Ancoats Re:[deem] 3xd Re:[connect]
Manchester School of Architecture
Table of content Prelude: 1| Introduction
Manifesto: 2| Theoretical Position 3| Territory Analysis 4| Analysis Conclusion 5| Proposed Approach
6 12 36 39
Programme: 6| Precedent Analysis 7| Initial Proposal 8| Programme Development 9| Programme Presentation
44 46 50 54
Epilogue: 10| Project Summary
Appendixes: A| Bibliography
â€˜Architecture is a social act and the material theatre of human activityâ€™ [S]piro [K]ostof
1|[Intro]duction This small publication aim to present an architectural project in Ancoats (Manchester). One of the most important aspect for the author was to ensure that each consecutive section emerge from earlier analysis and is properly justified. The book is divided into two consecutive sections:
1. [man]ifesto (chapters 2 - 5):
2. [prog]ramme (chapters 6 - 9):
An attempt to build architectural identity and develop personal position towards a post-industrial urban realm and city as a whole. This part contains also site analysis that contributed to creation of this document and justify proposed solutions.
Contains a set of analytical exercises that helped to establish a series of interlinked activities forming a coherent unit that could contribute to generating the initial programme for chosen site.
Synthesis & Summary
Case Studies Activities Reading
Similarly to others, author of this manifesto is influenced by individual experiences, surrounding world and theories he was exposed to. This set of uniquely gathered factors resulted in creation of initial position of the writer. Albert Pope, Jane Jacobs, Henri Lefebvre, Spiro Kustof and Leon Krier were probably the most influential theorist that contributed to authors approach toward the city and attributes of urban fabric. The most important of them are:
[Setting the Scene]
Firstly, one cannot look at a city without acknowledging ‘its conflicted aspects, constraints and possibilities, peacefulness and violence, meetings and solitude, gatherings and separation, the rival and the poetic, brutal functionalism and surprising improvisation.’ (Lefebvre,1991) Metropolis is a paradox filled with contradictions. It ‘reflects a curious double-sidedness, a binary construction of night-day’ (Charlesworth, 2005-city edge)
[Stratification] The city is a layered organism, consisting of people, their networks, infrastructure, the built environment and the new digital reality. They are all interconnected. Stratification can be observed on multiple various levels 8|Page
2|[Theoretical]Position e.g: perceptual- public & private, open & closed (Krier, 2011) Jacobs (19XX) stated that urban fabric is a layered product of actions of past and present generations. â€˜It is far from being just a reflection of requirements of the society currently occupying it.â€™ It is a cumulative albeit incomplete, record of society, its needs and abilities.
to one of them can result in alternation of others. Very often, to change one aspects of a city multiple triggers need to be set off. (Shane, 2005)
Moreover, city and its layers are made up of various elements. In fact people are never exposed to entire metropolis they read it and try to understand it through its fragments.
Urban centres are dynamic and everchanging organisms. Kelly (1995) stated that when big systems, such as cities, are built up out of multiple smaller complex systems, then each unit starts to influence and actively change the arrangement of others. People operating in spaces change them, for that reason deserted spaces become static (Smith, 1974)
[Complexity] Presented features show city as a complex system. All of its fragments are interwoven, and they intersects. Due to those aspects it is very often difficult to define border between certain areas. What is more, all the units are interdependent - making changes
[Forces] Before a proper analysis can be started, an attempt to identify key forces that shape the city must be made.
Those things are impossible to predict, but architects should always consider them and their impacts on the city.
In author’s opinion main powers creating the world nowadays are connected with big organisation and are highly manipulative influencing entire society. Some of them are : political, economical, commercial (consumerism) and desire for innovation. Moreover they are much more unstable than before. Albert Pope seem to have similar opinion. He wrote that cities are highly impacted by ‘rapidly accelerating curves of development, unprecedented demographic shifts, unique political catastrophes and exotic economies of desire’ - all foreign to the forces which drove the traditional development of urban cores (p. 3, 1996).
[Conclusion] With this set of believes author approached given site, city and architecture.
[Introduction] As already described, this project takes place in Ancoats (a district in Manchester, England).It is an old post-industrial site located in the region of city centre fringe. Ancoats is a historic site where the industrial revolution started in Manchester. Due to good climate, topography and proximity of river it was a perfect space for development of new industries. Nowadays, Ancoats are derelict. It is an empty site: full of buildings and brownfields but without people. But already after first view minutes visitors realise that, the places are not being used due to lack of people. Moreover, a lot of buildings are abandoned.
