Page 1

magazine design

by macey sutter typographic solutions nov. 13, 2017


part one


leading photographer


steven klein


Steven Klein (American, b.1965)

is a celebrated American photographer who won acclaim for his photography style, which has been described as eclectic, conceptual, sexual, and subversive. Klein’s love for photography began in 1975 at the age of 10, when he built a dark room in his parents’ basement. He began to take tons of photos of a fashionable sixth grader he deemed his muse. He credits her for introducing him to the world of fashion. After high school, Klein studied painting at the Rhode Island School of Design. After graduating in 1985, he decided to focus full time on photography. Klein has said that the artists Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon have greatly influenced his photography style. His first photography job out of school was shooting a Christian Dior mascara ad campaign in Paris. Klein worked on a wide variety of advertising campaigns for high-end clients like Calvin Klein and Dolce & Gabbana. In 1994, he photographed his first Vogue portfolio titled Nude Study with models Jaime Rishar, Shalom Harlow, and Nadja Auermann. Klein’s first solo photography exhibit, Steven Klein, took place in 1997 at the Staley-Wise Gallery in New York City. One of Klein’s most famous pictorials ran in the July 1999 issue of Wmagazine and featured Brad Pitt portraying his character from the movie Fight Club. His shots of David Beckham for Arena Homme Plus in 2000 are the first to position the soccer player as a fashion icon. His shoot for the same magazine in 2001 featuring a bloodied, tough-looking Justin Timberlake turned the singer’s image from "boy band singer" into "leading man" overnight. Klein went on to shoot one of Alexander McQueen’s first ad campaigns in 2002. Later that year, the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, Switzerland exhibited a retrospective of his work up to that point. In 2003, Soho’s Deitch Projects in New York City debuted X-STaTCI PRO=CeSS, a collection of photos that Klein collaborated on with Madonna. Madonna later used those images on her Re-Invention tour. In 2005, W magazine released the infamous photo shoot featuring Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie as a retro, mid-century married couple mired as marital distress. The photos, meant to promote the movie Mr. and Mrs. Smith, were intimate and provocative and lead to intense speculation about the actor’s personal relationship. More recently, Klein shot the video for Lady Gaga’s "Alejandro" in 2010 and ad campaigns featuring Rihanna in 2011.

Always in demand by today’s hottest and most influential tastemakers, Klein continues to inspire, challenge, and provoke the senses with his work. Steven Klein’s hyperreal, pin-sharp and sexually charged photography has captivated the fashion industry for 28 years since his first professional job, shooting a Christian Dior campaign in 1985. Klein is regularly called to shoot campaigns for Balenciaga, Alexander Wang , Louis Vuitton , Roberto Cavalli , Chanel, Christian Dior, Emporio Armani, Calvin Klein , Tom Ford and Dolce & Gabanna. Klein’s editorial work is renowned for its ability to transform his subjects’ images into powerful visual statements, magnifying popular conceptions of the individual or the inspiration behind the story. “You give him a dress,” remarked Anna Wintour , “and he will give you a girl in a dress with a robot in a garden.” Dennis Freedman , the creative director of W, concurred, telling the New York Times, Klein’s work “is very much in sync with the idea that things are never what they really appear.” Unsurprisingly publications across the globe, including Interview, W, American Vogue, Vogue Hommes, French Vogue and i-D regularly commission the photographer to shoot editorials. New York Magazine described Klein’s body of work as “clever, conceptual, and ultimately lyrical,” imbued with a sense of “gentle sadism,” Alexander McQueen believed his imagery was almost “too subversive for the mainstream.” Undercurrents of vulnerability, objectification and idolism recur throughout Klein’s photography. Klein was born in Rhode Island and studied painting at the state’s prestigious Rhode Island School of Design. Klein told the Observer his first campaign for Chistian Dior, came about because “I thought I was a bad painter, and I needed to make some cash.” Vogue.com reports that it was at RISD that the photographer encountered Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon’s work, both of which became perennial influences for Klein.

To this day, he remains most comfortable behind the camera, from which he pursues his subjects with a mix of curiosity and dread.


“I like them and I fear them — I do fear them,” he said, raking his fingers absently across the table. “But at the same time I desire them.” He brought some of those mingled emotions to the “Time Capsule” exhibition. Organized by Dasha Zhukova, the heatseeking Russian art impresario, the installation of 9-foot-by-16-foot panels was arranged in a circle above spectators’ heads. Many guests were enthralled. “When you stand in the center of the circle,” said Maria Pertsova, a young accountant, “it’s like you’re standing in the center of the subject’s life.” He used to dig holes in his backyard, he recalled, “trying to find clay and make things.” Encouraged by his parents, he took up ceramics, eventually imparting his fresh skills to the residents of a nearby mental institution. “I saw them as people in cages,” he said. Does he view his famous subjects in a similar light? Not necessarily. He professes to feel a strong empathy for his actors and models and, for that matter, “anybody who dares to sit in front of a camera.” In a way, he said, “they are putting their life in my eyes.” Mr. Klein says that his work is collaborative, yet his subjects are proverbial clay in his hands, twisting themselves into pretzel formations to accommodate his disquieting vision. “He tends to push further than any of his contemporaries,” said Vince Aletti, the curator of “Weird Beauty: Fashion Photography Now,” a 2009 exhibition at the International Center of Photography that featured many of Mr. Klein’s images.

His work, said Mr. Aletti, who ranks him among a handful of world-class American fashion photographers, is an “expression of his genuinely dark vision.”

Mr. Klein has in fact been expressing that vision for decades. He first took up a camera at the Rhode Island School of Design, where as an art student in the mid 1970s, he began exploring his disturbingly violent, erotically charged and, some would say, unholy themes. His reputation rests in part on preternaturally polished images that owe a debt to Helmut Newton, whose models were often trussed in prostheses, as animated as blowup dolls. Mr. Klein’s celebrity portraits are sexier in a waxy sort of way.

In a 2003 W shoot, Madonna writhed in a series of steamy yogic poses. At about the same time, in a portfolio for Dutch magazine, male models were photographed kneeling and bare-chested, being brutally cuffed by the. Mr. Klein revels as well in portraying nature unleashed, as he did, to startling effect, in a series of photos of horses in mating throes, shot on his horse farm in Bridgehampton, N.Y.


word list


glamourous different mystical magical whimsical lovely

unreal irregular peculiar portrait dark strange

contradictive oxymoron experimental creative high fashion famous celebrities fairytale unpredictable unexpected contemporary boujee mysterious

unusual grungy far-out curious

edgy

surreal cinametic narrative theatrical freakish

bizarre

eccentric perplexing

erotic

bold raunchy stimulating deliberate

pensive serious celebrities famed eminent illustrative dreamlike


key words + call outs


edgy

eccentric

surreal

erotic

bizarre

pensive

“His work, said Mr. Aletti, who ranks him among a handful of world-class American fashion photographers, is an ‘expression of his genuinely dark vision.’”

“As an art student in the mid 1970s, he began exploring his disturbingly violent, erotically charged and, some would say, unholy themes.”

“Steven Klein’s hyperreal, pin-sharp and sexually charged photography has captivated the fashion industry for 28 years.”

“Klein’s editorial work is renowned for its ability to transform his subjects’ images into powerful visual statements, magnifying popular conceptions of the individual or the inspiration behind the story.”

1. at the forefront of a trend; experimental or avant-garde

1. marked by the intense irrational reality of a dream

1. strikingly out of the ordinary: such as: a. odd, extravagant, or eccentric in style or mode

“To this day, he remains most comfortable behind the camera, from which he pursues his subjects with a mix of curiosity and dread.”

1. deviating from an established or usual pattern or style

1. of, devoted to, or tending to arouse sexual love or desire

1. musingly or dreamily thoughtful

“Mr. Klein says that his work is collaborative, yet his subjects are proverbial clay in his hands, twisting themselves into pretzel formations to accommodate his disquieting vision.”


word combinations + article titles


freakishly bold

Leaving Reality Steven Klein

perplexing eccentricity

Eccentric Steven Klein

contemporary boujee surreal portraiture

Distant Reality Steven Klein

edgy narrative

Dark Visions Steven Klein

erotic dreams

“Anti-Fashion� Steven Klein Pushing Boundaries Steven Klein Boujee Couture Steven Klein


pecha kucha slides


part two


historical photographer


Lee Miller


If you were a screenwriter or playwright pitching a drama about an eventful mid-20th-century life – a story along the lines of William Boyd’s Any Human Heart, perhaps, but with a woman rather than a man at the centre – what would you come up with? Difficult childhood (sexual abuse). Becomes a New York fashion model. Goes to Paris and joins surrealist movement. Does photojournalism during second world war (is present for the liberation of Dachau; takes a bath in Hitler’s abandoned house). Has first and only child at 40. Settles on a farm in Sussex. Reinvents herself as a gourmet cook. Too implausible a storyline, surely. A woman who was

a fashion icon, a surrealist and a war correspondent? But this was the life of Lee Miller – or, to borrow the title of Antony Penrose’s 1988 book, The Lives of Lee Miller. Penrose, son of Miller and the British artist Roland Penrose, didn’t find her an easy mother. She was often away and, because of depression and alcoholism, would be absent even when home. But since her death in 1977, he has been diligently preserving and collating her work. Discovered in the attic after her death, it consists of over 60,000 original negatives, 20,000 prints and contact sheets, and thousands of original documents and manuscripts. Until now, the website that showcases her archive has featured only a tiny fraction of this material. But from 23 April (Miller’s birthday, as well as Shakespeare’s), the site is being relaunched, with an online library featuring around 3,000 images, many never previously shown in public. The NSBs, as the website calls these images (meaning Never Seen Befores), are fascinating for various reasons. First, there are her photos of artists. Picasso (who painted six portraits of her, the most memorable with a green mouth, breasts like sails, and a vagina resembling an eye), Man Ray, Cocteau. But also many others: Paul Eluard, Georges Braque, Virgil Thomson, Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Saul Steinberg, Henry Moore, Oskar Kokoschka. There’s even one of Miró with Desmond Morris and a snake. Many of these are intimate and off the cuff. A second batch of NSBs are the more formal portraits Miller did for Vogue. There’s a set of Dylan Thomas, fag in hand, on a tippedback chair. Margot Fonteyn, beguiling in hat and gloves, looks over her left shoulder. The actress Gertrude Lawrence poses in front of a vase of dried flowers. There are also sev-

