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Collocations dictionary FOR LEARNERS OF ENGLISH

rapidly steadily


confidence gain experience understanding




confidence build great gain


real profound

deep in-depth



complete thorough






ADJ suitable for a particular situation or purpose adv+ADJ very entirely, wholly, highly, very, • perfectly It has been a highly appropriate time to

Parliamentary approval of the regulations is expected shortly.

v+N get approval obtain, gain, receive, win, • secure, get, achieve The drug AZT gained approval

undertake this study.

in 1987.

➔ in a particular way culturally, clinically, linguistically, contextually, environmentally The

➔ give approval grant, give, confirm I never gave

surgery performed must be clinically appropriate.

v+ADJ deem sth, consider sth, think sth, feel sth, • judge sth, regard sth as Please donate any items you deem appropriate.

ADJ+to-i personal situation needs, age, ability • Having equipment that is appropriate to the needs of visually impaired pupils is the first step to improved learning.

➔ general situation circumstances, situation, context, task, occasion, location, subject, conditions, purpose Register is what linguists call a style appropriate to the occasion.

ADJ+for-i purpose, use, needs, circumstances, • situation, occasion, task, setting Not all of the tests mentioned will be appropriate for use with every child.

ADJ+n courses of action action, measures, • safeguards, method, precautions, response, treatment, arrangements We take appropriate precautions to protect any information you submit using our website. ➔ things you wear clothing, footwear


my approval for these actions. ➔ try to get approval seek, request, ask for, apply for The club had requested approval to proceed with a revised project.

Usage You can also say ’submit something for approval’ or ’present something for approval’ The plans were submitted for approval. ➔ not give approval revoke, withdraw, withhold, refuse, suspend In one case the centre actually had its approval withdrawn.

You can also say that something is ’subject to approval’: The new course will start in 2010 (subject to approval by the University board).



1 have a positive feeling towards someone or something

heartily, wholeheartedly, thoroughly Even • ifadv+V I end up disagreeing with the final decisions, I heartily approve of the process.

2 give official agreement or permission adv+V when everyone/most people approve • unanimously, overwhelmingly The motion was unanimously approved.


1 a positive feeling towards something or someone adj+N from a lot of people universal, widespread, • general Nuclear power does not enjoy widespread public approval.

➔ great hearty, whole-hearted He had no doubt

but that this would meet with their hearty approval.

v+N get someone’s approval win, earn, meet, • gain, get, meet with If the product does not meet your approval you can return it for a full refund.

➔ express approval nod, roar, express, voice The President examined the cartoon, and then nodded his approval. ➔ want someone’s approval seek, want I have never sought approval, I have just done what I’ve wanted.

n+of-i+N when you show your approval seal, • stamp Again we get an encore and the song gets the seal of approval.

➔ actions showing approval roar, nod, murmur, chorus Loud murmurs of approval went up from the audience.

You can also say that someone does something ’in approval’: He nodded in approval.

2 official agreement from someone in authority adj+N types of approval prior, final, • retrospective, conditional, written, official, full It is his department that has the final approval on the funding for this road.

➔ approval from particular person/group parliamentary, ministerial, congressional, royal, parental, shareholder, committee, government

➔ in a particular way formally, officially, provisionally, conditionally, personally You must not start the work before your application for a grant has been officially approved in writing.

V+n proposal, plan, scheme, budget, • appointment, recommendation, application, amendment The plan was formally approved at the last Budget.


ADJ suitable adv+ADJ particularly, very, especially, rather, • entirely, perfectly, peculiarly, strangely This analogy is a particularly apt one.

ADJ+n description, metaphor, analogy, title, • name, comparison, word Agreeing on an apt title for a new book can be difficult.


N a natural ability to do something well v+N have an aptitude demonstrate, show, have, • possess, display, develop He discovered he had an aptitude for chemistry.

You can also talk about people ’with an aptitude’: Students with an aptitude for music will enjoy this course. ➔ measure an aptitude test, assess, measure A

written test will be used to assess aptitude for social work.

adj+N a special aptitude natural, particular, • special, strong, remarkable, real She showed a strong aptitude for languages at an early age.

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➔ a particular type of aptitude mechanical,

musical, technical, academic, intellectual, mathematical An aural test will show if you have

natural musical aptitude.

➔ poor disadvantaged, deprived, slum ➔ rich affluent They are largely affluent areas and are home to many commuters to London.

3 space


ADJ not based on any plan or done for a particular reason

adj+N wooded, paved, lawned, forested, grassy, • communal, shaded A door leads outside to a paved

fairly arbitrary somewhat, rather, fairly • aadv+ADJ fairly arbitrary collection of articles

n+N dining, picnic, parking, storage, barbecue, • recreation, sleeping, seating, patio, reception

➔ seeming arbitrary seemingly, apparently It’s a seemingly arbitrary list that has little in the way of logic.

➔ completely arbitrary purely, entirely, completely, quite, totally It is a well-argued text which attacks the quite arbitrary division between popular and serious literature.

ADJ+n detention, arrest, limit, distinction, • decision, rule, number Arbitrary arrests and

Within the grounds are numerous nature trails and picnic areas.


N people and things involved with a particular activity v+N start being involved enter, re-enter, step • into, move into, come into Judges have to be careful not to step too far into the political arena.

➔ provide a way of being involved provide, create

beatings were common.

It is an opportunity to create an arena in which issues can be discussed.


N a collection of documents v+N look in an archive search, browse, access, • view, go to, look at Please feel free to browse our archive of 700 publications. ➔ create an archive create, amass, build, build up, generate The present owner has amassed a considerable archive relating to the history of his home. ➔ contain an archive house, contain The Library also houses a separate archive of the University’s course materials.

adj+N types of archive historical, photographic, • news, photo It includes images from the photo archive as well as footage from his other films.

➔ computer archive digital, online, electronic The digital archive has not yet been made accessible to the general public.

➔ large archive extensive, vast, comprehensive Each of the towns has an extensive archive and at least one published ’History’.




1 a particular subject or activity N+of-i type of work/study expertise, interest, • specialization, research, responsibility, work His area of specialization was the Victorian period.

➔ something people worry/disagree about weakness, disagreement, concern There are still significant areas of disagreement between us.

adj+N difficult sensitive, grey, specialist The • Green Paper recognises that agriculture remains a

➔ be involved compete in, work in, operate in, be involved in, be in The position would suit someone with previous experience of working in the business arena.

adj+N extent of arena global, domestic, world, • international The struggle for colonial freedom gathered strength as a powerful independent force in the world arena in this period.

➔ type of arena political, competitive, commercial, public, social, corporate, business, policy Andy has has worked in the commercial arena for 12 years.

N+for-i debate, discussion, dialogue The • classroom provides an arena for direct debate.



1 disagree in an angry way adv+V angrily/loudly fiercely, furiously, bitterly, • loudly Two women began to argue fiercely about who was to blame. ➔ always/often always, endlessly, constantly, frequently I’m tired of constantly arguing with my boyfriend.

2 state a reason or opinion adv+V clearly, in a way that persuades people • persuasively, convincingly, cogently, coherently, eloquently, compellingly, plausibly There is a full and coherently argued conclusion.

➔ strongly forcefully, strongly, passionately, vehemently, powerfully, vigorously, fiercely, strenuously Two men argued passionately that it

sensitive area.

would accomplish nothing.

➔ important key, main, core, priority One of the

➔ correctly rightly, reasonably, correctly War is a

n+N curriculum, topic, subject We decided to focus • on the curriculum area of math.

➔ without changing consistently The government

main areas covered is physical activity.

2 part of a city, town, country etc adj+N other types of area urban, built-up, • residential, populated, inner-city, rural, upland, remote, coastal, mountainous, low-lying Moor usually occurs in upland areas.

matter of technique, as Trotsky correctly argued.

has consistently argued that everybody who wants to study and who meets the entry level should be able to study, irrespective of his or her financial situation.

V+n case, point, position, corner, merit She is • feisty and argued her corner eloquently. I won’t be

at this rehearsal though so I won’t be forced to argue the merits of my favourite book.

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that what matters is efficiency, not achieving targets.

1 an angry disagreement between people adj+N an angry argument heated, bitter, fierce, • furious, impassioned After a heated argument a shot is fired, and one of the professors lies dead!

➔ a silly argument petty, ridiculous, silly, pointless Please let’s not get into a petty argument about American spelling.

have an argument have, get into, engage in • Iv+N overheard all the bridesmaids having a furious argument about who was going to be first to dance with the best man .

➔ become an argument turn into, end in, result in What started out as a reasonably minor family difficulty has turned into a bitter argument.

➔ cause an argument or make one worse cause, provoke, be looking for, fuel Eddie’s not looking for


V begin to exist or develop n+V other things issue, vacancy, opportunity, • question, situation, need Fox Williams has specialist expertise in advising on legal issues arising from online commerce.

➔ problems problem, difficulty, complication, confusion, damage, conflict, controversy, misunderstanding, dispute Similar problems arise in some of the other sections.

adv+V spontaneously, naturally, directly, • inevitably, frequently, unexpectedly, independently, immediately A mutation of a gene may arise spontaneously in a body cell.

an argument, but neither is he planning on moving.

• n+V problem, confusion, situation, need

➔ involve someone in an argument draw sb into, embroil sb in, involve sb in This could result in you


being drawn into arguments.

➔ end an argument settle, win, lose To settle the

argument once and for all, what is the song called? ➔ not have an argument avoid Avoid arguments about teenage behaviour.

2 a set of reasons used for persuading others adj+N strong persuasive, convincing, compelling, • strong, valid, powerful ➔ weak unconvincing, weak, flawed The proposal is based on an unconvincing argument.

➔ about a particular subject philosophical, legal, theological, political, ethical These hypotheses are used as premises in a number of philosophical arguments.


1 body part with your hand at the end v+N stretch out your arm outstretch, straighten, • extend, stretch out Straighten your arms bringing the bar to waist height.

➔ move your arms wave, swing, flail, flap, move George jumped up and down waving his arms.

➔ lift/lower your arms lift, raise, lower I couldn’t lift my arms to get dressed.

➔ cross your arms cross, fold He relapsed into

silence, standing with folded arms, staring before him.

➔ injure your arm break, sever, paralyse, fracture, lose I fell and broke my arm.

2 part of an organization

➔ sensible or well-argued cogent, logical, rational, coherent, plausible, reasoned, well-reasoned I

N+of-i government, state, company, charity, • business the executive arm of government

have seen very cogent arguments for and against the Scottish system of comprehensive education.


➔ based on incorrect facts/reasoning fallacious, spurious, flawed Sadly this is a hopelessly flawed argument.

You can also say that there is ’a flaw in someone’s argument’: There are at least two flaws in your argument. ➔ most important main, central Without doubt,the

book’s central arguments are compelling and backed up with a wealth of evidence.

v+N suggest or use an argument present, • advance, put forward, articulate, use, deploy, make, outline, supply, provide, produce There is adequate opportunity to present new arguments and evidence.

➔ think of an argument construct, develop, formulate, hone I could do with some help formulating my argument.

➔ not accept an argument reject, refute, rebut, dismiss, disagree with This book rebuts every argument ever offered to ’prove’ God’s existence.

➔ make an argument weaker counter, undermine, weaken, demolish, contradict This material goes some way to counter these arguments.

➔ make an argument stronger support, strengthen, substantiate, reinforce, bolster, endorse, lend weight to It supports our argument

N weapons N+n decrease in arms reduction, limitation • Ultimately all countries will have to sign up to an arms reduction protocol.

➔ people in arms trade dealer, exporter, manufacturer, trafficker, broker They bought their weaponry from an arms dealer.

➔ buying/selling of arms trade, trafficking, smuggling, industry, procurement, sale, export In the 19th century Newcastle was an international port and centre of the arms trade.

➔ increase in arms proliferation, build-up, race the problem of small arms proliferation

➔ ways of reducing arms embargo, control, decommissioning We continue to support international arms control and disarmament initiatives. ➔ supply of arms cache, dump A major cave network containing a huge arms cache was discovered.



1 a large organized group of soldiers trained to fight on land

v+N join/be in an army join, enter, enlist in, be • conscripted into, be drafted into, be recruited into,

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go into, serve in After graduating he joined the army.

revise, discuss, confirm, cancel, change, come to, enter into, put in place We will always make an

➔ form/use an army muster, mobilize, assemble, amass, gather, deploy The first battle was with the

arrangement for someone to call you back if necessary.

miners, then the army was deployed against the railworkers.

➔ leave an army leave, be discharged from, desert from He said he had deserted from the army and wished to surrender himself.

adj+N standing, guerrilla, reserve, enemy, rebel, • volunteer, regular The enemy army amounted to eight or nine thousand men.

N+v when an army attacks invade, occupy, • besiege, storm, seize, capture, attack, advance In 1868, the British army invaded Ethiopia.

➔ when an army stops fighting retreat, flee, withdraw, surrender The French and Spanish were convinced that the Allied army was retreating towards Portugal.

2 people working or doing sth together adj+N vast, whole, veritable, ever-growing Such • views are voiced daily by the vast army of EU lobbyists who depend on the EU for their incomes.

N+of-i volunteer, helper, fan, bureaucrat, worker, • servant, supporter, follower Now she is a part of an enthusiastic army of volunteers, each caring for around thirty children.


V cause an emotion or attitude V+n suspicion, curiosity, interest, indignation, • controversy, anger, jealousy, opposition, resentment We argued that it was only going to arouse suspicion.



1 make plans for something to happen V+n visit, appointment, meeting, interview, • viewing, funeral, trip, get-together INFORMAL To arrange a home visit please telephone this number.

V+for-i removal, repair, collection, disposal, • delivery, inspection, payment, transfer The local electricity supplier should arrange for removal of the power supply.

2 put things in a neat or useful order adv+V in a particular way neatly, carefully, • beautifully, cleverly, tastefully, randomly, symmetrically, vertically, horizontally Every sort of vegetable was beautifully arranged on a huge plate.

➔ in a particular order alphabetically, chronologically, thematically, hierarchically They are arranged chronologically and in alphabetical order of the first letter of the surname.

Arrange is often passive in these combinations.

3 provide something, by doing what is necessary V+n accommodation, mortgage, transport, loan, • finance, insurance

adj+N alternative, special, flexible, existing, • necessary, financial, appropriate, informal, present, temporary It may be possible to make alternative arrangements.

n+N travel, pension, seating, funding, childcare, • security, sleeping, catering, parking, working, funeral Please check that the event is happening before making travel arrangements. Usage Arrangement is always plural is these combinations with adjectives and nouns.


N a large group of related people or things adj+N vast, dazzling, impressive, wide, dizzying, • diverse, amazing, huge, broad, bewildering, glittering A dazzling array of antique pieces can be found in ’The Silver Shop’. v+N boast, offer, feature, create, contain, • produce, cover, present, provide, have The city boasts a fantastic array of restaurants.


N an occasion when the police arrest someone v+N arrest someone make, effect, carry out, place • sb under, put sb under More than a hundred arrests were made and hundreds of computers seized.

When someone has been arrested you can also say that they are ’under arrest’.: You’re under arrest. ➔ try/manage not to be arrested resist, evade, avoid, escape At no time did he resist arrest. ➔ when someone might be arrested risk, face, fear Risking arrest and imprisonment, he smuggles her back to England.

adj+N arbitrary, wrongful, mass, unlawful, lawful, • false Several people complained of arbitrary arrests and shootings.

n+of-i+N wave, series Over the last year there has • been a wave of arrests.


N when someone or something arrives v+N wait for the arrival of something anticipate, • expect, await Russ found himself eagerly anticipating her arrival at the studio. ➔ say/show something is arriving herald, signal, mark, announce A knock on the door heralds the arrival of a magnificent woman in a flowery dress. ➔ be there when something arrives greet, celebrate, welcome, witness 30 years ago I witnessed the arrival of the final British Railways train over this line. ➔ make something’s arrival later/earlier delay, hasten This delayed our arrival at the next lesson.

adj+N imminent, late, impending, safe, • unexpected, early, timely, sudden, eventual,


N a way of organizing things

• v+N make, finalize, review, formalize, agree,

punctual Mr Arbuthnot apologised profusely for his late arrival.