3|[Territory]Analysis Further site analysis is divided into 3 main groups : MCR
[e]nvironment, [e]conomy and [s]ociety First of them is the most developed as the author of this manifesto worked on it personally. Other two are presented here by curtesy of other two research groups.
Specific Location of Ancoats
Ancoats are subdivided into three parts by canals. It is located south east of the city centre and is within walking distance from it (10 minutes). Moreover, due to the fact that it is a post-industrial site it has already well developed infrastructure and is well interconnected with the rest of the city in terms of roads, bus and tram transport. Page|13
â€˜Ancoats: Complexity. Fragmentation. Stratification. Stagnationâ€™ [M]aciej [O]lszak
Imediate personal response to site. Concept Painting created after first site visit.
[Environment] [Climate] The macroclimate of Manchester can be easily described as moderate oceanic, which is characterised by mild temperatures, with relatively low yearly amplitude, but high humidity and precipitation. Quick summary about the climate : •average temperatures range between 20oC and 2oC •average wind speed is 3m/s •it rains for around 20 days a month •sun shines for about 4 hours a day •average humidity of air is 80%
2o 4h/day 16|Page
Pb NO2 [μg/m3]
As the time passed by and technology developed living standards and air quality improved as well. Nowadays Ancoats is environmentally almost as potential as the rest of the region.
Smoke and SO2 [μg/m3]
Ancoats had environmental problems since the very beginning of Industrial Revolution. It was a place of rapid economical development, due to canals and mills. Built environment was expanding quickly in an uncontrolled way. People did not care about pollutions and future environmental complications. Moreover, conditions within the city were awful - death rate was high and live expectancy short.
Deaths per thousand livebirths
Ancoats built environment expanded quickly in XIX century. Later on the development significa 18|Page
3|[Territory]Analysis [Urban_Heat] One of the environmental problems which is still quite apparent in analysed district is the urban heat island. The researches show that its effect is the strongest in area of Ancoats and city centre. This means that (theoretically) Ancoats is 3 to 6 oC warmer than rural areas nearby. It is caused by: huge thermal mass of concrete constructs, inadequate amount of impervious surfaces and heat emitted by peoplesâ€™ activities.
antly slowed down. Page|19
One can easily see that Ancoats is flat. Similarly to the rest of Manchester. It is not as uniform as it seem, though. There is multitude to small fluctuation around entire site. There are some major slopes in southern part as well. [E]
Comparative scales: [Beetham]
Those conditions could be perceived both positive and negative. One can state that it is a perfect terrain to build, as it is relatively flat. On the other hand, it is nor exciting neither picturesque - rather boring townscape.
Ancoats ground relief consists of big plains and slight slopes, that are usually impossible to notice, especially from bigger distances. But when one takes a closer look and investigate it, a lot of minor fluctuations can be found.
The highest point in Ancoats is located about 55.5 metes above the average sea level, while the lowest 27.2 meters. Hence, the maximum deviation of this district is 18.3 m over a span of almost 1500 meters.
52 [Forms] The average height of Ancoats is slightly lower than Menchesters and it is about 5253 meters above the see level. It is worth realizing that majority of topograpcial formsâ€™ changes happen around the border of Ancoats. 22|Page
3|[Territory]Analysis [Emerging_Topographies] In all likelihood Ancoatsâ€™ topography was significantly changed during the Industrial Revolution. Ground underwent further mediation resulting in creation of even flatter environment with smaller amount of fluctuations. Moreover a lot of impervious surfaces were introduced and high industrial buildings were erected. Finally, new canals and tunnels were constructed. For those reason majority of nowadays Ancoatsâ€™ topography is man-made .
[Topography_as_Catalyst] Ancoats were a plain area since its origins. It was one of the reasons for its development in industrial era. Flat areas were easier to inhabit with people and industry due to ease of construction and small amount of ground mediation required. Moreover rivers Tib and Medlock were additional benefits providing fresh water, additional mean of transport and infinite source of power.