eral intriguing shots of the young Dorothea Tanning, the surrealist painter who died last year at the age of 101. Back then, “A woman had to be a monster to be an artist,” Tanning wrote, “and one who married another artist was branded – like a cow.” Tanning agreed to be branded, nevertheless, marrying Max Ernst. So did Miller, who after amicably divorcing her first husband, an Egyptian, married her lover of 10 years, Penrose, whose infatuation with her is evident in his photos – these are the third and in some ways most interesting tranche of NSBs. He portrays her in bed, one nipple prominent. Or crouching nymph-like by a stream. Or standing next to a statue of a goddess (for once, it’s not Miller with the bare breasts). Best of all is his footnote to Picnic, Miller’s famous 1937 photo of him with Eluard, Man Ray and their half-naked partners – a latter-day version of Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe. Penrose’s complementary photo, shot from the same angle and with the same empty bottle on the table, includes Miller smiling in the background – the mistress of misrule restored to the proceedings. Strikingly beautiful, she was used to submitting to the male gaze. First there was her father, a keen amateur photographer who persuaded her to sit naked for him from the age of eight right into her 20s; then the publisher Condé Nast, who bumped into her, literally, in Manhattan, was struck by her looks, took her on as a model for Vogue, and made her the face of Kotex tampon adverts; then Man Ray, whose mistress and pupil she became (Madame Man Ray, as she was known in Paris). She was proud of

her looks, but ultimately frustrated by life in front of the lens. “I looked like an angel, but I was a

fiend inside,” she said, looking back. Angry with her for taking lovers, and jealous of Cocteau for using her in his film The Blood of a Poet, Man Ray expressed his jealousy by doing violence to her face and body in his art.

A less spirited woman might have been crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist. First came her surrealist phase: she not only outmanned Man Ray in creating her own works, but was instrumental in the invention of the “solarisation” technique (a partial reversal of blacks and whites that creates a silvery aura). Then she set up a portrait studio in New York, with rich socialites her clientele.

In 1944 she became a correspondent accredited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time Life photographer David E. SCHERMAN. She followed the US troops overseas on D Day + 20. She was probably the only woman combat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and among her many exploits she witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris, the fighting in Luxembourg and Alsace, the Russian/American link up at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald and Dachau. She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrating deep into Eastern Europe, she covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy. After the war she continued to contribute to Vogue for a further 2 years, covering fashion and celebrities. Some of her portraits of famous artists like PICASSO are the most powerful portraits of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which permeate all her work that she is best remembered Lee Miller died at Farleys in 1977.


research


Most people recognize the name Herb Lubalin in association with the typeface Avant Garde. And he was the typographer and designer behind its creation, after the success of Avant Garde Magazine and its typographic logo. But, his career spanned a much wider scope than that. One of the people behind the culture-shocking magazines Avant-Garde, Eros and Fact, he was a constant boundary breaker on both a visual and social level. Part of the founding team of the International Typeface Corporation (ITC) and the principal of Herb Lubalin, Inc it was hard to escape the reach of Herb during the 1960s and 70s. His constant search for something new and a passion for inventiveness made him one of the most successful art directors of the 20th century. He had offices internationally in Paris and London and partnered with many talented individuals over the years including Aaron Burns, Tom Carnase, Ernie Smith and Ralph Ginzburg. A graduate of the Cooper Union in New York he spent time as a visiting professor there as well as designed a logo for them. Constantly working and achieving much success throughout his career, at the age of 59 he proclaimed “I have just completed my internship.” Lubalin’s private studio gave him the freedom to take on any number of wide-ranging projects, from poster and magazine design to packaging and identity solutions. It was here that the designer became best known, particularly for his work with a succession of magazines published by Ralph Ginzburg: Eros, Fact, and Avant Garde.[4] Eros, (Spring 1962 to issue four 1963) which devoted itself to the beauty of the rising sense of sexuality and experimentation, particularly in the burgeoning counterculture, it was a quality production with no advertising and the large format (13 by 10 inches) made it look like a book rather than a quarterly magazine. It was printed on different papers and the editorial design was some the greatest that Lubalin ever did. It quickly folded after an obscenity case brought by the US Postal Service. Ginzburg and Lubalin followed with Fact, largely founded in response to the treatment Eros received. This magazine’s inherent anti-establishment sentiment lent itself to outsider writers who could not be published in mainstream media; Fact managing editor Warren Boroson noted that “most American magazine, emulating the Reader’s Digest, wallow in sugar and everything nice; Fact has had the spice all to itself.”[4] Rather than follow with a shocking design template for the publication, Lubalin chose an elegant

minimalist palette consisting of dynamic serifed typography balanced by high-quality illustrations. The magazine was printed on a budget, so Lubalin stuck with black and white printing on uncoated paper, as well as limiting himself to one or two typefaces and paying a single artist to handle all illustrations at bulk rate rather than dealing with multiple creators. The end result was one of dynamic minimalism that emphasized the underlying sentiment of the magazine better than “the scruffy homemade look of the underground press (or the) screaming typography of sensationalist tabloids” ever could.[4] Fact itself folded in controversy as Eros before it, after being sued for several years by Barry Goldwater, the Republican presidential candidate about whom Fact wrote an article entitled “The Unconscious of a Conservative: A special Issue on the Mind of Barry Goldwater.” Goldwater was awarded a total of $90,000, effectively putting Fact out of business.


Esquire was first issued in October 1933. [2] The magazine was first headquartered in Chicago and then, in New York City.[3] It was founded and edited by David A. Smart, Henry L. Jackson and Arnold Gingrich.[4] Jackson died in the crash of United Airlines Flight 624 in 1948, while Gingrich led the magazine until his own death in 1976. Smart died in 1952, although he left Esquire in 1936 to found a different magazine, Coronet. The founders all had different focuses; Gingrich specialized in publishing, Smart led the business side of the magazine while Jackson led and edited the fashion section, which made up most of the magazine in its first fifteen years of publishing. Additionally, Jackson's Republican political viewpoints contrasted with the liberal Democratic views of Smart, which allowed for the magazine to publish debates between the two. This grew particularly heated in 1943 when the Democratic United States Postmaster General Frank Comerford Walker brought charges against the magazine on behalf of the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. [5] The administration alleged that Esquire had used the US Postal Service to promote "lewd images". Republicans opposed the lawsuit and in 1946 the United States Supreme Court found in Esquire v. Walker that Esquire's right to use the Postal Service was protected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.[6] Esquire started in 1933 as a quarterly press run of a hundred thousand copies. It cost fifty cents per copy (equivalent to $9.25 today).[7] It later transformed itself into a more refined periodical with an emphasis on men's fashion and contributions by Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald,[8] Alberto Moravia, André Gide, and Julian Huxley. In the 1940s, the popularity of the Petty Girls and Vargas Girls provided a circulation boost. In the 1960s, Esquire helped pioneer the trend of New Journalism by publishing such writers as Norman Mailer, Tim O'Brien, John Sack, Gay Talese, Tom Wolfe, and Terry Southern. In August 1969, Esquire published Normand Poirier's piece, "An American Atrocity", one of the first reports of American atrocities committed against Vietnamese civilians.[9] Under Harold Hayes, who ran it from 1961 to 1973, it became as distinctive as its oversized pages.[10] The magazine shrank to the conventional 8½×11 inches in 1971. The magazine was sold by the original owners to Clay Felker in 1977, who reinvented the magazine as a fortnightly in 1978, under the title of Esquire Fortnightly. However, the fortnightly experiment proved to be a failure, and by the end of that year, the magazine lost

US$5 million. Felker sold Esquire in 1979 to the 13-30 Corporation, a Tennessee publisher, whose owners refocused the magazine into a monthly. During this time, New York Woman magazine was launched as something of a spinoff version of Esquire aimed at female audience. 13-30 split up in 1986, and Esquire was sold to Hearst at the end of the year, with New York Woman going its separate way to American Express Publishing. David M. Granger was named editor-in-chief of the magazine in June 1997.[11] Since his arrival, the magazine has received numerous awards, including multiple National Magazine Awards—the industry's highest honor. Prior to becoming editor-in-chief at Esquire, Granger was the executive editor at GQ for nearly six years. Its award-winning staff writers include Tom Chiarella, Scott Raab, Mike Sager, Chris Jones, John H. Richardson, Cal Fussman, Lisa Taddeo, and Tom Junod. Famous photographers have also worked for the magazine, among which fashion photographer Gleb Derujinsky, and Richard Avedon.


Alexey Brodovitch is remembered today as the art director of Harper's Bazaar for nearly a quarter of a century. But the volatile Russian emigré's influence was much broader and more complex than his long tenure at a fashion magazine might suggest. He played a crucial role in introducing into the United States a radically simplified, “modern” graphic design style forged in Europe in the 1920s from an amalgam of vanguard movements in art and design. Through his teaching, he created a generation of designers sympathetic to his belief in the primacy of visual freshness and immediacy. Fascinated with photography, he made it the backbone of modern magazine design, and he fostered the development of an expressionistic, almost primal style of picture-taking that became the dominant style of photographic practice in the 1950s. In addition, Brodovitch is virtually the model for the modern magazine art director. He did not simply arrange photographs, illustrations and type on the page; he took an active role in conceiving and commissioning all forms of graphic art, and he specialized in discovering and showcasing young and unknown talent. His first assistant in New York was a very young Irving Penn. Leslie Gill, Richard Avedon and Hiro are among the other photographers whose work Brodovitch nurtured during his long career. So great was his impact on the editorial image of Harper's Bazaar that he achieved celebrity status; the film Funny Face, for example, which starred Fred Astaire as a photographer much like Avedon, named its art-director character “Dovitch.” At Harper’s Bazaar, where he was art director from 1934 to 1958, Brodovitch used the work of such European artists as Man Ray, Salvador Dali, and A.M. Cassandre, as well as photographers Bill Brandt, Brasai, and Henri Cartier-Bresson. He was the first to give assignments to emigré photographers Lisette Model and Robert Frank. Starting with a splashy, sometimes overly self-conscious style largely borrowed from his early counterpart at Vogue, Dr. M.F. Agha (AIGA medalist, 1957), he gradually refined his page layouts to the point of utter simplicity. By the 1950’s, white space was the hallmark of the Brodovitch style. Models in Parisian gowns and American sports clothes “floated” on the page, surrounded by white backgrounds, while headlines and type took on an ethereal presence. At his best, Brodovitch was able to create an illusion of elegance from the merest hint of materiality. Clothes were presented not as pieces of fabric cut in singular ways, but as signs of a fashionable life.