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V reach a place, after being somewhere else

n+N portrait, wildlife, landscape She is one of the • UK‘s leading wildlife artists.

adv+V safely, finally, eventually, promptly, • punctually, shortly, unexpectedly, recently


arrive at

adv+ADJ very ashamed deeply, so, thoroughly, • too, utterly, very, really He is deeply ashamed of his

PHR VB reach a result, decision, or solution

ADJ INFORMAL guilty or embarrassed about something


V+n conclusion, decision, consensus, solution, • estimate, judgement Paul arrived at his conclusions

➔ slightly ashamed a little, slightly, almost, rather, somewhat, quite I was a little ashamed of myself

from reading the committee’s report.


N painting, drawing, sculpture etc.

for having failed to enjoy his treat sufficiently.

and/or embarrassed, guilty, disgusted, • frightened, confused A third of people said they would be too ashamed or embarrassed to ask for help.

adj+N types of art fine, conceptual, graphic, • abstract, digital, folk, performance, pop He studied study Fine Art at the Slade School, London.

➔ art of a particular period prehistoric, modern, contemporary, ancient The Guggenheim Museum us packed with many fine examples of modern art.

v+N study, teach, exhibit, create, commission, • enjoy, appreciate, produce, inspire I appreciate art


V speak or write to get information or make someone give you something adv+V often frequently, commonly, repeatedly, • constantly, continually, regularly A list of frequently asked questions is given below.

and I want to give other people the opportunity to appreciate it as well.


➔ in a particular way politely, respectfully, incredulously, kindly, casually, pointedly, innocently, jokingly, sarcastically, anxiously, rhetorically, nicely They were asked politely to move

adj+N types of article scholarly, online, scientific, • technical, academic, news These scholarly articles

➔ when someone asks a simple question just, simply, merely She simply asked whether I would

N a piece of writing about a particular subject

can provide interesting background material for family historians.

➔ a good/interesting article interesting, informative, excellent, fascinating, insightful, thought-provoking, well-researched, authoritative, amusing, thoughtful The magazine is packed with information and interesting articles on the town. ➔ a long/detailed article in-depth, lengthy, fullpage, long, detailed Oppenheimer’s article is lengthy, and I cannot begin to summarize it here. ➔ a short article short, brief Clearly in a brief article these issues cannot be dealt with.

n+N journal, newspaper, magazine, front-page • Native speakers do read aloud: horoscopes, newspaper articles, poems, etc.

v+N publish, write, submit, contribute, post, read, • quote, refer to, respond to This article was first

their cars.

prefer cheque or cash.

V+n advice, forgiveness, permission, pardon, • blessing, opinion Don’t be afraid to ask advice from the people who have already done it.

ask for


V+n help/support help, forgiveness, advice, permission, assistance ➔ money donation, money, refund ➔ information clarification, detail, confirmation, feedback, explanation, comment, information, opinion


ADJ not awake adv+ADJ fast, half, deeply, almost, sound Opposite • me in the armchair, William is fast asleep.

published in the Radio Times, October 1977.


N a person who makes paintings, sculptures etc adj+N not yet famous up-and-coming, budding, • aspiring, unknown It can be hard for an up-andcoming artist to get people to buy his work.

➔ particular kind of artist contemporary, visual, graphic, textile, ceramic, conceptual, graffiti, tattoo, performance, pop The Hayward Gallery’s new show draws together work by 50 contemporary artists.

➔ good/famous renowned, acclaimed, talented, well-known, famous, accomplished, celebrated, influential, gifted It is the first major exhibition in London devoted to this renowned German artist. ➔ local local You would think they wanted to support local artists.


N a particular part, feature, or quality of something adj+N many/different various, different, many • The surveys assess various aspects of school quality. ➔ important important, key, fundamental, crucial, essential, significant Making things by hand is still an important aspect of much contemporary craft.

➔ bad/difficult negative, worrying, challenging, controversial, disturbing, problematic The plan has one or two worrying aspects, however.

➔ good/interesting positive, interesting, striking, appealing, intriguing, rewarding, fascinating, enjoyable Whilst it has many positive aspects, alternative medicine also contains some very questionable practices.

➔ type of aspect technical, practical, psychological, theoretical, legal, ethical, social, environmental,

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cultural, spiritual, emotional, physical, financial, safety, security Training focuses on technical aspects of plant safety.

v+N cover, discuss, explore, encompass, examine, • address, highlight, illustrate, investigate, study, focus on, concentrate on, look at, deal with This is a two-day short course covering all aspects of product design.

➔ be attacked come under, be under

3 strong criticism adj+N verbal, relentless, ferocious, savage, • furious Lenin and his comrades launched a ferocious assault on the economists.

v+N launch, mount, unleash Ricky Gervais has • launched a new assault on the state of British comedy, claiming it doesn’t match up to American standards.


N something you want to achieve


adj+N in a particular area of life political, • spiritual, educational, personal The KLA also developed uncompromising political aspirations.

➔ for the future future, longer-term, long-term

My future aspirations are to exhibit my work here and abroad.

➔ type of aspiration high, lofty, noble, legitimate, vague, low, nationalist, democratic Shane never really had high aspirations to be famous.

v+N raise, fulfil, realize, meet, achieve, reflect, • satisfy, match, share, express, articulate, have,

V attack someone violently adv+V indecently, sexually, physically, violently, • brutally, seriously, viciously, verbally One assistant was physically assaulted.



1 bring people or things together V+n people team, cast, squad, army, coalition, • panel ➔ objects/information collection, portfolio, evidence, material, data

support A third of those interviewed cited a lack of experience as preventing them from achieving their aspirations.

adv+V slowly/carefully painstakingly, carefully, • gradually He has painstakingly assembled a team

and/or needs, hopes, expectations, ambitions, • attainments, dreams, achievements More than 100

➔ quickly/carelessly hastily, quickly, hurriedly, rapidly They hastily assembled a cast for the new

high-quality homes and flats are being built to meet the needs and aspirations of residents.

Usage Aspiration is almost always plural in all these combinations.


N the murder of someone famous or important adj+N attempted, targeted, political, sectarian, • planned Most actual or attempted assassinations in history have been the work of crazy fanatics.

v+N plot, order, attempt, plan, be behind, be • involved in He was accused of plotting the assassination.



2 come together in a group n+V crowd, congregation, team, crew, guests, • army, throng A large crowd assembled and waited to see if there were any survivors.

adv+V hastily, hurriedly, spontaneously, quickly • The following day, news of his resignation prompted another mass meeting, which assembled spontaneously.


N a group or meeting of people v+N hold an assembly hold, convene, call, stage • The great national assembly was held in August.


➔ elect an assembly elect, elect sb to The assembly

1 a physical attack on someone

of people with great expertise and skills.

adj+N indecent, sexual, alleged, serious, violent, unprovoked, physical, brutal, vicious, criminal Police are also investigating another incident of indecent assault on a young girl.

v+N commit, witness, investigate, suffer, report, • convict sb of, accuse sb of, arrest sb for, experience, charge sb with Drugs are now often being used to commit sexual assault. They were convicted of common assault and gaoled for three months.

was elected in 1992. the assembly.

• Only 10 women were elected to

➔ attend an assembly attend, go to, come to We attended assemblies at two of the schools.

➔ end an assembly dissolve, suspend, abolish The Pope was afraid, and Dec. 18, 1431, he sent a bull to Cardinal Cesarini dissolving the assembly.

➔ speak to an assembly address, speak to, report to, present sth to The Secretary of State accepted

adj+N intended to cause a lot of damage all-out, • full-scale, relentless, direct, massive, devastating,

an early invitation to address the Assembly. Consider whether any changes are needed and report to the Assembly. The document presented to the Assembly in mid-December is based on incomplete data.

2 a military attack

fierce They launched an all-out assault on the convoy. ➔ a particular type of assault amphibious, airborne, military, air, infantry, ground an assault launch, mount, plan, lead • v+Nnotstart be killed/destroyed in an assault

➔ withstand, repulse, repel, resist, survive

meet, sit The Assembly meets today in a state • ofN+vconcern and confusion. adj+N regional, legislative, unelected, • parliamentary, general, municipal, provincial, national, consultative, elected, devolved Yorkshire already had an unelected regional assembly.

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1 state firmly that something is true

adv+V strongly or openly confidently, boldly, dogmatically, repeatedly, emphatically, publicly, firmly, strongly Trade, he has repeatedly asserted, should not be conducted as a form of economic war.

➔ without giving evidence simply, merely The cultural and moral decline of late capitalist civilisation needs to be demonstrated, not merely asserted.

➔ well properly, carefully, fully, accurately The problem needs to be properly assessed.

➔ in education externally, internally One piece of work will be externally assessed.


N the process of considering something in order to judge it adj+N thorough detailed, thorough, • comprehensive, rigorous, accurate No detailed assessment of the running costs has yet been made.

2 claim a right firmly V+n authority dominance, superiority, authority, • sovereignty, ownership, control He confided to club management that he found it difficult to assert his authority and control a number of the players.

➔ a right right, claim, independence, identity, individuality You will probably also find that your child uses her new-found vocabulary to assert her independence.


N a claim that something is true adj+N strongly stated dogmatic, bold, bald, • repeated, confident, sweeping This is just one of a number of sweeping assertions with which I do not agree.

➔ untrue or not proved unsupported, unsubstantiated, mere, false, unfounded, bare His attempt to claim that only his own work is correct is something which requires more than mere assertion.

v+N make an assertion make, repeat Before we • proceed, we have to make an assertion that affects the forthcoming elaboration.

➔ support or prove an assertion support, justify, prove There is no shortage of statistics to support this assertion.

➔ challenge an assertion or prove it wrong contradict, refute, challenge, dispute, reject ’ If Shakespeare were alive today, he’d be writing for Hollywood’. Justify or refute this assertion.

➔ done at the beginning initial, preliminary Today I want to give you our preliminary assessment of the measures we need to examine urgently.

➔ in education continuous, in-course, formal

Progress on the course is monitored by continuous assessment.

v+N undertake, conduct, complete, make, carry • out, provide, perform It is recommended that a risk assessment be carried out before embarking on any of these routes.

n+N risk, impact, safety, quality, needs A needs • assessment must be carried out for everyone over the age of 75.

N+of-i of risk or danger risk, hazard In all cases, • an assessment of risks to health must now be undertaken by a competent person.

➔ of performance effectiveness, performance, progress The Government is committed to publishing its own annual assessment of its progress in tackling poverty and social exclusion.



1 something that a person or company owns [usually plural]

v+N have or keep assets protect, own, hold, • manage, safeguard The Charity’s solicitor confirmed that all assets are owned by the Society.

➔ sell or get rid of assets sell, liquidate, transfer, realize, dispose of I wish I had liquidated my assets and gone on one last great journey instead.


V consider something carefully in order to judge it V+n likelihood of success suitability, feasibility, • viability, risk The viability of the new system needs to be carefully assessed.

➔ effect impact, effectiveness, progress The

effectiveness of the treatment was independently assessed. ➔ needs needs Advice and guidance on how to identify and assess your training needs is available at no cost. ➔ size extent Experts were called in to assess the extent of the damage.

➔ in education coursework, module, essay, assignment We can assess not just students ’ coursework , but also their role in online discussions. Most University-based modules are assessed on the basis of coursework.

adv+V in a particular way critically, • independently, objectively, formally Applications are assessed independently by an international selection panel in consultation with the local organizers of each meeting.

➔ take control of assets freeze, seize The police

were given new powers to seize criminals’ assets in the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. ➔ buy assets acquire, purchase Gains on assets acquired by taxpayers whilst resident outside the UK will not be included in the new charge.

adj+N total total Total assets are just over £430 • million. ➔ more than you need surplus The company will need to dispose of its surplus assets.

➔ type of assets intangible, tangible, financial, liquid, capital, business, property, fixed Liquid assets at that time were negligible.

n+of-i+N disposal, transfer, ownership, • realization, valuation, confiscation, sale, acquisition The valuation of assets, both tangible and intangible, is an important element of corporate finance.

2 a major benefit [usually singular] adj+N valuable, prized, great, invaluable, • priceless, important, tremendous People are our most valuable asset; they are our biggest investment.

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1 work that you do as part of your job

N a person who helps someone in their work

adj+N temporary, short-term, tough, overseas I adj+N type of assistant personal, administrative, • wanted • clerical, to take advantage of being with my husband technical In February 1996 I was successful who is on an overseas assignment.

complete, undertake, accept He now works • asv+Na freelance independent consultant and has recently completed assignments in the UK, Europe, Asia and Africa.

2 work that you do as part of your studies adj+N written, tutor-marked, practical, marked, • short Students are required to submit a written assignment.

v+N complete, submit, write, mark, assess, grade, • do In order to gain maximum benefit from the distance learning course a planned method of study should be followed with completed assignments being submitted regularly.

in becoming an administrative assistant in the School. ➔ at a particular level senior, junior I am working as a senior technical assistant in an IT company in Dubai.

➔ working all/part of the time part-time, fulltime They recruited a part-time assistant to help on the project.

n+N research, language, classroom, teaching, • shop, sales, laboratory, library He completed the study while working as a research assistant at the university.

v+N employ, appoint, recruit, hire The journal • needs to employ an editorial assistant to do this work.

V help someone or something

N+n professor, manager, director, editor, coach • Between 1923–1924 he was the assistant editor of the

adv+V ably, greatly, financially, materially, • actively, directly Ably assisted by their friendly staff,



they attend to the social needs of their elderly clients.

Transatlantic Review in Paris.

N a set of things of various types

V+with-i running, preparation, development, adj+N large wide, vast, rich, large, huge The centre • implementation, • houses planning, management Reporting a rich assortment of native butterflies, many to the Occupational Health Manager you will assist with the future development of the service.

V+in-i preparation, development, • implementation, delivery, planning, production, management, running, creation A group of parttime lecturers assist us in the delivery of the training programme.


N help that allows someone to do something adj+N type of assistance financial, humanitarian, • technical, practical, mutual, medical, legal, professional, direct, development, expert There are two ways the College can provide direct financial assistance for students: college loans and college welfare grants. ➔ needed immediately immediate, urgent, emergency Please remember always to dial the Police on 999 if you require urgent assistance.

➔ helpful invaluable, valuable, generous The St

John’s ambulance service will be on hand in the event of any accidents and we thank them for their invaluable assistance.

v+N ask for or need assistance seek, require, • need, request, ask for I am also going to seek their assistance with setting up the new system. ➔ get assistance receive, obtain, get There are a series of documents available for external organizations interested in receiving assistance with sports projects. ➔ be grateful for assistance acknowledge, appreciate, be grateful for He will appreciate any assistance with this project.

➔ give assistance give, render, provide, offer

Unfortunately, the police seem unable to curb this problem or even offer much assistance.

of which are close to disappearing in the wild. ➔ varied or strange motley, varied, eclectic, diverse, random, strange, odd The square to the west of the building attracts a varied assortment of street performers.



1 believe that something is true without proof adv+V wrongly wrongly, mistakenly, • erroneously, incorrectly Some people miss out on benefits because they wrongly assume they cannot claim anything when they are working.

➔ naturally, without questioning automatically, naturally, simply, just, naively, implicitly We do not automatically assume that all our visitors will come by car. Similarly individual teachers may teach in ways that reflect their own learning styles and implicitly assume that all their students learn that way.

➔ usually generally, usually, widely, often, always, commonly It is often assumed that air pollution in London is a recent phenomenon.

➔ correctly safely, reasonably, correctly The door beneath, which we may safely assume is original, is probably 12th century.

Usage In academic writing assume is often used in the passive: It is often incorrectly assumed that ...

2 start to have control or responsibility V+n power or responsibility responsibility, • command, control, power In your absence we will assume complete responsibility for your property.

➔ a job or position presidency, chairmanship, leadership, position, role Upon retiring he embarked upon a couple of coaching stints in Greece before assuming his current position in 2003.

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N something you consider likely to be true adj+N basic basic, fundamental This book • challenges basic assumptions about road travel and calls on the government to step in before it is too late. ➔ false false, mistaken, incorrect, faulty, questionable, erroneous Policy has often been based on the false assumption that adults learn foreign languages in the same way that a child learns its native tongue. ➔ reasonable reasonable Is this a reasonable assumption for me to make, do you think?

adj+N utter, great, utmost, complete, absolute • Raymond was staring at us in absolute astonishment. v+N express, cause In legal circles throughout the • world, the recognition of the rebel forces caused great astonishment and was condemned.

n+of-i+N gasp, exclamation, look, expression It • was a comment that caused gasps of astonishment around the chamber.

v+in-i+N gasp, stare, gaze, watch We both stood • gazing in astonishment.

