■ Answers: 1b, 2a, 3a, 4c, 5b, 6c, 7c, 8b, 9c, 10a

Unit 1

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Unit 2 Big moments

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Personal firsts

2 Listening

1 Speaking a Work in pairs and talk about what’s happening in the photographs. Describe how you think the people feel. 2 3 4 5 6

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a Listen to two people talking 8 about firsts and identify the 9 topics they are talking about.

b Complete your sections of the table, and interview a partner to 10 11 12 13 14 15 b 16Listen to the people talking 17 complete their sections. Use the examples to help you make up again and answer the your questions. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18 19 20 21 22 23 24questions below. Check your 25 When was your first day at school? 10 11 12 13 14 15 16answers in groups of three. 17 Who took you? Were there other new children? How did you feel?

You

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Your first … when / who / feelings? what / where? day at school friend big family occasion English lesson cell phone or computer

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33 Wesley 241 25 What was John like? 392 40 What was he really good at? 32 33 463 47 Why couldn’t Wesley talk to him? 39 40

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when / who / feelings? 34 35 36 37 38 39 what / where? 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Tom 41 42 43 44 45 46 461 47 What was Tom’s job? 56 57 58 59 60 61 622 63 How much did he earn? 3 What didn’t he like about 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 the job? 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

Unit 2

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Big moments Lesson 1

3 Speaking and reading

c Read the text again. Put the following list of events in the correct order.

a In pairs, look at the photograph above and identify the sport. Has anyone you know ever done any extreme sports? Which? Would you like to do any of these sports? Why? / Why not?

1 When he jumped, his parachute opened safely.

2 He landed safely but didn’t feel completely well.

3 The writer and Barry took a day’s course in parachuting.

b Read the text. Identify the sport that is being described and the reason the person wanted to do it.

4 Barry jumped out of the plane first. 5 He decided to do another parachute jump. 6 He jumped out of the plane and looked around him.

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ne evening, my friend Barry and I were chatting over a cup of coffee when we discovered we had both always wanted to jump out of an airplane. Before we had a chance to think about it, we’d checked the Yellow Pages, found a “drop zone,” and chosen a date. On the day of the jump we had to sign a form that basically said “I accept that I might die horribly,” which made me think twice, but it was too late by then. After a oneday class, the plane took off with four “first-timers” 2 3 4 5 6 plus the jumpmaster Mick and the pilot. When the plane reached 1,100 meters, we were 10 11 12 13 14 ready to go. Mick shouted “In the door!” and Barry sat in the open door with his legs hanging outside. 19 out 20and21 22 Mick shouted “Go!” and Barry 18 jumped disappeared. Then it was my turn. I was apprehensive but not terrified. On the word “Go!” I threw 26 27 28 myself 29 30 out and spread my arms and legs and kept my eyes open as I shouted, “One thousand, two thousand, 34 35 36 37 38 three thousand, four thousand, check canopy!” Thankfully, the main parachute was open and I could 41 42 43 44 45 relax and admire the view.

7 The writer and Barry found details about parachuting in the Yellow Pages.

4 Pronunciation: intonation – showing interest 7

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a Listen to these two excerpts from the interviews 9 in exercise 2. What do you notice about the intonation of the phrases in italics? 17 1 Wesley: His name was John and he was

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Shaun: He was?

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really smart.

I used to ride about six kilometers a day.

Shaun: You did? b Work in pairs. Write a short phrase in each

space, and practice reading it out loud. I landed perfectly near the drop zone but suddenly 48 After 49 50 51 for 52 53 54 55 fell over and discovered I was dizzy. waiting 1 A: I found $100 in the street. the world to stabilize, I walked back to the airport.

B: ____________________? Lucky you! The first thing I did was to buy 56 two 57 more58 jump59 60 61 62 63 2 A: My first day at school was horrible. tickets! 64

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B: ____________________? Why?

c Change pairs and talk to another person about 79 your firsts in exercise 1.

Unit 2

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Lesson 2 Big moments

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The interview 1 Speaking and listening a Look at the photographs and guess what the two people are talking about. How are these people feeling? What do you think is the reason for the phone call?

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c Work in pairs. Read the conversation and try to put it in the correct order. The first three have been done for you. Then listen 13 14 15 16 17 again to check your answers. Rakan: Hello, Rakan Al Ajou speaking.

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Rakan: Ah Atlanta College. Yes, I sent you my application last month.

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OK, Mr. Al Ajou. That’s confirmed for 9.30, Thursday, April 16. Could you kindly email us with your Skype address and we will call you at that time?

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Would next Tuesday at 11 be convenient?

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Yes, it is. Dr. Hudson would like to hold an interview with you on Skype. Would that be possible?

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Good morning Mr. Al Ajou. My name is Ross Gregson and I’m calling from Atlanta College in the U.S.

Rakan: I see. Is it about my application?

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2 Speaking and reading a What are the important things to think about when you go for an interview? Work in groups of three and make a list of ideas. b You are going to read some advice on what to do when you go for an interview at a college or university. By yourself, check (3) whether you agree, slightly agree or disagree with the advice. c In groups of three, compare your opinions. Discuss the reasons for your opinions.

Rakan: Of course. When would he like to have the call? Ross:

Don’t worry. We certainly wouldn’t expect you to miss an event like that!

Rakan: Thanks, thanks very much. I can make it any other day. Ross:

What about, er … next Thursday at 9.30?

Ross:

Yes. We received it. I work in the Faculty of English and Dr. Hudson, the Head of English, asked me to phone you.

Rakan: Yes, that would be fine. Rakan: Yes, no problem. Thank you very much. Goodbye. Rakan: Oh … I’m afraid that’s the one day I can’t make. My brother’s graduating that day. I’m awfully sorry.

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Unit 2

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Big moments Lesson 2

The perfect college interview

agree not sure disagree

1 Dress extremely smartly.

2 Make sure you tell the interviewer what a great student you are, even if you have to make some of it up.

3 Make sure you know everything about the academic subject for which you are applying. 4 Showing an interest in the academic subject is important. 5 Be very, very polite. Call the interviewer "Sir" or "Madam." 6 Make sure that you arrive on time for the interview. 7 Look at the interviewer when he / she is speaking to you, and when you answer. 8 Speak clearly and confidently. 9 If you don’t know an answer to a question, say that you don’t know. 10 At the end of the interview ask the interviewer if you passed the interview.

3 Grammar builder: expressing obligation and necessity a Look at the examples. Then answer the questions. You don’t need to know everything about the subject. You have to show an interest in the subject. You don’t have to know all the answers to the questions. You have to speak clearly and confidently. You can’t be late for interviews. 1 Which sentences talk about something being unnecessary? 2 Which sentences talk about obligations or prohibitions? b Change these sentences if they are not true for you or your country. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I don’t need to tell my parents if I’m coming home late. We don’t have to go to school in July. You have to carry an ID card at all times. All adults have to vote in elections. You can’t drive a car until you are 17 years old. I need to study every evening after class. 18-year-olds have to ask their parents’ permission if they want to go out.

4 Writing and speaking

In groups, rewrite the advice for interviewees above. Give the advice that you all agree on. Compare your advice with that of other groups.

Language assistant The opposite of have to is don’t have to or can’t. • Imperatives can be used for obligation. Always speak English in class. Don’t drive so fast. • Don’t have to means you are free from obligation. A: Do I have to wear a suit at the meeting? B: No, you don’t have to, but you can if you want to.

Unit 2

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Lesson 3 Big moments A

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The big day 1 Speaking and reading a Look at the photographs. Identify the occasions and talk about what is happening. b Match the invitations to the occasions in the photographs.

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and Mr. Saleh Ahmad Mr. Mohammad Ibrahim g have the pleasure of invitin

James O’Brien and family

h Saleh to the wedding of Abdulla At the Wilton Hotel at 3.00 p.m. On Monday, March 24th Reception to follow

Saeed Isma’il

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c In groups, discuss the following questions.

would like to invite isma’il mohammad and family to his graduation ceremony at University hall, montgomery University on Saturday, June 29th at 1.30 a.m.

1 W hich of these occasions have you attended? 2 What are the best occasions that you remember? 3 What other important occasions are celebrated in your country?

RSVP

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Please take your seats 15 minutes before the ceremony. Please bring this invitation with you.

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Hi Khalid, – you’re coming over to Saudi My father’s just told me the news for Hajj. That’s great news! ngements, because we’d like I hope you haven’t made other arra to invite you to stay with us. and we’ll come and meet you Let us know your plane arrival time last saw you, and we’re all we e sinc s at the airport. It’s been age looking forward to it. See you next month. With very best wishes, Your cousin, Majid English? It’s better than when I P.S. What do you think about my last saw you!

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2 Word builder: weddings and graduations a Which of the following words do you associate with weddings and which with graduations? Write them under the appropriate headings. Weddings

Graduations

ceremony college scholarship degree graduate

exams ring reception engagement best man

bride groom marry diploma

b Can you think of any other words for these occasions? Write two more under each heading.

Unit 2

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Big moments Lesson 3 3 Reading and listening

5 Writing and speaking

a Look at the advertisement. What kind of a company is this and what do they organize?

a Imagine that you have just graduated and you see the following job advertisement. In groups, decide what kind of person might enjoy this job.

Weddings Unlimited We help create beautiful wedding memories! Let us make your special day more special. 50 years of experience count!

❊ Cakes ❊ Catering and menus ❊ Ceremony ❊ Flowers ❊ Gifts ❊ Invitations ❊ Limousines ❊ Photographers ❊ Planning and co-ordination ❊ Transportation ❊ Videographers ❊ Wedding reception venues Contact us toll free 1–800–387–4936 or e-mail us at weddings@weddingsunlimited.com 2 10

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b Listen to the conversation about wedding 11arrangements, and check the items on the 12 13 14 15 16 17 advertisement that you hear mentioned. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 4 Grammar builder: prepositions and

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present 28 29 participle 30 31 32 time 33 expressions

a In pairs, ask and answer questions about 35 what you usually do at different times of day, 36 37 38 39 39 40 on different days, in different seasons of the 41 42 year, on different public holidays, etc. 43 44 45 46 46 47 34

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1 _ _________ leaving school, my brother has 72 73 74had three jobs. 75 76 77 78 79 2 I met my best friend __________ registering for a karate class. 3 ___________ taking this class, I thought English was impossible for me.

4 M ustafa applied for over a dozen jobs __________ graduating from college. c Rewrite each sentence using the word in parentheses. 5 My cousin was at college and then he became a pilot! (becoming) 6 A dam passed his exams and since then he's been traveling around Europe. (passing) 7 I'll leave school and then I'll start working for my father. (leaving)

Requi

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d Wanted: yo ung, ambitious person to wo rk wedding com in busy pany. Are you at organizing good p Are you goo eople? d at working within tight d eadlines? Writ e to us, detailin g and qualificat your experience io could be on ns, and you your way to a new care er!

Dear Sir/Madam, for I am writing in response to your advertisement in a local tly recen ared appe which ger, mana ing a wedd ion. newspaper. I would like to apply for the posit ess busin in r majo a with I recently graduated nt geme mana ied stud I es, cours e studies. In thes found I . group rch resea l smal a ized organ skills and this very rewarding and would welcome the gement. opportunity to gain more experience in mana a as ed work also I e, colleg at During my time ing meet ed involv This zine. maga e colleg the for writer views inter ging deadlines every month, as well as arran sary and other events. I believe I have the neces ure. press r unde ability to work well me I have enclosed my résumé. If you would like e pleas , ences refer to attend an interview or provide to rd forwa look I . know do not hesitate to let me hearing from you. Sincerely yours,

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Wedding Manager

Richard Shaw

b Imagine that you are the ideal person for the job and you are going to write a letter of application. Use your imagination to make notes to answer the following questions. 1 2 3

Why are you writing? Where did you see the advertisement? What relevant experience and qualifications do you have? What relevant personal qualities do you have?

c Write a letter applying for the position as a wedding manager using the letter of application above as a model. When you have finished, read your classmates’ letters and vote on who should get the job.

Unit 2

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Lesson 4 Big moments

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Language for life: All about interviews 1 The conference Look at the details below and answer the questions.

3 international ce on Students’ Conferen ent The World environm rd

Montreal, Canada g for The organisers are lookin country. r representatives from you : Suitable applicants should • be at least 15 years old and interest in, • have an awareness of, environmental issues English • have a good standard of applicant’s • have a reference from the school or college e in the • be prepared to participat concerning debates, and provide input the applicant’s country

h relevant details, Candidates should apply, wit to Mr T Clark at: om not later than tclark@worldenvironment.c March 31 . d in their own Finalists will be interviewe country. etc. expenses will All travel, accommodation licants. be paid for successful app

2 The application Read a student’s application to attend the conference. He doesn’t want to make any English mistakes in his e-mail. Check it, find and correct his three mistakes.

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Mecca

Dear Mr Clark, I would be very interesting in attending the 3rd International Students’ Conference on The World Environment. I have a keen interest in environmental issues, and last year won a national prize for a project on global warming. My standard of English is good. My English teacher and my headmaster have all agreed to send you references. I am 17 years old and come Jidda in Saudi Arabia. I look forward to hear from you. Yours sincerely, Mustafa Ahmed

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1 W hich of the criteria do you satisfy? 2 Would you be interested in attending this conference? Why? / Why not? 3 What further information about the conference would you want before going to an interview? 4 What would you take to the interview?

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on The ed e conference Dear Mr Ahm n to attend th io at have ic u pl yo ap at ur th yo rm you Thank you for …. pleased to info on am 30 I 2. t. en at e nm ill take plac w World Enviro is Th . w ie rv for inte been selected

Unit 2

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Big moments Lesson 4 3 M aking a good impression 2 4 The interview 3 4 5 6 7 8

OK, you got the interview and the big day has come. How are you 10 going to make a good impression? Share your ideas in groups and make 18 notes on at least six ideas. Then look at our ideas and see if you are ready 26 for this interview.

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They say that most interviewers make 34 that all important decision on who they are going to choose in the first 41 four minutes of an interview. So making a good impression is crucial. 48 Follow these basic steps to improve your chances of a successful result on 56 the day.

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Listen to Mustafa’s interview. Check (3) the sentences below T 11 (true) or F (false). 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 Mustafa’s English teacher thinks that

19 20his English is very good. 21 22 23 24 25

T

F

2 He thinks that learning English is more 28 29 30 31 32 33 important than the world environment.

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1 B e on time. Being on time (or early) 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 is usually interpreted as evidence of your commitment, dependability, 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 and professionalism. 2 R elax. Think of the interview as a conversation, not an interrogation. 3 B e prepared. Take time before the interview to think about likely questions and answers. 4 T hink of key questions to ask. Most interviews follow a pattern. First, you answer the interviewer’s questions and then it is your turn to ask questions. 5 R ehearse the interview with a friend. Fifteen minutes practice will make you feel much more relaxed. 6 S how self-confidence. Answer the interviewer’s questions in a clear voice. 7 Remember to listen. Communication is a two-way street. You shouldn’t talk too much because you may miss important points made by the interviewer.

Work in pairs. Student A take the part of the interviewer; Student B, the applicant. Role play a similar interview. Can you tell me a few things about yourself? Why did you apply to go to the conference? How do you think you could benefit the conference?