Besides his achievements at Bazaar, Brodovitch’s legacy as a publications designer includes the short-lived but influential magazine Portfolio, three issues of which were published in 1949 and 1950. A flashy, innovative quarterly aimed at the design profession, Portfolio contained profusely illustrated feature on Alexander Calder, Charles Eames, Paul Rand, Saul Steinberg and others, as well as articles surveying the graphic variations of cattle brands and shopping bags. As art editor, Brodovitch helped conceive the magazine’s contents, as well as creating its distinct design with the help of die-cuts, transparent pages, multi-page fold outs and other elaborate (and expensive) graphic devices


Jonathan Hoefler (born August 22, 1970[1]) is an American typeface designer. Hoefler (pronounced “Heffler”) founded The Hoefler Type Foundry in 1989, a type foundry in New York. In 1999 Hoefler began working with type designer Tobias Frere-Jones, and from 2005– 2014 the company operated under the name Hoefler & Frere-Jones until their public split.[2] Hoefler has designed original typefaces for Rolling Stone, Harper’s Bazaar, The New York Times Magazine, Sports Illustrated, and Esquire and several institutional clients, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and alternative band They Might Be Giants. Perhaps his best-known work is the Hoefler Text family of typefaces, designed for Apple Computer and now appearing as part of the Macintosh operating system.[3] He also designed the current wordmark of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. In 1995, Hoefler was named one of the forty most influential designers in America by I.D. magazine,[4]and in 2002, the Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) presented him with its most prestigious award, the Prix Charles Peignot for outstanding contributions to type design. Hoefler and Frere-Jones have been profiled in The New York Times,[1] Time Magazine,[5] and Esquire Magazine,[6] and appearances on National Public Radio and CBS Sunday Morning. Hoefler's work is part of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum's permanent collection. Famous for creating long-lived typefaces marked by high performance and high style, H&Co creates the fonts that help shape the world’s foremost institutions, publications, causes, and brands. With a library of nearly 1,500 typefaces designed for print, web, office and mobile environments, fonts by H&Co are everywhere: you’ll find them on Twitter and at Tiffany & Co., in Wired and The Wall Street Journal, on every can of Coca-Cola, and on every iPhone ever made. Our fonts help organizations like the Natural Resources Defense Council, the Southern Poverty Law Center, and the Office of Barack and Michelle Obama. The only type foundry ever to be honored by the National Design Awards at the White House, H&Co typefaces are in the permanent collections of both the Smithsonian Institution and the Museum of Modern Art in New York.


Anderson developed her approach while studying at the School of Visual Arts in New York under Paula Scher. But growing up, she recalls, “I used to make little Jackson Five and Partridge Family magazines. I wondered who designed Spec, 16 and Tiger Beat in real life, and as I got older, I began to research what was then called 'commercial art.'” Anderson's first job post-college was a brief stint at Vintage Books in 1984, followed by two years at The Boston Globe Sunday Magazine, from 1985–1987. Under art director Ronn Campisi, the Globe was at the vanguard of new newspaper design. She worked on the magazine with Lynn Staley and Lucy Bartholomay. Meanwhile, Campisi was an early proponent of typographic eclecticism, which stirred together Victorian, Deco and Futurist typographies in a contemporary stew. Working with Woodward at Rolling Stone was a hand-in-glove experience—they knew each other about as well as two people could. “Music always set the tone, and he was into low lighting, so the design room felt sort of cozy,” Anderson recalls. “And he'd just howl with glee when we 'got it' and it was a winner. He could really get you jazzed about the process, even when it was difficult.” Anderson's own typographic proclivities were ultimately well suited to Rolling Stone, where she designed what might best be called “theatrical typography.” Like actors on a stage Anderson directed letterforms to perform dramatic and comic feats. In just two dimensions they emoted, expressed and exuded energy that projected them off the page. It is no surprise that the class she now teaches in the School of Visual Arts' MFA Designer as Author program is about choreographing typefaces, making them dance to the beats and rhythms of popular and alternative music. Anderson has a special gift for assigning illustration and has been a stalwart advocate of illustrators, both upcoming and established. “With her keen eye for fresh talent, she nurtured a whole generation of illustrators, while staying loyal to the greats as well,” says Woodward. The most difficult time in her career came in 2002, after her move to SpotCo, when negotiating the transition from editorial design to advertising. “You approach each project searching for a dozen great ideas, not just one or two,” Anderson explains of how her work competes for the attention (and dollars)

of theatergoers. “After about seven designs, you realize there really are infinite ways to look at a problem. I now completely enjoy the process, though I'm keenly aware that all but one of those dozen great ideas will eventually be killed. It's strangely liberating.” Always looking for that little visual wink or tiny gesture of extra care, Anderson says, “I'm all about the wood-type bits and pieces. I love making those crunchy little objects into other things, like faces.” A fancy border and detailed extras are always part of her repertoire. “I'd ask the designers I work with to put them on everything, if I could,” Anderson says, “but I like being employed.”


David Carson is a great example for a designer who has developed his own unique style which is so well trained, that anyone can tell a Carson design at a first glance. He was one of the most popular and influential graphic designers of the 1990s. He was imitated by designers throughout the world and his style defined the grunge typography era. Whilst being a designer, and an art director, graphic design was not Carson’s primal career path. He graduated with a degree in sociology and started teaching while training to be a professional surfer. He started experimenting with graphic design in the early 1980′s. With surfing being a general part of Carson’s life, it has played a great role on his design career. It is one of the reasons for his motivation and success to direct and design various surfing, snowboarding and skateboarding magazines, websites, ads and products like Quiksilver, Burton, SURFportugal, TwSkateboarding, etc. Besides the various magazines David Carson has designed, he became well known for his experimental, deconstructive typographic designs and art direction for Ray Gun magazine. The magazine’s contents were music artists, pop culture, lifestyle, advertising, celebrity icons, etc., and so, Carson was successful in his aim to design it accordingly. David Carson became best known for his designs for Ray Gun which was the peak of his design career and he started attracting many new admirers to his work. What I admire most about David Carson is how he goes out of his way to experiment and to take risks and thus, creates these unique designs. By breaking all the rules of graphic design he gains major success in his career and inspires and influences graphic designers worldwide, who admire, follow and imitate him. By taking risks without being afraid to do so, he gets rewarded by receiving the title ‘the father of grunge’. Grunge typography became more and more popular during the 90s. It appeared to be a very messy and chaotic kind of design. Words, textures, backgrounds that formed posters and ads for various things were designed in a very interesting and different typography style. A style called Grunge that became ubiquitous throughout the years and it became the largest, most widespread movement in recent design history.


Tibor Kalman, was one of the few graphic designers whose accomplishments were legend within the field and widely known outside as well. For a decade he was the design profession's moral compass and its most fervent provocateur. Tibor was a tough ringmaster. If any speaker went thirty seconds beyond his or her allotted time (or if Tibor felt that the talk was unbearably dull) the amplified sound of barking dogs would pierce the presenter's soliloquy, signaling the end of the segment. In addition, Tibor introduced quirky short films, an unexpected pizza delivery (by a nonplussed delivery boy), and souvenir handouts (designed by a job printer and reproduced at QuickCopy) that showed design at its most rudimentary, yet communicative. As a new twist on the old ventriloquist's dummy, Tibor's onstage straight man was a Mac Classic with a happy face that quipped at programmed intervals. This was the first of many public salvos against the status quo. It was also vintage Tibor. Not since the height of American Modernism during the late 1940s and 1950s had one designer prodded other designers to take responsibility for their work as designer-citizens. With a keen instinct for public relations, a penchant for Barnum-like antics, and a radical consciousness from his days as an organizer for SDS (Students for a Democratic Society), Tibor had, by the late 1980s, become known as (or maybe he even dubbed himself) the “bad boy” of graphic design. When the clothing company Esprit, which had prided itself as being socially liberal and environmentally friendly, was awarded the 1986 AlGA Design Leadership award, an irate Tibor anonymously distributed leaflets during the awards ceremony at the AlGA National Design Conference in San Francisco protesting the company's exploitation of Asian laborers. Tibor believed that award-winning design was not separate from the entire corporate ethic and argued that “many bad companies have great design.” In 1989, as co-chair with Milton Glaser of the AlGA's “Dangerous Ideas” conference in San Antonio, he urged designers to question the effects of their work on the environment and refuse to accept any client's product at face value. As an object lesson and act of hubris, he challenged designer Joe Duffy to an impromptu debate about a full-page advertisement that he and his then partner, British corporate designer Michael Peters, had placed in the Wall Street Journal promoting their services to Fortune 500 corporations. While most designers admired this self-promotional effort, Tibor insisted that the ad perpetuated mediocrity and was an exam-

ple of selling out to corporate capitalism. This outburst was the first, but not the last, in which Tibor criticized another designer in public for perceived misdeeds. By the early 1990s, Tibor also had written (or collaborated with others in writing) numerous finger-wagging manifestos that exposed the pitfalls of what he sarcastically called “professional” design. Tibor saw himself as a social activist for whom graphic design was a means of achieving two ends: good design and social responsibility. Good design, which he defined as “unexpected and untried,” added more interest, and was thus a benefit, to everyday life. Second, since graphic design is mass communication, Tibor believed it should be used to increase public awareness of a variety of social issues. His own design firm, M&Co (named after his wife and co-creator, Maira), which started in 1979 selling conventional “design by the pound” to banks and department stores, was transformed in the mid-1980s into a soapbox for his social mission. He urged clients like Restaurant FIorent to use the advertising M&Co created for them to promote political or social messages. He devoted M&Co's seasonal self-promotional gifts to advocate support for the homeless. One Christmas he sent over 300 clients and colleagues a small cardboard box filled with the typical Spartan contents of a homeless-shelter meal (a sandwich, crackers, candy bar, etc.) and offered to match any donations that the recipients made to an agency for the homeless. The following year he sent a book peppered with facts about poverty along with twenty dollars and a stamped envelope addressed to another charity.