➔ not examined implicit, unspoken, tacit, unexamined, unstated, unquestioned This


presentation challenged many of our often unspoken assumptions regarding the subject.

adv+ADJ in a particular way politically, • commercially, tactically, financially, technically,

v+N make an assumption make Probably the • most important assumptions made in the projections are about future levels of migration.

➔ question an assumption challenge, question, test, examine There is plenty of scope for challenging long-held beliefs and questioning assumptions about the right way to do things.

➔ not accept an assumption contradict, reject

Even if we reject this assumption, he is right that there are two clear ways to explain the phenomena.

N+v underlie, underpin, be based on Dave • critically evaluated the assumptions underlying this approach.

You can also say that you do or decide something ’on the assumption that’: We accepted the proposal on the assumption that they would pay the start-up costs.

assurance something

v+N ask for assurance seek, want, demand, • require There are around ten countries from whom we are seeking such assurances.

➔ give assurance give, provide, offer The

procedures and equipment should be monitored with sufficient frequency to provide assurance that the process is working well.

➔ get assurance welcome, accept, have, obtain, receive We welcome their assurance that the document does not represent University policy.

adj+N in writing/spoken written, verbal They • have given a written assurance that introducing the new working arrangements will not mean a reduction of staff.

➔ strong categorical, absolute, repeated, unconditional They gave an unconditional assurance that the law would be changed.

➔ not convincing bland Bland assurances that all work is carried out with integrity and objectivity will not suffice.

2 the fact of being very confident or certain adj+N great, complete, quiet, calm To add to an • excellent technique, she moves beautifully and dances with charm and calm assurance.

N very great surprise

psychologically We pride ourselves on being commercially astute, responsive and approachable. ➔ very exceptionally, very, remarkably, particularly He is a very astute player and tactically really aware.

ADJ+n person businessman, observer, • businesswoman, investor, politician James was an astute businessman who rose to become a leading figure in Darwen at that time. ➔ action observation, move, analysis There are many astute observations about the human condition.


N the right to stay somewhere to escape danger v+N ask for asylum seek, claim, request, apply • for He left a good business behind to seek asylum in England.


1 a statement made to remove doubt about


ADJ good at judging situations and people quickly

➔ give asylum grant, give We will continue to give asylum to genuine refugees and never play politics with immigration. ➔ refuse asylum refuse, deny He has been in England for four months and has already been refused asylum and is in the process of appeal.

adj+N political, temporary She claimed political • asylum on her arrival in the country. N+n seeker, claim, applicant, application Violet is • an asylum seeker who fled her native land after her husband and brother were murdered.


N the mood that exists in a place adj+N friendly friendly, homely, convivial, • intimate, cosy, warm A dedicated area especially for children enhances the welcoming and friendly, family atmosphere.

➔ pleasant; making you feel relaxed relaxing, laid-back, peaceful, relaxed, informal With its laidback atmosphere and very reasonable prices, Brandnertal ski resort is an ideal family winter destination. ➔ exciting lively, electric, vibrant Everyone enjoyed the lively atmosphere and good food. ➔ unpleasant claustrophobic, tense The lush photography and extreme close ups add to the effective claustrophobic atmosphere.

v+N create/add to an atmosphere create, • capture, recreate, evoke, foster, add to, contribute

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to, exude, provide The CD is actually recorded in a studio, but apparently captures the atmosphere of their live performances. ➔ change an atmosphere lighten, heighten All treatments are carried out in a peaceful environment with calming music to heighten the relaxing atmosphere.

he publicly attacked the competence of public sector managers.

➔ strongly viciously, savagely, violently, fiercely, aggressively, bitterly, strongly I was bitterly attacked and denounced by American radicals of almost every camp.

➔ enjoy/experience an atmosphere savour, enjoy, absorb, experience Ten of us attended and everyone


enjoyed the lively atmosphere and good food.

carry out It would not be possible for anyone • tov+Ncompose themselves so instantaneously after

➔ spoil an atmosphere spoil Although chart music was playing during my lunchtime visit it was very low key and didn’t spoil the atmosphere. ➔ keep an atmosphere retain, maintain The town manages to maintain a village atmosphere and a sense of community.

N+of-i a good atmosphere calm, trust, peace, • tranquillity Visitors to the College frequently comment on its atmosphere of calm.

➔ a bad atmosphere distrust, mistrust, fear, hysteria, tension Not sharing information creates an atmosphere of distrust.


N a cruel and violent act, often in war [plural] v+N commit, perpetrate, inflict, carry out Having • committed atrocities, individual soldiers are left with the guilt and the grief to deal with.

adj+N very bad terrible, unspeakable, appalling, • horrific, brutal, horrible Appalling atrocities are caused and driven by the brutality of warfare.

➔ type of atrocities terrorist, wartime



1 join something to something adv+V securely, permanently, firmly, loosely Is • the cable securely attached to the appliance?

2 be connected with something or someone condition, blame, goodwill, liability • Itn+Vmaystigma, be true that some blame attaches to the management of the place.

3 to think that something is important V+n importance, significance, weight, value We • attach particular importance to good diplomatic relations between the two countries.


ADJ liking someone or something very much, or loving someone


1 a violent attempt to harm someone or something

carrying out such a frenzied attack.

revenge, arson, firebomb He was the victim • ofn+Na firebomb attack on his shop in Whitechapel, London in 1999.

adj+N unprovoked, racist, vicious, violent, brutal, • savage, armed, sectarian, homophobic, frenzied It was a completely unprovoked attack.

2 an organized attempt to defeat an enemy v+N carry out an attack launch, mount, plan, • carry out In retaliation, the army mounted a missile attack on the capital.

➔ prevent or fight against an attack repulse, repel, withstand, counter, resist, deter The British attack was repulsed but the French made progress in both sectors.

n+N using a particular weapon missile, rocket, • mortar, gas, bomb, grenade The garrison is on standby but there has not been a rocket attack in weeks.

➔ using particular people or a particular method guerrilla, infantry, suicide, terrorist, insurgent, air, terror It was not a suicide attack but two car bombs. adj+N all-out, pre-emptive, devastating, • sustained A new, radical strategy of pre-emptive attack was outlined to handle terrorists and states who helped them.

You can also say that someone or something ’is under attack’ or that they ’come under attack’: The army headquarters came under sustained attack.

3 strong criticism adj+N scathing, vitriolic, stinging, blistering, • concerted, fierce, bitter She launched a scathing attack on the party’s campaign tactics.

v+N launch, mount Orkney’s chief librarian • launched an attack on the council after plans for a new Orkney library fell victim to major cutbacks.

4 the beginning or return of an illness

adv+V emotionally, devotedly, deeply, strongly, • warmly, • v+N suffer, trigger He had suffered a heart attack. sincerely, too Although their marriage was a political alliance, the pair became deeply attached. n+N heart, panic, asthma, migraine John • apparently suffered a major heart attack.



1 use violence against someone or something adv+V viciously, savagely, physically, violently, • brutally, fiercely, aggressively A man was viciously attacked by a gang of youths last night.

2 criticize someone or something adv+V in a particular way verbally, repeatedly, • directly, personally, openly, publicly In the article


V succeed in achieving something after much effort; reach something V+n state enlightenment, perfection, maturity, • salvation, eminence It can be impossible to attain perfection, but with time, effort and the correct approach some progress can be made.

➔ level or qualification level, standard, degree,

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11 qualification, grade Most pupils attain grade A* or A at GCSE.




1 an effort to do something v+N oppose an attempt resist, block, undermine, • reject, oppose Most companies are resisting attempts to squeeze cash from them. ➔ make an attempt make This paper makes an attempt to appraise how successful the new policy has been. ➔ give up an attempt abandon Unfortunately the Government seems to have abandoned all attempts to limit traffic levels.

adj+N unsuccessful unsuccessful, failed, vain, • abortive, futile, misguided, bungled, botched, fruitless He made three unsuccessful attempts to get the right position.

➔ successful successful The article makes a not

entirely successful attempt to explain the new trend.

➔ determined valiant, repeated, concerted, brave, serious, deliberate, desperate, determined She had made a brave attempt at making herself presentable. ➔ weak half-hearted, pathetic, feeble She made one final feeble attempt to fight him but her strength had gone.

2 an unsuccessful, illegal or wrong act

• with a past history of suicide attempts are at greater n+N assassination, suicide, coup Young people

risk of engaging in further suicide attempts.

v+N thwart, foil Lastly, can I pay tribute to the • police and security services who have in recent days clearly foiled a serious attempt to commit a terrorist attack in this county.


currently attend our mixed classes every week and enjoy great success.

N the number of people present or the fact of being present v+N improve attendance improve, encourage, • attract, increase, maximize, boost Specialist witness care units in North Wales have improved witness attendance at court by 29 %.

➔ saying attendance is necessary require, compel, ensure Attendance is not required and you may enrol at any time.

adj+N good regular, punctual, good Successful • completion of the course depends on regular attendance.

➔ when attendance is necessary compulsory, mandatory, full-time School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16 years.

➔ mentioning the number of people attending average, total, large, disappointing, high, estimated, record Average weekly attendance rose by seven per cent during 2002.

➔ bad poor, irregular, unsatisfactory, low

Attendance was unsatisfactory in a quarter of schools.

N+n figure, record, rate Attendance figures at the • venue have doubled in the last 4 –5 years. n+in+N increase, drop The public • relationsdecline, exercise paid off and there was a significant increase in attendance figures.



1 interest or thought given to something or someone

adj+N complete undivided, much, rapt, • considerable You will have our undivided attention



ADJ+n murder, suicide, coup, assassination, • robbery, theft, rape, burglary, break-in, abduction, fraud, arson A youth was charged with attempted murder for hitting a policeman in South Yorkshire.


V 1 be present at an event or activity


➔ little scant, little, insufficient Scant attention was paid to sport.

➔ not wanted unwanted, unwelcome Try not to draw any unwanted attention to yourself.

➔ careful careful, meticulous, close, particular, special We use suppliers who pay careful attention to issues that are important to consumers.

V+n meeting meeting, session, interview, • conference, v+N get someone’s attention draw, attract, grab • INFORMAL reunion Attending networking meetings , catch, receive, command, capture, have and ’ best practice ’ seminars is essential.

➔ event wedding, funeral, rally, concert, dinner, ceremony, event, launch Stunned and shocked, he

These are classy boats that will attract attention both when at rest and at speed.

attended her funeral.

You can also say that you ’bring something to someone’s attention’: We brought the poor state of the accommodation to their attention. ➔ give attention to pay, focus, turn, direct, devote, give Pay special attention to the kitchen and

➔ educational event seminar, workshop, lecture Approximately 4000 children attend orchestra workshops each year.

adv+V well, poorly, sparsely The Christmas party • was very well attended. Usage Attend is used in the passive in these combinations.


➔ take attention away from divert, distract, deflect New structures and projects can divert attention away from day-to-day services.

➔ deserve attention deserve, merit, demand One

2 go regularly to a place V+n clinic, school, class, college, course, church, • university, nursery Several students are now attending the local sixth form college.

• adv+V regularly, currently Over 1,000 men

aspect which deserves special attention is media management.

N+v when attention changes turn, focus, shift, • switch, move Attention now turns to the question of how the plan will be implemented.

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➔ when attention goes away wander, drift Turn

on the radio and sing to yourself when you find your attention wandering.

• most sincerely for your attention to this matter. n+of-i+N focus, centre, object During the post-war • period, the cost of air travel became the focus of N+to-i issue, aspect, matter, problem Thank you

adj+N at a particular rank or level assistant, • provincial, senior, state, district A lot of assistant state attorneys do their 3-year commitment and then leave.

➔ in a particular area of work criminal, corporate, personal, patent, defense, divorce, prosecuting Prominent criminal attorney Arthur Jamison must plan the perfect murder in this psychological thriller.


2 care given to someone or something adj+N immediate immediate, prompt, urgent If • something requires urgent attention, please contact any member of our Customer Services Team.

➔ medical medical You should be able to get all

necessary medical attention if you get into trouble.

v+N need attention demand, require, need Dogs • are animals that need attention. ➔ give attention give, lavish This is a stunninglooking book that’s had a lot of attention lavished on it.


N INFORMAL someone’s opinions or feelings about something v+N form or change an attitude change, • influence, develop, challenge, shape Education is therefore crucial to raising this awareness and changing attitudes and behaviour.

➔ have or show an attitude adopt, reflect, display, express, have I determined that from then on, I should adopt a more positive attitude to life. ➔ examine an attitude examine, explore The module will examine popular attitudes towards post-war social, cultural and political developments. ➔ encourage an attitude promote, encourage,


N+v prevail, harden, persist This attitude • prevailed for a further 40 years. adj+N good positive, caring, enlightened, • tolerant, liberal, can-do, never-say-die, right, mature, favourable Pupils showed positive attitudes towards all aspects of their school life. ➔ bad negative, defeatist, condescending, contemptuous, dismissive, hostile, elitist, paternalistic, ambivalent, patronizing, uncaring, entrenched Where the attitudes are negative there

are usually reasons such as lack of knowledge, overprotection and poverty.

➔ relaxed or too relaxed laid-back, lackadaisical, cavalier, laissez-faire, relaxed Stockbridge is a part of the city know for its antique shops and its laidback attitude.

➔ showing hate or fear discriminatory, racist, homophobic, ageist, sexist, hostile, aggressive It also noted that these discriminatory attitudes go unchallenged.

➔ type of attitude societal, parental, mental, prevailing, public, changing A prevailing attitude of many in our culture is wanting to be clear about everything all of the time.


V make someone want to go somewhere or do something V+n people visitor, audience, crowd, tourist, • recruit, delegate, viewer, people It is now a Country Park which attracts about 200,000 visitors from the local area.

➔ reaction attention, interest, criticism, publicity, support The idea is already attracting the attention of investors.

➔ business clientele, investor, customer, shopper, buyer, investment I feel that if you get one developer interested in coming to Dover it will attract other investment.



1 a place or event that is enjoyable to visit v+N visit or enjoy an attraction visit, explore, • enjoy, experience, discover After lunch you will tour Malacca visiting its major attractions.

➔ have an attraction have, boast, offer As well as the animals, the zoo boasted many other attractions.

adj+N how big or important main, popular, • major, star, premier, top, big, famous, world-class, star, must-see The main attraction is the string of beaches.

➔ type of attraction local, cultural, historic, heritage, seaside, leisure Let us discover and support local attractions which may be close to home and yet we have never bothered to visit them.

n+N tourist, visitor, family In its day Belle Vue was • one of the premier tourist attractions in the NorthWest of England.

n+of-i+N wealth, host, variety, array, number, • multitude, abundance Warwickshire has a wealth of local attractions to inspire the visitor!

2 the feeling of liking someone or something v+N exert, hold, feel, experience The mountains • exerted their attraction on Brian at an early age. adj+N irresistible, sexual, mutual Initially, they • find that their differences are a source of mutual attraction.



1 pleasant to look at adv+ADJ very very, particularly, extremely, • highly, stunningly, exceptionally, strikingly This is a stunningly attractive book.

➔ in a particular way visually, sexually, aesthetically, physically The layout of the garden


a lawyer

v+N hire, consult, contact, appoint, retain It is • always wise to hire an attorney or broker to look over the final paperwork.


was aesthetically attractive.

2 worth having, considering, or doing

• adv+ADJ very very, particularly, extremely,

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13 highly The offer of a new car was particularly attractive.

➔ more increasingly Taking the train instead of

flying was looking like an increasingly attractive option. ➔ on the surface superficially Although superficially attractive these arguments pose several problems.

➔ in a particular way commercially, economically, financially It was not a commercially attractive proposition.

ADJ+n proposition, alternative, option, prospect • The night bus service has also improved hugely, making late nights in town a more attractive proposition.