Unit 2

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Unit 3 Crossing cultures

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Evaluating tradition 1 Speaking a In groups, discuss the following question. Which jobs do you think of as being done by men or women? Check (✔) the jobs M (masculine) or F (feminine). company director

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nurse

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librarian

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secretary (personal assistant) M veterinarian

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pilot

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basketball player

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elementary school teacher

M

F F F F F F F F

b Discuss the following questions in your groups. 1 2

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Which jobs are more highly paid? Is the percentage of men and women in traditional “male” or “female” jobs changing? Can you give some examples?

2 5 Listening, writing, and speaking 6 7 8 9

a Listen to two people talking about their working 10 11 12 13weeks. Where does the conversation take place? 14 15 16 17 Why is Zaki’s English so good? 2 18

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4 5 6 7 8 9 20 b 21Listen again. Check (✔) the correct boxes. 22 23 24 25

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3 Reading and speaking a In pairs, do a class survey. Find out which ONE subject students would choose to study if they went to university. b Make a list of the most popular subjects. c Read the list of the ten most popular subjects at British universities. How does this list compare with yours?

UK’s top 10 university subjects … 1 2 3 4 5

Law Design Psychology Management Studies Business Studies

6 7 8 9 10

Computer Science English Studies Medicine Social Work Sports Science

d Did any of the subjects in the British list surprise you? Why?

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Crossing cultures Lesson 1 e Read about a famous 19th century nurse. Discuss the questions in groups.

1 Why didn’t Florence’s parents want her to become a nurse? 2 Have attitudes to nursing changed since the mid-19th century?

T h e L ady w iT h T h e L amp Florence Nightingale was named after Florence (Firenze), the Italian city where she was born to rich parents on May 12th 1820. A girl in her position in society was expected to marry a man of similar class and have a family, not to pursue a career. Florence, however, had other ideas. In 1845 she decided, to become a nurse. In those days, nursing was considered an occupation for working-class women and was not highly regarded. Florence Nightingale started her career looking after poor people in London, but in 1854 she and a team of nurses were sent to Turkey to nurse British soldiers who had been wounded in the Crimean War against Russia. She found conditions in the hospital appallingly unsanitary, and estimated that ten times the number of soldiers died from disease than from their wounds. She soon demanded, and achieved, improvements to hospital conditions, and managed to cut the death rate dramatically. She worked tirelessly and became known as “The Lady with the Lamp” because of her habit of walking round the hospital late in the evening, looking after her patients. On her return to England, she fought for improved sanitary conditions in hospitals. She was probably the most famous woman in the country apart from Queen Victoria. She died on August 13th 1910, having achieved the reputation of being the founder of modern nursing.

4 Writing and speaking a Read the notes about a famous Islamic scholar. b You are going to write an essay about this person. Base your article on the notes. Use the article about Florence Nightingale as a model. Give your essay a title. Bint Al-Shati’a Name: Aisha Abdul-Rahman Islamic scholar, intellectual, journalist, professor Born: November 1913, Damietta (Dumyat), Egypt Started studying aged 5. Attended Teacher Training School 1929 moved to Cairo. Studied for Bachelor’s, Master’s Degree and Doctorate at Cairo University Worked as University teacher in Cairo, and in Sudan, Morocco, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. Also wrote books and newspaper articles Died: December 1st, 1998 (heart attack) Respected as Islamic scholar

c When you have finished, read some of the essays written by your classmates. Finally, read your own essay again and try to find ways in which it could be improved.

Unit 3

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Lesson 2 Crossing cultures

2

The plane journey 1 Reading and speaking

b In pairs, give the story a title which will make people want to read it.

a Read the following story and underline all the coincidences you find.

c In groups, talk about meetings or other events that have changed your lives.

It all happened because of a plane journey. Khalil had just graduated from business school in Atlanta and he 2 Listening, reading, and writing had a problem – he didn’t know whether to go2 home3 to 4 5 6 7 8 9 Saudi Arabia or stay and try and find a job in the a Listen to the conversation between Khalil and States. He decided to visit his cousin in Houston and 10 11 12 13 14 his cousin Ahmed. Why does Ahmed say 15 16 17 talk it over. “oversleeping can be a good thing sometimes? Soon after the plane took off, Khalil heard a voice say, “You look deep 18 19 20 21 b 22 Read the e-mail that Ahmed wrote to a friend. 23 24 25 in thought, young man. Cheer up! It may never happen!” It was the Re-write it, correcting the factual errors. How man sitting next to him. “Anything you want to talk about?“ he asked. 26

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“Well, yes,” said Khalil. He explained his dilemma to the friendly stranger.

“Yes, I see your problem. Tell me a bit more about yourself.” So Khalil told him about his studies in Atlanta, how much he had enjoyed them, how he was keen to 41 get a 42 job 43 44 and put his new ideas into practice. 48 49 50 51 “So where are you from?” asked his fellow passenger. 56 57 58 59 When Khalil said, “Riyadh,” the man’s face lit up with a big 64he said. 65 66 67 smile. “I know it well,” “My company has a branch in Riyadh and I go there72 every73 74 75 few months.” He explained that his company had an apartment there and, amazingly, it was in the same block as Khalil’s uncle’s apartment. Khalil mentioned his uncle’s name. “Is he tall, with grey hair?” asked the man. “Then I know him! He was very helpful to me when I first moved to Riyadh.” So they continued chatting all the way to Houston. As they left the plane, the man turned to Khalil and said, “Very impressive, young man. Whatever you decide, you’ve got a great future ahead of you.” The next morning at breakfast, Khalil’s cousin spotted something in his newspaper. “Hey, look, Khalil. This could be just the job for you!” Khalil looked at the advertisement for an assistant personnel manager’s job and agreed. He sent a letter of application and his résumé and, a week later, was invited for interview.

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for ages. Hi! How are you? I haven’t heard from you 68Well, 69 I’ve 70got71a bit of good news. You remember my Well, the most cousin Khalil – you met him here last fall? but 76amaz 77 ing78thing 79 happened. He was coming to see me, just he ly Lucki . he overslept and nearly missed his plane the plane he made it, and while he was waiting to board man was The him. to g met this guy and started talkin very was and him interested to hear all about because he went encouraging. Khalil didn’t see him again applied for a Khalil ay, Anyw n. sectio lass into the first-c the interviewing job and, guess what? This man was on ent to give him panel and persuaded the company presid that if he’d the job immediately! Well, it’s a sure thing job so easily. the got missed the plane he wouldn’t have Anyway, I must get off to work now. Hope to hear from you soon! Ahmed

In the interview room sat three men. The familiar man in the middle looked at Khalil and said, “Jim, Robert, I don’t think we need to interview this young man. I think I might have interviewed him already without knowing it!” And, turning to Khalil, he smiled and said, “May I introduce myself formally. I’m Andrew Smithson. I’m President of this company.”

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Unit 3

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Crossing cultures Lesson 2 3 Grammar builder: third conditional a Look at the two statements and answer the questions. 1 If Jeff had gotten up early, he wouldn’t have missed the plane. a) Did Jeff get up early? b) Did he miss the plane? 2 If Mark hadn’t taken a taxi, he would have been late for the meeting. a) Did Mark take a taxi? b) Was he late for the meeting? b We use the third conditional to imagine unreal situations in the past. Look at this example. How does the grammatical form change from a real to an unreal situation? Jeff didn’t get up early. He missed the plane. If he had gotten up early, he wouldn’t have missed it. c Complete these sentences by putting the verbs in parentheses into the correct form. 1 I got the job. If I (1) _____________________ (get) it, I (2) _____________________ (apply) for another. 2 Bill’s car broke down. If it (3) _____________________ (break down), he (4) _____________________ (get) to work on time.

3 M y doctor gave me some pills. If he (5) _____________________ (give) me them, I (6) ________________ (get) better. 4 I didn’t get many votes. If I (7) _____________________ (get) more votes, I (8) _____________________ (win) the election.

5 There weren’t many people in the restaurant. If there (9) _____________________ (be) more people in the restaurant, I (10) _____________________ (stay). d Now change these real situations into unreal ones. 1 Brandon grew up in Hawaii, so he learned to surf very well. If he hadn’t grown up in Hawaii, he wouldn’t have learned to surf. 2 3 4 5 6

Mark didn’t tell me about the meeting, so I didn’t go. I wasn’t good in science, so I didn’t study medicine. We arrived late at the conference, so we didn’t hear the opening talk. I didn’t study, so I failed the math test. Tina was hungry all morning because she missed breakfast.

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b Listen again and practice saying the sentences 10 11 12 13 14 15with the correct intonation. 16 17

a Listen to the following sentences and underline 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 5 Speaking 0 11 12 13 14 15the stressed words in each clause. Which parts 16 17 of the conditional structure are stressed in an 26 27 28 29 30 31In groups, talk about events which have 32 33 8 19 20 21 22 23affirmative clause? Which in a negative clause? 24 25 influenced your lives. How would your lives be I would have gone to the beach if I hadn’t had to work. different if the events had been different?

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If I hadn’t passed my exams last year, I wouldn’t have 2 If I had stayed in Florida, I would have seen the 41 42 43 44 45 46moved 46 47 up into this class. But I worked hard and… 4 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 hurricane. here I am! 3 If you hadn’t bought that car, you’d have some 48 49 50 51 52 53If my 54 father 55 hadn’t changed his job, we wouldn’t have 1 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 money. moved here. But I’m glad he did – I’m very happy 4 He would have come to the restaurant if he 56 57 58 59 60 61here. 62 63 hadn’t had to work late. 8 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

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Unit 3

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01/05/2012 14:37


Lesson 3 Crossing cultures

3

Listening to advice The hajj pilgrimage checklisT fOr BriTish pilgrims

A successful pilgrimage requires careful preparation. We have compiled practical tips and advice for pilgrims to accompany the travel checklist. Before you go: talk to those who have already performed the Hajj pilgrimage ensure your passport and visa for Saudi Arabia are in good condition and valid book travel and accommodation with an agent that is accredited with the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in the U.K. to comply with Saudi Government regulations note the contact details for your tour operator in the U.K. and their representatives in Makkah clearly label your medication and take an adequate amount get written details of your trip including cost, room size and distance to the Holy Mosque take out adequate travel insurance – Shariah compliant travel insurance is available get the required vaccinations for your pilgrimage, and take your vaccination cards with you buy good-quality footwear – you may have to walk long distances.

1 Speaking and reading a Every year about 25,000 British Muslims go on the Hajj pilgrimage. In pairs, discuss and make notes of any advice that you would give to a British pilgrim who has never been on the Hajj pilgrimage before. b The British government gives advice to pilgrims. Does your advice agree with theirs? Read the checklist and compare. c Read the e-mail from a British pilgrim to a colleague at work. d Look at the checklist again. Check (3) the pieces of advice that Khalid did not follow.

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ing experience and very Well, I’m back from Makkah. It was an amaz million people go on two that say They moving. I’m so glad I went. believe it! I’ve never, quite can I – year every age pilgrim Hajj the you more when I see you never been in such a large crowd. I’ll tell

healthy travel Travelers need to protect themselves from the sun, dehydration, exhaustion, foot problems, and respiratory and bronchial illnesses. You should take: an umbrella to protect you from the sun a spare pair of sandals an adequate supply of medication with a doctor’s certificate describing the medication.

back at work.

though. For a start, the Just to let you know that it wasn’t all easy, like it. And I didn’t ing anyth heat was incredible – I’ve never felt I arrived in Saudi when head my off sun the keep to have anything I guess it was – point one at Arabia. I became quite light-headed on my foot stood one some , crush the in then, And mild sunstroke. walking, that t mean This ls. sanda and broke the strap on one of my agonising got I and lt difficu ely extrem was ing, or rather hobbl years ago) had tried to give blisters! My elder brother (he went two listen. And my father didn’t I but went, I e befor me some advice s before I went – but pilgrim for gave me a government advice sheet better. I wish I’d knew I ht thoug I lly. carefu it read didn’t of course, I idiot. an such been listened to my family and hadn’t and I am so happy I have Of course, it was all for the sake of Allah age. been on the Hajj pilgrim See you next week. Best wishes, Khalid

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Unit 3

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Crossing cultures Lesson 3 2 Grammar builder: expressing wishes a Look at these examples of wishes. Then answer the questions. I wish I hadn’t stayed up and watched TV. I wish I had gone to bed at my usual time. 1 Did he stay up and watch TV? 2 Did he go to bed at his usual time? 3 What verb tense is used after wish to talk about past unreal situations? 4 Why is the verb in the first sentence negative (hadn’t told), but positive in the second sentence (had kept)? 5 Find more examples of wishes in the texts in exercise 1c. What did Khalid wish that he had done? b Complete the table with your own ideas. Then discuss them with your classmates. Wish about an unreal situation

Who said it

Real situation

I wish I had brought my umbrella.

I think someone getting wet in the rain said it.

The person didn’t bring his / her umbrella.

I wish our team had practiced more. I wish I had done my revision. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much at lunchtime.

c Write wishes these people might make in these situations. 1 A student. He wasn’t prepared when the teacher gave the class an exam. I wish he hadn’t given us an exam because I wasn’t prepared. 2 A man. He is unemployed and regrets leaving his last job. I wish ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 A woman. She bought a new pair of shoes, wore them once, and decided she didn’t like them. I wish ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 A student. He didn’t study much at college and now he’s failed his exams. ________________________________________________________________________________________ I wish

3 Speaking

In groups, talk about things you wish you had or hadn’t done in the past. Ideas: opportunities for work or study, friendships, money, etc. I wish I had studied business instead of biology. There are more job opportunities in business.

Unit 3

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Lesson 4 Crossing cultures

4

Language for life: social customs

Learning tip Listening comprehension is not only understanding the words people say. It is also sometimes understanding what they don’t say! People use devices like stress, intonation, and pauses, as well as words, to communicate their attitudes and opinions.

1 From culture to culture

When you deal with people from other cultures, it is helpful if you have learned something about the customs and attitudes of those 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 cultures. Food, body language and codes of So far, you focused on facts. Now listen again and behavior within society are just a few of the 10 11 12 13 14 15 pay attention to tones of voice and intonation. 16 17 aspects of culture that can vary greatly from Then answer the questions. one society to another, and even within 18 19 20 21 22 23 Conversation 1 24 25 societies. How does the first man feel? Consider the questions below. 26 27 28 29 30 31 a) 32He’s a little insulted. 33 1 “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” What do b) He’s happy that the other man will pay. you understand by this well-known saying? 34 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 Conversation 2 2 Do you agree? Should we adapt to other people’s What does the second man mean? 41 42 43 44 45 46 a) 46He doesn’t know what a baseball game is. 47 2 3 4 5 6 7 8cultures and, if so, to what extent? 9 b) He isn’t sure he wants to see a baseball game. Now listen to some short conversations and 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 0 11 12 13 14 15 choose the correct answers to the questions. Pay 16 17 Conversation 3 attention to the actual words of the conversations. What can we infer? 8

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b) He’s grateful for the advice.

Say how you decided on the answers to the questions. Did the speakers use intonation in English in the same way you would use it in your language? What are the main similarities and differences? Do you think you use your voice differently when you are speaking English?