Brody's experimentation with his self-made sans-serif typography, along with his Pop Art and Dadaism influence, caught the attention of music record companies such as Fetish Records and Stiff records after he left college. His record cover designs lead toward a grudgy and a punk scene. The album Micro-Phonies by Cabaret Voltaire was art directed by Brody in 1984. His infamous typography features on the front and a bandaged figure spouting liquid from the mouth stares blankly at the viewer.[4] Brody made his name largely popular through his revolutionary work as an art director for "The Face" Magazine. He changed up the "basic" and "structural" rules that existed in the British culture into a more artsy and vibrant aesthetic. His designs provoked some form of emotion to the extent that people would stick to one page instead of turning pages like they would normally do when reading a novel. Other international magazine and newspaper directions have included City Limits, Lei, Per Lui, Actueland Arena, together with the radical new look for two leading British newspapers The Guardian and The Observer (both newspaper and magazine).[citation needed] Brody has pushed the boundaries of visual communication in all media through his experimental and challenging work, and continues to extend the visual languages we use through his exploratory creative expression. In 1988 Thames & Hudson published the first of two volumes about his work, which became the world's best selling graphic design book. [citation needed] Combined sales now exceed 120,000.[citation needed] An accompanying exhibition of his work at the Victoria and Albert Museum attracted over 40,000 visitors[citation needed] before touring Europe and Japan. Amongst countless other projects, in 1989, upon request by the then-director Gerhard Coenen, to Neville Brody, the young Swiss graphic artist and typeface designer Cornel Windlin, then working at the then called "Neville Brody Studio" designed the Corporate Identity for the Haus der Kulturen der Welt (House of World Cultures) in Berlin, Germany. Subsequently, Brody, Windlin, and staff Simon Staines, Giles Dunn and others visited Berlin more than once on projects; resulting in several collaborations with Berlin-based graphic artist and typeface-designer Kolja Gruber and artist Nina Fischer for the Haus der Kulturen der Welt in the following years. In 1991, Neville Brody and Jon Wozencroft created the FUSE project. FUSE is an interactive magazine that sets out to challenge our current ideas about typographic and visual language in an age of ever changing com-

munications technology and media.[5] Brody was also partly responsible for instigating the fusion between a magazine, graphics design and typeface design. The magazine ranges in themes from "Codes" and "Runes" to "Religion" and "Pornography." the exploration and freedom that the publishers exhibit is undeniable and exciting. The conventions upturned in FUSE are prescient in their definition of new standards.[6] Each package includes a publication with articles relating to typography and surrounding subjects, four brand new fonts that are unique and revolutionary in some shape or form and four posters designed by the type designer usually using little more than their included font. In 1990 he also founded the FontFont typeface library together with Erik Spiekermann.


title options + 25 different styles


Pushing Boundaries The Work of Steven Klein


PUSHING BOUNDARIES The Work of Steven Klein

Pushing Boundaries The Work of Steven Klein

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

Pushing Boundaries The Work of Steven Klein

Pushing Boundaries THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

PUSHING BOUNDARIES the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

Pushing Boundaries the work of steven klein

Pushing Boundaries the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN


PUSHING BOUNDARIES The Work Of Steven Klein

PUSHING BOUNDARIES the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

PUSHIING BOUNDARIES THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

PUSHING BOUNDARIES the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

PUSHING BOUNDARIES the work of steven klein

pushing boundaries

THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

PUSHING BOUNDARIES THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

pushing boundaries the work of steven klein

PUSHING BOUNDARIES the work of steven klein

PUSHING BOUNDARIES the work of steven klein


Leaving Reality Photography by Steven Klein


Leaving Reality

photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

Leaving Reality photography by steven klein

leaving reality photography by steven klein

LEAVING REALITY

PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

Leaving Reality

ph o to graph y by stev en klein

leaving reality photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

LEAVING REALITY photography by steven klein

Leaving Reality

Photography by Steven Klein


Leaving Reality

photography by steven klein

Leaving Reality

photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

Leaving Reality

Photography by Steven Klein

leaving reality photography by steven klein

leaving reality

PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

LEAVING REALITY

photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein

leaving reality

PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

LEAVING REALITY photography by steven klein

leaving reality

photography by steven klein


“Anti-Fashion” Fashion Photography by Steven Klein


“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein.

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by STEVEN KLEIN

“Anti-Fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein.

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN


“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“Anti-Fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“ANTI-fashion” fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion” FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein.

“ANTI-FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

fashion photography by steven klein

“anti-fashion”

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN


20 typographic solutions


photography by steven klein

reality

eaving reality

photography by steven klein

fashion photography by steven klein

FASHION”

“ANTI-


boundaries.

PUSHING

the work of steven klein

ushing b o u n d a r i e s

t h e work of steven k lein

the work of steven klein.

fashion photography by steven klein

ph otography by steven k l e i n


photography by steven klein

fashion photography by steven klein

-

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

fashion photography by steven klein.


FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

fashion photography by steven klein.

THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN


THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

fashion photography by steven klein

PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

fashion photography by STEVEN KLEIN


25 opening spreads


fashion photography by steven klein by ruth la ferla


COLORS magazine


fashion photography by steven klein.


COLORS magazine By Ruth La Ferla


COLORS magazine


by ruth la ferla


fashion photography by STEVEN KLEIN

COLORS magazine


COLORS magazine By Ruth La Ferla


“ANTI-

FASHION”

fashion photography by steven klein


THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN BY RUTH LA FERLA

COLORS MAGAZINE


COLORS magazine By Ruth La Ferla


THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN


COLORS magazine BY RUTH LA FERLA


ushingb o u n d a r i e s

t h e work of steven k lein


COLORS magazine By Ruth La Ferla


THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN


COLORS magazine By Ruth La Ferla


COLORS MAGAZINE

BY RUTH LA FERLA


THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN


PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

COLORS magazine


BY RUTH LA FERLA

“ I LIKE WHAT’S OBSCURE” -STEVEN KLEIN


PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN

COLORS magazine


BY RUTH LA FERLA

KLEIN


by ruth la ferla

COLORS magazine


photography by steven klein


by ruth la ferla

photography by steven klein


C O LO R S m ag az ine


COLORS MAGAZINE


PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN BY RUTH LA FERLA


BY RUTH LA FERLA


COLORS MAGAZINE

FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN


COLORS MAGAZINE

f


fashion photography by STEVEN KLEIN By RUTH LA FERLA


BY RUTH LA FERLA


FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

COLORS MAGAZINE


FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN


BY RUTH LA FERLA

COLORS MAGAZINE


COLORS

magazine

By Ruth La Ferla

THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN


fashion photography by steven klein

By Ruth La Ferla COLORS magazine


PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN

BY RUTH LA FERLA


COLORS MAGAZINE


BY RUTH


H LA FERLA

PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN


THE WORK OF STEVEN KLEIN

COLORS magazine

By Ruth La Ferla


font studies


For the font studies, I mostly just randomly paired a serif and sans serif font together to figure out what I liked the look of. I am more drawn towards sans serif fonts, so it was difficult for me to use a serif font as well.


birthold akzidenz grotesk and didot

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Article Title THIS IS A SUBHEAD

INTRO TEXT 14/18PT: Ehenihic totae et, il ipis doloratiberi sed eaquati nverfer uptatem sunt ommodio conet que a aut omnisti busapero inte volum re non exerro veliqui quaecto ex eumquae errorum fuga. Nam ea conectatem. Ignis secta eaquata tectur? Ihit et qui digendi tatiusci voluptatus, quibus doluptatum quodi odiat odioriti aut endionet mod quia ipsandis mo con re parchil in prat excerunte simus sam que molorio vel enis aut ulliquaturit ventusdae. Fugia nulparum iur si comnihit prae exceaqui corem. Videro conseru mquiantium ad ut acessime accus duntibus magnati anducius vent architi rem sequi vel ea vendem explabo.

In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae.

BODY TEXT 8.5/12pt: Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci dolenim aiorepeliqui occupta spedipidic te vendi dem dolorepercia evenit que voluptate vellupt atibere prepel ma consedi ilit deriore perspitia quatibus mi, consequatem ipsunt ut dolorro rerionsequi sequi dus arcipsandus doluptatqui non es sum conecae qui voluptatus et lab ius dolupta tibusae magnatus mos si berunt laciis aut vel is expelent ad excest, te pre, officaborum quas velessum fuga. Sus doloreptur? Sit, optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOptatis nost, sim lam nobit, odi reprate pelitiorrum quat. Ur alibusam qui illuptas apisse liquibus autemquias vollabo repudipsam, te quid moditatia sequund itatquidus que porem et qui doluptatatem sit quia digent atus am faceatem am, od eossundamus unt rem non et porem es des quamenderem quibusdam ent offic te volut etur, tetures rem ratemo enduciis eossim volupta tiunt.

Optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOmnitiist aut es ut labor as earion necerum quuntib erferibus, sam restiis ma cores ut harciis aut doluptia qui dolorpor molupta cum eatur? Nobitas event reictotatis pedi odit laborro volore si archilla as aut voloremquias dolorem porume mi, cus volore doluptatam liqui ima as porrum etur atinctem remqui am raturem aut volende rsperferiate nobis quatet, vendendandi volorro cus audipsumquat liquiant omnisim olupta diat omnis acimint quisime cum corit hillo eum ut hiciam, non etur, oditat qui apis aut elit veria ped quaeper ioremol uptaten daecessinum, id milisqui dolorum estrum aut volupta spelecte pla sam, qui dollent paria adioribus reicipi cienimu sciandae doluptam faceat dis si il ipsapita quia delit et, conessi minullab id everiberit mo beati re volest, sandae lab imusam, est vel ipsapellat quassequi vita doloribus mo to et labo. Et ulluptatur am fugit magnihil et aces aliquam endis modis essin nimoluptatem dolorum suntur sam conecer sperum ne min reperspedit hario. Hic te explatem sinum nonsequi berrum ventur autem. Nam quas explis eiusti. In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta voluptatur? Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit


birthold akzidenz grotesk and superclarendon

Caption: re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta volupt

Article Title THIS IS A SUBHEAD INTRO TEXT 14/18PT: Ehenihic totae et, il ipis doloratiberi sed eaquati nverfer uptatem sunt ommodio conet que a aut omnisti busapero inte volum re non exerro veliqui quaecto ex eumquae errorum fuga. Nam ea conectatem. Ignis secta eaquata tectur? Ihit et qui digendi tatiusci voluptatus, quibus doluptatum quodi odiat odioriti aut endionet mod quia ipsandis mo con re parchil in prat excerunte simus sam que molorio vel enis aut ulliquaturit ventusdae. Fugia nulparum iur si comnihit prae exceaqui corem. Videro conseru mquiantium ad ut acessime accus duntibus magnati anducius vent

In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae.