N a quality or feature of someone or something v+N possess, display, have This is an interesting • study which has several unique design attributes. adj+N good or important positive, desirable, • essential, important, unique ’People skills’ are an essential attribute for a teacher to have.

➔ type of attribute divine, physical, personal, specific What personal attributes make a good dancer?


PHR VB believe that something is the result of something else; believe or say that something was written, said, painted etc by someone adv+V wrongly wrongly, falsely, erroneously, • mistakenly, incorrectly Her teachers wrongly attributed her learning difficulties to emotional problems. ➔ correctly correctly, properly I had always thought that that particular phrase was properly attributed to Freud.

➔ partly/completely wholly, largely, partly, partially, mainly The differences can be partly attributed to the fact that not all state governments monitor waste disposal closely. ➔ often often, usually, commonly, generally The original concept of satellite television is often attributed to writer Arthur C. Clarke. ➔ by different people variously Vegetation change has been variously attributed to inappropriate grazing and burning regimes, increased atmospheric pollution and climate change.

Usage Attribute is almost always used in the passive in all these combinations. ADJ loud enough to hear adv+ADJ difficult to hear barely, scarcely, hardly • His voice was barely audible over the drone of the engine.

➔ easy to hear clearly, perfectly, distinctly The music was clearly audible over the noise of the television.

The show attracted an estimated audience of over 6,000 people. ➔ talk to an audience address Brown addressed an audience of business leaders in Glasgow.

adj+N big large, packed, capacity He received an • excellent reception from the capacity audience. ➔ interested appreciative, receptive, enthusiastic The concert took place in front of an enthusiastic audience.

2 the people who watch, read, or listen to something v+N reach, target Joy targets a young adult • audience – mostly female, in the 25–35 range. adj+N possible audience potential, target, • intended The book’s intended audience is teenagers. ➔ type of audience wide, mass, diverse The

contributions are from American academics but the insights offered are relevant to a much wider audience.


N an official examination of a company’s financial records or of the size, number or effectiveness of something v+N perform, carry out, do, conduct, undertake • Audits are normally conducted after the end of the financial year in March.

adj+N done within an organization internal An • internal audit found fresh evidence of improper access to confidential computer files.

➔ done by someone outside an organization external, independent An independent audit will measure the effectiveness of your company’s policies.

➔ thorough and complete comprehensive, full, detailed A detailed audit of crime was undertaken in the city.


N a person who who writes books, articles etc adj+N famous well-known, renowned, famous • This is a travel book by one of Germany’s bestknown authors.

➔ admired/successful acclaimed, best-selling The film is based on a novel by acclaimed Swedish author, Jan Guillou. ➔ writing many books prolific He was a prolific author, writing many books about the history of Scotland.

author of two papers to be presented at the 2010 Digital Humanities Conference in Paris.



1 an expert

adj+N acknowledged, respected, leading, world • The author is a leading authority on all forms of motorcycle sport.


1 the people who are present at a concert, play, film etc

wowed audiences all over the country.

➔ make people want to watch, hear etc attract

N+of-i book, novel, best-seller, article, report, • textbook, paper, abstract, study, work Claire is the



v+N entertain an audience captivate, entertain, • enthrall, delight, wow INFORMAL Their live sets have

2 a public organization with the power to make decisions

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n+N thing the organization is responsible for • highways, planning, health, education, police, housing, transport The local education authority deals with applications for school places. ➔ place controlled district, city City authorities across the country are being forced to cut their budgets.

adj+N local, public, municipal, regional Ms • Lakeberg worked as a part-time teacher for the regional authority.

3 the power and right to do something v+N give or have the authority give, have, • delegate He did not have the authority to sign the agreement.

➔ use authority assert, exercise, exert The new Kaiser was determined to assert his authority.

➔ weaken or question authority undermine, challenge, question Government intervention can undermine the authority of teachers.

adj+N type of authority moral, legal If another • person completes the form on your behalf, they must have the legal authority to do so.

➔ complete authority supreme, absolute He said that he was giving Richardson absolute authority in handling the investigation.


N official permission to do something v+N get or have authorization obtain, receive, • have, get In 1765 the Caribbean islands received authorization for almost unlimited trade with Spanish ports. ➔ give authorization grant, give Goods should not be returned unless we have given authorization. ➔ ask for authorization request, seek You need to request authorization to access the files.

adj+N prior, written, proper, official Travel or • business in the country without prior authorization is banned.


N+n season, months, colour, leaves, sunshine, • sun, rain The autumn season generally gives the best mountain views, as the air at this time is crystal clear.


N how possible it is to get or use something v+N check or confirm availability check, ensure, • guarantee, confirm Please contact your stockist to check the availability of our products before making a special journey.

➔ increase availability increase, improve, extend In order to improve the availability of our service, we offer advice by telephone and email.

➔ reduce availability limit, restrict, reduce

Reducing the availability of illegal drugs is a key priority.

adj+N when something is easy to get • widespread, ready, wide, easy, greater, general The easy availability of broadband makes working from home a genuine and viable way of working.

You can also say that something can be bought subject to availability: Tickets may be obtained on the door on the evening of the performance (subject to availability). ➔ when something is not easy to get limited, restricted Please book early to avoid disappointment as there is limited availability.


ADJ able to be obtained, taken, or used adv+ADJ readily, freely, commercially, publicly, • widely, universally, easily, generally Unfortunately, the medicines necessary for treatment aren’t readily available in Guatemala.

N+for-i download, hire, inspection, purchase, use, • sale The seminar and lecture facility is available for hire.




v+N have or keep autonomy preserve, retain, • enjoy, maintain, have She will have greater professional autonomy and be better off financially.

➔ give or increase autonomy grant, give, increase, promote The school uses IT to promote autonomy in learning.

➔ give less autonomy undermine, limit

Undermining teachers’ autonomy forces good teachers to leave the profession.

adj+N types of autonomy regional, personal, • national, local, individual, professional, political, financial The guerrillas began fighting for regional autonomy in the north.

➔ high level of autonomy greater, complete, full, considerable We work closely with other organizations while maintaining complete autonomy.


N season between summer and winter adj+N last, late, early, next The best time to sow • your wildflower seeds is in early autumn.


1 a wide straight road adj+N tree-lined, leafy, wide, broad The hotel is • ideally located on an elegant tree-lined avenue.

2 one way of achieving something v+N try a way of achieving something explore, • pursue, investigate, try The company is exploring avenues to maximize revenue.

➔ provide a way of achieving something open, provide This research opens new avenues that will directly impact patient care.

➔ try every way of achieving something exhaust Prakash has exhausted all legal avenues in the British Courts and is now going to the European Court.

Usage Avenue is often plural in all these combinations: We have to pursue new avenues if we want to find a solution. adj+N new, possible, fruitful, promising Explore • all possible avenues for a solution before referring any dispute to a higher authority.

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15 You can also say ’there is an avenue open to you’: There are several avenues open to us in this situation.


V prevent something bad from happening

Sweden these ladders have been the recipient of 10 international awards for innovation.

n+N gallantry, lifetime achievement, excellence, • bravery, design The ambulance staff who saved a man buried alive have been nominated for a bravery award.

• averted. v+N win an award win, scoop, receive, collect, • accept, achieve, get In its first year of business, the V+n catastrophe, disaster, crisis, danger, war, • strike, tragedy, threat A security guard came outside restaurant scooped the silver award in the town’s adv+V narrowly Mercifully, war was narrowly

just as the men were preparing to light the fuse, averting potential disaster.


V try to prevent something bad from happening or existing adv+V avoid by using care studiously, • deliberately, carefully He studiously avoided all mention of his past or present situation.

➔ only just avoid narrowly The youngster narrowly avoided a collision with a bus coming in the opposite direction.

V+n avoid a feeling disappointment, • embarrassment Please book in advance to avoid disappointment.

➔ avoid a bad situation pitfall, confrontation, delay, conflict, mistake, collision, problem, danger To avoid delays in registration please complete the application form in full.

➔ avoid confusion confusion, misunderstanding, ambiguity Most of the changes to the text have been made in an attempt to avoid the misunderstandings associated with the use of the first edition.



Food and Drink Awards.

➔ give an award present, award, give Recognition of his overall contribution to athletics came when he was awarded the prestigious Olympic Torch award.

➔ be suggested as a possible winner be nominated for, be shortlisted for The film was nominated for a staggering 125 awards.

N+n an event when awards are given ceremony, • dinner, evening She attended the glittering awards ceremony in London last month.

Usage Award is usually used in the plural when modifying these nouns. ➔ the person winning an award winner The

award winner is due to be announced on 7 April and the award will be presented in Copenhagen in June.

2 an amount of money given by a government, organization or law court

adj+N compensatory, discretionary, mandatory • All awards are discretionary and decisions made by the panel will be final.

n+N pay, compensation, damages It is not • unusual for the level of fees to exceed the likely compensation award.

1 wait for something adv+V eagerly, anxiously, keenly, patiently, • nervously He anxiously awaited more news, fearing he would never see his son again.

2 when something will definitely happen to you

v+N get an award receive, get An employee will • get a special award of two years’ salary. ➔ give an award make, grant Most of the funding bodies have restrictions on granting awards to overseas students.

n+V welcome, fate, surprise A warm and friendly • welcome awaits you at all our hotels.



adv+ADJ knowing a lot acutely, fully, keenly, • well, painfully, increasingly, consciously, all too,

ADJ not sleeping adv+ADJ completely awake wide, fully Now it’s • 1.17am and I’m wide awake. ➔ only just awake half, barely ’Good morning,’ said Cole, only half awake himself.


V make someone experience a feeling or emotion V+n conscience, curiosity, senses, interest, • memory For some people, this anniversary might awaken bad memories.


ADJ knowing about something

perfectly We are keenly aware of the challenges that lie ahead for the company. ➔ knowing a little dimly, vaguely She was vaguely aware of Rena walking around to the bar. ➔ knowing about a particular subject environmentally, politically, socially, culturally, commercially We want our pupils to develop moral values, and to make them culturally aware.

v+ADJ become, be, make sb Consumers are • becoming more aware of all the different credit-card offers that are currently available.


1 a prize adj+N important and desirable prestigious, • coveted, top, major The prestigious award is in

Make aware is almost always used in the passive: Parents and pupils should be made aware of the school’s policy on bullying.

recognition of his work in regenerating the town.


➔ when or where the award is given national, international, annual, regional Manufactured in

• v+N increase awareness raise, increase,

N knowledge or understanding

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heighten, promote, foster, improve, enhance, create, broaden, spread, generate, encourage, build The charity aims to raise awareness of human


rights issues.

adj+N other types of background ethnic, cultural, • socio-economic, academic, educational, religious,

➔ have or show awareness have, demonstrate, show, gain, develop At the end of the course, students should be able to demonstrate an awareness of basic hygiene in food preparation.

adj+N more awareness heightened, greater, • increased, growing There is a need for greater awareness of the disease.

➔ general awareness public, general Unless public


1 the family or social position someone comes from or the education they have had

social, professional We conducted a survey of staff to find out their ethnic background. ➔ which social class working-class, middle-class, upper-class Students from working-class backgrounds will be most excluded by the new fees.

➔ poor with few opportunities disadvantaged, deprived, poor It is well known that people from

awareness of the importance of preservation is increased, this trend will continue.

disadvantaged backgrounds are less willing to take on debts to go to university.

➔ awareness of a particular subject environmental, cultural, commercial, spiritual, social, financial Environmental awareness should

➔ rich with many opportunities advantaged, privileged He did not come from a privileged

have priority in the school curriculum.


ADJ INFORMAL very bad or unpleasant adv+ADJ truly, pretty, absolutely, really, simply • The film is truly awful! sound, look, smell, taste I ordered a bottle • ofv+ADJ dry white wine, which tasted awful.

background and had to strive hard for what he achieved.

n+N family He had no special interest in teaching • but drifted into it because of his family background. v+N come from, be drawn from Jo comes • from have, a farming background.

2 the information connected with a situation or subject


N+n information, reading, knowledge, material • How much background information is provided for

ADJ+n silence, question, pause, position, • situation, moment There was an awkward silence

adj+N historical, theoretical, factual The chapter • provides an interesting account of nineteenth-century

ADJ difficult and embarrassing

the absolute beginner?

in the room.

adv+ADJ rather, a little, slightly, very, somewhat, • really It would be a little awkward to admit that their latest technology had fallen into the hands of the enemy.


V support someone or something V+n campaign, bid, call, proposal, plan, initiative, • claim, move, scheme, project He is backing a campaign to use low-energy light bulbs to combat carbon emissions.

adv+V support strongly overwhelmingly, • strongly, unanimously, fully He refused to resign and was backed overwhelmingly by the rest of the party. ➔ support with money financially The company is financially backing a charity that helps children improve their literacy skills.

➔ support in a way that everyone can see publicly, openly The government needs to publicly back companies that provide clean energy.


V have the opposite effect to what you wanted strategy, scheme His plan backfired and • hen+Vwasplan, arrested. adv+V spectacularly, badly, horribly The Prime • Minister’s efforts to mend the government’s relationship with big business backfired spectacularly.

biological science coupled with some historical background.


N support, help, or active approval adj+N strong backing full, strong, unanimous He • has the full backing of the US administration. ➔ type of backing financial, political They enjoyed strong political backing from the ruling party.

➔ who is giving backing official, public The

project has had significant public backing from the outset.

n+N government Without government backing, the • bill is unlikely to be successful. v+N have backing win, receive, have, secure, • gain, get, enjoy The building of the highly controversial tower has won the official backing of the prime minister. ➔ give backing give The staff were very supportive and gave one hundred percent backing.


N a strong negative reaction to something v+N cause a backlash provoke, cause, create His • comments provoked a predictable backlash. ➔ experience a backlash face The government

faced a backlash from parents and headteachers.

➔ expect a backlash fear Fearing a backlash from customers, the company was forced to apologize.

public, political It is likely that there will be • aadj+N strong political backlash against this measure.

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N work that you should already have done, or things that you should have dealt with

• weeks and I have a large backlog of coursework to

v+N have a backlog have I have been ill for three

V+n needs needs, demands, desires, rights We are • trying to balance the needs of the individual against

the needs of the population. I struggle to balance the demands of my family with those of my job.


➔ cause a backlog cause, create The 48-hour

ADJ with all aspects considered fairly, or with all parts existing in the correct amounts

➔ deal with a backlog clear, tackle, reduce, eliminate, deal with I got some stuff done and

ADJ+n way of looking at or describing things • approach, view, judgement, perspective, reporting,

do. stoppage caused a backlog.

cleared the mail backlog in the evening but I’m still well behind.

adj+N huge, massive, large, significant, • considerable Past under-investment means there is a massive backlog of repairs.

back up

PHR VB show that an explanation or belief is probably true

• findings are backed up with hard evidence.

V+n claim, assertion, view, findings These



1 the chance to stay out of prison until a trial v+N give someone bail grant sb, give sb, release • sb on, free sb on Jones pleaded not guilty and was granted bail until January 4.

➔ refuse someone bail refuse sb Masih has been refused bail since his arrest in April. ➔ ask to get bail apply for The prisoner applied for bail.

adj+N unconditional, conditional She was granted • unconditional bail and is due to appear at Bristol Crown Court next week.

2 money that is paid to a court so that someone can stay out of prison until their trial

v+N pay, set, post Bail was set at $ 1 million for • each defendant, police said.


N a situation in which there is a correct relationship between aspects or features find a balance strike, achieve, find We need • tov+Nstrike a balance between all of these factors.

➔ change a balance upset, shift, alter A diet too

high in carbohydrates can upset the delicate balance of the body’s blood sugar levels. ➔ get a balance back redress, restore, regain We need to restore a balance between men’s and women’s rights. ➔ keep a balance maintain, keep, preserve The company is committed to good employment practices, such as maintaining a balance between home and work life.

adj+N right/correct right, perfect, healthy, • proper, good, correct, appropriate I wanted to

coverage We listen to all opinions and try to reach a balanced judgement.

➔ food diet, meal, nutrition A balanced diet is essential for health.

➔ mixture mix, blend The magazine intends to

present a balanced mix of scientific research and practical discussion.

adv+ADJ well well, evenly, perfectly, nicely, • carefully, beautifully, properly This perfectly balanced blend of superfoods will supply you with a wide range of vitamins and minerals.