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Crossing cultures Lesson 4 2 The culture of international students In groups, imagine you are on an international flight. Read and discuss the in-flight magazine quiz below. Which actions would you consider most appropriate and which least appropriate? There are no “right” answers, but give reasons for your choices.

The Students Culture Quiz c) You wait and give them the schedule personally when they arrive. 2 The visitors arrive at 8:00 p.m. a) You meet them at the airport. b) Your school sends a driver to meet them. c) You send them instructions for taking airport transportation to their hotel.

3 They will be in your city for the weekend, and you want to provide them with some entertainment. a) You decide to take them to a falconry display. b) You take them both to crafts fair. c) You give them some suggestions for things to do and how to get there. You will see them on Monday.

Imagine that two students (a boy from Britain and a boy from the United States) are coming to your country, and they have been there several times before. 1 Y ou have made a schedule for the students' stay in your country. a) You call them on the phone to tell them personally about the activities you’ve planned. b) You send them an e-mail with the complete schedule, including social activities.

4 One evening one of the boys feels sick. You had planned to take your guests to dinner. a) You cancel the dinner because the boy can’t go. b) You take the other visitor to dinner but invite your friends as well. c) You go to dinner with the other student. 5 A nother student from your school has lunch with the visitors at a restaurant. a) He pays the bill. b) The vistors pay the bill. c) Everyone pays his share.

3 Planning for visitors Imagine that you are planning weekend activities for a foreign student visiting your city. Write an e-mail message suggesting a plan. Ask him or her to tell you which of the suggested activities he or she would prefer.

Exchange e-mails with a partner. Now imagine you are the visitor. Read your partner’s e-mail and write an answer. Say which activities you would prefer and give reasons. Be polite!

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Unit 4 Life’s a journey

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To the Moon and back 1 Reading and writing a You are going to read a story about a real person. Look at the photographs. What do you think the story is about?

b Now read the magazine story. Did you guess the topic of the story?

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hile circling the Moon in the Apollo 15 space craft in 1971, the American astronaut Al Worden was heard to say, “After The King’s training, I feel that I’ve been here before.” Back on Earth, in the NASA control center, Florida, the assembled scie ntists cheered for “The King”, Egyptian-born geologi st Farouq Al Baz, secretary of lunar landing site selection and chairman of astronaut training in visu al observations and photography. “Why did they call me ‘The King’?” joked Dr. Al Baz in a recent interview. “I guess it must have been because I was an Egyptian guy, and the only Egyptian called Farouq that the Ame ricans had heard of in those days was King Faro uq!” And what was it like working on the Apollo Moon landings project? “It was incredible,” says Al Baz. “We were all inspired because we knew we were satisfying a dream of mankind. Sinc e early times mankind has looked at the Moon and wondered … and we were taking a major step to satisfy that wonder.”

“We knew we were satisfying a dream of mankind.” And what exactly was Dr. Al Baz’s job? He explains: “I was in charge of choosin g sites on the Moon that were not only safe places to land, but also of probable geological interest . I knew that we wouldn’t get many landings, so I had to get it right. Then I had to train the astrona uts about the Moon, how to photograph it and how to collect scientific samples.”

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Life’s a journey Lesson 1 c Choose the best headline.

The Man They Called “The King”

b In groups, read your paragraphs. Whose story was the most probable? c Read the paragraph about a real Moon landing. Were there any similarities with your story?

a famous egyptian Scientist

The Apollo 15 space mission

Man takes first steps on the Moon

d Look back at the first paragraph of the article about Farouq Al Baz. Complete the table. Who: Nickname: Occupation: Secretary of lunar landing site selection Where: When: Nationality:

Learning tip When you read an English language newspaper, the headline will always give you the main idea of the story. The first paragraph and any photographs will almost always give you the essential information of who, what, when, and where. Therefore, you can get a summary of the important news quickly by reading headlines and first paragraphs.

2 Speaking, writing, and reading a Imagine that you are a magazine writer. You have been chosen to be the first journalist to make a Moon landing. Back on Earth, you have to write an article about your experience. Write the first paragraph of your article and give it a headline. Use your imagination!

Start: Last week I became the first journalist to … . Describe: how you felt what the Moon was like what you did

American Neil Armstrong has become the first man to walk on the Moon. The astronaut stepped onto the Moon's surface nearly 20 minutes after first opening the hatch on the Eagle landing craft. As he put his left foot down first, Armstrong declared: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Armstrong spent his first few minutes on the Moon taking photographs and soil samples in case the mission had to be aborted suddenly. He described the surface as being like powdered charcoal, and the landing craft left a crater about 60 cm deep.

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Lesson 2 Life’s a journey

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A near tragedy 1 Speaking and listening a Discuss the following questions.

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1 What could happen on a mountain climbing expedition? 2 Why do you think mountain climbers take risks? 3 Do you know of any disaster stories about mountain climbers?

b Listen to the first part of an interview about a mountain climbing 2 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 6 15 7 16 8 17 9 attempt. Was the attempt successful? 10 2

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d Listen to the second part of the interview. What does Chris say his 10 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 25 33 group should have done? What shouldn’t they have done? Check (✔) the appropriate boxes in the table. What could have happened?

gone in May

taken Gary with them

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a Look at sentences 1–3 from the interview in 66 74 67 75 68 76 69 77 70 78 71 79 72 80 73 81 exercise 1. Match them with their meanings, a–c. 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 1 We should have gone down the mountain immediately. _____ 2 He could have died. _____ 3 It would have been our fault for taking him with us! _____ a) an unreal condition in the past (it wasn’t the case because the action didn’t happen) b) a recommendation about a past action (it was the right thing to do, but they didn’t do it) c) a possibility in the past (it was possible, but it didn’t happen)

Language assistant: past modals subject + modal Gary could

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+ present perfect have died.

b Complete the sentences using a modal and the verb in parentheses in the correct form. 1 My friend Anwar had a really bad car crash. It _____________ (kill) him, but fortunately he wasn’t badly hurt. 2 It’s a good thing Tim didn’t hear what you said. He _____________ (be) really angry!

3 Oh no! We’re out of gas. I _____________ (fill up) before we left. c Use the cues to write a response to these sentences. 1 A: I called you yesterday at four, but you didn’t answer. (couldn’t have) B: You couldn’t have called at that time because the phone didn’t ring.

2 A: I got fired from my job. (shouldn’t have) B: ____________________________________ 3 A: I’m sorry I’m late. I got lost on the way here. (would have) B: ____________________________________ 4 A: I was at the beach when the hurricane arrived. (could have) B: ____________________________________

5 A: My family was worried because I got home really late last night. (would have) B: ____________________________________

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Life’s a journey Lesson 2 2

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A: M e too. I would have / wouldn’t have tried climbing that tree. Derek could have / couldn’t 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 have been killed. He should have / shouldn’t have been more 58 59 60sensible at his age! 61 14 62 15 63 16 64 17 65 10 11 12 13 b Listen again and practice the sentences. Notice 18 20 66 19 67 the reduced forms. 68 21 69 22 70 23 71 24 72 25 73

4 Writing and speaking

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a Think of a difficult or dangerous situation in your past, or invent one. 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Make notes to answer these questions. 1 Where and when did your story happen? __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 What happened in the beginning? How did you / other people feel? __________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 What happened next? How did you / other people feel? __________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Then what happened? How did you / other people feel? __________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 What happened finally? How did you / other people feel? __________________________________________________________________________________________ b Now write your story. c In groups, read your stories. Say what you would have done, or how you would have felt, in a similar situation.

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Lesson 3 Life’s a journey

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b Now read the article about the effects of the radio broadcast and then answer these questions. 1 What kind of program was The War of the Worlds? 2 What did many people think when they heard the broadcast? 3 What was the general result? 4 What were three reasons why people thought the broadcast was real? c What would you have thought if you had heard The War of the Worlds?

On This Day in History The Orson Welles Effect On the night of October 30, 1938, CBS’s New York radio station WABC broadcast Orson Welles’ dramatic version of The War of the Worlds, a novel by H.G. Wells. The work was introduced as a play, and three times during the broadcast, the station announced that it was fictional. Nevertheless, it sounded like a news broadcast, and a lot of people thought that the Earth was being invaded by Martians! Mass panic resulted. Thousands of people began calling newspapers and radio stations for information about the “end of the world.” Because part of the radio program had recommended evacuation, many families left their homes, trying to escape the New York– New Jersey area. Many people reacted to the panic in ways which today seem very amusing. In Newark, New Jersey, some families

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ran into the street with wet towels over their faces because they thought there was a Martian gas attack. The New York Times received 875 calls from frantic citizens. One man called to ask, “What time will the end of the world be?” When a bus station employee tried to question a caller about the situation, the caller said she didn’t have time to talk because “the world is coming to an end and I have a lot to do.” What could have caused so many people to believe that Martians were attacking the Earth? Psychologists say that it might have been partly because of the world political climate. Europe was heading toward World War II and there was a general feeling of insecurity. Another factor was the broadcast itself. It was extremely realistic and in the form of news bulletins. It must have sounded like the real thing to a lot of people. Finally, many listeners missed the beginning of the program, when it was explained that they were going to hear a radio play.

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Life’s a journey Lesson 3 2 Grammar builder: past modals – could have, might have, may have, must have, can’t have a Read these sentences and match each one to an explanation in the box. You need to use some explanations more than once. 1 Some people might have panicked because of other people, not because of the broadcast. ____ 2 The panic could have happened partly because of political insecurity. ____ 3 The radio station may not have made it clear that it was fiction. ____ 4 The people who thought Martians were invading must have been terrified. ____ 5 Welles couldn’t have imagined that his drama would cause such panic. ____

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This expresses a deduction about a possibility in the past. This expresses a definite positive deduction about the past. This expresses a definite negative deduction about the past.

Language assistant • Could, may, and might have approximately the same meaning but might is more commonly used. • When making a definite negative deduction about the past, we usually use couldn’t have.

Derek couldn’t have known that the branch would break. • In spoken form, might have / may have are not usually contracted in the negative. Have is contracted instead: He must / might / may not’ve known. b Complete the conversation using appropriate past modals with the verbs in parentheses. A: Did you hear about that airplane at Amman airport? B: Yes. It (1)___________ (be) engine failure. I’m sure it was. A: Well, some people think it (2) _____________ (be) a sudden gust of wind. The tip of the wing (3)______________ (touch) the runway. B: Well, they were very lucky. They all (4) _______ _____ (be killed). And nobody was hurt at all. A: I say it’s thanks to the pilot. He (5)___________ (be) very brave… B: … and skillful. It (6) _____________ (be) easy to do what he did!

3 Speaking a In Middle Eastern culture, there are many legends and folktales. One of the most famous stories is Sinbad the Sailor. In the story, the sailor from Basrah sets out on a series of seven voyages. He sails across the seas east of Africa and in south Asia to magical places, meeting monsters, overcoming supernatural phenomena, and becoming fabulously rich.

In groups, think of one of the voyages. Summarize it. Does everyone in the group know the same story?

b Legends and folktales must have come from somewhere! Try to think of the origin of Sinbad the sailor. Use the examples to help you. There must have been a historical person who made a fortune from travel … The story could have been based on a famous sailor with great navigation skills … He might have lived in the ninth or tenth century …

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Lesson 4 Life’s a journey

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Language for life: making the most of travel 1 Ready to travel

3 What kind of traveler are you?

Imagine that you’re getting ready to go to Britain. In pairs, make a list of things you’ve heard, read, or imagined to be true about it.

Think of a trip you have taken and write a short essay about it.

Discuss your list with the class. How many of the things may be stereotypes and not necessarily completely true?

Paragraph 1: what you did to prepare for the trip

In groups, discuss the following questions. 1 2 3

What do you think you need to know before you go on a trip? How can you find the information you need? What can you do during your visit to learn more about the place than the “average” tourist?

2 Learning from travel

Paragraph 2: what you did while you were there Paragraph 3: what you should have done differently, or how you might have benefited more from the trip Exchange essays with a partner. Read your partner’s essay and comment on it. I think I would have tried to meet some local people. You could have learned more about national customs that way.

Read the article from a travel guide on page 37 and compare it with your ideas from the exercise above. Use your own ideas and ideas from the text to prepare for a visit to another country. 1 2 3

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In groups, choose a country or a region in your own country. Write a plan for learning as much as you can about the country or region before you go and after you get there. Share your ideas with the class.

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Life’s a journey Lesson 4

Don’t be a traveling

stereotype The right attitude Most countries, or even regions, have certain stereotypes connected with them – Americans eat fast food all the time and have little family life. New Yorkers are all loud and unfriendly, etc. But anyone who has traveled a lot will tell you that stereotypes are exactly that – stereotypes, and don’t represent the broad spectrum of customs and attitudes which exist in every country or region.

Before you go

When you get there Once you get to your destination, how can you avoid being “a typical tourist”? Of course, it helps if you know someone there. They can show you lots of great places tourists don’t usually go. But if you don’t know anyone, there are still a number of things you can do to learn as much as possible about the country. First, try not to stay in a “tourist hotel.” Bed and breakfasts are a good option because they’re often owned by families and are much more personal than a hotel. Don’t eat hotel food, or what you imagine to be the typical food of the country (beef-burgers in the United States or pasta in Italy). Ask about local specialities – rendang in Malaysia, or testi kebap in Istanbul, for example. And don’t use a tourist guide for restaurant recommendations. Ask local people where they eat. Try to do things that local people do; again, don’t just refer to your tourist guide. Ask people for suggestions or check the entertainment section of the local newspaper. And finally, talk to as many different people as possible. Most people are friendly to tourists and are happy to answer questions about their city.

If you are planning a trip, how can you prepare so that you benefit as much as possible from the experience? First, learn some basic facts about the place – its capital, the basis of its economy, a little of its history, its main ethnic groups, etc. You can get an overview from a travel guide, an encyclopedia, or the Internet. The Internet also has specific information about cities all around the world – maps, restaurant recommendations, etc. If you’re going to another country, try to take a basic survival course in the language. If you already speak the language, a conversation class can increase your fluency. Reading newspapers or magazines from the country will increase your vocabulary and will also give you information on important current events there. Whenever possible, talk to people from the country you’re going to visit. You can often meet people through a language institute or college in your city. Internet chat rooms are another way to talk to people from other countries and find out their ideas and attitudes about things.

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Unit 5 Stages of life

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• approximately how old each child is • what they probably can and cannot do at that age.

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Stages of life Lesson 1 3 Word builder: people a Write the words from the box on the appropriate lines. You can use some words on more than one line. Use a dictionary if you need to. baby girl teenager infant man grown-up guy boy youngster kid youth woman Child: _____________________ __________________________

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Read the extract from an anthropology thesis. In pairs, discuss the information in the paragraph. Find the answers to these questions. 1 W hy are human babies born early? 2 What are the advantages of our long dependence on our parents? 3 What else makes human children different from other young mammals?