BODY TEXT 8.5/12pt: Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci dolenim aiorepeliqui occupta spedipidic te vendi dem dolorepercia evenit que voluptate vellupt atibere prepel ma consedi ilit deriore perspitia quatibus mi, consequatem ipsunt ut dolorro rerionsequi sequi dus arcipsandus doluptatqui non es sum conecae qui voluptatus et lab ius dolupta tibusae magnatus mos si berunt laciis aut vel is expelent ad excest, te pre, officaborum quas velessum fuga. Sus doloreptur? Sit, optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOptatis nost, sim lam nobit, odi reprate pelitiorrum quat. Ur alibusam qui illuptas apisse liquibus autemquias vollabo repudipsam, te quid moditatia sequund itatquidus que porem et qui doluptatatem sit quia digent atus am faceatem am, od eossundamus unt rem non et porem es des quamenderem quibusdam ent offic te volut etur, tetures rem ratemo enduciis eossim volupta tiunt.

Optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOmnitiist aut es ut labor as earion necerum quuntib erferibus, sam restiis ma cores ut harciis aut doluptia qui dolorpor molupta cum eatur? Nobitas event reictotatis pedi odit laborro volore si archilla as aut voloremquias dolorem porume mi, cus volore doluptatam liqui ima as porrum etur atinctem remqui am raturem aut volende rsperferiate nobis quatet, vendendandi volorro cus audipsumquat liquiant omnisim olupta diat omnis acimint quisime cum corit hillo eum ut hiciam, non etur, oditat qui apis aut elit veria ped quaeper ioremol uptaten daecessinum, id milisqui dolorum estrum aut volupta spelecte pla sam, qui dollent paria adioribus reicipi cienimu sciandae doluptam faceat dis si il ipsapita quia delit et, conessi minullab id everiberit mo beati re volest, sandae lab imusam, est vel ipsapellat quassequi vita doloribus mo to et labo. Et ulluptatur am fugit magnihil et aces aliquam endis modis essin nimoluptatem dolorum suntur sam conecer sperum ne min reperspedit hario. Hic te explatem sinum nonsequi berrum ventur autem. Nam quas explis eiusti. In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta voluptatur? Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci Sus doloreptur?


ITC avante garde gothic and bodoni

Caption: re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta volupt

Article Title THIS IS A SUBHEAD

INTRO TEXT 14/18PT: Ehenihic totae et, il ipis doloratiberi sed eaquati nverfer uptatem sunt ommodio conet que a aut omnisti busapero inte volum re non exerro veliqui quaecto ex eumquae errorum fuga. Nam ea conectatem. Ignis secta eaquata tectur? Ihit et qui digendi tatiusci voluptatus, quibus doluptatum quodi odiat odioriti aut endionet mod quia ipsandis mo con re parchil in prat excerunte simus sam que molorio vel enis aut ulliquaturit ventusdae. Fugia nulparum iur si comnihit prae exceaqui corem. Videro conseru mquiantium ad ut acessime accus duntibus magnati anducius vent architi rem sequi vel ea vendem explabo.

In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae.

BODY TEXT 8.5/12pt: Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci dolenim aiorepeliqui occupta spedipidic te vendi dem dolorepercia evenit que voluptate vellupt atibere prepel ma consedi ilit deriore perspitia quatibus mi, consequatem ipsunt ut dolorro rerionsequi sequi dus arcipsandus doluptatqui non es sum conecae qui voluptatus et lab ius dolupta tibusae magnatus mos si berunt laciis aut vel is expelent ad excest, te pre, officaborum quas velessum fuga. Sus doloreptur? Sit, optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOptatis nost, sim lam nobit, odi reprate pelitiorrum quat. Ur alibusam qui illuptas apisse liquibus autemquias vollabo repudipsam, te quid moditatia sequund itatquidus que porem et qui doluptatatem sit quia digent atus am faceatem am, od eossundamus unt rem non et porem es des quamenderem quibusdam ent offic te volut etur, tetures rem ratemo enduciis eossim volupta tiunt.

Optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOmnitiist aut es ut labor as earion necerum quuntib erferibus, sam restiis ma cores ut harciis aut doluptia qui dolorpor molupta cum eatur? Nobitas event reictotatis pedi odit laborro volore si archilla as aut voloremquias dolorem porume mi, cus volore doluptatam liqui ima as porrum etur atinctem remqui am raturem aut volende rsperferiate nobis quatet, vendendandi volorro cus audipsumquat liquiant omnisim olupta diat omnis acimint quisime cum corit hillo eum ut hiciam, non etur, oditat qui apis aut elit veria ped quaeper ioremol uptaten daecessinum, id milisqui dolorum estrum aut volupta spelecte pla sam, qui dollent paria adioribus reicipi cienimu sciandae doluptam faceat dis si il ipsapita quia delit et, conessi minullab id everiberit mo beati re volest, sandae lab imusam, est vel ipsapellat quassequi vita doloribus mo to et labo. Et ulluptatur am fugit magnihil et aces aliquam endis modis essin nimoluptatem dolorum suntur sam conecer sperum ne min reperspedit hario. Hic te explatem sinum nonsequi berrum ventur autem. Nam quas explis eiusti. In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta voluptatur? Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci Sus doloreptur?


bodoni and avenir

Caption: re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta volupt

Article Title THIS IS A SUBHEAD INTRO TEXT 14/18PT: Ehenihic totae et, il ipis doloratiberi sed eaquati nverfer uptatem sunt ommodio conet que a aut omnisti busapero inte volum re non exerro veliqui quaecto ex eumquae errorum fuga. Nam ea conectatem. Ignis secta eaquata tectur? Ihit et qui digendi tatiusci voluptatus, quibus doluptatum quodi odiat odioriti aut endionet mod quia ipsandis mo con re parchil in prat excerunte simus sam que molorio vel enis aut ulliquaturit ventusdae. Fugia nulparum iur si comnihit prae exceaqui corem. Videro conseru mquiantium ad ut acessime accus duntibus magnati anducius vent architi rem sequi vel ea vendem explabo.

In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae.

BODY TEXT 8.5/12pt: Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci dolenim aiorepeliqui occupta spedipidic te vendi dem dolorepercia evenit que voluptate vellupt atibere prepel ma consedi ilit deriore perspitia quatibus mi, consequatem ipsunt ut dolorro rerionsequi sequi dus arcipsandus doluptatqui non es sum conecae qui voluptatus et lab ius dolupta tibusae magnatus mos si berunt laciis aut vel is expelent ad excest, te pre, officaborum quas velessum fuga. Sus doloreptur? Sit, optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello

Optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOmnitiist aut es ut labor as earion necerum quuntib erferibus, sam restiis ma cores ut harciis aut doluptia qui dolorpor molupta cum eatur?

cuptat.

Nobitas event reictotatis pedi odit laborro volore si archilla as aut voloremquias dolorem porume mi, cus volore doluptatam liqui ima as porrum etur atinctem remqui am raturem aut volende

Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero

rsperferiate nobis quatet, vendendandi volorro cus audipsumquat liquiant omnisim olupta diat omnis acimint quisime cum corit hillo eum ut hiciam, non etur, oditat qui apis aut elit veria

cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOptatis nost, sim lam nobit, odi reprate pelitiorrum quat. Ur alibusam qui illuptas apisse liquibus autemquias vollabo repudipsam, te quid moditatia sequund itatquidus que porem et qui doluptatatem sit quia digent atus am faceatem am, od eossundamus unt rem non et porem es des quamenderem quibusdam ent offic te volut etur, tetures rem ratemo enduciis eossim volupta tiunt.

ped quaeper ioremol uptaten daecessinum, id milisqui dolorum estrum aut volupta spelecte pla sam, qui dollent paria adioribus reicipi cienimu sciandae doluptam faceat dis si il ipsapita quia delit et, conessi minullab id everiberit mo beati re volest, sandae lab imusam, est vel ipsapellat quassequi vita doloribus mo to et labo. Et ulluptatur am fugit magnihil et aces aliquam endis modis essin nimoluptatem dolorum suntur sam conecer sperum ne min reperspedit hario. Hic te explatem sinum nonsequi berrum ventur autem. Nam quas explis eiusti. In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta voluptatur? Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci Sus doloreptur?


gotham light and bodoni

Caption: re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta volupt

Article Title THIS IS A SUBHEAD

INTRO TEXT 14/18PT: Ehenihic totae et, il ipis doloratiberi sed eaquati nverfer uptatem sunt ommodio conet que a aut omnisti busapero inte volum re non exerro veliqui quaecto ex eumquae errorum fuga. Nam ea conectatem. Ignis secta eaquata tectur? Ihit et qui digendi tatiusci voluptatus, quibus doluptatum quodi odiat odioriti aut endionet mod quia ipsandis mo con re parchil in prat excerunte simus sam que molorio vel enis aut ulliquaturit ventusdae. Fugia nulparum iur si comnihit prae exceaqui corem. Videro conseru mquiantium ad ut acessime accus duntibus magnati anducius vent architi rem sequi vel ea vendem explabo.

In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae.

BODY TEXT 8.5/12pt: Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci dolenim aiorepeliqui occupta spedipidic te vendi dem dolorepercia evenit que voluptate vellupt atibere prepel ma consedi ilit deriore perspitia quatibus mi, consequatem ipsunt ut dolorro rerionsequi sequi dus arcipsandus doluptatqui non es sum conecae qui voluptatus et lab ius dolupta tibusae magnatus mos si berunt laciis aut vel is expelent ad excest, te pre, officaborum quas velessum fuga. Sus doloreptur? Sit, optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOptatis nost, sim lam nobit, odi reprate pelitiorrum quat. Ur alibusam qui illuptas apisse liquibus autemquias vollabo repudipsam, te quid moditatia sequund itatquidus que porem et qui doluptatatem sit quia digent atus am faceatem am, od eossundamus unt rem non et porem es des quamenderem quibusdam ent offic te volut etur, tetures rem ratemo enduciis eossim volupta tiunt.

Optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOmnitiist aut es ut labor as earion necerum quuntib erferibus, sam restiis ma cores ut harciis aut doluptia qui dolorpor molupta cum eatur? Nobitas event reictotatis pedi odit laborro volore si archilla as aut voloremquias dolorem porume mi, cus volore doluptatam liqui ima as porrum etur atinctem remqui am raturem aut volende rsperferiate nobis quatet, vendendandi volorro cus audipsumquat liquiant omnisim olupta diat omnis acimint quisime cum corit hillo eum ut hiciam, non etur, oditat qui apis aut elit veria ped quaeper ioremol uptaten daecessinum, id milisqui dolorum estrum aut volupta spelecte pla sam, qui dollent paria adioribus reicipi cienimu sciandae doluptam faceat dis si il ipsapita quia delit et, conessi minullab id everiberit mo beati re volest, sandae lab imusam, est vel ipsapellat quassequi vita doloribus mo to et labo. Et ulluptatur am fugit magnihil et aces aliquam endis modis essin nimoluptatem dolorum suntur sam conecer sperum ne min reperspedit hario. Hic te explatem sinum nonsequi berrum ventur autem. Nam quas explis eiusti. In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis voluptiis sint velendi iliatiis ipicipsae. Feriati dolupta voluptatur? Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci Sus doloreptur?


DIN and didot

Caption: re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati

Article Title THIS IS A SUBHEAD

INTRO TEXT 14/18PT: Ehenihic totae et, il ipis doloratiberi sed eaquati nverfer uptatem sunt ommodio conet que a aut omnisti busapero inte volum re non exerro veliqui quaecto ex eumquae erro-

In re et que etustest, qui remquatur abo. Dam facerem que ilitati andenim quae etur repe sundipis

BODY TEXT 8.5/12pt: Agnationsed exerem velestisquam facilla pedit eosti sintiam utem quisti custore raecto blandus andisi quis et lique es sed maximil ellatur epudit voluptas aut plitati busdae paruntis ut volo te net alignih itassit ationsecti cum quis ex entusciam vendebis dolupti cum raeratur? Qui coresequo iliam sequatum ne ratentis antur, odit vendese ditiundaes non res nam dis coreper ationest, elicillut que pa sed magnatur maio doluptas nosamenduci dolenim aiorepeliqui occupta spedipidic te vendi dem dolorepercia evenit que voluptate vellupt atibere prepel ma consedi ilit deriore perspitia quatibus mi, consequatem ipsunt ut dolorro rerionsequi sequi dus arcipsandus doluptatqui non es sum conecae qui voluptatus et lab ius dolupta tibusae magnatus mos si berunt laciis aut vel is expelent ad excest, te pre, officaborum quas velessum fuga. Sus doloreptur? Sit, optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat.

Optis nobitat emquas estruptae nis doluptat quatum, qui corerum volorro eici ditiore, ute nullis commo dolorum facerspe sam, explam quidebis as dipis pariore cone officii strundi dello cuptat. Orehent quia voluptur? Ferro et es et odit adios et vernam inciur ratur aut porro odis ex etum esti sapel et quate peribero cus quat ium fugitate estiasp eribus et magnatur? Fuga. Assit quaspitatiis et eumet et quam harum estiistis venimol uptiam quame numquis ea iliaese dissitiur, sapidere nonsequi voluptatiae experias ex ea auta doluptae vellestrum consed quo te doloruptate si as debisciis dit modiate mporemp oribusa nobit perspedit, od miliber ovidebit, sit at aut lab inturio tem consequas ut autatintur moluptis dolupta incipsuOmnitiist aut es ut labor as earion necerum quuntib erferibus, sam restiis ma cores ut harciis aut doluptia qui dolorpor molupta cum eatur? Nobitas event reictotatis pedi odit laborro volore si archilla as aut voloremquias dolorem porume mi, cus volore doluptatam liqui ima as porrum etur atinctem remqui am raturem aut volende rsperferiate nobis quatet, vendendandi volor-


thinking with type: letter reading notes


•Point system measures height •1 point= 1/72 inch= .35 millimeters •12 point=pica (unit commonly used to measure column widths) •horizontal measure of a letter= set width -body of letter plus a sliver of space to protect it from -ther letters •differences in x-height, line weight, and set width affect the letters’ apparent scale •type family w optical sizes has different styles for different sizes of output •humanist letter forms: closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand, more organic •transitional and modern typefaces: more abstract and less organic •small capitals designed to match the x-height of lowercase letters •mixing typefaces: -strive for contrast -look for emphatic differ ences -adjust size so x-height aligns when on same line -on different lines create contrast in style and weight •lining numerals take up uniform widths of space enabling the numbers to line up when tabulated in columns •old style numerals have ascenders and descenders •typeface=design of the letterforms •font=delivery mechanism


thinking with type: grid reading notes


•golden section: a : b=b : (a+b); means that the smaller of two elements relates to the larger elements in the same way that the larger element relates to the two parts combined; side a is to side b as side b is to the sum of both sides •multicolumn grids provide flexible formats for publications that have a complex hierarchy or that integrate text and illustrations •hang line: horizontal grid lines that text can “hang” from •modular grid: consistent horizontal divisions from top to bottom and vertical divisions from left to right •baseline grid: governs the whole document


thinking with type: text reading notes


•kerning: adjustment of space between two letters •kerning table: created by type designer; specifies spaces between problematic letter combinations •metric kerning: uses kerning tables that are built into the typeface •optical kerning: executed automatically by the page layout program •difference between metric and optical becomes more apparent at larger sizes •tracking: overall spacing of a group of letters •line spacing=leading •capital letters look better stacked than lowercase •easiest way to get vertical text is to just turn it vertical •paragraph spacing, paragraph indentions •enlarged capitals: used to mark the entrance to a chapter or article


log questions


What are the advantages of a multiple column grid?

It gives you more flexibility of where you can place text and images.

How many characters is optimal for a line length? Words per line?

66 character per line is ideal, while 12 words per line is average.

Why is the baseline grid used in design?

It governs the whole document and serves as an anchor to almost all layout elements.

What are the reasons to set type justified? Ragged (unjustified)? Justified text makes a clean shape on the page, is efficient use of space. Unjustified is more organic, and gets rid of uneven spacing.

What is a typographic river?

A typographic river is a gap of white space that usually appears within a paragraph from having your text justified wrong.

What does a clothesline, hang line, or flow line mean? Hang lines are vertical lines on the grid that the elements appear to “hang� from.

What does type color/texture mean? Type color describes how heavy or dense type appears on a page.

How does x-height effect type color? It varies how dense/thick or tall a word is.

What are some ways to indicate a new paragraph?

You can add a space, indent, add a special character, or even add a block of color.


3 design directions for featured photographer


My original design directions for my featured photographer were each very different from each other. The first one focused on having things bleed off the top and bottom of the pages. The second one used the same line that is through the word reality throughout the spreads. My third design direction used a dash that I used in the title on every page. These directions were unsuccessful for the most part because I didn't push them very far. I focused too much on keeping them consistent on every page that they seemed boring and were not very appealing to the eye.


FASHION PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN


BY RUTH LA FERLA

COLORS MAGAZINE

5


Steven Klein (American,

b.1965) is a celebrated American photographer who won acclaim for his photography style, which has been described as eclectic, conceptual, sexual, and subversive. Klein’s love for photography began in 1975 at the age of 10, when he built a dark room in his parents’ basement. He began to take tons of photos of a fashionable sixth grader he deemed his muse. He credits her for introducing him to the world of fashion. After high school, Klein studied painting at the Rhode Island School of Design. After graduating in 1985, he decided to focus full time on photography. Klein has said that the artists Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon have greatly influenced his photography style.


His first photography job out of

that point. In 2003, Soho’s Deitch

school was shooting a Christian

Projects in New York City debuted

Dior mascara ad campaign in Paris.

X-STaTCI PRO=CeSS, a collection of

Klein worked on a wide variety of

photos that Klein collaborated on

advertising campaigns for high-end

with Madonna. Madonna later used

clients like Calvin Klein and Dolce &

those images on her Re-Invention

Gabbana. In 1994, he photographed

tour. In 2005, W magazine released

his first Vogue portfolio titled

the infamous photo shoot featuring

Nude Study with models Jaime

Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie as a

Rishar, Shalom Harlow, and Nadja

retro, mid-century married couple

Auermann. Klein’s first solo

mired as marital distress. The

photography exhibit, Steven Klein,

photos, meant to promote the

took place in 1997 at the Staley-

movie Mr. and Mrs. Smith, were

Wise Gallery in New York City.

intimate and provocative and lead to intense speculation about

One of Klein’s most famous

the actor’s personal relationship.

pictorials ran in the July 1999 issue

More recently, Klein shot the video

of Wmagazine and featured Brad

for Lady Gaga’s “Alejandro” in

Pitt portraying his character from

2010 and ad campaigns featuring

the movie Fight Club. His shots of

Rihannain 2011. Always in demand

David Beckham for Arena Homme

by today’s hottest and most

Plus in 2000 are the first to position

influential tastemakers, Klein

the soccer player as a fashion icon.

continues to inspire, challenge, and

His shoot for the same magazine

provoke the senses with his work.

in 2001 featuring a bloodied, tough-looking Justin Timberlake turned the singer’s image from “boy band singer” into “leading man” overnight. Klein went on to shoot one of Alexander McQueen’s first ad campaigns in 2002. Later that year, the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, Switzerland exhibited a retrospective of his work up to

“I like them and I fear them- I do fear them” -Steven Klein on his models


Steven Klein’s hyperreal, pin-sharp and sexually charged photography has captivated the fashion industry for 28 years since his first professional job, shooting a Christian Dior campaign in 1985. Klein is regularly called to shoot campaigns for Balenciaga, Alexander Wang , Louis Vuitton , Roberto Cavalli , Chanel, Christian Dior, Emporio Armani, Calvin Klein , Tom

photography. Klein was born in Rhode Island and studied painting at the state’s prestigious Rhode Island School of Design. Klein told the Observer his first campaign for Chistian Dior, came about because “I thought I was a bad painter, and I needed to make some cash.” Vogue.com reports that it was at RISD that the

Ford and

photographer encountered Pablo

Dolce & Gabanna.