3|[Territory]Analysis [Modelling_Ancoats] Modelling of Ancoats topography and built environment significantly contributed to its understanding (especially the link between them). It is worth mentioning that the topography of Ancoats is much reacher when one take into account its underground tunnels and buildings covering its surface. All those aspects contribute to creation of unique urban fabric.
Figure Ground Drawing
Figure Ground Drawing without derelict buildings
3|[Territory]Analysis [Emptiness] Ancoats is a strongly derelict district. Big portion of its old buildings is left alone without any use. This process of becoming obsolete and unused is especially visible in northern part of the district. Unfortunately, newly provided spaces (built by Urban Splash in their epic fail to provide a catalyst for area) are as deserted as the old narrow abandoned streets of conservation area. It is caused by the fact that people preferred facilities that were earlier on site and were more important for their community (dispensary, pubs). This arise the question about the importance of appropriate facilities and preservation of the sense of place.
[Networks] Ancoats is a post-industrial, post-catalyst site. Due to this fact, its infrastructure (roads and public transport) is well developed. Moreover, it is very well located. It is close to city centre and Piccadilly Station. It can be accessed with ease using multiple transportation options. On the other site, Great Ancoats Street ( which is part of the network system) form a huge barrier for pedestrians, at the same time.
Local networks are rather undeveloped. People tend not to use provided public spaces and they do not engage with the urban realm. Ancoats is rather deserted - it lacks a conceptual framework, that would connect the places on other layer than just physical (Pope, 1995). This is one of the identified key problems. It is very apparent on photos - there are no people on any of them.
[16_min] Manchester City Stadium
[7_min] City Centre
[12_ min ]
[City_scale] Other significant aspect of Ancoats is the presence of canals and water basin. It is part of the districtâ€™s image. It has his contribution to perception of space there. Moreover, canals are part of a bigger network system connecting Ancoats with other districts and cities. Unfortunately, it is not being used currently for transportation purposes. As already stated Ancoats as a part of Manchester has well developed infrastructure, hence it is well interconnected with the rest of city and region.
But in authors opinion it would be a mistake to say that Ancoats is connected well connected with Manchester. It is no longer a part of this complex system. It is not prospering within it. It may be due to lack of adaptable spaces and opportunities for people. Urban void was created in place of once lively community.
[Economy] [Average Sales Prices]
Moreover, the amount of different economies is very low compared to the rest of Manchester (and compared to the past). Finally, there is a widespread poverty and high level of unemployment. Due to those facts the district of Ancoats is stagnated- an area of recession that is left behind without any development. This is one of key problems of this territory. [Children in receipt of school meals]
[Children under 16 â€˜in povertyâ€™] Ancoats economy is currently in decline. There is not much activity present there nowadays. Above diagrams (basing on data from Manchester City Council) prove that there are less house sales there than in the rest of Manchester and that the land value in Ancoats is declining compared to Manchester. 32|Page
Manchester 9 % Ancoats
Crime per 1000 people 34|Page
3|[Territory]Analysis [Society] [Activity] Ancoats always seems to be empty. There are cars going around and through it, but you cannot see many pedestrians. Spaces seem to be deserted and ominously silent. This strongly links with the perception of various places and environment in Ancoats. Fences introduced by corporations contribute to it as well. People are not attracted to this district, as it does not have anything specific to offer. This is another significant problem . The only signs of human social activity are protestation bards left on the streets. Finally, there is a visible lack of unity in the society of Ancoats. It is expressed by crime rates and differing perception of various social groups. [Perception]
[Summary] Ancoats has become reliant on forces of economy and policy. These forces have changed the function of the city, from a place of the people to one of the corporation. These forces have removed themselves from the city, leaving behind an urban void and unfinished development. The district of Ancoats has been affected by the constant change and progression of the modern world: industrialisation, emergent markets, economic downturn, migration, policy changes. It is clearly visible that the decline in industry has torn the life out of a once vibrant district of resulting in loss of vitality and meaning within Ancoats. Ancoats must be defined not only as postindustrial site, but post-catalyst: where the development proposed by Urban Splash and Alsop worsen the situation. It is a good proof that, even in an age of visual hegemony, form does not always initiate development (e.g. Chips). Without development that approached the city as a whole being Ancoats can be found in a state of neglect. Analysis showed there cannot be a vibrant and dynamic district without vibrancy and dynamism in its activities, society and environment. 36|Page
Site analysis showed that there are problems within all 3 researched fields: economy, environment and society. All of them are interlinked. But it is also crucial to realise that there is potential in all of them as well, that allows one to approach the site with optimism.