Human children develop very differently from other mammals. Our childhood is proportionally much longer, extended at both ends, with early birth and late maturity. If the pregnancy period of human mothers were the same as other mammals in proportion to average body weight, it would be more than a year, not nine months. However, at one year, the human child’s head would be too big for natural birth. One thing that makes us human is, literally, our big heads, which grow a lot more than other mammals’ heads after birth. On the other hand, we do not become mature adolescents until we are much older than other mammals. We spend a much longer time depending on our parents, and therefore we learn much more from them than other young mammals do. This extended period of early learning is important because, as humans, we will be learning all our lives.

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Lesson 2 Stages of life

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a Read what four teenagers think about their lives. Which comment do you think corresponds to each photograph? 1 “What did people do before we had computers? They’re just so useful – they help me with my homework, I can keep in touch with friends and family and, if I have time to spare, I can even play games. My dream would be to work in the IT industry, maybe in software development. Then I’ll be earning money for something I enjoy doing.” 2 “ This is Champion with my little sister. Isn’t he great? My Dad bought him for me last year as a reward for passing my exams. Unfortunately we can’t keep him at home, but I see him most evenings after school and we go out riding every weekend. In fact I’m interested in all animals. When I leave school I’d like to go to Veterinary College and become a vet.”

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3 “ This is the greatest day of my life! I’ve been chosen for our local team! The coach says I’ve got to work really hard, so I’ll be training every weekend from now on. And who knows? Maybe in a few years time I’ll be really good, and I’ll be playing for a world-famous team like Manchester United!”

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Stages of life Lesson 2 2 Grammar builder: future progressive vs. future simple a Look at the sentences. Which ones are about: • a complete, defined activity in the future • an open-ended activity taking place at a certain time in the future? 1 2 3 4

He’ll be playing for a famous football team when he’s 21. She’ll go to college after she leaves school. She’ll be teaching science in a few years time. When he’s eighteen he’ll apply for a job with a software company.

b What is the difference in the verb structures in sentences 1–4 in exercise 2a? c Complete the sentences with the more appropriate structure: future progressive or future simple. 1 We ____________________ (wait) for you at seven o’clock. Don’t be late. 2 3 4 5

They ____________________ (paint) the house while we are away. They can finish in that time. I ____________________ (pay) them when we get back. In ten years, we ____________________ (live) in a bigger house with a nice yard, I hope. I ____________________ (work) when you arrive, so wait for me in the café across from my office.

d Complete the sentences, using information about yourself. 1 This time next week, I ______________________________________________________________________. 2 When I’m 20, I ____________________________________________________________________________. 3 At 10 o’clock tomorrow evening, I ____________________________________________________________.

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4 Speaking a Complete this table with your expected situations five and ten years from now.

In five years

In ten years

work and / or study place of residence / type of accommodation family life / social life other activities / aspects of your way of life b In pairs, discuss and compare your ideas about your lives in five and ten years. In ten years, I hope I’ll be earning a lot of money.

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Lesson 3 Stages of life

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When I’m 44 1 Reading and speaking a Look at the title of the article below. Discuss what you think the article is about. b Match the two parts of these sentences. 1 He will never return to the United States …. 2 He didn’t have very much money, … 3 He got a job with a petrochemical company there … 4 Although he had never been to Makkah before, … 5 His children will join him …. 6 His parents were Saudi, …

a) … when they have finished their undergraduate studies. b) … he had always dreamed of going to do the Hajj. c) … so he decided to travel by bus from Riyadh to Makkah. d) … because he had worked as a chemical engineer in America. e) … unless there is an emergency. f ) … but they settled in Detroit after finding work there.

c Read the article and put the sentences you have completed in the appropriate spaces. d Answer the questions. 1 How old is Faisal Sameer now? 2 How old was he when he left the United States? 3 Why did he leave?

4 What was his first year away like? 5 Why does he live in Dammam now? 6 Would you do something like Faisal?

A new life Faisal Sameer was American, but he now lives in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Ten years ago he lived in Detroit, and had never been out of the United States. (1) ________________ . He had married in America but then, unexpectedly when he was 44, his wife died. His two children who were at university wanted him to stay in Detroit, but he was not happy with that idea. (2) _____________ . He had read many books about the Hajj and the holy city of Makkah and now he really wanted to go. He told his son and daughter he might stay longer in Saudi Arabia, but they didn’t believe him. He sold the family house but they still didn’t believe him. One autumn morning he took a plane to Riyadh. (3) __________ . But he didn’t leave Makkah after the Hajj. He was so impressed with Saudi and Arab lifestyle that he decided to travel further in the Gulf. He spent a year zig-zagging his way round the coast, visiting on his way Madinah, Jeddah, Abha, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Kuwait. In Kuwait, he began to worry about his diminishing funds. He returned to Dammam and started looking for some kind of work there. (4) _________________ . Faisal has lived there happily ever since. (5) __________________ . They realize that Dammam has become Faisal’s second home. They have decided to continue with their postgraduate studies in Saudi Arabia, because the University for Science and Technology is so good. Faisal has remarried and bought a house. (6) ___________________ .

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Stages of life Lesson 3 2 Grammar builder: connectors

Complete sentences 1–9 with connectors from the box. although because but however so only if therefore if unless 1 He did not have much money, __________ he wanted to travel. 2 __________ he did not have much money, he wanted to travel.

Language assistant However and therefore are common only in fairly formal writing.

3 He did not have much money. __________, he wanted to travel. 4 He did not have much money, __________ he decided to travel by bus. 5 He decided to travel by bus __________ he did not have much money. 6 He did not have much money. __________, he decided to travel by bus. 7 He will return to the United States __________ there is a family emergency. 8 __________ there is not a family emergency he will not return to the United States. 9 He will not return to the United States __________ there is a family emergency. 3

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a Read this descriptive essay. Underline all the adjectives used to 2 73 74 75 76 77describe the person. Which are positive and which are negative? 78 79 Which are neutral? My grandma is still very active for a woman her age. She is pretty short and has long gray hair, which she wears tied up on top of her head. She is 92 and she has lived alone ever since her husband died, 12 years ago. Although she can be forgetful, she is very entertaining. She always has wonderful stories about the past to tell. She is a very caring woman and she manages to find time to help other people, even on the days when her health is poor. She always has a wise word of advice for her neighbors and her grandchildren. I admire my grandmother and feel very close to her. In general, I would say that she lives a happy life, surrounded by those she loves.

b Write a description of an elderly person you know. You might write about: • • • •

where they live what their daily routine is who they live with what their personality is like.

c In groups, pass your descriptions around and read them. What do they say about what it is like to be old in your country today?

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Lesson 4 Stages of life

4

Language for life: scholarships 1 Life after graduation Firas ahmed is 22 and has just graduated, with a major in biology. For a little while at least, he can say goodbye to full-time study, term papers, and exams – as well as the rich and rewarding life as a fellow undergraduate. He has considered three main options for the next year or so of his life: a one-year trip traveling around the world with three friends, a job as an assistant in a local agricultural research institute, or a Master ’s program in the United States beginning in three months. • •

Well, Firas chose to go for a Master’s, and he started investigating schools, costs, and scholarships. Washington State University seemed interesting, partly because he has an uncle and aunt in Seattle. But the cost! (And W.S.U. is not expensive by U.S. standards.) How do the following figures for the 2008–09 academic year compare with costs for foreign students to study at a college in your country?

Which option would you choose, and why? Are you in a similar situation to Firas, or is your situation very different? What are your immediate plans or options?

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Tuition and fees: Room and board: Books: Health insurance: Student health service fee: Miscellaneous: TOTAL: 3

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$19,676.00 $9,190.00 $1,104.00 $550.00 $170.00 $2,108.00 $32,798.00

Obviously, Firas needed a scholarship, and with his good grades, 1 Listen to an interview he had a fair chance of getting one. 18 19 20 21 22 23 24Firas has at W.S.U. Using 25 the information from 1 Has anyone you know ever applied for a scholarship 26 27 28 29 30 31 32the interview, fill in the 33 to study in the United States? scholarship application 2 I f so, what did they have to do to apply? Were they successful? 34 35 36 37 38 39 39form on page 45. 40 2 Write an imaginary address Most countries have scholarship systems for their residents to do postfor Firas. Then write a 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 graduate study abroad, but they usually work together with convincing paragraph on scholarship systems of the countries where the study will be carried how these studies would 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 out, for example, the U.S. Commission for Educational and Cultural contribute to his career Exchange. Scholarship applicants are usually required to give objectives. information on forms like the one on page 45. 56 57 58 59 60 61 3 62 Check your form with a 63 partner. Are there any 64 65 66 67 68 69 70mistakes in the paragraph 71 at the bottom? Is the 72 73 74 75 76 77 78paragraph convincing? 79

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Stages of life Lesson 4 A PP L i C AT i o n 1. 2. 3. 4.

F o r

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S C h o L A r Sh i P

F U n D S

Full name Last _____________________ First ___________________ Middle _____________________ Gender Male ■ Female ■ Country of birth _________________________________________________________________________ Country of citizenship ____________________________________________________________________

5. Current mailing address Street ___________________________________________________________________________________ City ____________________________ State or province __________________________________ Zip code ________________________ Country _________________________________________ Telephone _______________________ E-mail ___________________________________________ _____ 6. have you ever applied to this organization for a scholarship before? No ■ Yes ■ Date: Month _________________________________ Year ________________________ 7. Which U.S. college are you applying to? __________________________________________________ 8. For which course of study? ______________________________________________________________ 9. have you taken the ToeFL examination for english? Yes ■ Date: Month ___________________ Year ___________________ Score ___________________ No

Are you a non-native speaker of English? No

Yes

10. When are you going to take ToeFL? Month ________________________________ Year _______________________ 11. educational background College or university Location

Dates of study

Degree or diploma

1 ___________________ ______________ From _______to ________ ____________________________ 2 ___________________ ______________ From _______to ________ ____________________________ 3 ___________________ ______________ From _______to ________ ____________________________ 12. how would the course of study contribute to your career objectives? _________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 2

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Unit 6 The future

1

Looking back at 2001 1 Reading

You are going to take a quiz about a science fiction production called 2001: A Space Odyssey. Scan the article to find the answers to the quiz as quickly as possible. The winner is the person who finds all the correct answers first!

The 21st century, past and present In the late 1960s, the 21st century still seemed a long way in the future. Computers were just beginning to have widespread applications, and people did not have personal computers in their homes. However, some people were beginning to imagine, and sometimes to fear, the central role that computers would take in our lives in the future. Director Stanley Kubrick’s 1968 production 2001: A Space Odyssey was not a typical sci-fi story about wars with space aliens. It had much more complicated themes, one of which was the role of machines in our lives. In Kubrick’s vision of 2001, computers had many capabilities, which would lead to a fight for dominance between man and machine. The setting is the space ship Discovery, which travels to different galaxies. The ship is controlled and operated by a computer called HAL 9000. Kubrick’s futuristic computer could see, hear, and speak. It was able to process all types of information and use this as a basis to make "decisions". Finally, it seemed to form its own opinions. During the mission, HAL "decides" that the humans on the Discovery will not carry out the mission properly, and it begins to kill the members of the crew. Finally, the remaining crew members decide that HAL must be disconnected. If not, in a short time, it will have killed all the humans on board and it will have taken over the mission. With that decision, the struggle between man and machine begins. In the end, man triumphs and the computer is disconnected in a strange and emotional scene. As HAL’s circuits are gradually shut down, its faculties diminish, in a way that looks like what sometimes happens to the human brain. The once brilliant HAL ends up repeating the same phrase over and over, more and more slowly, until at last there is silence.

QUiZ QUiZ QUiZ QUiZ QUiZ QUiZ 1 The production was made in the a) 1960s b) 1970s c) 1980s.

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The computer was disconnected because a) it started to make mistakes b) it began to kill people c) it used too much power.

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The computer in the story was called a) SAM b) HAL c) ED.

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The future Lesson 1 5

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a Listen to a conversation between a computer 21 22 23 24 25 and its user. Then answer the questions. 1 Does the computer sound as human as the man? 2 How does the computer feel? 37 38 39 39 40 3 What arguments does the computer use to avoid being disconnected? 44 45 46 46 47 4 How did the scene make you feel? 29

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1 H ave you read any science fiction books? Which ones? 59 60 61 62 63 2 Do you think science fiction can actually give us a preview of life in the future? Why or why not? 67 68 69 70 71 3 In your opinion, could computers ever become as “human” as HAL in 2001? 79

3 Speaking and writing a Stanley Kubrick commissioned several companies to predict what they might be selling in the year 2001, and to design the objects. Which description matches the object in the photograph on the left? Are any of the objects described below similar to things which now exist? 1 “Robo Pen” by Parker A voice-operated pen with buttons to control handwriting, margins, ink color, and language. 2 Attaché case by Honeywell This worked like a mini-computer. 3 Picture phone by Bell Telephone Bell actually made a set of these, and Kubrick used them to call his daughter. 4 Charge card identifier Automatically checked the owner and the credit status of the card. b I n pairs, design an object on paper which you think will have been invented 30 years from now. Write a description of the object and how it will be used. c Present your invention to the class.

Today we would like to present the … to you. The … will …

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Lesson 2 The future

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Tomorrow’s world 1 Speaking a In pairs, decide which of the following things have been achieved. Technology

Medicine

ecology

artificial intelligence

a vaccine against polio

weather control

domestic robots

a cure for cancer

protection of endangered species

voice-operated automobiles

artificial eyes

alternative energy sources

b Compare your list with another pair’s list. Which of the things do you think will be achieved or perfected in your lifetime?

2 Reading and speaking a Scan the article quickly. Which of the things in the list in exercise 1a are mentioned?

Centuries of change The 19th century was the era of industrialization, and the 20th century was the era of communications technology. The invention of the television in 1926 started a revolution in communications which would change the world. And by the end of the century, advanced computer technology meant

that people could send and receive information instantly via the Internet. The 20th century also saw major advances in other areas. For example, in medicine, antibiotics and a vaccine for polio were developed. Organs were successfully transplanted, and in some cases artificial organs were implanted. There were also advances in ecology. A number of international organizations now work to protect endangered species and to clean up and protect the environment. Alternative energy sources like wind and solar power were developed. But at the beginning of the 21st century, an enormous amount of work is still needed to protect the earth and its inhabitants. By the end of the 21st century, what will we have

achieved? Will we have cleaned up the air and water of our planet? Will the natural environment be safe from human destruction? Will we have stopped fighting wars? It’s difficult to imagine such a perfect world – but in the 19th century it was difficult to imagine instant communication across continents.

b In groups, discuss the questions in the last paragraph of the article. Give reasons for your opinions. Which of the questions apply to your country? What other problems still need to be solved?

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3

The future Lesson 2 3 Grammar builder: future perfect a Look at the example. Which of sentences 1–3 means the same thing as the example? In 30 years, we will have found a cure for all types of cancer. 1 It took 30 years, but we now have a cure for all types of cancer. 2 Thirty years from now, we will find a cure. 3 We will find a cure sometime in the next 30 years. b In the following text, circle the correct form of the verb.

In two years, I will have graduated from college. By 2013, I will have been learning English for many years.

c Use these prompts to make predictions about the future. 1 2020 / return to / the Moon In 2020, I think we will have returned to the Moon. 2 2015 / discover a cure / all types of cancer 3 2030 / colonize / Mars 4 2050 / invent / time travel

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The future perfect is for actions which will be completed at or by a specific time in the future.