➔ in a particular way nutritionally, politically ➔ only just balanced finely, delicately The long

term consequences of these changes on the delicately balanced ecology of our wild life are difficult to predict.


N a round object used in games and sports v+N strike a ball kick, hit, smash, strike, knock • Vickers smashed the ball straight at the goalkeeper. ➔ throw/catch a ball throw, bowl, catch The game starts when the teacher throws the ball into the centre of the court.

➔ special ways of kicking or hitting a ball flick, chip, lob, dribble, pass, head, volley He dribbled the ball down the pitch.

➔ miss a ball fumble, drop, miss The goalkeeper fumbled the ball, and Hamilton scored.

N+v bounce, rebound, ricochet, hit, deflect The • ball hit the edge of the goal, then bounced into the net.


N a coloured rubber bag filled with air and used as a decoration v+N fill/empty a balloon inflate, deflate, fill, • blow up We will inflate the balloon of your choice with helium, and decorate it with ribbons.

➔ send a balloon into the air release Thousands of helium-filled balloons were released into the sky.

➔ break a balloon pop, burst She burst the balloon with a pin.

N+v when a balloon breaks burst, pop Balloons • burst on reaching high levels. ➔ when a balloon flies in the sky float, fly, drift We looked up and saw a balloon drifting overhead.

regain a healthy work/life balance.

➔ needing or created with careful attention delicate, careful, fine Classes involve a careful


balance of structured time and ’free’ time..

adj+N types of ballot postal, secret, national, • presidential, compulsory The whole school takes


V create a good balance between different aspects or features

N the process of voting secretly

part in a secret ballot to elect one boy and one girl.

• v+N organize a ballot hold, conduct, organize,

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run The union has announced that it will conduct a


ballot on strike action.

1 officially unable to pay money owed

➔ ask for a ballot call for, ask for, demand, force The union’s conference called for a strike ballot on pay.

N+of-i members, membership, tenants, the • workforce, parents, delegates, residents, employees, workers, staff A ballot of all members will be conducted at the next meeting.


N an order telling people not to do, sell, or use something


adv+ADJ virtually, technically, almost, effectively, • practically, nearly, officially Within a year the company was technically bankrupt.

v+ADJ go, become, be, declare sb, make sb Six • hundred firms went bankrupt during this period.

2 without any good qualities at all adv+ADJ morally, spiritually, intellectually, • creatively, politically The industry has become even more corrupt and morally bankrupt.

adj+N complete outright, total, complete, absolute, all-out, blanket A blanket ban on Internet


use at work would be out of the question. ➔ in a particular area global, world-wide The council called for a world-wide ban on biological weapons. ➔ lasting a particular length of time permanent, temporary, two-year, six-month, five-year etc He was warned that a second offence could lead to a permanent ban.

adj+N probably happening soon impending, • imminent In 1977, the whole organization faced

v+N introduce or make people obey a ban • impose, introduce, implement, enforce The government has introduced a ban on the distribution of free disposable bags. ➔ refuse to obey a ban defy, flout, violate Over the last few months, a number of countries have flouted the ban on air travel. ➔ support a ban support, uphold, back, advocate Would you advocate a ban on smoking in the street? ➔ end a ban lift, overturn, repeal, rescind The judge lifted a press ban on naming the killers.

N+v affect, apply to, come into force Dog bans • apply to the rural beaches listed in the Seaside Award Guide.


N a short loud noise adj+N loud, almighty, huge, terrific, massive • There was a massive bang and the building shook.


V get rid of something

imminent bankruptcy.

You can also say that someone is ’on the verge of bankruptcy’, or ’on the brink of bankruptcy’. ➔ nearly happening near, virtual Half the

businesses in the country were in virtual bankruptcy or close to it.

v+N be likely or certain to experience • bankruptcy face, risk, suffer Hundreds of property companies may face bankruptcy this year.

➔ officially state your situation declare At the age of 19, he became homeless, and was forced to declare bankruptcy.

N+v loom, threaten The business closed, we lost • our home, and bankruptcy loomed.


N a piece of cloth with a message on adj+N huge, giant, large, big, massive The words • on the giant banner read ’Fight for your rights’. v+N unfurl, wave, carry, hoist, hold, parade Two • students were holding a banner with the words ’Make Poverty History’.

N+v proclaim, advertise, say, declare, read, • demand One banner says ’I’m green and proud of it ’.

V+n thought, fear, blues, memory, boredom, • guilt, doubt His welcoming smile immediately banished my fears.


N 1 a financial institution where people keep their money adj+N central, commercial, offshore, investment, • clearing, high-street, merchant, savings The Bank of England is the central bank of the UK and is not a commercial bank.

N+n account, balance, loan, statement, charge My • wages are paid straight into my bank account.

2 a store of something that is available for use when it is needed

n+N seed, blood, sperm, data The results are • collated into a data bank and used to provide national weather forecasts.

N when someone cannot pay what they owe


ADJ basic, with nothing extra ADJ+n minimum, essentials, necessities, facts, • outline Only the bare essentials, such as passports and wallets, are permitted.

You can also talk about ’the bare bones’ to refer to the most basic features or details of something: He outlined the bare bones of the plan.



1 something costing much less than normal adj+N real, absolute, good, great, terrific, • fantastic, amazing, genuine You’ll find some amazing bargains here, with up to 50% off some items.

v+N find/buy a bargain grab INFORMAL, find, get, • bag INFORMAL, spot, buy, snap up INFORMAL, pick up

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19 Have a look at our sale prices online, and grab a bargain!

➔ look for a bargain look for, shop for, hunt for, search for Nearby is the central marketplace, where you can hunt for bargains.

N+n thing that you buy holiday, buy, flight, • break, ticket The Travel Shop: get late deals on cheap flights and bargain holidays.

➔ amount that you pay price, airfare, fare, deal We have lots of bargain deals available at the moment: click here for details.

2 an agreement between two people to do something

strike, drive, conclude, make The union will • bev+Ndriving a hard bargain to ensure that their demands are met.

When people strike or drive a hard bargain, they argue in a determined way in order to reach an agreement that benefits them. You can also say that someone ’keeps their side of ’ the bargain.


N a powerful person in a particular type of business n+N drug, press, oil, media, tobacco, newspaper, • porn Recent reports suggest that the drug barons are gaining power.

development Our own research shows that young people’s biggest barrier to success is their lack of qualifications.

Usage Barrier is almost always singular in these combinations.

base on

PHR VB use ideas or facts when doing something adv+V partly/mostly using a certain set of ideas • loosely, largely, broadly, primarily, mainly, mostly This musical is based loosely on Puccini’s opera ’La Boheme’.

➔ using only one set of ideas solely, purely, entirely, exclusively The inspectors’ judgements were based solely on the students’ exam results.

V+n decision, calculation, approach, system Our • simple pricing approach is based on the number of times your website is visited.

V+on-i assumption, principle, experience, • evidence, premise, fact, belief, concept Our policy is based on the assumption that the customer is always right.

Usage Base is almost always passive in all these combinations.



1 most important or necessary


N a lot of criticisms, complaints, or questions directed at someone adj+N constant, relentless, non-stop, endless, • continuous At first, life is just a continuous barrage of new and strange experiences.

N+of-i criticism, abuse, insults, questions, • complaints, emails, protests, mail He faced a barrage of criticism for his support of hunting.

v+N face, receive After the show, I received a • barrage of letters from American viewers.

ADJ+n knowledge/ability skill, understanding, • knowledge, grounding, technique The aim of this course is to provide you with a basic knowledge of health and safety in the workplace.

➔ idea/rule principle, tenet, concept, assumption, rule, premise, idea His basic premise is that there is one principle cause for all health problems.

2 needed by everyone ADJ+n necessity, essential, foodstuff, sanitation, • amenity, need Their parents have to work from morning till night to provide the basic necessities.



adj+N difficult/impossible to deal with • insurmountable, significant, impassable, major

v+N learn learn, grasp, understand, know, • remember, explore, practise, master Just remember

N something preventing progress or achievement of an aim

There are still significant barriers to increased recycling.

➔ types of barrier attitudinal, cultural, psychological, institutional Sawhney’s music breaks down cultural barriers, and this has gained him worldwide recognition.

v+N deal succesfully with a barrier overcome, remove, break down, transcend, reduce, breach As a mature student, it is likely that you have overcome several barriers to achieve your degree.

➔ experience a barrier face, encounter, experience Many young disabled people still face major barriers to achieving their aims.

N+v prevent, hinder, inhibit, impede, restrict, • stop, limit, hamper The main barrier preventing these children from using the internet is language.

• N+to-i progression, success, growth,

N the most important aspects or principles of something

the basics of healthy eating: variety and balance are key. ➔ teach cover, teach, explain, outline, introduce, present This course will introduce the basics of meditation in a simple and practical way.

Usage Basics is always used with the definite article.



1 a method or system for doing something adj+N how often regular, daily, weekly, day-to• day, monthly, quarterly, annual, yearly, fortnightly, hourly, month-by-month Class teachers meet on a weekly basis to plan lessons. ➔ way of working one-to-one, part-time, voluntary, permanent, temporary, pro-rata, freelance I think it’s great that there are people who

are willing to give us their time on a voluntary basis.

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➔ according to individual needs case-by-case,

first-come-first-served, drop-in, ad-hoc, case-bycase, as-needed, individual Note that we have

limited space and that rooms will be allocated on a first-come-first-served basis.

fought, ferocious A pitched battle took place between government troops and rebels.

➔ important decisive, climactic, famous, final On

September 3, the final and decisive battle of the Civil War was fought.

N+of-i merit, ability, aptitude, experience Awards • are made purely on the basis of academic ability.

2 a situation in which people try hard to win

2 ideas or actions from which something develops

v+N fight, win, lose, wage, face Mary won her • battle against bureaucracy and red tape. adj+N continuing for a long time long-running, • ongoing, protracted, long She died on 2 January,

v+N form, provide, constitute, be, serve as, act as, • lay, establish A newspaper article can act as a basis for discussion in class.

N+for-i discussion, negotiation, comparison, • decision, action, planning, calculation, assessment, study, analysis This course forms an excellent basis for continued study.


N the water in a bath; when you wash yourself in it adj+N hot, warm, relaxing, cold, tepid, nice I’m • going to have a nice long relaxing bath. v+N pour water/wash in a abth have, take, run, • get into I went up to the bathroom and ran a hot bath.

➔ enjoy enjoy, relax in, luxuriate in, wallow in


N an object in a radio, clock etc providing electricity v+N add power to a battery recharge, charge The • batteries are charged from solar panels on the roof of the boat.

➔ take power from a battery drain, discharge I have talked for up to 2 hours on the phone, but it does drain the battery.

➔ take out a battery disconnect, remove, change, replace Is it easy to change the battery without dissembling the unit?

➔ work using batteries use, require, run on, be powered by The magnifier requires 2 1.5 volt size batteries (not included).

You can also say that something is battery powered. N+v run down, die, fail, run out With this wind-up • torch you don’t have to worry about batteries running out in the dark.

adj+N rechargeable, spare, flat Cordless drills run • on rechargeable batteries that take 1–3 hours to recharge.

N+n charger, pack, life, compartment, power The • notebook weighs 2.1kg and has a battery life of 3.5 hours.


N 1 a fight between armies or people v+N take part in a battle fight, wage, join The • Combined Fleet joined battle with a large Japanese fleet.

➔ win or lose win, lose Charles II lost the Battle of Worcester in 1651.

N+v rage, ensue, commence, begin Cars and • buildings burned and shops were looted as the battle raged.

• adj+N very violent pitched, fierce, bloody, hard-

something or stop something

after a long battle with cancer. ➔ difficult uphill, hard-fought, bitter, tough The bitter battle between the air industry and environmentalists shows no sign of easing.

You can also say that someone is fighting a losing battle: We will be fighting a losing battle, in the sense that we will continue to lose habitats and species. ➔ types of battle legal, court, courtroom, takeover, boardroom, relegation The company is now owned by a Spanish-backed consortium after a dramatic takeover battle.


V try very hard in a difficult situation adv+V hard, bravely, gamely, valiantly, heroically, • fiercely But, although they battled gamely, they eventually lost 2–0 to finish as runners up.

V+n addiction, cancer, relegation, alcoholism The • charity says more needs to be done to help vulnerable people battling drug addictions.

V+against-i cancer, addiction, injury, illness, • disease Barry has been battling against cancer for some time.



1 an area of the coast where the land curves inwards

adj+N sheltered, sandy, secluded, sweeping, • shallow, beautiful, picturesque, rocky The hotel is set in a secluded bay, fringed with palm trees.

2 a partly enclosed or marked out area used for a particular purpose

n+N parking, loading, engine, bomb, payload, • cargo The truck was reversing into a loading bay.


N an area of sand beside a sea or lake adj+N lovely palm-fringed, beautiful, golden, • idyllic, glorious, lovely, stunning, superb, sundrenched/-kissed I prefer a holiday somewhere very hot, where I can bask on a sun-drenched beach. ➔ made of a particular material sandy, pebble/pebbly, stony, shingle/shingly, white-/black-sand, gravel We are only a few miles from Brighton with its pebble beaches.

➔ not crowded unspoilt/unspoiled, pristine, secluded, uncrowded, deserted We walked back to the campsite along a deserted beach.

➔ used by a particular group surfing/surf, nudist, naturist If it takes your fancy then there’s even a nudist beach!

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1 a piece of wood, metal, or concrete that supports a roof

adj+N as a special feature of a house exposed, • original The property has original beams and wooden floors.

➔ made of a material oak, steel, wooden, concrete A 66 foot oak beam supported the ceiling.

2 a line of light or energy n+N laser, radar, torch, light, infrared She • transfers these electronic books to students’ handheld computers via an infrared beam.

N+of-i light, torch, headlights/headlamps, • sunlight Then, in the beam of his torch, he saw a lioness.


beaten 4–0 by Ukraine. webcam hands down.

• It beats any standard USB

Usage Beat is very often passive in this meaning. ➔ by a small margin narrowly, just The total for last year was 195, just beating the previous record of 192.

2 hit someone or something adv+V savagely, badly, severely, brutally, • viciously, mercilessly When he tried to run away he was savagely beaten.


N the act of hitting someone many times v+N receive endure, suffer, receive, get Peace • activists suffered beatings and arrests. ➔ give administer, inflict, give sb The beatings


1 seem to be a particular kind of thing V+n similarity resemblance, similarity, relation, • likeness The cost of the plane ticket bears no relation to the true environmental cost.

➔ sign mark, hallmark, scar, stamp, trace, sign The book bears some signs of having been written in haste.

2 take responsibility for something

were inflicted by their husbands. Ravi skipped school regularly, until his father found out and gave him the beating of his life for it!

adj+N savage, brutal, severe, vicious, violent, • terrible Discovery often meant a brutal beating at the hands of the company guards.


ADJ extremely attractive or pleasing

adv+ADJ very stunningly, hauntingly, • breathtakingly, V+n burden, responsibility, cost Women have to • bear achingly, strikingly, outstandingly, the burden of household work and child-rearing.

exquisitely, ravishingly, staggeringly, spectacularly


N hair on a man’s chin and cheeks v+N have grow, sport, wear, have His hair is long • and he wears a beard. ➔ cut shave (off), trim, cut He refuses to shave his beard.

The island itself was breathtakingly beautiful.

➔ in a particular way scenically, ruggedly, starkly, strangely He produces starkly beautiful monochromatic sculptures.



1 the quality of being beautiful or very pleasing

v+N enjoy beauty appreciate, admire, enjoy, adj+N styles bushy, long, pointed, wispy, goatee, • explore, • full, contemplate Public rights of way allow us flowing ’ Ho, ho, ho,’ Santa said,smiling behind to enjoy the beauty and tranquility of our countryside.

his big white bushy beard.

➔ colours white, grey/gray, grizzled, black, red He is said to be an old man with a grey beard.


N ACADEMIC importance to or influence on something

• convinced that the numbers in the class have a direct adj+N direct, significant, important, indirect I am

bearing on the achievements of the pupils.

bear out

PHR VB ACADEMIC show that an idea or claim is true n+V research, evidence, statistics, findings A • genetic link does seem to be borne out by statistics. Usage Bear out is very often passive in this meaning. V+n theory, claim, view, statement, conclusion In • the 1980s his theory was borne out by Nobel Prize winning work on fruit flies.