I • [Ancoats] is in a visible state of stagnation
II • [Ancoats] is not linked within itself and with the rest of the city- it is a fragmented place, lacking framework
III • [Ancoats] is not an attractive district for people ( there is no reason to go there, both for local people and ‘tourists’) Those three problems are interconnected and result from each other
[Approach] For such a complex situation within the city one cannot afford to approach it with ignorance. The city is a complex organism. It is interwoven, it intermingles and it intersects. For that reason multiple triggers need to be set set off to meet a single goal. What follows, is that each action cause multitude of side, uncontrolled impacts (Pope, 1996). The city creates negative and positive multiplier effects - like a complex system of cogs one movement has many resultant reactions. For these reasons holistic approach (idea that any system and its properties, should be viewed as whole; they cannot be fully understood only in terms of their components parts) to city is the most difficult, but also appropriate.
It is easy to realise that earlier approaches to revitalise Ancoats failed to present a holistic approach and they caused more harm than good for society living there. The most appropriate approach to Ancoats seems to be characterised by integration with specialization; balance between structure and looseness: masterplanning with spaces for dynamic emergence. The City should remain open for new options. Modern urbanist should believe in primacy of space and programme over seduction of form, which is just a tool for achieving the ultimate goal. (Pope, 1996). On the other hand, we live in visual age, where people tend to oversimplify building to its image. For that reason appearance of a building seem to be one of its functions as well. It is important to look to the past, design for the now and prepare for the future. Adaptability is one of the most important aspect of architecture in our ever-faster changing world. Main task of architecture is to provide unifying spaces allowing people to engage with them. â€˜Architecture articulates the experiences of being-inthe-world and strengthens our sense of reality and self; it does not make us inhabit worlds of mere fabrication and fantasy.â€™ (Palasmaa, 2005, p.9).
5|[Proposed]Approach [Ancoats] Interlinked [Economy] [Society] /Stagnation /No people and social activities /No bussinesses within public realm /Lack of unity /Lack of services /Lack of job offers /Broken society /No incentives /Benefits prefered to work Cause
[Complexity] [Dynamism] [Fragmentation]
/Derelict environment /Polluted space /High impact of urban heat Island /Lack of appropriate spaces [Environment]
S Interlinked Page|39
Finally, it is important to take into account current sense of place and enhance the best aspects of it (another key feature that urban splash failed to do). Otherwise, entire city will become the same and characterless. Main aims for redeeming Ancoats from its current post-catalyst state are:
• Revitalise Ancoats from its current state of emptiness and stagnation
• Provide a programme that is a real catalyst for the urban fabric •
Create an engaging public realm
• Strengthen the sense of community and the sense of place
• Strengthen local networks introducing reviving local activities
Draw in ‘the people’
â€˜Dynamic. Complex. Fragmentedâ€™ [E]vironment [G]roup
Poster summarising manifesto: Approach to site and city as a whole. Page|43
[Introduction] First steps that were taken in the journey to define the programme was precedent studies. Author analysed how others approached sites with similar conditions.
Key aspects of solution: - emerged from local activities
[Copenhagen: Kastrup] Kastrup (Copenhagen) is a site that has simillarl history to Ancoats. It emerged during the industrial revolution and developed around tile and pottery Works building. In post industrial times it became obsolete and deserted so Danes decided to redevelop the area that became one of suburban district of Copenhagen.
-designed to attract both local people and tourists by provision of mixed use environment
It is adjacent to see and Copenhagen Airport. Due to the fact that it is a postindustrial site, communication networks are fairly developed. New facilities emerged from existing spaces. Instead of implementing Tabula Rasa ideology, old buildings were utilised and historic spaces were brought back to life. The most positive aspects of the site were enhanced. Economic, environmental and social fixes were provided simultaneously. Provided facilities were designed to suit local activities already existing on site. Although it was an expensive top-down project, it seems almost locally driven (bottom-up). 44|Page
People using provided space in Kastrup
6|[Precedent]Analysis [London: Docks]
London docks were always a working area. It faced similar problems to Ancots in 1980s. Huge investments allowed to create 43 000 jobs places a lot of needed facilities such as schools and cheap dwelling units. Moreover new iconic buildings were provided to innovate the place and enhance sense of local pride.