Sometimes I think about how the world (1) changes / will change in my lifetime. I’m 30, and I (2) have seen / will have seen a lot of changes. For example, 20 years ago, people (3) didn’t know / hadn’t known how the Internet would affect everything! So what (4) has happened / will happen in the next 30 years? Well, I think we (5) have stopped / will have stopped using gasoline, and we (6) drive / will drive electric cars. In ten years, we (7) are inventing / will have invented new energy sources. By the time I’m 60, we (8) will solve / will have solved a lot of problems!

a Listen to the conversation about the future. In the 1 22 23 24 25 second column of the table, mark the predictions 9 30 31 32 33 D (David believes), A (Ali believes), or 7 38 39 39 40 B (they both believe).

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opinions. Write two more predictions about things that will and will not have happened 20 years from now and share them with your class.

Predictions for the world in the year 2025 Sensori-motor 1 stage Children will study at home, by computer.

The conversation

Your opinions

2 Computer transactions will have replaced money.

3 Medical advances won’t have increased people’s life spans.

4 W e’ll get all books from the Internet. 5 We won’t have colonized space.

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Lesson 3 The future

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Your future 1 Grammar review: future forms a Read the conversation quickly. What is the conversation about? Salman: So, Youssef, when do you finish school? Youssef: (1) _____________ . Salman: Great! (2) _____________ right away. Youssef: Uh, not exactly, Grandpa. I think I’ll probably do some traveling. Salman: Ah, excellent. Check out job opportunities in other cities, right? Youssef: Uh, no, not really. When I graduate, (3) _____________ . (4) _____________ , so I’d like to take a break first. Salman: Oh, I see. Well, a short break is probably a good idea. (5) _____________ , I guess. Youssef: Actually, in September, I will have just started my trip. I plan to take a year to backpack from Toronto to Buenos Aires. Salman: Oh! Well, it’s not what we did in my day. Still, you’ll be seeing a lot of different places and things on your trip. (6) ____________ , I’m sure. b Now complete the conversation with the phrases below.

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c Find an example of each of the following meanings in the conversation.

a) You’ll be looking for a job in the fall then b) I will have been in school for 18 years c) I’ll be working for the rest of my life d) I graduate in June e) It will be very educational 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 f ) I suppose you’ll want to get a job 11

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a prediction a definite, scheduled event in the future an action which will be completed at a point in the future an action which will be in progress at some point in the future

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a People use intonation to express emotions like surprise, anger, etc. This is true in all 26 27 languages, but the way it is done varies between languages. Listen to these excerpts 28 29 30 31 32 33 from the conversation. In each case, check (✔) how the people feel. 34

37 38 39 39 40 1 36 a) excited 2 a) unconvinced 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 3 a) happy 4 a) enthusiastic 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 5 a) surprised 56 64

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c) angry c) angry c) embarrassed c) embarrassed c) enthusiastic

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2 I’m going to a conference. (bored) 3 Emily got the best grades. (happy) 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 4 Emily got the best grades. (disappointed) 5 I forgot your name. (surprised) 6 I forgot your name. (embarrassed)

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The future Lesson 3 3 Reading, speaking, and listening a Read the following profile. With a partner, make predictions about the person’s future. This person is 19 years old, and a student at the University of Texas. He is an expert with computers and enjoys anything related to computer technology. However, he doesn’t like being a college student very much. As a freshman (a firstyear student), he has to take many required courses like English and history which have nothing to do with computers. He feels that maybe 4 5 6 7 8 9 a college education is not for him.

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4 43Reading, writing, and speaking 44 45 46 46 47 a In groups, discuss ways in which you can 50continue to develop your English in the future. 51 52 53 54 55 Make a list together.

b Read this extract from a plan for continuing to develop English. Does the writer mention any of the ideas you discussed?

Another thing I intend to do is use the Internet more. The Internet will become an even bigg er part of our lives in the future, and the majority of it is in Engl ish. The practice I get from reading information online should help to keep my level of English up.

Apart from that, I think it would be a good idea to try to read a newspaper or a magazine in English once a week. I’m really interested in sports, so it might be a good idea to read a sports magazin e, although the language might be a little limited.

c Write your own plan for continuing to develop your English. When you have finished, swap plans with a partner and read each other’s. Is the plan realistic? Do you believe your partner will be able to do it?

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Lesson 4 The future

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Language for life: the world of English

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In what language group is English? a) Germanic b) Slavic c) Romance

1 The game of English Sometimes it's important to take a small break from studying, so here is a game that will help you have fun for a few minutes, in between your school-work and other obligations. Play the game in groups and find out how much you know about English and the English-speaking world.

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Where will you usually find an adjective in English? a) before a noun b) after a noun c) before a verb

instructions 1 Play in groups of 4–6. You need dice, and each player needs

Which preposition can follow the verb to insist? a) insist for b) insist at c) insist on

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2 One student in the group is the monitor. He or she looks at the answers at the bottom of the page. 3 Each student rolls the dice, and the highest number goes first. Continue in order around the circle. 4 When it’s your turn, roll the dice and move your marker the number of spaces indicated. 5 Answer the question on that space. If the answer is correct, stay on the space. If it’s incorrect, return to your previous space. The monitor should not say the correct answer.

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What is the past participle of swim? a) swimmed b) swam c) swum

6 The first person to arrive at FINISH wins.

2 Round-up In groups, or as a class, discuss your experiences with English so far. 1 I n what ways have you been able to apply your knowledge of English? 2 Have you had any really enjoyable experiences using English? 3 What kinds of things do you now feel you can do reasonably competently in English? 4 How do you think you will be using English in the future?

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The future Lesson 4 22

Which verb is irregular? a) speculate b) regret c) forget

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adverb do? noun pronoun verb

Which Islamic scientist designed and built over 477 buildings including the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne? a) Jabir ibn Hayyan b) Koca Mimar Sinan c) Al Kindi

What is the capital of Canada? a) Toronto b) Ottawa c) Vancouver

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Where is the ancient city of Persepolis? a) Iraq b) Iran c) Turkey

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Which sport is not played very much in Britain? a) cricket b) baseball c) rugby

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About how many native English speakers are there in the world? a) 537 million b) 750 million c) 375 million

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Which of these is not a capital city? a) Abu Dhabi b) Sanaa c) Dubai

How many speakers of Arabic languages are there in the world? a) About 300 million b) About 521 million c) About 132 million

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Where is the Al Reem Racing circuit? a) Riyadh b) Dammam c) Jeddah

Who is buried in Karbala, Iraq? a) Khadija bint Khuwaylid b) Husayn bin Ali c) Uthman ibn Affan

FINISH Answers: 1 a, 2 c, 3 b, 4 b, 5 c, 6 a, 7 c, 8 c, 9 a, 10 b, 11 c, 12 c, 13 b, 14 b, 15 a, 16 a, 17 b, 18 b, 19 c, 20 b 9780230405400_text.indb 53

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Unit 7 The 20th century

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Changes 1 Speaking, writing, and reading a We are now in a new millennium: the 20th century is recent history. But the 20th century was a period of massive innovation. In your opinion, what were the most important inventions or developments of the century. Write in the table below.

My most important developments in ‌

medicine

transportation

architecture

household facilities

communications

First choice

Second choice

b In groups, compare your choices. Be prepared to give your reasons.

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2 Speaking and listening a Match these people with the photographs. In pairs, 5 discuss your answers and what you know and think 6 7 8 9 about these people and their role in the 20th century.

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c Listen again and note the following ideas.

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had major effects cell phone

problems caused by these changes

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The 20th century Lesson 1

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b Listen to the pronunciation of the underlined words in A and B. 29 30 31 Do the nouns or verbs in these examples have the stress on the first syllable? 32 39 33 40 36 37 38 39 A B 37 44 38 45 39 1 46 39The coach is going to record the team's statistics. 40 47 He keeps a record of all his expenses. 43 46 2 They export a lot of computer software. Cars are a major export of the U.S. 3 Some advertisements insult our intelligence. Most advertisements are an insult to our intelligence. 44 45 46 46 47 50 51 52 53 54 55 4 Technology will continue to progress rapidly. The students have made great progress in English.

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It’s an incredibly exciting world that we live in. Everything changes so quickly. When my parents were born there’s no way they could have foreseen the developments that have taken place in their lifetimes, any more than I can predict what the world will be like in twenty or thirty years. It’s great!

b Discuss your opinions in groups. Take notes on the ideas of all group members. c Imagine that a magazine has invited young people from around the world to write a paragraph on the following subject:

I know a lot of changes that have taken place in the last fifty years have produced massive benefits to humanity – but aren’t things changing too quickly? I sometimes think that people are too ready to accept change, regardless of the effects it may have on our traditions. We need to preserve these for future generations.

WORLD NEWS

Change – for better or for worse?

Use your notes from exercise 4b to write a brief paragraph for the magazine.

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Lesson 2 The 20th century

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History 1 Speaking a Can you identify each of these 20th-century scenes? How do you feel about them? b Match these major 20th-century events with dates from the box. 1971 1939–45

1914–18 1961–73

1917–21 1969

1973 1936

Foundation of the United Nations _______ 1945 Oil discovered in Saudi Arabia __________ World War II _________________________ Foundation of the U.A.E. _______________ first man on the moon ________________ Arab-Israeli War ______________________ World War I __________________________

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The 20th century Lesson 2

A Mystery UNCOVereD

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n the early 1980s a group of researchers used radar and remote-sensing satellite imagery to scan the deserts in Saudi Arabia and Oman for the lost city of Iram-Ubar. Iram of the Pillars is mentioned in the Qur’an but was thought to be non-existent by historians. However, in 1973, another lost city, Ebla, was excavated in Syria. In its library was a record of all the cities with which it had traded. On the list was the city of Iram. According to Bedouin belief, Iram of the Pillars was a large prehistoric metropolis built five generations after the great flood by a race of giants, the Ahd-al-Jann, in the Rub-el-Khali desert. The Adites, or successors of Noah’s people, were supposedly

remarkably skilled architects and builders who were able to raise great stone columns or pillars. Moreover, Iram, was said to be fabulously wealthy because of its trade in olibanum (frankincense), which was prized for making expensive perfumes. The city was also said to be the center for magic and devil worship. So, Allah inflicted a drought, and then caused a disastrous sandstorm. Eventually, the whirlwind engulfed the entire city which vanished without trace beneath the sands. Then, in the early 1980s, an oasis city called Iram-Ubar was excavated in Oman. Large amounts of frankincense were discovered at the site. However, it seems that the

4 Writing

3 Grammar builder: connectors a Find the words on the left in the article and underline them. Then match them with the pairs of words or phrases with similar meanings on the right.

1 2 3 4 5

moreover then eventually however so

a) b) c) d) e)

as a result, therefore but, although after, after that as well as, also in the end, finally

disappearance of the city was actually due to lack of water. Historians think that the water table fell, leaving the water cavern dry, and the walls of the cavern then collapsed. Without water, the oasis in the desert was swallowed by the sand.

b Connectors can have similar meanings, but are used in different grammatical contexts and with different punctuation. Complete these sentences with connectors from the boxes. More than one answer may be possible. 1 a) T he Adites were known as skilled builders. _____________ , the city became wealthy through trade of frankincense. b) __________ having skilled builders, the city became wealthy through trade of frankincense. c) T he Adites were known as skilled builders and ________ as successful traders. 2 a) T he water cavern ran dry, ________ collapsed. b) _______________ the water cavern ran dry, the cavern collapsed. c) The water cavern ran dry. __________ , the walls of the cavern collapsed.

as well as moreover also

a Put these events into the correct order. 1 They traded frankincense. 2 The city was consumed by the desert. 3 The city was discovered in the 1980s. 4 The water table fell. 5 The city of Iram was built by the Ahd-al-Jann. 6 The water cavern collapsed. 7 Many stories existed about where it lay buried. b Write a paragraph describing the events in the correct order. Use connectors.

after after that then

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Lesson 3 The 20th century

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World figures

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a In pairs, write down as many things as you can about Nelson Mandela, e.g. • • • •

his nationality the reason for his political struggle the length of his imprisonment why he shared the Nobel Peace Prize with another man • his racial philosophy b Read the biography and check your ideas. c An important skill in reading is inferring meaning or “reading between the lines.” Check your ability to do this by answering these questions. 1 2 3

Did white children attend Mandela’s school? Why was the new Youth League more active than the old ANC? Why was Mandela continually arrested in the 1950s? 4 Why was Mandela an activist for 17 years before turning to violence? 5 Were Botha and de Klerk black or white?

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nelson rolihlahla mandela, South Africa’s first black President, was born in 1918 into the royal family of the Tembu Tribe. Like other black children fortunate enough to get a basic education, he went to a British missionary school. While he was studying at Fort Hare University, he organized a boycott and was expelled. He eventually obtained a law degree from the University of South Africa and set up South Africa’s first black law firm with Oliver Tambo. In 1944, Walter Sisulu, Mandela, and Tambo formed the African National Congress Youth League to fight more actively for black rights than the old ANC did. Mandela was arrested continually during the late 1950s and eventually tried in 1961. When the trial ended with his acquittal, he formed the ANC’s military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation). He was arrested again and sentenced in 1964 to life in prison for sabotage. Mandela spent the next 27 years in prison, but managed to maintain contact with the ANC and remain its leading figure. Slowly, the government began to realize it would be impossible for the white minority to continue dominating the black majority through “apartheid” indefinitely, and Mandela met with President P.W. Botha in July 1989, and his successor, President F.W. de Klerk, in December of that year. Mandela was released in 1990. After he had consulted with the ANC leadership, Mandela went on a world tour to persuade Western leaders to maintain economic sanctions against South Africa and to raise funds to help the ANC function as a political party. Negotiations with the ruling National Party led to the ANC’s decision to suspend its armed struggle after nearly 30 years, and then to agreements on an interim government with both parties as partners for five years. Further talks in 1993 led to the establishment of a majority-rule constitution. In December of that year, Mandela and de Klerk received Nobel Peace Prizes for their promotion of democracy in South Africa. In 1994, the ANC won the country’s first all-race elections and Mandela became President. He consistently urged reconciliation between the races, in spite of his long struggle under white dictatorship. His efforts at reconciliation culminated in May 1995 with the approval of a new South African constitution that prohibited discrimination against the country’s minorities, including whites. He retired in 1999, having achieved his goal.

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The 20th century Lesson 3 3 Word builder: strategies for understanding words a Underline the following words and phrases in the biography. How many did you already know? How many did you guess from context? How many are you still uncertain about? 1 2 3 4 5 6

expelled (line 7) 7 set up (line 8) 8 Youth League (line 11) 9 tried (line 14) 10 acquittal (line 15) 11 sentenced (line 17) 12

apartheid (line 23) released (line 27) raise funds (line 31) armed struggle (line 33) further (line 36) approval (line 51)

5 Speaking, writing, and reading a Match each of these people to the correct biographical detail. Joseph Stalin John F. Kennedy Mohammad Yunus

Learning tip Make vocabulary learning a high priority; it is very important. Try to remember words that go together: He was expelled from … the university. He set up … a law firm. He was sentenced to … life in prison. He was released from … prison. Which words from exercise 3a would you want to learn?