➔ help/harm beauty enhance, conserve, preserve, mar The ragged clothes couldn’t mar her beauty. ➔ describe/show beauty capture, reveal, extol, celebrate Stunning images reveal the beauty and hidden complexity of dragonflies.

➔ be strongly affected by beauty be captivated by, be transfixed by, be entranced by, be fascinated by, be stunned by, be seduced by, be enchanted by, be overwhelmed by, be smitten by, be mesmerized by, be struck by From the opening bars to the last encore, the audience were captivated by the sheer beauty of her music.

adj+N very beautiful outstanding, sheer, • breathtaking, exquisite, stunning, unsurpassed, great, incredible Islamic carpets are renowned for their great beauty and technical excellence.

➔ describing the natural world natural, scenic, unspoiled/unspoilt, rugged, tranquil, wild Glasgow acts as the gateway to the scenic beauty of the West Coast.


1 defeat someone or do something better adv+V easily soundly, comprehensively, • comfortably, convincingly, easily, decisively, hands down Saudi Arabia was comprehensively

➔ describing other kinds of beauty timeless, ethereal, stark, serene, feminine, majestic, aesthetic, fragile The image shows the fragile beauty of the young poet’s face.

2 a beautiful woman

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adj+N great, ravishing, stunning At the time of her • death in 1929 she was still considered a great beauty.


ADJ related to making people look better ADJ+n treatment treatment, therapy, product, • tip, routine, makeover We are committed to selling truly natural and organic beauty products. ➔ places salon, parlour/parlor, spa Leisure facilities include a gym, a sauna, and a beauty salon. ➔ people therapist During that time, she qualified as a beauty therapist.


N INFORMAL a piece of furniture for sleeping on

adj+N types of bed double, king-size/king-sized, twin, single, folding/foldaway/fold-up, fourposter/4-poster, bunk, sofa, divan If you sleep in a double bed up against a wall, ensure you sleep by the wall side.

➔ describing a bed unmade, comfortable, comfy The beds were comfortable and the kitchen had everything we could ever need.

v+into+N crawl, get, climb, collapse, fall, tumble, • sink, roll We dumped our bags and just crawled into bed.

v+to+N go, retire, put sb, get, crawl, send sb, come • He was glad to get to bed. Send your child to bed

at a regular and reasonable time.


V ask for something you really want V+n sb’s pardon, forgiveness, permission, sb’s • indulgence, favour, mercy Years later he returned to his first wife to beg forgiveness.

V+for-i ask someone to do something mercy, • forgiveness, help, attention He had sunk to his knees, begging for mercy.

➔ ask for food or money alms, food, money, scraps, crumbs, bread Children were begging for

Despite this promising beginning, the Blues found themselves seven points down after ten minutes.


V ACADEMIC do things in a particular way V+with-i doing the right thing decorum, • integrity, dignity, decency, restraint You can only have sensible business arrangements with people who are trustworthy and behave with integrity.

➔ showing bravery gallantry, courage, bravery She behaved with the utmost courage, refusing to recognise the legitimacy of the court.

➔ respecting others’ feelings consideration, regard, courtesy We do ask passengers to behave with consideration for their fellows.

adv+V comparing behaviour differently, • identically, similarly Hydrogen and oxygen gases behave similarly.

➔ do the right thing responsibly, well, ethically, sensibly, rationally, appropriately, impeccably Our view is that the broadcasters behaved responsibly throughout.

➔ not do the right thing badly, irresponsibly, antisocially, inappropriately, aggressively, unprofessionally, unreasonably, improperly I just don’t want to be surrounded by other people’s children behaving badly.

➔ do strange things erratically, strangely, oddly, irrationally, unpredictably Recently, I have noticed that my modem has been behaving rather erratically.


N way someone behaves adj+N bad anti-social/antisocial, unacceptable, • disruptive, aggressive, disorderly, yobbish INFORMAL, abusive, inappropriate, deviant, loutish, challenging ACADEMIC, unreasonable, criminal, violent, unsporting, threatening Students’ dislike of working in teams could lead to disruptive behaviour.

food on the street.

adv+V humbly, respectfully, earnestly We • earnestly beg you to see that steps are taken to help these families.

➔ typical way a group behaves ACADEMIC sexual, human, consumer, courtship, voting, mating, feeding Courtship behaviour in fruit flies has become of particular interest for neurological researchers.


N someone starting to learn or do something adj+N absolute, complete, total, relative, real • There are ICT programmes for the absolute beginner or for the more experienced computer user.


Usage Beginning is almost always plural in these combinations. ➔ looking likely to succeed auspicious, promising


1 the first part of something v+N mark, herald, signal, signify, be, represent, • symbolize, indicate, spell Easter traditionally marks the beginning of the holiday season in Cornwall.

2 the origin or background of a person or thing adj+N not very impressive humble, modest, • inauspicious, unpromising, small, tentative, lowly, shaky, simple He rose from humble beginnings to be a sought-after club manager.

N+n trying to improve behaviour ACADEMIC • modification, management We offer workshops on behaviour management, social skills and confidence building. ➔ problem problem, difficulty, disorder Sport can be very important for students with learning difficulties or behaviour problems.


N a strong feeling that something is true or good adj+N belief in something religious, Christian, • non-religious, spiritual, political, pagan, Buddhist, humanist, pacifist, Muslim There are a range of exciting opportunities whatever your age, gender, race, or religious beliefs. ➔ strong belief long-held, unshakeable, strong, unquestioning, passionate, cherished, firm, deeply-held, strongly-held We share a passionate belief in the social purposes of adult education.

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23 ➔ wrong belief mistaken, superstitious, irrational, erroneous, false, misguided Antibiotic treatment is


occasionally given in the mistaken belief that a sore throat is a bacterial infection.

N+v ring, toll, chime, clang, sound, peal, tinkle, • jangle, jingle At nine o’clock the bell rings for

➔ held by many people popular, widespread, widely-held Contrary to popular belief there is no real link between Australia and New Zealand.

N+in-i resurrection, afterlife, reincarnation, • god/God, immortality The Egyptians had a strong belief in the afterlife, which they considered to be very similar to that of the living.



adv+ADJ very convincing totally, utterly, • entirely, completely, wholly, very, thoroughly, quite The novel features sympathetic, vividly drawn and wholly believable characters. ➔ hard to believe scarcely, barely, hardly It is hardly believable that he could not support a small family like his own.

ADJ+n character, story, characterization, acting, dialogue, performance, plot The actors perform brilliantly and really make the story believable and life-like.


V INFORMAL to think that something is true adv+V strongly firmly, passionately, strongly, • fervently, wholeheartedly He believes strongly in the benefits of credit unions to local communities.

➔ sincerely honestly, sincerely, genuinely, truly I

genuinely believe I am making a difference by being vegetarian.

➔ mistakenly mistakenly, wrongly, erroneously

He said teenagers were taking up smoking because they wrongly believed it would help them lose weight.

➔ many people believe something widely, generally It is now widely believed that climate change is resulting in wetter, colder winters and drier, hotter summers.

Usage Believe is usually used in the passive construction ’it is believed that’ in these combinations. V+in-i think that something exists reincarnation, • resurrection, god/God, ghosts, afterlife, miracles, fairies, magic, immortality In Asian cultures such as China, many people believe in reincarnation.

➔ think that something is good democracy, freedom, equality I strongly believe in the freedom of the Press no matter who or what they are.

V+n hype, lie, propaganda, promise, myth 23 per • cent of children still believe the old myth that crusts make hair curly.

N an object that makes a ringing sound

morning tea.

ring, toll The church tolled its bell as a mark • ofv+Nsympathy for farmers yesterday. n+N church, sleigh, wedding, door, curfew, cow, • fire, bicycle, school The front door bell rang and when she answered, there stood a handsome young man.


N the things you own adj+N personal personal, worldly, own Nothing • compares to the misery of losing all of your worldly belongings in a fire.

➔ few meagre, few Thousands of people are fleeing the cities with their meagre belongings.

v+N get together pack, collect, gather, remove, • retrieve, pack up She had less than an hour to gather her belongings before she was bundled onto a plane. ➔ put somewhere store, keep, put Most hotels have a separate locker room where you can store your belongings. ➔ protect insure, protect, cover You may find that your household insurance covers your personal belongings while you are on holiday. ➔ take what belongs to someone steal, take A number of cars were broken into and belongings stolen.


N ACADEMIC a standard for judging other things v+N set a standard set, establish, provide, • become, create, represent, define, be, serve as By carefully setting benchmarks, each agent’s performance can be monitored.

➔ perform in relation to a standard outperform, underperform, achieve, exceed, meet, surpass Organisations who would like to secure approved status would have to meet a fairly high benchmark.

adj+N good useful, appropriate, clear, relevant, • important, good, recognized, agreed A ratio of one infection control nurse to 250 beds is a good benchmark.

➔ applying across a particular area national, international, global, industry Energy use is monitored against national benchmarks.

N+for-i excellence, quality, performance, • good/best practice, standards, success It will set a benchmark for standards which other manufactures will be measured against.


N someone who believes in an idea or a religion


adj+N believing strongly in something true, • firm, fervent, strong, great, staunch, passionate

adj+N narrow and dangerous sharp, tight, blind, • dangerous, hairpin The vehicle they were passengers

Bob is a passionate believer in the importance of early years education.

➔ religious Christian, Jewish, orthodox, Muslim, devout Natural death is in the patient’s best interest and is the most dignified death for a Muslim believer.

N a curve in a road, river etc

in rolled over on a hairpin bend.

➔ wide sweeping, slight, gentle The roads were

great – smooth and dry, with wide sweeping bends.

➔ direction right-hand, left-hand Take the track at the sharp right-hand bend in the road.

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v+N round, negotiate, take Many drivers are • taking these bends too fast.


ADJ ACADEMIC producing a good effect on someone or something and/or harmful, adverse, detrimental Ultraviolet • irradiation can be both beneficial and harmful to normal human skin.

adv+ADJ very extremely, particularly, hugely, • highly, very, especially, enormously, immensely There was a clear consensus that having a classroom assistant for the first two years of primary school was enormously beneficial.

➔ from a particular point of view mutually, environmentally, socially, financially, economically, educationally These subsidies should be redirected towards more environmentally beneficial practices.

v+ADJ prove, be, seem The course will also prove • beneficial for experienced managers seeking promotion to more senior positions.

ADJ+n effect, impact, outcome, side-effect, • consequence, result Walking not only cuts out pollution, but has the beneficial side-effect of slowing down your lifestyle.



1 ACADEMIC an advantage or good effect v+N receive reap, derive, realise, enjoy, accrue, • gain How they reaped benefits from this approach is explained later.

➔ provide bring, deliver, confer, offer, yield, provide Charitable status not only confers tax benefits, but also helps encourage individuals to give time or money to causes.

adj+N important tangible, significant, real, • enormous, long-term, measurable, obvious, great, lasting, substantial These improvements will improve traffic flow and bring real benefits to motorists. ➔ in addition to something else added, mutual, additional Their local knowledge might well produce useful new leads, with the added benefit that they’re on your doorstep. ➔ of a particular kind economic, environmental, therapeutic, social There is likely to be a significant economic benefit from the development through the creation of jobs.

2 government money for people needing financial help

v+N claim, receive, live on Job Centre Plus is a • new service for people of working age who are claiming benefits.

n+N to help with a particular situation • incapacity, housing, retirement, unemployment, invalidity, disablement, sickness, disability We aim to reduce by 1 million the number on incapacity benefits. ➔ provided by the state welfare, social security, state Your income, including pensions, annuities

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387 v+N have immunity benefit from, enjoy • Embassy staff will enjoy diplomatic immunity so long as they are in this country. claim She claimed parliamentary immunity and refused to stand trial.

� claim immunity � give immunity

grant (sb), guarantee (sb), promise

(sb) Together with their families, they have been granted diplomatic immunity. � remove immunity lift, waive His parliamentary immunity was lifted and he was sentenced to 16 years in prison. N+from action, jurisdiction, liability, proceedings, • prosecution Prosecutors will now be able to offer immunity from prosecution.

2 the body’s protection against disease or a particular disease

adj+N weak compromised, decreased, depressed, • impaired, lowered, suppressed You should avoid

people with a lowered immunity if you have shingles. lifelong, long-lasting One infection is thought to confer lifelong immunity. � present at birth maternal, newborn The puppy has received adequate maternal immunity to enable it to resist disease for some weeks. � lasting a long time

v+N give immunity confer, induce The new • vaccine can confer immunity following just one dose. acquire Those who work with the varnish seem to acquire immunity to its actions. � make immunity stronger boost, stimulate The high vitamin and mineral content helps to boost immunity and energy levels. � get immunity

N+against/to disease, infection, virus In childhood, • the adenoids are probably useful in developing immunity against infections. immunity to the virus?


• Do adults acquire

N [usually singular]

1 an effect or influence

adj+N strong dramatic, enormous, huge, major, • maximum, powerful, profound, significant The

machine includes prominent branding for maximum impact at the point of sale. This important musician had such a profound impact on my life.

� not strong

limited, marginal, minimal, negligible

The factory is designed to operate with minimal impact on the environment. � positive beneficial, positive It is not clear whether these activities have a positive impact on children’s reading skills.

adverse, damaging, detrimental, devastating, disastrous, negative, serious, severe

� negative

For the local community, the environmental impact of these new mines will be devastating. � direct direct, immediate The results will have an immediate impact on the care that patients receive. � lasting a long time

lasting, long-lasting, long-term

If we act now, we could make a lasting impact on poverty.

emotional, psychological The psychological impact of living

� affecting your mind or emotions

with HIV is an issue that affects both long-term survivors and the newly-diagnosed.

� relating to money and business


economic, financial The study assesses the

commercial impact of new information systems and the Internet.

� relating to a particular subject cultural, ecological,

environmental, political, social, socio-economic

This process will inevitably have some ecological impact.

v+N have an impact create, have, make The • funding is vital for the us to be able to make a real impact on the community.

absorb, cushion, lessen, limit, minimize, mitigate, reduce, soften Use your

� reduce impact

spending power to reduce your impact on the environment.

� examine impact

analyse, consider, examine,

explore, investigate, understand This paper examines the impact of new teaching methods that were introduced a year ago.

assess, calculate, estimate, evaluate, measure, quantify In the next chapter, we

� measure impact

assess the impact of the minimum wage on individuals and firms.

2 an occasion when one object hits another

v+N receive an impact take The ball of the foot • should take the initial impact.

absorb, cushion, lessen, soften Inflatable balloons cushion the impact

� make an impact less strong

of the controlled crash landing.

� survive an impact survive,

withstand Cycle helmets are designed to withstand impact at speeds of around 13mph

v+on+N explode detonate, explode The bombs are • intended to detonate on impact. � break

break, shatter Casey’s neck broke on impact.


V make something less good or effective

adv+V greatly, markedly, profoundly, seriously, • severely, significantly, substantially His disability severely impairs his ability to walk.

V+n ability, concentration, effectiveness, • function, judgement, memory, mobility,

performance The drug impairs mental functions such as attention and memory.


ADJ prevented from using a particular ability fully adv+ADJ relating to the brain cognitively, • intellectually, mentally, neurologically The

majority of children here are severely mentally impaired. � relating to sight visually Reading web content can be especially problematic for visually impaired users. � relating to hearing aurally The system is designed to help aurally impaired people

You can also use the expressions hearing-impaired and sight-impaired: Signing will be provided at the meeting for the hearing-impaired. � seriously profoundly, seriously, severely, substantially We work with the most profoundly impaired children.

permanently Now her memory is permanently impaired.

� for ever



mildly, slightly I am fine, apart from a slightly impaired memory function.

� not seriously

provide security without unnecessarily impeding users’ ability to perform their job.

V+n movement circulation, flow, mobility, ADJ+n ability to see eyesight, sight, vision If your • movement, • vision passage, progress No sofas, chairs, or is impaired and you’d appreciate a large print version, please phone our Customer Services Department. � ability to hear hearing Any child who has impaired hearing can join this group. � ability to walk mobility This equipment helps us deal with patients whose mobility is impaired.