Picasso and Francis Bacon’s work,

Klein’s editorial work is renowned for its ability to transform his subjects’ images into powerful visual statements, magnifying popular conceptions of the individual or the inspiration behind the story. “You give him a dress,” remarked Anna Wintour , “and he will give you a girl in a dress with a robot in a garden.” Dennis Freedman , the creative director of W, concurred, telling the New York Times, Klein’s work “is very much in sync with the idea that things are never what they really

both of which became perennial

To this day, he remains most comfortable behind the camera, from which he pursues his subjects with a mix of curiosity and dread. influences for Klein.

“I like them and I fear them — I do

fear them,” he said, raking his fingers across the table. “But at the same time I desire them.” He brought

appear.”

some of those mingled emotions

Unsurprisingly publications across

Organized by Dasha Zhukova, the

the globe, including Interview, W, American Vogue, Vogue Hommes, French Vogue and i-D regularly commission the photographer to shoot editorials. New York Magazine described Klein’s body of work as “clever, conceptual, and ultimately lyrical,” imbued with a sense of “gentle sadism,” Alexander McQueen believed his imagery was almost “too subversive for the mainstream.” Undercurrents of vulnerability, objectification and idolism recur throughout Klein’s

to the “Time Capsule” exhibition. heat-seeking Russian art impresario, the installation of 9-foot-by-16-foot panels was arranged in a circle above spectators’ heads. Many guests were enthralled. “When you stand in the center of the


circle,” said Maria Pertsova, a young accountant, “it’s like you’re standing in the center of the subject’s life.” He used to dig holes in his backyard, he recalled, “trying to find clay and make things.” Encouraged by his parents, he took up ceramics, eventually imparting his fresh skills to the residents of a nearby mental institution. “I saw them as people in cages,” he said. Does he view his famous subjects in a similar light? Not necessarily. He professes to feel a strong empathy for his actors and models and, for that matter, “anybody who dares to sit in front of a camera.” In a way, he said, “they are putting their life in my eyes.” Mr. Klein says that his work is collaborative, yet his subjects are proverbial clay in his hands, twisting themselves into pretzel formations to accommodate his disquieting vision. “He tends to push further than any of his contemporaries,” said Vince Aletti, the curator of “Weird Beauty:

Fashion Photography Now,” a 2009 exhibition at the International Center of Photography that featured

His work, said Mr. Aletti, who ranks him among a handful of world-class many of Mr. Klein’s images.

9


American fashion photographers, is an “expression of his genuinely dark vision.” Mr. Klein has in fact been expressing that vision for decades. He first took up a camera at the Rhode Island School of Design, where as an art student in the mid 1970s, he began exploring his disturbingly violent, erotically charged and, some would say, unholy themes. His reputation rests in part on preternaturally polished images that owe a debt to Helmut Newton, whose models were often trussed in prostheses, as animated as blowup dolls. Mr. Klein’s celebrity portraits are sexier in a waxy sort of way.

In a 2003 W shoot, Madonna writhed in a series of steamy yogic poses. At about the same time, in a portfolio for Dutch magazine, male models were photographed kneeling and bare-chested, being brutally cuffed by the police. Mr. Klein revels as well in portraying nature unleashed, as he did, to startling effect, in a series of photos of horses in mating throes, shot on his horse farm in Bridgehampton, N.Y.


“I like what’s obscure” -Steven Klein 11


COLORS MAGAZINE


PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN BY RUTH LA FERLA


Steven Klein (American, b.1965) is

a celebrated American photographer who won acclaim for his photography style, which has been described as eclectic, conceptual, sexual, and subversive. Klein’s love for photography began in 1975 at the age of 10, when he built a dark room in his parents’ basement. He began to take tons of photos of a fashionable sixth grader he deemed his muse. He credits her for introducing him to the world of fashion. After high school, Klein studied painting at the Rhode Island School of Design. After graduating in 1985, he decided to focus full time on photography. Klein has said that the artists Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon have greatly influenced his photography style. His first photography job out of school was shooting a Christian Dior mascara ad campaign in Paris. Klein worked on a wide variety of advertising campaigns for high-end clients like Calvin Klein and Dolce & Gabbana. In 1994, he photographed his first Vogue portfolio titled Nude Study with models Jaime Rishar, Shalom Harlow, and Nadja Auermann. Klein’s first solo photography exhibit, Steven Klein, took place in 1997 at the Staley-Wise Gallery in New York City. One of Klein’s most famous pictorials ran in the July 1999 issue of Wmagazine and featured Brad Pitt portraying his character from the movie Fight Club. His shots of David Beckham for Arena Homme Plus


“I like them and I fear themI do fear them” -Steven Klein on his models

in 2000 are the first to position the soccer player as a fashion icon. His shoot for the same magazine in 2001 featuring a bloodied, tough-looking Justin Timberlake turned the singer’s image from "boy band singer" into "leading man" overnight. Klein went on to shoot one of Alexander McQueen’s first ad campaigns in 2002. Later that year, the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, Switzerland exhibited a retrospective of his work up to that point. In 2003, Soho’s Deitch Projects in New York City debuted X-STaTCI PRO=CeSS, a collection of photos that Klein collaborated on with Madonna. Madonna later used those images on her Re-Invention tour. In 2005, W magazine released the infamous photo shoot featuring Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie as a retro, mid-century married couple mired as marital distress. The photos, meant to promote the movie Mr. and Mrs. Smith, were intimate and provocative and lead to intense speculation about the actor’s personal relationship. More recently, Klein shot the video for Lady Gaga’s "Alejandro" in 2010 and ad campaigns featuring Rihanna in 2011. Always in demand by today’s hottest and most influential


tastemakers, Klein continues to inspire, challenge, and provoke the senses with his work. Steven Klein’s hyperreal, pin-sharp and sexually charged photography has captivated the fashion industry for 28 years since his first professional job, shooting a Christian Dior campaign in 1985. Klein is regularly called to shoot campaigns for Balenciaga, Alexander Wang , Louis Vuitton , Roberto Cavalli , Chanel, Christian Dior, Emporio Armani, Calvin Klein , Tom Ford and Dolce & Gabanna. Klein’s editorial work is renowned for its ability to transform his subjects’ images into powerful visual statements, magnifying popular conceptions of the individual or the inspiration behind the story. “You give him a dress,” remarked Anna Wintour , “and he will give you a girl in a dress with a robot in a garden.” Dennis Freedman , the creative director of W, concurred, telling the New York Times, Klein’s work “is very much in sync with the idea that things are never what they really appear.” Unsurprisingly publications across the globe, including Interview, W, American Vogue, Vogue Hommes, French Vogue and i-D regularly commission the photographer to shoot editorials. New York Magazine described Klein’s body of work as “clever, conceptual, and ultimately lyrical,” imbued with a sense of “gentle sadism,” Alexander McQueen believed his imagery was almost “too subversive for the mainstream.” Undercurrents of vulnerability, objectification and idolism recur throughout Klein’s photography. Klein was born in Rhode Island and studied painting at the state’s prestigious Rhode Island School of Design. Klein told the Observer his first campaign for Chistian Dior, came about because “I thought I was a bad painter, and I needed to make some cash.” Vogue. com reports that it was at RISD that the photographer encountered Pablo

Picasso and Francis Bacon’s work, both of which became perennial influences for Klein. To this day, he remains

most comfortable behind the camera, from which he pursues his subjects with a mix of curiosity and dread.

“I like them and I fear them — I do fear them,” he said, raking his fingers across the table. “But at the same time I desire them.” He brought some of those mingled emotions to the “Time Capsule” exhibition. Organized by Dasha Zhukova, the heatseeking Russian art impresario, the installation of 9-foot-by-16-foot panels was arranged in a circle above spectators’ heads. Many guests were enthralled. “When you stand in the center of the circle,” said Maria Pertsova, a young accountant, “it’s like you’re standing in the center of the subject’s life.” He used to dig holes in his backyard, he recalled, “trying to find clay and make things.” Encouraged by his parents, he took up ceramics, eventually imparting his fresh skills to the residents of a nearby mental institution. “I saw them as people in cages,” he said. Does he view his famous subjects in a similar light? Not necessarily. He professes to feel a strong empathy for his actors and models and, for that matter, “anybody who dares to sit in front of a camera.” In a way, he said, “they are putting their life in my eyes.” Mr. Klein says that his work is collaborative, yet his subjects are proverbial clay in his hands, twisting themselves into pretzel formations to accommodate his disquieting vision. “He tends


to push further than any of his contemporaries,” said Vince Aletti, the curator of “Weird Beauty: Fashion Photography Now,” a 2009 exhibition at the International Center of Photography that featured many of Mr. Klein’s images. His work, said Mr.

Aletti, who ranks him among a handful of world-class American fashion photographers, is an “expression of his genuinely dark vision.”

Mr. Klein has in fact been expressing that vision for decades. He first took up a camera at the Rhode Island School of Design, where as an art student in the mid 1970s, he began exploring his disturbingly violent, erotically charged and, some would say, unholy themes. His reputation rests in part on preternaturally polished images that owe a debt to Helmut Newton, whose models were often trussed in prostheses, as animated as blowup dolls. Mr. Klein’s celebrity portraits are sexier in a waxy sort of way.


fashion photography by steven klein.


COLORS magazine


Steven Klein (American, b.1965) is a celebrated American photographer who won acclaim for his photography style, which has been described as eclectic, conceptual, sexual, and subversive. Klein’s love for photography began in 1975 at the age of 10, when he built a dark room in his parents’ basement. He began to take tons of photos of a fashionable sixth grader he deemed his muse. He credits her for introducing him to the world of fashion. After high school, Klein studied painting at the Rhode Island School of Design. After graduating in 1985, he decided to focus full time on photography. Klein has said that the artists Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon have greatly influenced his photography style.