• born May 29, 1917 • assassinated in Dallas, Texas • 35th President • born in 1879 • general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party

b Check the words you aren’t sure of in a dictionary. What information about the meanings or uses of the words is new for you?

4 Grammar builder: past time clauses a Complete the sentences with appropriate verb structures. 1 While he ______________ (study) at Fort Hare University, he ______________ (organize) a boycott.

• introduced new economic policies in the 1920s • born in 1940 • famous for giving small loans to

very poor people • awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

in 2006

2 When the trial ______________ (end), he ______________ (form) the ANC’s military wing. 3 He ______________ (follow) political events all the time while he ______________ (serve) his long prison sentence. 4 After he ______________ (consult) with the ANC leadership, he ______________ (go) on a world tour. b Check in pairs. Why have you used past simple, past progressive, or past perfect in each case? Are there sometimes different options? Would you use similar structures in your language? c Complete these sentences with information about yourself. Then trade them with a partner and ask and answer questions about each other’s past. 1 When I _______________________, I ______________________. 2 While I ______________________, I ______________________. 3 After I _______________________, I ______________________.

b In pairs, choose one of the people to write about. Use an encyclopedia or the Internet to get more information about the person. Don’t share this information with your partner. c Write between 120 and 180 words about this person. Then trade your biographies and check which details you have or haven’t included. Talk about similarities and differences.

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Lesson 4 The 20th century Lesson

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Language for life: conference-going

1 Conferences, conventions, congresses … Whatever they’re called, professional gatherings, often in good hotels in attractive cities or resorts, became a part of many people’s working lives in the last half of the 20th century. The reasons why people attend these meetings vary: as speakers or exhibitors, for professional development, as a reward for good work, to escape from routine work. Whatever their reason for attending, most conference-goers manage to combine some tourism with business. The question is “How best to combine business and tourism?” The photographs show people at the Convention of Cultural and Educational Television in Italy, some taking advantage of the convention itself, others not. How might you organize your time at that convention, with daily sessions from 8:00 to 1:00 and 3:00 to 6:30?

2 Following the program Here are two summaries from the convention program. Do you know anything about television for secondary school programs, or about television or radio programs that teach languages? In pairs, talk about which presentation you would go to and why.

SATURDAY, MARCH 21 ■

Secondary education by television

9:15–10:45 a.m. Room 2

This talk will look at how secondary education is provided via television to isolated or under-resourced communities in several different countries. In South Africa, this includes rural and poor urban communities. First, systems will be described and samples of television material shown. Then the advantages and disadvantages of different systems will be discussed. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn – that each system should suit the situation in which it is used. Neil Matutu is an educational television producer in South Africa. ■

Language in the real world

Room 5

Some programs that introduce a foreign language in a realistic environment have proved very popular, even to younger viewers. For instance a recent ‘Learn Spanish’ series, in which an English presenter has to negotiate his way round restaurants, shops and museums in an unfamiliar Spanish town was very highly rated. The viewers learn the language along with the presenter and, with the help of an accompanying work book and CD, many found that they made more progress than in a traditional classroom. Chris Herle was a presenter in the Spanish programs and Jim Bateman one of the ‘students’.

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The 20th century Lesson 4 3 Making a contribution ere are some possible topics for talks at this H conference (7th Convention of Cultural and Educational Television). Are you particularly interested in any of these topics? Why? / Why not? ■ Negative television: bad role models, violence, etc. ■ Documentaries: education and entertainment combined ■ Local culture versus globalization

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You’ve probably never given a talk at a conference, but you may one day – and perhaps even in English. (Most international conferences use English.) So, once again, a little practice can do no harm. • Find two or three people interested in the same topic as you – one of those listed, or one you think of. • Brainstorm ideas for the talk and write some notes. • Write a summary of about 100 words – topic, main ideas to be presented, general conclusion. • Give the talk a title. • Put your summary on the board with other groups’ descriptions to form a conference program. Read the summaries and discuss which talks you would be interested in attending, and why.

4 The conference reception No conference is complete without a reception. It’s the ideal opportunity to get to know new people, and, at an international conference, that means people from different countries. Imagine that you work in television or education. Decide: • • • •

the country you are from your name your age, etc. your specific work (e.g. teacher, TV director, writer, educational psychologist) • your travel plans (remember, the conference is in Italy – are you going straight home afterwards, or are you going to travel around Europe for a while?) Then … join the reception!

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Unit 8 People and technology

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Living with machines

Laura

Marriam

1 Speaking

2 Speaking and reading

a In pairs, talk about what you think are the differences between Marriam's and Laura’s lifestyles. Explain which lifestyle is more like your own.

a Which of the features below do you expect to find in many cars by 2050?

b Which of the items below would you consider to be essential (1), useful (2), or unnecessary (3) for your home? Write 1, 2, or 3. Discuss your answers in groups of three and give reasons for your answers.

b Read the article opposite and check (✔) which features above are mentioned.

communication

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satellite-guided navigation system non-gasoline engine crash prevention radar top speed of 300 kph ability to fly automatic pilot computer joystick for steering

• cell phone • land-line phone • home computer • laptop • electronic organizer

domestic appliances • microwave • dishwasher • washing machine

c Read the article again and answer these questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Where does the electricity for the house and car come from? What does the car have instead of a steering wheel and pedals? Why is it almost impossible to crash the car? What happens if the driver becomes sleepy? How can the car reach a destination if the driver is sleeping? Which features have already been tried out?

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People and technology Lesson 1

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t’s 2050, and one American passion has withstood the test of time: we like to drive. You decide to hit the road. First, you unplug your car from your house. That’s right – your car’s fuel cells (those hydrogen-powered devices) generate enough electricity to power your home and your car.

You settle into the driver’s seat and grasp the joystick (steering wheels and pedals are history). All movements of the car – accelerating, turning, braking – are controlled by a joystick familiar to anyone brought up on computer games. You drive in traffic, whatever the weather, with absolute confidence. Your car is programmed with radar to sense a crash whenever it’s about to happen and activate the brakes. An alarm sounds. The sensor in the instrument panel has checked the pupils of your eyes and decided you are getting sleepy. You pull over into the “sleep lane.” You lay a course on your satellite-guided navigation system, climb into the back seat for a nap, and let the autopilot take you

wherever you want to go. The car, reading computer chips in the road, takes over the driving. It might be difficult to take in all these technical details, but it’s not science fiction. Automakers are spending billions carrying out research into all these futuristic features. General Motors has tried out an “intelligent highway” in California that allows cars to drive on autopilot. Daimler Chrysler fits prototype cars with joysticks, and many drivers operate them better than steering wheels. Every automaker is rushing to replace the internal combustion engine with fuel cells. Satellite navigation systems are already on the road. Whoever said the age of the automobile was over?

3 Word builder: multi-word verbs a Match the following multi-word verbs from the article with the words or phrases on the right. 1 carry out (research) 2 bring up (children on computer games) 3 take in (technical details) 4 take over (the driving) 5 try out (an “intelligent highway”)

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raise understand test do, perform take charge of

b Replace the words or phrases in italics with appropriate multi-word verbs from the box. Use a dictionary if necessary. come across give up take over

keep on put up with take up

get back set out turn out

get to take off try out

Randolph Kenny (1) started flying at 70. After he retired, he bought a ranch and (2) found an old Cessna in a field. A mechanic helped him fix 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 it up whenever he had the time. Then a friend who had been a pilot came to stay and (3) tested the plane. It was fine. Randolph went up 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 with him and (4) took charge of the controls several times. Soon Randolph learned how to (5) leave the ground and land. He (6) proved 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 to be a natural at flying – whatever it is that makes a good pilot. After his friend left, Randolph (7) continued practicing daily. Then he had a mild 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 heart attack and did not fly for a while. But once he had (8) regained his strength, he was back in the air. One day, he decided to fly to his pilot 34 35 36 37 38 39 39 friend’s ranch 300 kilometers away. He (9) left early one morning, but he got lost in the clouds and his chest began to hurt. He (10) tolerated 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 the pain, found his way out of the clouds, and managed to (11) reach his own ranch again. He (12) stopped flying that day.

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Lesson 2 People and technology

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2 Reading and speaking a Read the article and find the following.

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science journal

The beginning of real biology

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Developments in modern medicine have been extraordinary. Illnesses such as diabetes, which were a death sentence a hundred years ago, are now easily treatable.

But the same science that has benefited humanity has also led to the development of very much less beneficial phenomena – for instance, nuclear bombs, pollution and global warming.

just a beginning. If the human genome document was compiled in book form it would fill 200 volumes of a 1000-page telephone book – and it would take one person 9.5 years to read it aloud without stopping! The majority of the contents of the document is almost entirely mysterious. Whoever makes sense of large parts of it will become famous. We stand on the shore of a continent of new knowledge. But most people simply hoped it would help cure cancer and speculated about customized medicine, with medicines designed for the individual, not the population. Or they worried about possible spin-offs. For instance, would medical insurance still be available to people known to have high medical risks?

In pairs, discuss these questions. 1 On balance, have scientific developments over the last hundred years been beneficial or harmful? 2 Modern medicine has largely taken over from traditional cures and remedies. Is this a good or a bad thing?

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n June 26, 2000, Francis Collins, head of the Human Genome Project, and Craig Venter, head of Celera Genomics, jointly announced that they had completed the reading of a “rough draft” of the human genome – the complete set of human DNA. This was the beginning of a whole new way of understanding human biology. Whatever we discover from the genome about how our bodies work, it will be infinitely more than everything we knew before. It was also the end to a great detective story. In 1860, Gregor Mendel made the unexpected discovery that inheritance comes in tiny particles called genes. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick made the even more unexpected discovery that those particles are digital messages written along strands of DNA in a four-letter chemical code. In 1961, Marshall Nirenberg and Johann Matthaei cracked the first “word” in that code, revealing how DNA instructs the cell to build proteins. It was then inevitable that one day we would read all the genetic messages that a human body inherits. Of course, the genome announcement was

b Read the article again and, in pairs, answer these questions. 1 When was the first version of the human genome completed? 2 What was Mendel’s great discovery? 3 Why didn’t the human genome have immediate applications after it was “read”? 4 Name one possible benefit and one possible disadvantage that might arise from our knowledge of the human genome?

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People and technology Lesson 2 3 Grammar builder: whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever a Complete these sentences with whoever, whatever, whenever, or wherever. 1 I feel absolutely amazed __________________ I read about modern science and technology. 2 _ _________________ makes sense of the genome will become famous. 3 I don’t think we’ll ever completely eliminate disease, _________________ some scientists say. 4 __________________ you go in the world nowadays, you can see the benefits of modern medicine.

Language assistant These wh-ever words mean “It does not matter who / what / when / where.” “Whenever” can often be expressed as “always … when,” e.g. “I enjoy myself whenever I travel” means “I always enjoy myself when I travel.”

b Complete the sentences below with your own ideas. Then compare them in groups. 1 Whenever _______________________, I feel really happy. 5 6 7 8 9 2 4Whoever thought of _______________________ was a genius. 3 I always take _______________________ wherever I go. 10 11 4 12Whatever you do, never _______________________. 13 14 15 16 17 5 I will eternally admire whoever _______________________. 2

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If isotopes escapes they can be very (3) ___________ and kill a large proportion of 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 the population, and the (4) ___________ from a nuclear reactor remains (5) ___________ for a 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 very long time. c In groups, discuss Fred’s and Jack’s arguments and your own ideas about nuclear and other forms of energy production.

5 Writing, reading, and speaking a Copy the following table into your notebook. In groups, write two or more ideas for each side. Don’t play with danger

Let science help us

If nuclear energy went wrong it would create serious disasters.

Going nuclear will provide the whole planet – rich and poor – with energy.

b Read and discuss the ideas. Then vote for or against the free development of nuclear energy production. c Use the notes and the paragraph outline below to write an essay about nuclear energy. Outline Paragraph 1: introduce the subject – brief explanation of what genetic engineering is Paragraph 2: arguments in favor Paragraph 3: arguments against Paragraph 4: conclusion – personal opinion Your teacher will give your essay a number (so don’t write your name!) and put all the essays on the wall. Read all the essays and vote for the best one.

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Lesson 3 People and technology

3

Technology dependence and risks 1 Speaking

List all the electrical or electronic devices you turned on yesterday, e.g. the light, the radio, the microwave oven. In groups, compare and discuss your lists. Talk about how dependent you are on these devices and which ones you couldn’t manage without.

2 Grammar builder: word order with multi-word verbs a In pairs, decide whether the multi-word verbs in the box are separable or non-separable. Then write the verbs on the appropriate line below. Look words up in a dictionary if necessary. come across (an old photograph) look up (a word) turn on / off (the light)

fix up (a machine) put on (a hat) take after (your mother)

get over (an illness) run into (a friend) take over (a job)

look for (a book) stand for (a term) try out (a car)

Non-separable: come across, ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Separable: fix up, ____________________________________________________________________________________ b Look at the multi-word verbs and their objects underlined in the sentences below. Match the three basic rules for multi-word verbs to the examples, 1, 2, and 3. (noun object) (noun object) 1 She turned on the lights when she arrived. When she left she forgot to turn the lights off. (pronoun object) (pronoun object) 2 After we complained about the volume of the TV, he turned it down, but he soon turned it up again. (noun object) (pronoun object) 3 I finally ran into Mary Brown this morning. I was looking for her all day yesterday. A The objects (noun or pronoun) of non-separable verbs always go after the multi-word verb. ____________ B Noun objects of separable verbs can go after the multi-word verb or in the middle of it. ________________ C Pronoun objects of separable verbs always go in the middle of the multi-word verb. ___________________

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People and technology Lesson 3 c Write the words and phrases in an appropriate order.

Language assistant

1 in a field / across / an old plane / came / he Some multi-word verbs with objects are 2 up / a mechanic / helped / him / it / fix separable: She turned off the radio or She turned 3 was / adventurous / his father / and / he / after / the radio off. Others are non-separable. She him / took looked for the magazine (not She looked the 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 out / a pilot friend / the plane / tried magazine for). Other multi-word verbs do not 5 stands / the acronym / "kilometers per hour" / have an object: The light went off. 10 11 12 13for / kph 14 15 16 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

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a Listen to these sentences. Notice that noun b Practice saying the sentences in exercise 3a and 34 35 36 objects are frequently stressed, but with 37 38 39 39 40 34 35 36 37 the sentences below. Underline the stressed 38 39 39 40 pronoun objects, the adverb particle (e.g. on, words; then listen and check. 41 42 43 off) is usually stressed. 44 45 46 46 47 41 42 43 44 1 45I asked him to turn the volume down. Later, he 46 46 47 1 She turned the lights on. When she left, she turned it up again. 48 49 50 51forgot to turn them off. 52 53 54 55 48 49 50 51 2 52Why don’t you try the job out? If you’re OK, you 53 54 55 2 A noise woke me up. It was my wife putting the could take it over next month. 4 5 6 7 8 9 56 57 58 59cat out. 60 61 62 63 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

11 27

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13 14 15 16 17 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 64 65 5 6 7 8 9 21 22 23 24 25 a Look at the photograph of New York one night 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 72 73 13 14 in 1977. What do you think is happening? Why? 15 16 17 29 30 31 32 33

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4 Speaking, listening, and writing

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b Listen to the news item and check your ideas. 22 23 24 25 38 What other problems do you think there were, 39 39 40 for example in hospitals? 30 45

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c Listen again. This time, complete the notes 34 35 36 37 38 about the details of the New York blackout. 39 39 40 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

power lines. A previous (1) __________ damaging 70 71 __________, during blackout had occurred in (2) __________. ple managed to remain (3) which 72 73 74 75 76 77 78peo79 _ were started and This time, (4) _________ ice arrested merchandise was stolen. Pol it was estimated (5) __________ people, and age had been caused. that (6) __________ of dam

d In groups, choose one of the following scenarios. Prepare a presentation on the probability of the problem actually occurring and the possible consequences. Give your presentations group by group. • Collapse of the Internet, e.g. because of a powerful virus or technical problems. • An extended traffic and factory shut-down in a major city because of massive air pollution. • The explosion of an atomic power plant.