The most successful redevelopment projects seem emerge from local context, rather than by trying to create new area isolated from surroundings, with new image (like New Inslington). This technique help to maintain consistent sense of place and true uniqueness. Understanding peoples needs is crucial in this process. Another important aspects identified by author are : improving local sense of pride and focusing on local needs combined with attractiveness. It is interesting to see how those interventions give new values to derelict spaces. Those allow to recreate lively dynamic environment that reconnect district with the rest of the city.
Key aspects: - redevelopment as a response to local needs
- retaining character of the space
WORK WORK - improving sense of local pride
[Proposal] While territory analysis helped author to understand key problems and their relations with each other, case studies showed how people approach programming in postindustrial derelict area. Those synthesised activities were very informative as they helped author to learn from others mistakes (e.g. Urban Splash). Understanding the differences of wrong and correct approach was crucial in defining author’s initial interest. Other activity that strongly influence it was a playful exercise of creation of few sketchy activity-based programmes for Ancoats. It can be described simply as the process of : ‘giving value back to place’ How to understand the concept of value in a post-catalyst area, when everything proposed before seemed to be detrimental for the district? And generally: what is value in such environment? Next diagram explains authors approach to this topic. It was derived from case study analysis combined with desktop research (Macmilan, 2004).
being attached to place
having valuable properties
creating image of space
empowering people with local pride
appropriate function sense of place perception of place
S It is impossible to give value to place without taking into consideration people living there and their activities. Finally, interest in ‘giving value to place’ expresses the need of holistic approach as well, as it is crucial to look at ‘place’ and ‘value’ from multiple perspectives. People of Ancoats has already witnessed one attempt to reinvigorate the district in purely economical approach, Valuable heritage was destroyed and community shattered. It was caused mainly by the fact that Urban Splash tried to separate from what was there and create new alienated environment. Moreover, it created new houses that are much too expensive for
7|[Initial]Proposal big part of Mancunians - for that reason there is no demand for such facilities. Author of this wok is more interested in contrasting approach: where each decision is justified and ingrained in local activities, features and needs; where programme emerges from the territory.
philosophical trajectory of Kevin Kelly (1995) is called â€˜grow by chunkingâ€™. He explains that the most successful systems are first developed as single elements. Only then they are multiplied and arranged into more complex organism.
ingrained Author would like to size opportunities given by uniqueness of Ancoats. Work closely with its identity of place and its peopletheir perception of place, their activities and sense of local pride. Bring facilities that would act as a catalyst revitalising the district and reestablishing lost link with the rest of the city. Due to his manifested believes author thinks that it is very often more sensitive to create smaller interventions that then can evolve gradually into a big system, rather than creating immense complex system at the very beginning. It is caused by the fact that usually the bigger the builiding the more uncontrolled (and negative) impacts it have. This approach was created along
For that reason author sees his initial proposal as a small to medium scale building, which programme would act like a catalyst and cause a chain reaction on bigger area. Later on it could be developed into bigger system. It could be a community driven, low tech, bottom-up approach that emerges from the territory rather than is an alien intrusion. That looks at what people do and like. It is important for it to reconnect Ancoats with the city on many different level; to provide space for social interaction. It should recreate widely understood networks.
[Aims] Main 3 aims for the author to achieve are: 1) Establish new links with the city, enhance networks system (especially individual â€˜small itinerariesâ€™ that transform a space into a dynamic and lively place)
2)Provide space where people could go. Space for interaction with other and enhancing community bounds.
3)Create facilities/places that would empower people with sense of local pridehelp them to establish emotional links with Ancoats.
[Introduction] Programme was being developed in terms of activities. Instead of thinking about building typologies author focused on what kind of human activities may bring Ancoats back to life.
Initial stages focused on research and experimentation with different activities and programmes that they could generate in Anocats. Various type of drawings and diagrams helped to organise authors thoughts and push forward the process.
Set of first drawings that leaded author towards the idea of urban fish farm connected with brewery.
This idea was further developed by analysing connection between those two spaces accommodating primary activities.