ADJ not connected to or influenced by a particular person or group adv+ADJ completely absolutely, completely, • entirely, strictly, totally Our aim is to provide

completely impartial advice. � really genuinely, truly We offer genuinely impartial advice. � in a way that relates to politics politically A politically impartial civil service is a great national asset. � as some people believe so-called, supposedly I cannot fully share his admiration for the supposedly impartial civil service.

ADJ+n person or group that judges adjudicator, • assessor, judge, panel Entries will be judged by a panel of impartial adjudicators.

� person or group that settles disagreements

arbitrator, mediator, tribunal The mediator is impartial: he or she does not take sides.

� person who makes sure people obey rules in

sports referee, umpire The lack of impartial referees

allowed players to break the rules. � advice advice, guidance The service offers impartial advice to new businesses. � journalism journalism, reporting We are committed to honest and impartial reporting of the news.

and/or balanced, fair, objective, unbiased • Members of the panel must be impartial and unbiased.


N the annoyed feeling you have when something does not happen as quickly as you would like adj+N growing, mounting His growing impatience • with Robert began to show. v+N show impatience display, express, reveal, • show Maintain normal eye contact and do not show impatience.

� control impatience

conceal, control, curb, restrain

I could no longer control my impatience at the delay; I climbed the stairs and opened the door.

n+of+N feeling, gesture, sign I detect a feeling of • growing public impatience.


V make it more difficult for something to happen or be done adv+V seriously greatly, seriously, severely, • significantly This situation could seriously impede economic growth.

� in a way that is not necessary or reasonable

unduly, unfairly, unnecessarily, unreasonably We

other furniture impeded the free circulation of the guests. � ability ability All of these factors impede the ability of the blood to absorb oxygen.

action, development, effectiveness, efforts, implementation, innovation, performance, progress Progress was impeded by

� action or progress

problems of planning permission.

growth, recovery, trade At first, worries about the safety of online transactions impeded the growth of e-commerce.

� economic performance


N [always singular] a force that makes something happen or develop adj+N strong considerable, dramatic, enormous, • great, powerful, strong, tremendous The railway

gave a powerful impetus to the prosperity of the town. main, major The main impetus behind the rise in inflation comes from the impact of higher food prices. � new and different fresh, new, renewed This news lends fresh impetus to the union’s campaign. � given at the beginning initial, original The initial impetus for a literacy project came from a local literacy training day. � extra added, additional, extra, further Recent legislation has brought further impetus to this project. � most important

v+N be an impetus act as, serve as The building • project served as an impetus for regeneration. � give impetus

bring, give, inject, lend, provide

Economic factors are providing the impetus for more automated solutions. � create impetus create, generate The interest shown in our town has served to create a renewed impetus in the project. � gain impetus acquire, derive, gain, receive This strategy is gaining impetus globally. � lose impetus lose The songs cause the film to lose impetus.


V make an idea, plan, system or law start to work adv+V successfully correctly, effectively, • efficiently, properly, rigorously, successfully We

successfully implemented the scheme on 17 February 2009. � completely fully The planned changes have not yet been fully implemented.

immediately, quickly, swiftly, with immediate effect, without delay The adjudicator’s

� immediately

decision is final and must be implemented immediately.

� over a particular area

locally, nationally, widely

National contracts will be locally implemented. � badly badly, poorly Legislation which is poorly implemented is not acceptable.

Usage Implement is usually passive in all of the adv+V combinations shown above: Their advertising campaign was badly implemented. We are now working to ensure that the recommendations are effectively implemented.


389 V+n something that tells people how to deal • with a problem guidelines, recommendations The government now aims to implement the recommendations of the safety review.

� way of dealing with a problem

measures, policy,

solution, strategy One purpose of implementing these measures is to control the flow of traffic.

directive, law, legislation, provisions, regulations, ruling The legislation was fully

� law or rule

n+to+N barrier, delay, obstacle The group will • research the barriers to implementation of change in the industry.



1 [usually plural] a possible effect or result

implemented in July 2005, when international tobacco advertising was banned.

adj+N important considerable, enormous, • important, profound, significant These differences

The committee agreed to implement the plan as soon as possible.

� negative

� plan

plan, programme, proposal, scheme, system

� official agreement

accord, agreement, resolution

He visited the US and Europe, promising to implement the peace accord. � change change, improvements, reform There has been steady progress in implementing reforms in the police force.

required close collaboration between the various departments.

v+to-V agree to implement something agree, promise The management apologized and agreed to

implement the recommendations.

attempt, try Many school teachers are attempting to implement the reform proposals.

� try to implement something

be forced, be obliged, have You may be forced to implement

� have to implement something

change by internal factors.

� fail or refuse to implement something

fail, refuse

The council has refused to implement the ruling due to budget cuts.


N the process of implementing something

adj+N successful or complete effective, efficient, • full, proper, smooth, successful We will consult

widely to ensure smooth implementation of the legislation. � quick immediate, rapid, speedy, timely Establish a timetable for the speedy implementation of recommendations.

full-scale, large-scale, widespread The widespread implementation of the

� covering a wide area

new methods is encouraging.

� actual

actual, concrete, practical The actual

implementation of a new policy can be challenging. phased, step-by-step The phased implementation will be carried out in seven police forces.

have significant implications for growth and development. devastating, negative, serious This ruling could have devastating implications for thousands of people. � possible possible, potential The potential legal implications of this approach are enormous. � affecting a large number of people or things

broad, far-reaching, wide, wide-ranging The

legislation has far-reaching implications for property owners in the UK. � over a long period of time long-term We need to carefully consider the long-term implications of development. � relating to a real situation practical This report has practical implications for our work in the classroom. � relating to money

budgetary, economic, financial

You should consider carefully the financial implications of studying for a higher degree.

methodological, theoretical In this chapter we discuss the

� relating to a theory or method

methodological implications of two theoretical frameworks.

environmental, ethical, legal, moral, pedagogical, philosophical, political Many decisions doctors take have ethical

� relating to a particular subject


n+N cost, health, policy, resource, safety, security, • tax, welfare They also identify the cost implications of achieving improved energy ratings.

v+N have implications carry, have Some of these • changes carry more wide-ranging implications.

consider, discuss, examine, explore, investigate, ponder, reflect upon, think about The paper discusses the implications of our

� consider implications

findings in relation to students’ learning.

� in stages

� make a judgment about implications

v+N achieve implementation achieve, ensure • Regular meetings are held to ensure the smooth

� understand implications

implementation of policy.

coordinate, manage, monitor, oversee, supervise The Department has a

� manage implementation

responsibility for overseeing implementation of EU directives.

accelerate, aid, assist in, contribute to, facilitate, simplify, support This

� help implementation

company was chosen to facilitate the implementation of the project. � delay implementation defer, postpone Permission was granted to postpone implementation.

N+n date, phase, plan, process, schedule, stage, • strategy, timetable The implementation process

assess, evaluate Most users do not consciously assess the

privacy implications of every online situation they encounter.

appreciate, grasp, realize, understand We have failed to realize the

wider implications of these events.

2 [usually singular] something that you suggest is true

adj+N clear, obvious, underlying, unspoken The • obvious implication was that Simon was lying. v+N deny, reject, resent She resented his • implication that she was a cheat.


ADJ not stated directly

• ADJ+n something that people understand and



accept or agree to acknowledgement, agreement, assumption, recognition, understanding There is an implicit assumption among the community that these issues will be resolved.

� criticism

condemnation, criticism, critique, rebuke

Throughout the report there was implicit criticism of the council’s actions. � threat challenge, threat We had to accept peace on their terms, ot the implicit threat of renewed violence.

young people would use drugs. Winning is of secondary importance, although it is very nice.

declining, diminishing, growing, increased, increasing His growing

� becoming more/less

importance in shaping policy became clear during the strike.

archaeological, architectural, ecological, economic, historic, historical, strategic, symbolic The river port gave the city a special

� of a particular type

strategic importance.


� in a particular geographical area

adv+V clearly clearly, plainly, strongly The report • clearly implied a growing need for new tests.

v+N be or become important assume, have, take • on Air power has assumed a greater military

V suggest that something exists or is true, without saying so directly � wrongly

falsely, incorrectly, misleadingly, wrongly

The broadcast falsely implies that cycling is an unusually dangerous activity.

automatically, inevitably, logically, necessarily If we teach writing more

� as a logical result

effectively, does that logically imply that our students will becoming better writers?

� not necessarily or not at all

in no way, not

necessarily Autonomy does not necessarily imply

unlimited freedom.

V+n the fact that you approve of something • acceptance, approval, consent, endorsement A link to another website does not imply endorsement of the material on that site.

� the fact that you do not approve of something

contradiction, criticism, rejection Inclusion on the

Register does not imply criticism of the person in question. � the fact that something exists existence A positive result does not necessarily imply the existence of the disease.

n+V information that you discover data, • evidence, findings, study Our findings imply the presence of liquid water on Mars.

comment, definition, language, narrative, phrase, statement, wording This statement implies that we might as

� something that is said or written

well just accept things as they are. � theory hypothesis, theorem This hypothesis implies that when something occurs, it has more chance of happening again.


N the fact of being important

adj+N great considerable, enormous, extreme, • great, huge, immense, key, major, much, profound, tremendous These findings are interesting but they are not of much importance at this stage.

� essential

critical, crucial, decisive, fundamental,

key, vital People must understand the vital importance of these resources for future generations.

cardinal, especial, first, highest, overriding, overwhelming, paramount, particular, primary, prime, special, supreme, utmost I believe motivating students to learn is of

� more than anything else

paramount importance. little, minor Compared to health, education, and taxes the issue is of minor importance.

� little

equal, less, lesser, relative, secondary We assessed the relative

� relative to something else

importance of different factors in predicting whether


national This is a list of sites considered to be of national importance for nature conservation.

importance in recent times.

accord sth, ascribe, attach, attribute, give sth, place Do not attach too

� give something importance

much importance to the differences in admissions procedures between the Colleges. Their business strategy places great importance on IT.

� understand something’s importance

acknowledge, appreciate, be convinced of, grasp, note, perceive, realize, recognize, understand We

understand the importance of keeping you informed of progress.

affirm, assert, emphasize, highlight, reaffirm, reassert, reinforce, reiterate, stress, underline, underscore Dr Connolly

� emphasize something’s importance

stresses the importance of being open and honest with children.

exaggerate, overemphasize, overestimate, overstate We cannot

� exaggerate something’s importance

overstate the importance of this point.

deny, downplay, ignore, overlook, underestimate, underplay, understate, undervalue The Minister

� deny or forget something’s importance

seemed to be downplaying the importance of the inquiry.

confirm, demonstrate, explain, illustrate, indicate, point to, reflect, reveal, show The report points to the

� show something’s importance

importance of patients being able to access the service quickly.

assess, discuss, evaluate, examine This lecture will discuss

� discuss how important something is

the importance of patents to the pharmaceutical industry.

N+v be in, lie in The unit’s importance lies in the • pioneering work it is doing with children who have been excluded from mainstream schools.

v+in+N decline, gain, grow, increase The town • grew in importance in the late 18th century.


ADJ having a major effect on someone or something adv+ADJ very critically, crucially, enormously, • extremely, fundamentally, highly, hugely, immensely, incredibly, massively, profoundly, really, so, terribly, tremendously, very, vitally

During their captivity that friendship was vitally important to them. � especially especially, particularly, supremely This advice is especially important for younger women. � rather pretty INFORMAL, quite Listen carefully. This is quite important.


391 potentially Anxiety was recognized as a potentially important factor.

� possibly

doubly, equally, increasingly, most, too It is equally important for

� relative to something else

Government Offices to monitor and review progress. Our friendship is too important to risk over something so silly. � clearly clearly, obviously It is obviously important to liaise with the owner of the land.

The expression the single most important is very common: This was probably the single most important factor in the decision. � in a particular way architecturally, biologically, clinically, commercially, economically, historically, industrially, medically, strategically All the churches on the list are architecturally or historically important. This report highlights the decline in strategically important areas of industry.

globally, internationally, locally, nationally, regionally The

� across a particular geographical area

island is home to internationally important seabird populations.

ADJ+n factor or aspect aspect, component, • consideration, element, facet, factor, feature, thing Socioeconomic deprivation is an important risk factor for heart disease. Music is the most important thing in the world to me. � role contribution, part, role Carbohydrates play an important role in maintaining health. � point or issue issue, point, question The website explains why climate change is such an important issue and what you can do to help. � difference difference, distinction There is an important distinction to be made between cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery.

� decision or action

decision, milestone, step

Volunteers from across the country gathered to mark this important milestone for the organization. � something you learn discovery, lesson What is the most important lesson you’ve learned in your professional life?

v+ADJ be, become, consider sth, deem sth, feel, • prove, remain, seem Knowledge of foreign

languages is becoming increasingly important to businesses. It is considered important that feedback is given immediately after the session.


V to force people to accept something

adv+V from outside centrally, externally They • have to make difficult choices within externally imposed budget constraints.

Usage Impose is usually passive in these combinations: Don’t insult their professional judgement with a lot of centrally imposed regulations.d � in an unreasonable way arbitrarily, artificially, heavy-handedly, rigidly, simply, unilaterally No

one was consulted in any way about the scheme, it was simply imposed. Agreement means consent from both parties, not one side unilaterally imposing its view.

aggressively, forcefully, forcibly, physically In seeking to forcibly impose a belief

� using force

system on everyone else, they display cultural intolerance.

V+n punishment fine, penalty, punishment, • sanctions, sentence The judge said she had no option but to impose a custodial sentence.

condition, constraints, curfew, deadline, limit, limitation, moratorium, quota, requirement, restraints, restriction Section 23

� restriction or limit

imposes various restrictions on the Parliament’s powers.

� tax or charge

charge, levy, surcharge, tariff, tax

Some Scandinavian countries impose much higher taxes on car ownership than does the UK. � ban ban, blockade, embargo, prohibition They imposed an embargo on all exports to the area. � rule regulation, rule The landlord is entitled to impose parking regulations on his tenants. � duty duty, liability, obligation The Directive imposes obligations on public bodies with regard to how they use personal information. � burden burden, strain The emissions from aircraft impose a great burden on the world’s climate. � will will It is wrong to impose the will of a small elite on the majority.


ADJ unable to be done or to happen

adv+ADJ completely absolutely, completely, • downright, quite, simply, totally, utterly I realized

that it was absolutely impossible to get a job without a proper work permit.

all but, almost, nearly, practically, virtually, well-nigh It’s all but impossible to have a rational

� almost

discussion about the issue. The prison cells were so overcrowded that it was almost impossible for prisoners to sit down. � obviously clearly, manifestly, obviously Bringing a life-sized tree onto the stage was obviously impossible. � apparently apparently, probably, seemingly We should be grateful for his tireless efforts against seemingly impossible odds.

� in a particular way humanly, logically, logistically,

mathematically, morally, physically, politically, technically It would have been physically impossible to read them all even if you did nothing else for a week.

v+ADJ appear, be, become, be rendered, look, • prove, seem, sound The game was rendered

impossible by the wintry conditions. It proved impossible to reach an agreement. Telling your life story in 20 seconds sounds impossible.


ADJ not sensible, or not likely to be effective or successful

adv+ADJ very highly, hopelessly, quite, • ridiculously, simply, totally, utterly, wholly, wildly Without technology these activities would be totally impractical. � rather probably, rather, somewhat These cars are regarded as somewhat impractical, with little carrying capacity and poor fuel consumption. � obviously clearly Building such a large single telescope is clearly impractical.

v+ADJ be, become, be considered, be rendered, • prove, seem Exchanging large files was rendered impractical by the low speed of the modem.