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Lesson 4 People and technology Lesson

4

Language for life: technology surveys 1 How do the elderly manage nowadays? Can elderly people wash their clothes in a multi-function washing machine or install a new computer program? Can you? In this modern world of ours, we continually have to deal with basic and advanced technology. Check how technologically competent you are or could be by answering the questionnaire below. Compare your score with other people’s. Who is the most and least technologically competent? Do those of you with low technological competence have other abilities or qualities? Perhaps you are creative (e.g. painting, writing, cooking, sewing) or you are outgoing (e.g. conversation, jokes, sports)?

Could you …

1

… change an electric fuse?

Yes, now

No, never

Maybe, with training

2 … change the tire of a car? 3 … program a washing machine? 4 … write a document on a computer and print it out? 5 … download a program from the Internet? 6 … program a VCR / DVD player to record a program while you are out? Scoring: “Yes, now” = 3 points “No, never” = 0 points “Maybe, with training” = 1 point

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11–18 points: Well done! You’re a technological genius! 5–10 points: You’ll be OK with a little help. 0–4 points: Oh no! How do you cope in this technical world?

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People and technology Lesson 4 2 Technology spread The development and use of technology have been accelerating for a long time. Here are figures for the time it took new technologies to reach 50 million users: • radio: 38 years • television: 13 years • personal computers: 16 years • World Wide Web: 4 years Note: The extra three years for personal computers compared with television was because of the higher cost of the equipment and the greater skill needed to operate it.

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3 7 Change or be left behind 8 9

Why do you think the mass use of technology is accelerating? How do you feel about this acceleration? The technological divide between different countries is enormous. Here are figures for the number of people with Internet access by region for January 2005: • Canada / USA: 222 million • Europe: 230 million • Asia: 258 million • Latin America: 56 million • Africa: 13 million Do you think your country is at the top, in the middle, or at the bottom with respect to Internet access and information technology in general? Try listing some things that can be done to catch up with the top countries; consider what can be done in schools first.

Some organizations develop continuously. Others 15 16 17 stagnate and then struggle to change and survive. What do you think of these company offices? Does 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 this company look like a survivor? Do its offices look like the company offices you know? 11

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38 he works. Have you experienced anything similar, 39 39 40

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Listen to Martin talking about this company, where or heard anyone talk about anything similar? 46

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What about the offices of companies, educational

district? Do you know any modern offices like these?

to have? Do you agree with the statement “Change or be left behind”, or do you believe tradition is good 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 even in business, education, and government? 77

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4 Situation analysis and proposal If you were in charge of modernizing an institution, you would need to do it in steps. The first step would probably be to make an analysis of the present situation: the good aspects (if any) and bad aspects. Then you would have to consider the needs of the institution, the resources available, and so on, and make a proposal for change, i.e. things you would keep and things you would change.

1 D escribe the institution and its function (e.g. Brentwood High School was built in the 1980s ... It currently has …) 2 Good aspects (e.g. The classrooms have lots of space and light. They …) 3 Bad aspects (e.g. The furniture and equipment is very old. Some …) 4 Proposed changes (e.g. We should keep the basic layout, but the walls should be painted …)

Just for practice (in case you actually face this situation one day!), think of an institution you know that needs modernizing and write a brief situation analysis and proposal for changes. Remember the steps:

Present your analysis to the rest of the group. Invite your audience members to ask questions about your proposed changes and to offer any suggestions of their own for further improvements.

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Unit 9 Global versus local

1

The real thing

1 Speaking a Look at the different items. Are there any well-known brand names that you associate with these items? What do you think of original items like these, which usually have the brand name on them? b Can you buy fake versions of these or any other well-known brands in your country? What are the most common fake products and where are they sold?

2 Speaking and reading a The words on the left appear in the article on page 71. Match the words from the article with their correct meaning on the right. Use a dictionary to help you. 1 fake / counterfeit 2 trade 3 legitimate 4 revenue 5 brand 6 surcharge

a) trademark b) income c) commerce d) tax e) honest, legal f ) false

b Look at the summaries. Read the article quickly and match one summary to each paragraph. A C heaper prices make illegal copies attractive for consumers. B M ajor companies lose billions worldwide because of counterfeit goods. C S ales of fake products reduce government income. c Read the article again and answer the questions. 1 Who are the losers in counterfeit production? 2 Who are the winners in this situation? 3 Which statistics surprised you the most?

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Global versus local Lesson 1

FAKES – a worLd of copycaTs 1

E

$20 million a year, but that’s nothing compared to the staggering $150 million lost in a year in China alone by Proctor and Gamble. Sometimes consumers prefer to buy an illegal copy of a DVD, CD-ROM, CD, or software package because it costs less. In Russia, for example, copies of Microsoft’s Windows XP program sell for just 1% of the list price. Unfortunately, many people do not realize that they are buying a copy instead of the genuine article. In addition, Islam forbids cheating and deception (pretending to be someone else or the words or products of someone else). This includes copying, as you are intentionally misleading others, which goes against the values of honesty and fairness.

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very year, millions of dollars are exchanged worldwide for fakes – fake perfume, clothes, medicine, and computer software. Counterfeit goods account for about 7% of total trade across the globe. And who gains? Certainly not, for example, governments that are unable to collect revenue from indirect taxes and customs surcharge on legitimate sales. 2 Nowhere is the problem more acute than in China. Over 30% of sales on the mainland are estimated to be counterfeit. In India, counterfeit products account for 10% of the revenue for the entire health sector. Five out of six Yamaha bikes sold worldwide are not the real thing. Nike, the brand that tells you to “just do it,” loses $70 million annually to the 8menace 9 of counterfeit brands and products. Identical copies cost Gillette

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Crime report

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Person charged

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3 Listening 32 33

17 a 16 Listen to a radio report 36 37 38 39 39 about a police raid. 40 20 21 22 23 24 What did the police 25 43 44 45 46 46 suspect Jenkins of doing? 47 28

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b Listen again and complete 50 51 52 53 54 55 6 37 7 38 8 39 9 39 the police report on the 36 40 2 3 crime. 4 5 6 7 8 9 58 14 43

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Name:

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4

Crime Jenkins

Gender:

Location: warehouse in

Age:

Type of crime: conspiracy to supply goods

Occupation:

Details of crime: Jenkins made

and sold them by

Town of residence:

and at counterfeit software and

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77 33 62 63 61 26 a 27 Listen to these words from the report. 28 29 30 31 32 33

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40 69 70 raid /eI/ 71 34 35 36 37

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In groups, discuss these questions. Choose someone in your group to take notes and someone to report back to the rest of the class about your discussion.

live /aI/ 40

b Say these words and write them in the correct column. 45 46 46 47 74 75 76 41 77 42 78 Then listen and check. 79 44 45 46 46 47 43 52

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54

55 stairs 48 49 50

shine52 51

mail 54 rain 53 55

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hair

mine

DVDs.

5 Speaking

4 Pronunciation: /eI/, /e/, /aI/ 78 79 fairs /e/

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Police confiscated

buy

care

game

live

1 I n your country, is it common for people to buy counterfeit products? Do you think this is acceptable? 2 I s there anything the government or police can do to stop the illegal trade in counterfeit goods?

c Add two more one-syllable words to each column. Then work in pairs to say the words. Your partner should write the words in the chart.

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Lesson 2 Global versus local

2

International and local food 1 Speaking and writing

Make a list of all the different types of fast food in your country, e.g. burgers. Find out which are the two most popular fast foods in your class.

2 Word builder: food a Look at the list of food items and put them in the correct column in the chart. chicken basil apples barley

beef olives

herbs & spices

fruit

wheat melon

onion pomegranates pepper cheese cinnamon grapes vegetables

b Work in groups and try to answer these questions. 1 2 3 4

Write a vegetarian menu for a dinner party. What foods can you not include? What foods do Japanese people eat? What foods do American people eat? What fruit and vegetables are in season at the moment in your country? What is your favorite food? Is there any food you cannot eat? If so, what and why not?

3 Reading and writing a Look at the photographs (right and on page 73) of food. Can you name the foods in the photographs? Read the articles and check your answers. b Read the texts and find words or phrases that mean the same as these definitions. 1 food, cookery _____________________________ 2 an expert in a particular job _________________ 3 different, remarkable _______________________ 4 the remains of a fire ________________________ 5 regular, basic ______________________________ 6 only ______________________________________ 7 sticks used for eating _______________________

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cereal

peaches yogurt carrots ginger lamb garlic milk oats meat & poultry dairy

Saudi Arabian cuisine

S

audi Arabia is well known for its variety of traditional dishes. Most contain meat, rice, vegetables and, of course, the spices that produce the food ’s distinctive flavor. Meat is cooked in many diffe rent ways. A popular method is called Al-Mandi. Al-Mandi is an ancient technique, and it invol ves barbecueing a lamb or chicken in a deep hole in the ground. Another culinary technique is Al-Mathbi. Here, spiced chicken or lamb is grille d on flat stones which have been placed on hot ashes. Al-Kabsa is one of the Saudi Arabia’s most popu lar dishes. It is made of spiced meat or chicken cooked in a pot with rice. It is usually accompanied by salad dishes and is considered a staple part of the diet throughout the Kingdom . Saudis are by nature sociable people, and there is nothing they enjoy more than visiting their friends’ houses for a traditional feast.

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Global versus local Lesson 2 Language assistant Noun + ‘s + noun is normally used only with people and animals. Noun + s’ + noun is used with plural nouns that end in s. Noun + noun is normally used with things, places, materials / ingredients, and ideas. Note: Noun + ‘s + noun is also used with plural irregular nouns: the children’s teacher, the men’s clothes

4 Grammar builder: noun phrases: ’s / s’ possessive and nouns qualifying nouns a In groups, look at the examples of nouns and answer these questions. • How would you express these three types of phrases in your language? • Which type of phrase usually indicates “possession” or a “personal relationship”? • What is the difference in meaning between noun + ‘s + noun and noun + s’ + noun, e.g. the girl’s school / the girls’ school?

1 the duck’s skin John’s car

the food’s flavor the student’s books

2 salad dishes Beijing duck

duck chef a food historian

3 their friends’ houses the girls’ school

my father's car the students' books

Beijing Duck

T

he Chinese take their duck very seriously. In restaurants they have a specialist duck chef whose sole job is to cook the birds and a specialist waiter whose job is to serve it. The Chinese eat duck in many different ways, but the most famous dish is probably Beijing Duck. Before roasting, air is blown under the duck’s skin – this makes it cook very crisply. Then the whole roast duck is brought to the table where the waiter, with incredible speed, carves it into 108 bite-size morsels. The customer spreads sweet, fruity hoisin sauce onto a small pancake, places pieces of duck on the sauce with chopsticks, tops with sliced cucumber and onion. He then rolls the pancake up and… that’s Beijing duck!

b Read the sentences below and insert apostrophes where appropriate. When you have finished, compare your answers with those of a partner. 1 S allys husband is the principal of the local boys school. He has been teaching the boys there for the last ten years. 2 T he childrens homework will be handed in during Thursday's lesson. 3 M y familys house is near the coast, but our friends live up in the mountains. 4 S ara and Lucy are Dans twin daughters. The girls are excited. They are going to spend summer vacation at their grandparents house this year.

5 Writing a A food and restaurant guide is being prepared for your town / city. Decide which food or restaurant you would like to describe. Then brainstorm ideas and write down some notes. b Using the notes you have made, complete your paragraph.

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Lesson 3 Global versus local

3

Communicating with the world 1 Speaking a In pairs, talk about why you think it is important to study the 4 English language. 5 6 7 8 9

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communicate in English 5 21

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a Listen to a conversation about the advantages and disadvantages of 26 27 28 having English as the “world language”. Is Tom in favor of, or 29 30 31 32 33 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 against, cultural diversity?

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b Listen again, and check (✔) the advantages and disadvantages of 42 43 English as a world language that you hear mentioned. 44 45 46 46 47 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 1 It makes business quicker and more efficient. 49 50 2 51 52 53 54 55 It saves money on translators. 65 66 3 67 68 69 70 71 It’s useful when you’re traveling. It tends to make all cultures more similar. 57 58 4 59 60 61 62 63 73 74 5 75 76 77 78 79 It allows people to understand each other’s cultures. 6 You can order a meal in a foreign restaurant. 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 c Who do you agree with, Tom or Johan? In small groups give your 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 reasons.

A world language – the facts

S

poken as a first language by approximately 380 million native speakers, English is one of the most widely spoken and written languages in the world. Add to this the approximate one billion people who speak English as a second or foreign language, and you can see that English has a powerful claim to be considered the “world language”. This has been reinforced by the global influence of English in the arts, broadcasting, science, and now the Internet. Everywhere you go in the world you are likely to find someone who can speak English. In the event of a problem in a foreign country, no-one who can speak English will find themselves

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unable to communicate with somebody, sooner or later. Because a working knowledge of English is required in so many fields and occupations, many education ministries around the world require the teaching of English so that everybody can communicate in the language, at least to a basic level. And are you aware of these facts about the language you are studying? • Three-quarters of the world's written mail and faxes is in English. • More than 50% of the world's technical and scientific journals are in English. 80% of the information stored on the world's computers is in English. • The main language used

throughout the world on the internet is English. • English is the international language of navigation and aviation. • 40% of the world’s radio programs are broadcast in English. • The country with the largest number of people who can speak and understand English (as a first or second language) is India. • In the United Nations, after English, the most commonly used languages are French, Spanish, and Arabic.

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Global versus local Lesson 3 3 Speaking and reading a In pairs, guess the answers to these questions. 1 What percentage (%) of the world’s scientific and technical magazines is in English? 2 I n which country is English most widely understood? 3 What are the four most commonly used languages in the United Nations?

b Read the article and check your guesses. c R ead the article again. Find words or phrases that mean:

1 about ____________________________________ 2 someone who speaks a language from childhood ________________________________ 3 increased, strengthened ____________________ 4 government departments __________________ 5 magazines _______________________________ 6 shipping and flying ________________________

4 Grammar builder: indefinite pronouns a Look at these examples of indefinite pronouns. How could you rephrase the words in bold? How do you express the same ideas in your own language? 1 Everywhere you go in the world you are likely to find someone who can speak English. 2 No one who can speak English will find themselves unable to communicate. 3 Everybody can communicate in the language at least to a basic level. b Complete the chart with indefinite pronouns.