[Organising] Above drawing helped to specify authors interest and organise his thoughts. Page|51
8|[Programme]Development [Justification] Fishing and brewing are two traditional English activities. Due to national statistics there are 4 mln people British people spending ₤3 bln. Moreover there are a lot of sites away from Manchester used by Mancunians. Fishing is a cultural phenomenon. Socialising in pubs is very popular as well. It is one of the activity that used to integrate society. It is potentially capable of bridging the gap between two different social groups in Ancoats. What’s more, Aforementioned district has a long proud brewing history “The Royal Crow” brew-pub was located there. Finally, amount of micro brew-pubs is increasing, although the decline in amounts of typical pubs (which anyway is still high). [Breweries] Active Historic
[Introduction] Final programme is based around leisure and local activities that a lot of Mancunians enjoy and take pride in. It revolves primarily around fishing, socialising, interacting with others , brewing, eating and drinking. But it is designed to accommodate other emerging activities as well- urban sports, walking and local businesses.
Pub Brewery Aquarium
[Dimensions] The approximate dimensions were derived from Approved Documents, Architectâ€™s Pocket Book and Metric Handbook. 54|Page
9|[Programme]Presentation No. of People
pier, handrails benches
Pub with Micro-Aquarium
various: tables, chairs, aquariums, food station
kitchen equipment set: fridges, cookers, microwave, taps, fans etc.
10-barrels brewing system, heat pumps
Cold Keg Storage
shelves, cooling engines
Cold Food Storage
shelves, fridges, cooling engines
toilets sink, artificial ventilation
Staff Toilet + Shower
showers, toilets sink, artificial ventilation
computers, tables, chairs, shelves, cabinets
computer, table, chairs, shelves, cabinets
chairs, small table, shelf
energy generators, transformers, heat pumps, artificial ventilation
[Space] Fish Farm
4:00 Time Bar & Pub Brewery Aquarium Outdoor Facilites
[Daily Change in Use]
Key Indoor Activities
Due to the fact that the daily hours of usage of pub are different from the micro aquarium those two may be combined. In such a way aquariums could become decorative as well as educative in their function.
Cold Keg Storage
Working- clean Entrance
Cold Food Storage
Storage/ Showers/ WC
Outdoor Fishishng Facilities
[Rationalisation] First step, before looking at proximity diagrams, was to rationalise the programme and group the spaces into zones with similar properties (cold and warm zone, public and private zones etc.) Page|57
Main aim was to ensure that spaces that interact with each other are located close to each other and have a direct link. Other important spatial feature is the adjacency to canals and creating a strong link with it.
Provision of external facilities would require enhancement of the existing habitat. It would help to establish more pleasant environment.
[External Facilities] Range of external facilities would be provided:
Other spaces for emerging activities may be provided as well. 58|Page
Processing Cold Keg Storage
Cold Food Storage
Toilet Outdoor Facilities Outdoor Fishishng Facilities
Local Employment O
Possibility: C lo s
C lo s
Waste Fish Farm
Waste Bigger Network
[Energy and products flow] Flow of resources is one of the most important aspects of proposed programme. It tights it all together making it a true hybrid scheme. 60|Page
Not ultimately closed system. Providing spaces for local people t o plug-in t heir o wn small scale businesses.
Competitions Tourism Urban Sports
9|[Programme]Presentation [Concept Monatage] The graphic on the left emphasises key elements of programme: fish farm, brewpub and social outdoor activities such as: fishing, jogging, walking etc. Finally it stresses strong connection with water and canals.
Holistic approach to architecture can be seen throughout entire process- it informed the case study analysis and helped to define personal interest. [Programme] Derived programme connects with the city fabric on multiple layers. Firstly it gives value back to space by empowering people with local pride and creating engaging place.
ÂŁ By creating a strong relationship with canal system it is capable of being connected with the rest of city and country - e.g. as a canal tour stop point or as a recipient of 66|Page
Ca n a l
Proposed programme is not a closed loop system- people can plug-in their own economical activities and grow around provided core. Programme would gradually evolve. Moreover people could reinterpret provided spaces in their own ways,
Stage 1 Stage 2
Site analysis and manifesto writing activities resulted in creation of strong architectural identity that helped to maintain coherent approach throughout entire project.
Finally, it is an environmentally friendly hybrid programme; bottom-up intervention that could act as a local catalyst and mediator between contrasting social groups.
â€˜Architecture is a social act and the material theatre of human activityâ€™ [S]piro [K]ostof
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