• It may



prove impractical to move large quantities of fresh water.

v+ADJ be, become, look, prove, remain, sound • The results so far have proved impressive.



adj+N good favourable, good, positive, the right • The food and service all made favourable

adj+N illegal arbitrary, false, illegal, unjust, • unlawful, wrongful He would like to thank everyone

N an opinion or feeling about something or someone


� bad

bad, negative, poor, unfavourable It is

regrettable that a negative impression has been created.

erroneous, false, incorrect, mistaken, wrong Whoever is paying you is doing so under the

� incorrect

mistaken impression that you’re actually doing some work! � that deceives someone deceptive, misleading A biased sample can give a misleading impression of the severity of the problem. � accurate accurate, the right Your CV should convey an accurate impression of what you have achieved. � general general, overall, overriding The picture gives an overall impression of peace and serenity.

big, clear, deep, distinct, overwhelming, powerful, profound, striking, strong, vivid The visit

� strong

made a deep impression on me. I got the distinct impression they were tired of being there. � lasting a long time abiding, indelible, lasting No matter how old you are this film will leave a lasting impression. � vague or brief fleeting, vague Many people have no idea what we do, beyond a vague impression that it is ’good work’. � immediate first, immediate, initial, instant His first impression of the party was not a very positive one.

v+N create an impression convey, create, give, • leave, make, produce His account is incomplete and gives the wrong impression.

� get or have an impression

form, gain, get, have I

had the impression of a settled and happy community.

correct, counter, dispel I would like to correct the impression you may have got that I can’t play. � confirm an impression confirm, reinforce Evidence confirms our earlier impression that the effect is small. � correct an impression


ADJ very good, large etc in a way that you admire

adv+ADJ very deeply, enormously, especially, • extremely, genuinely, highly, hugely, immensely, incredibly, massively, mightily, mighty INFORMAL, particularly, really, so, truly, very As a committed

supporter of the disability movement, she is a mightily impressive individual. � rather fairly, pretty INFORMAL, quite, rather It must have once been a rather impressive town house. � certainly admittedly, certainly, undeniably Their live performances are said to be exhilarating, and this debut album is certainly impressive.

doubly, equally, similarly To achieve such subtlety with such a young

� compared with something else

cast is doubly impressive.

architecturally, technically, visually Even after all these years, the film is still

� in a particular way

visually impressive.

N the punishment of being put in prison

who has supported him over his 8 long years of wrongful imprisonment. � long continued, indefinite, long, long-term Those who went against the authorities could find themselves facing execution or indefinite imprisonment.

life, 12 months’, 5 years’ etc The prisoner was fined and sentenced to

� for a particular length of time

28 days’ imprisonment for possession of drugs.

v+N when someone is imprisoned receive, serve, • suffer, undergo He was told he had to serve eight months’ imprisonment.

avoid, escape Although she was heavily fined, she managed to escape imprisonment. � risk imprisonment face, risk Some risked imprisonment and even death to take part in the protest. � impose imprisonment impose, sentence sb to A sentence of imprisonment was imposed by the magistrate. � avoid imprisonment


V to make something better or to become better adv+V a lot considerably, dramatically, • drastically, enormously, greatly, hugely,

immeasurably, immensely, massively, radically, remarkably, tremendously, vastly In the second half of the game, his concentration seemed to improve greatly.

If something has improved a lot, you can say that it is much improved: The bus services in this area are now much improved. � a little marginally, slightly, somewhat Road conditions improved slightly today.

demonstrably, markedly, materially, measurably, notably, noticeably, significantly, substantially, tangibly, visibly These developments

� noticeably

will significantly improve healthcare facilities in the area. certainly, definitely, undoubtedly The use of the program definitely improved the general understanding of the class.

� certainly

consistently, constantly, continually, continuously He continually improves his

� all the time

performance by setting goals and raising them.

gradually, progressively, slowly, steadily Employment rates for older people

� slowly or gradually

have steadily improved.

fast, quickly, rapidly Current computing technology is rapidly improving. � generally generally, overall Results have generally improved this year. � quickly

consequently, hence, thereby, therefore, thus More and more trees are being

� in this way

planted to provide green areas, thereby improving air quality.

• V+with age, experience, practice, time, use It is a


393 complex skill and, like all skills, it improves with practice.


N the process of becoming better or making something better

adj+N great big, considerable, dramatic, drastic, • great, huge, major, massive, radical, remarkable,

substantial, tremendous, vast England’s 10-yearolds have shown a dramatic improvement in maths tests over the past decade. � small marginal, minor, modest, slight I had an Xray and the doctor said there was a slight improvement already. appreciable, definite, demonstrable, distinct, genuine, marked, measurable, notable, noticeable, real, significant, tangible These

� noticeable

proposals will make a significant improvement to the current position.

constant, continual, continued, continuous, lasting, long-term, ongoing, sustainable, sustained, year-on-year It is clear that

� continuing

results have risen again this year, demonstrating the continued improvements in education.

gradual, incremental, progressive, steady Then there was a gradual improvement in

� slow or gradual

his work, particularly in science. immediate, rapid After a few sessions of therapy there was a rapid improvement in his condition. � general general, overall The inspectors noted an overall improvement on the previous year. � rapid

much-needed, necessary, needed, welcome The revenue raised would go into much-

� necessary

needed improvements in public transport. recent Recent technical improvements means that a better solution is available.

� recent

further, future, planned, possible, potential, suggested Other suggested

� possible or planned

improvements included a greater police presence and better street lighting.

agricultural, cosmetic, environmental, genetic, operational, technical, technological Recycling has the potential to create

� of a particular type

jobs and achieve environmental improvement.

v+N make an improvement achieve, effect, • implement, introduce, make, secure Her mission is to achieve a lasting improvement in her quality of life.

bring, bring about, deliver, enable, produce, yield None of these variations of

� cause an improvement

the basic design yielded any great improvements.

identify, measure, note, notice, report, see The doctor said that if I didn’t

� notice an improvement

notice an improvement we would try a different drug. demonstrate, show The overall pass rates showed a marginal improvement. � be an improvement represent This represented a 13 per cent improvement in profitability. � show an improvement

� experience an improvement

experience, undergo

The area around the harbour is currently undergoing improvement.

� want or need improvement demand, expect, need,

require, seek The actual wording of the report needs


plan, propose, recommend, suggest If you would like to suggest

� suggest an improvement

improvements to our website we would be happy to hear from you.

encourage, ensure, facilitate, promote, support Feedback should

� encourage improvement

promote learning and facilitate improvement. promise I can report today that the promised improvements in the system are being delivered.

� promise an improvement

n+for+N need, opportunity, room, scope The • present service is good but there is always room for improvement.


N a sudden strong feeling that you must do something adj+N sudden sudden On a sudden impulse, I rode • after him. first, initial My first impulse was to go out and buy a whole new set of clothes. � strong irresistible, powerful, strong There came to him an irresistible impulse to pray. � natural natural, primitive, spontaneous Our natural impulses can be altruistic and cooperative as well as selfish. � first

aggressive, anarchic, destructive, murderous, sadistic, self-destructive, suicidal, violent His life is a constant struggle to

� violent, destructive

control his destructive impulses.

charitable, generous On a generous impulse he gave the man his coat. � creative artistic, creative The exhibition is a celebration of the creative impulse, which we all possess but which is so often stifled. � not rational contradictory, irrational She will always be a woman of contradictory impulses. � not expressed repressed Hidden motives, repressed impulses, and secret passions are revealed in the course of the play.. � generous

have an impulse feel, have He felt an impulse • tov+Nassist her.

control, fight, repress, resist, restrain She resisted the impulse to give him a hug. � obey an impulse follow, obey What I really want � fight an impulse

to do is just obey my own impulses.


N the fact that you cannot do something

adj+N complete complete, sheer, total, utter What • this indicates is their utter inability to deal with any policy issue.

� apparent apparent, seeming He deplores humanity’s

seeming inability to love selflessly.

chronic, pathological, woeful There is a woeful inability to learn from past

� very bad or unfortunate


v+N show inability demonstrate, highlight, • prove, reflect, reveal, show This simply

demonstrates an inability to work together effectively. overcome Helen Keller was a deaf and blind girl who overcame her inability to communicate.

� overcome inability


ADJ not accurate or correct

adv+ADJ very completely, grossly, highly, • hopelessly, totally, very, wholly, wildly Many of the

Using the Macmillan Collocations Dictionary in IELTS Sam McCarter The Macmillan Collocations Dictionary (MCD) is a valuable resource for anyone using English in an academic or professional context. It shows how the most frequent words in English typically combine with each other, and with other words, to form natural-sounding chunks of language – and this is what makes it an especially useful tool for people taking the IELTS exams. There is an important distinction to be made between IELTS (the International English Language Testing System) and other exams. The purpose of IELTS is not to to test students’ knowledge of the English language, but to assess their competence in using it. Students are not awarded a pass or fail, but their scores are reported on a scale ranging from 1 (‘Non-User’) to 9 (‘Expert User’). The word User is critical. Rather than testing students’ knowledge of grammar or of specific vocabulary items, IELTS evaluates their ability to use the English language in the completion of tasks (within fairly tight time limits) in the four main skills of Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. This focus on testing competence rather than knowledge has implications for students and teachers alike, especially with regard to learning vocabulary. Let us take, for example, a student who is about to take IELTS, and who has a reasonably large vocabulary, say of around 7,500 words. A vocabulary of this size is a desirable asset for anyone aiming to achieve a score of 6.5–7 in the academic version of IELTS. But learning words from vocabulary lists is not enough. If our imaginary student has no awareness of how words work naturally together, s/he will be at a disadvantage compared to someone who may have a smaller vocabulary (say 5,000 words), but who is able to use those words effectively by combining them in natural-sounding collocations.. What this illustrates is the importance of learning to use vocabulary, at speed, across tasks within the four main skills. This will improve fluency, clarity of expression, and naturalness – and hence competence in general. The need for such flexibility in manipulating words to create the kinds of combination that a fluent speaker would produce naturally is what makes the Macmillan Collocations Dictionary an ideal companion for students as they prepare for the IELTS exam.

How producing natural collocations can help IELTS students There are two aspects of vocabulary that illustrate the relevance of collocation and the value of a dictionary like the MCD: • the relationship between frequency and ‘coverage’: research shows that the most common English words make up a high percentage of everything we read or write. The most frequently used words (the top 2,500) account for almost 80% of all text, while the 7,500 most common words make up over 90%. • The relationship between frequency and collocation: the more frequent a word is, the more likely it is to enter into ‘partnerships’ with other words, forming combinations which convey a sense of naturalness and style. This has implications for processing information in the four main skills tested in IELTS.

Processing information: Listening In the IELTS Listening Module, students have to be able to process information at natural speed which they hear only once.Grammar and listening skills apart, such processing for students aiming for Score Band 7 requires an ability to identify facts and ideas, to see the relationships between them, and to recognise paraphrases and summaries. From the IELTS student’s point of view, the skill of predicting relationships between words in collocations or identifying the paraphrase of one collocation to another at speed is very useful. At a fairly simple level, this can be illustrated by the alternatives students might have to choose from in a multiple-choice question. As students have to process what they hear while listening, quick understanding of the audio and the questions is essential. Look at the second entry for the word basic in MCD: 2 of products or services, needed by everyone • ADJ+n necessities Their parents have to work from morning till night to provide the basic necessities. essentials foodstuffs sanitation amenities needs A question in the Listening Module might look something like this: Their parents have to work from morning till night to provide the A basic necessities B school fees C expensive clothes In the listening module, the speaker might say something like: ... supply the children with accommodation, food and clothing. Knowing that the word basic is frequently combined with necessities to mean things like accommodation, food and clothing makes it easier to process information while listening. If students have to think about the meaning of the two words combined, it will slow them down. Furthermore as the vocabulary used in the audio, and in the questions, is likely to be drawn from the most common 2,500 to 7,500 words (either as single items or in combination), then it makes sense to include work on collocation and on possible paraphrases as part of a course.

Processing information: Reading The reading passages in the academic version of IELTS are long – around 800 words each and up to 2,700 words for the three passages – and students have to answer 40 questions about the passages in one hour. The skills needed for negotiating a text include skimming, scanning, rapid recognition of text type and organization, and the ability to process grammar at speed. But a flexible use of vocabulary can further enhance competence in reading. A good starting point is to acquire a thorough working knowledge of the most frequent English words and – critically – to learn the various ways in which they typically combine to form natural-sounding and predictable collocations. Reading and processing speeds can be surely enhanced by a detailed understanding of the ways in which words fit together. If we take another entry from the MCD, for the word significant, a knowledge of collocation can help students predict as they read. In a text about the important consequences of a policy or decision, for example, the use of the adjective significant will ‘prime’ readers to expect nouns such as impact or effect to follow: ... have a significant impact on the economy of the region. And collocation manipulation will also help the student to see that the phrase ‘... benefit that part of the country considerably’ in a reading passage is being paraphrased by the phrase above in a True False Not Given statement or multiple-choice question. As the MCD shows, other words with which

significant regularly combines, to express the idea of an important result or effect of something, include implications, consequence, influence, and benefit. These provide yet another rich source of language to manipulate for paraphrasing and summarizing. The ability to understand and use collocations helps students to increase their speed in processing information as they predict the text that is to cover the blank pages to come.. Building fluency and sounding unnatural: Writing Task 2 In Task 2 of the academic version of IELTS, students are required to write a minimum of 250 words. A student with a good grasp of collocation has a distinct advantage, as we can see by looking at the entry for significant in the MCD. It shows the nouns and adverbs that most frequently combine with significant to express a wide range of ideas. If you want to say something is ‘very significant’, there is a choice of typical adverbs. Or again, there are sets of nouns for conveying ideas like ‘a significant achievement’, ‘a significant problem or challenge’, or – as discussed already – ‘a significant effect or result’. Here we look at the set of nouns frequently used to express the idea of ‘a significant event or change’: change, development, improvement, move, trend, decision, action, initiative: The most significant recent development has been the introduction of an integrated fares and ticketing structure. Let’s say a student makes a spelling or a grammatical mistake in the sentence (for example, writing The most significent recent development or Most significant recent development): despite these mistakes, the message is clear, But look at the difference if the student uses words of similar meaning but in unnatural combinations, and writes: The most key recent act has been the initiative of an integrated fares and ticketing arrangement Though the sentence is not ‘incorrect’, its intended meaning is much less clear, because inappropiate words have been chosen, resulting in untypical collocations. If this is then repeated with the same consistency throughout an essay, with or without grammar or spelling mistakes, it becomes more difficult for the reader (the Examiner), to recover the meaning. Texts like this give the impression the writer lacks fluency and is operating with a limited working vocabulary.Yet, with even quite small changes, the meaning would become more transparent and the text as a whole would feel more natural. Building fluency and sounding unnatural: Speaking Parts 2 and 3 The need for fluency becomes even more critical in the Speaking module of IELTS. In Part 2 students are expected to talk about a particular topic: for example, Describe a recent development in your life that you felt was important. A good way of demonstrating a wide vocabulary is to employ natural collocations which paraphrase what the Examiner says rather than just repeating the exact words, for example: I’m going to talk about a recent change in my life that was very significant. If students are hesitant as they pick their way through the words that they know or simply repeat the words of the Examiner, this will affect their score band for vocabulary and fluency. Part 3 covers many abstract topics similar to those covered in Task 2 of the Writing module. Here students are asked to talk about subjects such as the development of technology and its effects in the workplace or on domestic life. Again the student who is able, with minimum hesitation, to choose words that fit together to make natural collocations is more likely to achieve a higher score band. The Macmillan Collocations Dictionary is a useful companion for anyone working in an academic or professional context or taking exams such as FCE, CAE Proficiency, ILEC and ICFE. For IELTS, it is an especially valuable resource which seems tailor-made to meet the needs of students preparing for this exam.


Collocations dictionary FO R LE ARNE RS OF ENGLISH

NEW Specially created to help upper intermediate to advanced students write more natural and accurate English.

This two-colour dictionary of common word combinations has been compiled using leading-edge collocation-finding software and a 2-billion word corpus of modern English. ● Focus on students’ productive needs, with collocations for over 4,500 carefully-selected key words ● Simple, informative structure: collocations are grouped in semantic sets within each entry ● Examples from authentic English show how collocations are used in context ● Easy-to-use layout with all headwords printed in red ● Usage boxes with grammatical notes, synonyms, and alternative expressions ● Ideal for IELTS, with special focus on academic, professional and creative writing, with information on register provided where appropriate

To find out more about the range of Macmillan Dictionaries, visit To access Macmillan Dictionary Online, visit ISBN 978-02307-2403-7


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Macmillan Collocations Dictionary  

slovník anglických kolokací - nejčastěších slovních kombinací a spojení

Macmillan Collocations Dictionary  

slovník anglických kolokací - nejčastěších slovních kombinací a spojení