People

Things

Places

every-

everyone, everybody

everywhere

some-

something

any-

no-

no one, nobody

c Complete the sentences with the correct indefinite pronoun. 1 Has _____________________ seen my cup? 2 I rang the doorbell, but __________________ answered.

anywhere

Language assistant Indefinite pronouns are singular and take singular verbs. However, in everyday speech we often use they / their when we do not know the gender of the person involved in the action.

3 ______________________ is wrong with this computer. The monitor is blank.

Everyone feels nervous when they take an exam.

4 These days cell phones are _________________.

Look. Someone left their wallet on the chair.

5 It’s raining so hard I can’t see _______________. 6 The football game was good, but there was hardly ______________________ there.

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Lesson 4 Global versus local Lesson

4

Language for life: franchises 1 Talking about franchises You are thinking about moving into the franchise business. It is one of the fastest-growing market areas in the world, and that means you have to be the best to make it! What do you know about franchises? Check out your knowledge by reading these definitions.

A franchise is an authority that is given by a company to someone, allowing him or her to sell its goods or services. In most cases, a franchisee needs to pay a franchise fee to use the name of the product or service, plus further sums for the initial inventory as well as furniture, equipment, and store construction. The company continues to get a royalty percentage on gross sales and a percentage for promotion. In return, in many cases the company will help select and design the store, plan and order the initial merchandise, and provide training for staff. Franchises are common in several major industries, such as fast food, candy, clothing, sportswear, and coffee stores.

2 Choosing a franchise OK. You’ve decided to go into the franchise business. You have to come up with a business plan to raise money. Look at the list below and label each item 1, 2, or 3 according to these aspects of starting a franchise. 1 = calculating costs involved in opening a franchise 2 = analyzing the potential demand for the product 3 = deciding where to put your franchise Size of market Amount of investment needed Market growth Locations for your store Profitability of product or service Image of product or service Age of customers Competition in the area

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Global versus local Lesson 4 3 Case study: Candy Express Candy Express is a good example of a franchise. In this case, the product is confectionery. Imagine that you are thinking about buying a franchise from Candy Express. Look through this information on the company and underline anything that will help you make your decision.

CandyExpress

Confectioner

T

he sale of candy and other confectionery products in the U.s. is worth $12 billion a year and is growing fast. with the average person earning more, and with increasingly hectic lifestyles, sales of convenient, readyto-eat foods are at an all-time high. The primary market locations for candy express stores are shopping malls, but airports and transportation terminals, high-profile shopping areas, and amusement parks are also popular locations. candy express uses creative store designs and colorful presentation of quality chocolate, candy, and gift products. candy is sold at a single per-weight price in a self-serve “pickn-mix” format. The company has been in the U.s. market for 14 years and has franchise agreements with many countries worldwide. it has 40 U.s. franchises. average sales rose 8.5% last year. it provides franchisees with

a range of services, which include assistance with site selection, store design and construction, delivery of fixtures and products, on-site training from its 550-page operations manual, store merchandising, and grand opening. There is continuous support to maintain a high level of

sales, both in advertising and the development of new products. a franchisee typically needs between $175,000 and $195,000 to start, which includes a $35,000 franchise fee, $25,000 for the initial inventory, and the rest for furniture, fixtures, and store construction.

4 Opening

5 Raising the money

You’re convinced! Now, where would be the best place to locate your candy franchise store, and what ideas could you use for a grand opening and eye-catching promotion?

The big day has come. Your plan is ready, and you are going to present it to your bank. If it’s good, they’ll lend you the money, and a dream will become reality. Good luck with the presentation!

Use the ideas in 2 and 3 to help you produce a short business plan for your store.

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Irregular verbs

Irregular verbs Infinitive

Past simple

Participle

Infinitive

Past simple

Participle

be

was / were

been

lend

lent

lent

become

became

become

let

let

let

begin

began

begun

lose

lost

lost

break

broke

broken

make

made

made

build

built

built

mean

meant

meant

buy

bought

bought

meet

met

met

can

could

–

pay

paid

paid

catch

caught

caught

put

put

put

choose

chose

chosen

read

read

read

come

came

come

run

ran

run

cost

cost

cost

say

said

said

deal

dealt

dealt

see

saw

seen

do

did

done

sell

sold

sold

drink

drank

drunk

send

sent

sent

drive

drove

driven

show

showed

shown

eat

ate

eaten

sing

sang

sung

fall

fell

fallen

sink

sank

sunk

feel

felt

felt

sit

sat

sat

find

found

found

speak

spoke

spoken

fly

flew

flown

spend

spent

spent

forget

forgot

forgotten

steal

stole

stolen

get

got

gotten

take

took

taken

give

gave

given

teach

taught

taught

go

went

gone

tell

told

told

grow

grew

grown

think

thought

thought

have

had

had

throw

threw

thrown

hear

heard

heard

understand

understood

understood

hit

hit

hit

wear

wore

worn

keep

kept

kept

win

won

won

know

knew

known

write

wrote

written

leave

left

left

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Pronunciation

Pronunciation Vowels

Consonants

The alphabet

/i/

eat

/b/

bat

/eI/

/i/

/e/

/aI/

/oU/

/u/

/Ar/

/I/

sit

/k/

cat

Aa

Bb

Ff

Ii

Oo

Qq

Rr

/eI/ wait

/tS/ chair

Hh

Cc

Ll

Yy

Uu

/e/

get

/d/

dad

Jj

Dd

Mm

Ww

/œ/ hat

/f/

fat

Kk

Ee

Nn

/aI/ write

/g/

girl

Gg

Ss

/ø/

but

/h/

hat

Pp

Xx

/u/

food

/dZ/ July

Tt

/U/

good

/l/

Vv

Zz

like

/oU/ go

/m/ man

/O/

saw

/n/

new

/A/

hot

/p/

pet

/aU/ cow

/kw/ queen

/OI/ boy

/r/

run

/‰r/ her

/s/

see

/´/

/S/

shirt

/t/

talk

/D/

the

/∏/

thin

/v/

voice

sofa

/w/ where /j/

you

/N/

ring (as final sound)

/z/

zoo

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Learner training

A

Learner training 1 Vocabulary: being a good learner – knowing a word Knowing a word means being able to: • use it in a sentence – knowing the words it goes together with • pronounce / stress it correctly • understand the difference between this word and other similar ones. You will see from this book that there are different ways of organizing new words. These are designed to help you remember the words and important information about them. You should have a separate vocabulary notebook where you write new words and important information about them.

2 Word building It can be useful to notice patterns across different types of word (word class): discuss – discussion Task 1 Complete the table. Noun decision

Verb __________________

adjective __________________

Negative adjective indecisive

__________________

to appreciate

__________________

__________________

__________________

__________________

polluting

__________________

Notice that: • nouns may be formed from verbs by adding suffixes: sion / tion, etc. • negative prefixes are common in English: in / un / im, etc. • prefixes tend to affect meaning, suffixes tend to affect word class.

3 Collocation In this book you have seen exercises on collocation – words that go together. This applies to all kinds of words: You play tennis. (verb + noun) a rainy day (adjective + noun) You speak English fluently. (verb + adverb) Write down collocations when you learn new words. Task 2 Match the words from each column to make a collocation. 1 strong

a) story

2 make

b) coffee

3 loyal

c) friend

4 native

d) need

5 desperately

e) speaker

6 true

f ) an error

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Learner training 4 Connotation Now that your vocabulary has grown, you have more words for the same things. Often there is a difference between the words: connotation is the impression a word gives apart from its essential meaning. The words in parentheses below express the connotation of the examples: a guy: a man (informal) an adult: a grown up (this is the word that is often used by children) It is important to record this kind of information with new words so that you can use them. Task 3 Match the words that are similar in meaning. 1 sibling

a) to become more / go up

2 to tolerate

b) so

3 therefore

c) nervous

4 to increase

d) to say no

5 to refuse

e) to put up with

6 apprehensive

f ) brother or sister

Which column has the formal words, which the informal? Task 4 Write sentences to show the difference in connotation between the following word pairs. Use your dictionary if you want to. to inquire – to ask mom – mother • Notice that Latinate words tend to be more formal.

Collocation Task 2 2 make an error 3 loyal friend 4 native speaker 5 desperately need 6 true story Noun decision appreciation pollution

Connotation Task 3 1 sibling: brother or sister 2 to tolerate: to put up with 3 therefore: so 4 to increase: to become more / go up 5 to refuse: to say no 6 apprehensive: nervous The first column has the formal words. Verb to decide to appreciate to pollute

adjective decisive appreciative polluting

Task 4 Suggested answers: He inquired about the train times. She asked her friend if she was free that evening. I’m taking my mom some flowers. A mother falcon protects and feeds her young.

Negative adjective indecisive unappreciative non-polluting

answers Word building Task 1

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Spelling rules

B

Spelling rules Rule 1: Spelling of plural endings • Words ending in ch, sh, s, x or z: add es. This is often pronounced /Iz/: bus – buses • Some words ending in o add es, others simply add s. tomato – tomatoes, potato – potatoes, radio – radios • Words ending in f or fe changes to ves. wife – wives

Task 1

Write the plurals. knives knife – _______________________

3 hero – _______________________

1 brush – _______________________

4 box – _______________________

2 match – _______________________

5 boss – _______________________

Task 2 Correct the text. George is such a heroe. He spent all day putting up shelfs in my bedroom so I could display my photoes. I also put some boxis up there. It looks great. I'm going to buy him a watche for a thank you presente.

Rule 2: Doubling of consonants • W ords of one syllable ending in one vowel and one consonant double the consonant when the word gets longer: put – putting, thin – thinnest, fit – fitted • Words ending in a vowel + y, w or x do not double and simply add endings (ing, er, est, ed): play – played, show – showing • Longer words (two or more syllables) ending in one vowel and one consonant double only when the stress is on the last syllable: begin – beginning, refer – referring, but travel – traveling, visit – visiting Task 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in parentheses. 1 He (stay) _______________________ for a coffee after class yesterday. 2 She is a good (listen) _______________________ . 3 They are (plan) _______________________ a summer wedding. 4 John is much (tall) _______________________ than Carl. 5 He (drop) _______________________ the book on my foot. 6 He (show)_______________________ us where we were on the map.

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Spelling rules Task 4 Correct the text. There are ten spelling errors. Bob had a terible arguement with James in the offise. Bob toled him he was lazy and James was really angrie. It was very embarassing because their manajer and his secratary heard everything. James isn't coming to work tommorrow and Bob is definitely responsable.

Rule 3: Final y and i • Final y usually changes to i when the word gets longer: easy – easier marry – marriage baby – babies • This change does not happen before endings starting with i: try – trying pray – praying • Nor does this change happen if the y comes immediately after a vowel: stay – stayed buy – buying Note: exceptions are: say – said, pay – paid • Final ie changes to y before ing lie – lying Task 5 Correct the text. There are ten spelling errors. I hurryied to the bank because I had to paie a bill. When I arrived they were clozing the doors. I was furyous and I tried to push the door open craiying, “This is not good busyness.” “This is Fridai,” sayed the manager. “Enjoi your weekend. Come back and tri again on Monday.”

... hurried ... pay ... closing ... furious ... crying ... business ... Friday ... said ... enjoy ... try Task 5 terrible ... argument ... office ... told ... angry ... embarrassing ... manager ... secretary ... tomorrow ... responsible Task 4 1 stayed, 2 listener, 3 planning, 4 taller, 5 dropped, 6 showed Task 3 ... hero ... shelves ... photos ... boxes ... watch ... present Task 2 2 brushes, 3 matches, 4 heroes, 5 boxes, 6 bosses Task 1 answers

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Macmillan Education Between Towns Road, Oxford, OX4 3PP A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies and representatives throughout the world ISBN: 9780230405400 Text © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2009 Written by Simon Brewster, Paul Davies and Mickey Rogers (additional material for Workbook by JoAnn Miller) Additional text for this edition by Nick McIver Design and illustration © Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009 Published under licence from Editorial Macmillan de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. First published 2009 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers. Typeset by Zed Illustrated by Pulsar Studios, Beehive Illustration Ltd Cover design by Oliver Design Cover photography by Corbis Publishing management: hyphen The authors and publishers would like to thank the Foreign & FCO Commonwealth Office for permission to reproduce an extract about Hajj pilgrims from www.fco.gov.uk © Crown Copyright 2007. The author and publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce their photographs: aFP/Ria Novosti p47; alamy/Rungtip Chatadee p18(d), dbi images p57, Gkphotography p49(t), David Hancock p4(a), Robert Harding Picture Library p8(a), World Religion Photos p26;Comstock p49(b); Bananastock pp14(r), 69(r); BrandX pp48(l), 52(b), 64(t); ComStock pp1; Corbis/pp22(l), 30(t), 34(l), 53(cr), 70, 78, Yahya Arhab/epa p7B, Bettmann pp 54(a&d) and 58(b), Kevin Dodge p38(r), Radny Faris p76(l), Barry Gregg p73, Thomas Hartwell p7)a), Hein van den Heuvel/zefa p63(tr), Hulton-Deutsch Collection pp6(t), 54(a), Larry Lee Photography p65, Robert Maass p44, Moodboard p74B, Les Walker/Newsport p53(br), Kazuyoshi Nomachi p6B, Reuters p51(t), James Sparshatt p7(c), Stretch Photography/Blend Images p74(c), Graham Tooby p8(b), Virgo Productions p14L, Rick Wilking/Thierry Tronnel p54B, Corbis Yellow p74(t); David Tolley pp8, 66; PA Photos/PH p56t; getty Images p7, Bruce Ayres p21(b), Peter Correz p50, Joe Cornish p40(l), Ali Haider p42, Hans Peter Merten p53(tc), Roberto Mettifogo p15, MJ Kim p54c, Ian Kington p53(tr), Hans Neleman p24, Erin Patrice O’Brien p43, Terry O’Neill p58(c), NASA/Hulton Archive p31, Patrick Riviere p34(r), Time and Life Pictures p30(b), Ruth Tomlinson p37(t), Smari p64(b), Peter Wilson p77(b); gulf Images pp9, 18(a&c), 22r, 40(c), 62; Hémis/Philippe Renault p52(c), Pawel Wysocki p42(b); Image Source pp52(t), 69(l); Imagestate pp32, 74(d); JupiterImages pp16(l), 38(cr), 40(d), 60-61, 63t, 68(l), 68(r), 69, 77(t); Mary evans Photo Library/Illustrated London News ltd p23; NaSa Image p12; Photodisc pp48-49, 48(r), 60tl; Pixtal p68; Rex Features p46; Stockbyte pp51(b), 66, 77; SuperStock /Stockbroker/Purestock 16(l), 3(b). Thanks to al-Jazirah newspaper for their photographic contribution. Printed and bound in Saudi Arabia 2013 2012 2011 2010 2012 10 9 8 7 6 5

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Flying High for Saudi Arabia - Level 5 - Student's Book