His first photography job out of school was shooting a Christian Dior mascara ad campaign in Paris. Klein worked on a wide variety of advertising campaigns for highend clients like Calvin Klein and Dolce

as marital distress. The photos, meant

& Gabbana. In 1994, he photographed his

to promote the movie Mr. and Mrs. Smith,

first Vogue portfolio titled Nude Study

were intimate and provocative and lead

with models Jaime Rishar, Shalom Harlow,

to intense speculation about the actor’s

and Nadja Auermann. Klein’s first solo

personal relationship. More recently, Klein

photography exhibit, Steven Klein, took

shot the video for Lady Gaga’s “Alejandro”

place in 1997 at the Staley-Wise Gallery in

in 2010 and ad campaigns featuring

New York City.

Rihanna in 2011. Always in demand by today’s hottest and most influential

One of Klein’s most famous pictorials ran

tastemakers, Klein continues to inspire,

in the July 1999 issue of Wmagazine and

challenge, and provoke the senses with his

featured Brad Pitt portraying his character

work.

from the movie Fight Club. His shots of David Beckham for Arena Homme Plus

Steven Klein’s hyperreal, pin-sharp

in 2000 are the first to position the soccer

and sexually charged photography has

player as a fashion icon. His shoot for

captivated the fashion industry for 28

the same magazine in 2001 featuring a

years since his first professional job,

bloodied, tough-looking Justin Timberlake

shooting a Christian Dior campaign in

turned the singer’s image from “boy band

1985.

singer” into “leading man” overnight. Klein went on to shoot one of Alexander

Klein is regularly called to shoot

McQueen’s first ad campaigns in 2002.

campaigns for Balenciaga, Alexander

Later that year, the Musée de l’Elysée

Wang , Louis Vuitton , Roberto Cavalli ,

in Lausanne, Switzerland exhibited

Chanel, Christian Dior, Emporio Armani,

a retrospective of his work up to that

Calvin Klein , Tom Ford and Dolce &

point. In 2003, Soho’s Deitch Projects

Gabanna.

in New York City debuted X-STaTCI PRO=CeSS, a collection of photos that Klein collaborated on with Madonna. Madonna later used those images on her Re-Invention tour. In 2005, W magazine released the infamous photo shoot featuring Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie as a retro, mid-century married couple

mired


Klein’s editorial work is renowned for its ability to transform his subjects’ images into powerful visual statements, magnifying popular conceptions of the individual or the inspiration behind the story. “You give him a dress,” remarked Anna Wintour , “and he will give you a girl in a dress with a robot in a garden.” Dennis Freedman , the creative director of W, concurred, telling the New York Times, Klein’s work “is very much in sync with the idea that things are never what they really appear.” Unsurprisingly publications across the globe, including Interview, W, American Vogue, Vogue Hommes, French Vogue and i-D regularly commission the photographer to shoot editorials. New York Magazine described Klein’s body of work as “clever, conceptual, and ultimately lyrical,” imbued with a sense of “gentle sadism,” Alexander McQueen believed his imagery was almost “too subversive for the mainstream.” Undercurrents of vulnerability, objectification and idolism recur throughout Klein’s photography.


Klein was born in Rhode Island and studied

installation of 9-foot-by-16-foot panels

painting at the state’s prestigious Rhode

was arranged in a circle above spectators’

Island School of Design. Klein told the

heads.

Observer his first campaign for Chistian

Many guests were enthralled. “When you

Dior, came about because “I thought I was

stand in the center of the circle,” said

a bad painter, and I needed to make some

Maria Pertsova, a young accountant, “it’s

cash.” Vogue.com reports that it was at RISD

like you’re standing in the center of the

that the photographer encountered Pablo

subject’s life.”

Picasso and Francis Bacon’s work, both of

He used to dig holes in his backyard, he

which became perennial influences for Klein.

recalled, “trying to find clay and make

To this day, he remains most comfortable

things.” Encouraged by his parents, he

behind the camera, from which he pursues

took up ceramics, eventually imparting

his subjects with a mix of curiosity and

his fresh skills to the residents of a nearby

dread. “I like them and I fear them — I

mental institution. “I saw them as people

do fear them,” he said, raking his fingers

in cages,” he said.

across the table. “But at the same time I desire them.” He brought some of those mingled emotions to the “Time Capsule” exhibition. Organized by Dasha Zhukova, the heat-seeking Russian art impresario, the


“This image represents a modern woman who is a revolutionist, a woman who is fearless in expressing her contradictions and beliefs. She embodies the masculine and the feminine.” - SK

Does he view his famous subjects in a similar light? Not necessarily. He professes to feel a strong empathy for his actors and models and, for that matter, “anybody who dares to sit in front of a camera.” In a way, he said, “they are putting their life in my eyes.” Mr. Klein says that his work is collaborative, yet his subjects are proverbial clay in his hands, twisting themselves into pretzel formations to accommodate his disquieting vision. “He tends to push further than any of his contemporaries,” said Vince Aletti, the curator of “Weird Beauty: Fashion Photography Now,” a 2009 exhibition at the International Center of Photography that featured many of Mr. Klein’s images. His

work, said Mr. Aletti, who ranks him among a handful of world-

class American fashion photographers, is an “expression of his genuinely dark vision.” In a 2003 W shoot, Madonna writhed in a series of steamy yogic poses. At about the same time, in a portfolio for Dutch magazine, male models were photographed kneeling and bare-chested, being brutally cuffed by the police. Mr. Klein revels as well in portraying nature unleashed, as he did, to startling effect, in a series of photos of horses in mating throes, shot on his horse farm in Bridgehampton, N.Y. Mr. Klein has in fact been expressing that vision for decades. He first took up a camera at the Rhode Island School of Design, where as an art student in the mid 1970s, he began exploring

his disturbingly violent, erotically charged and, some would say, unholy themes. His reputation rests in part on preternaturally polished images that owe a debt to Helmut Newton, whose models were often trussed in prostheses, as animated as blowup dolls. Mr. Klein’s celebrity portraits are sexier in a waxy sort of way.


“I like what’s obscure” -Steven Klein


final design direction


The final design direction I chose for my featured photographer spreads was my "Leaving Reality" spreads with the green and red picture on the opening spreads. I liked my title for this one the most, mainly because it seems more like Klein's crazy style than my other ones, and the line through the word reality gave me a good tool to use to keep my spreads consistent. The way that any enclosed space within a letter was filled also gave me a good tool to use throughout my spreads, which I chose to use on all of my call outs. All of my images on these spreads have red in them, so I chose to do my call outs in red as well.


PHOTOGRAPHY BY STEVEN KLEIN BY RUTH LA FERLA


Steven Klein (American, b.1965) is a celebrated American photographer who won acclaim for his photography style, which has

been described as eclectic, conceptual, sexual, and subversive. Klein’s love for photography

began in 1975 at the age of 10, when he built a dark room in his parents’ basement. He began to take tons of photos of a fashionable sixth

grader he deemed his muse. He credits her for introducing him to the world of fashion. After

high school, Klein studied painting at the Rhode Island School of Design. After graduating in 1985, he decided to focus full time on

photography. Klein has said that the artists

Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon have greatly influenced his photography style.

His first photography job out of school was

shooting a Christian Dior mascara ad campaign in Paris. Klein worked on a wide variety of

advertising campaigns for high-end clients like Calvin Klein and Dolce & Gabbana. In 1994,

he photographed his first Vogue portfolio titled

Nude Study with models Jaime Rishar, Shalom Harlow, and Nadja Auermann. Klein’s first solo photography exhibit, Steven Klein, took place

in 1997 at the Staley-Wise Gallery in New York City. One of Klein’s most famous pictorials

ran in the July 1999 issue of Wmagazine and featured Brad Pitt portraying his character

from the movie Fight Club. His shots of David Beckham for Arena Homme Plus in 2000 are the first to position the soccer player as a

fashion icon. His shoot for the same magazine in 2001 featuring a bloodied, tough-looking

Justin Timberlake turned the singer’s image from “boy band singer” into “leading man” overnight. Klein went on to shoot one of

Alexander McQueen’s first ad campaigns in 2002.

September 2, 2014, Steven Klein


Lady


y Gaga for the Music Video "Alejandro" Steven Klein

. Later that year, the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, Switzerland exhibited a

retrospective of his work up to that point. In 2003, Soho’s Deitch Projects in New

York City debuted X-STaTCI PRO=CeSS, a collection of photos that Klein collaborated

on with Madonna. Madonna later used those images on her Re-Invention tour. In 2005,

W magazine released the infamous photo

shoot featuring Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie

as a retro, mid-century married couple mired as marital distress. The photos, meant to

promote the movie Mr. and Mrs. Smith, were intimate and provocative and lead to intense speculation about the actor’s personal

relationship. More recently, Klein shot the

video for Lady Gaga’s "Alejandro" in 2010 and ad campaigns featuring Rihanna in

2011. Always in demand by today’s hottest and most influential tastemakers, Klein

continues to inspire, challenge, and provoke the senses with his work.

Steven Klein’s hyperreal, pin-sharp

and sexually charged photography has

captivated the fashion industry for 28 years since his first professional job, shooting

a Christian Dior campaign in 1985. Klein

is regularly called to shoot campaigns for

Balenciaga, Alexander Wang , Louis Vuitton , Roberto Cavalli , Chanel, Christian Dior,

Emporio Armani, Calvin Klein , Tom Ford and Dolce & Gabanna.

Klein’s editorial work is renowned for its ability to transform his subjects’ images

into powerful visual statements, magnifying popular conceptions of the individual or the inspiration behind the story. “You give him

a dress,” remarked Anna Wintour , “and he

will give you a girl in a dress with a robot in a garden.” Dennis Freedman , the creative

director of W, concurred, telling the New York Times, Klein’s work “is very much in sync

with the idea that things are never what they really appear.”

Unsurprisingly publications across the

globe, including Interview, W, American

Vogue, Vogue Hommes, French Vogue and i-D regularly commission the photographer to shoot editorials. New York Magazine

described Klein’s body of work as “clever,

conceptual, and ultimately lyrical,” imbued

with a sense of “gentle sadism,” Alexander

McQueen believed his imagery was almost “too subversive for the mainstream.”

Undercurrents of vulnerability, objectification and idolism recur throughout Klein’s photography.

Klein was born in Rhode Island and studied painting at the state’s prestigious Rhode Island School of Design. Klein told the

Observer his first campaign for Chistian

Dior, came about because “I thought I was a bad painter, and I needed to make some

cash.” Vogue.com reports that it was at RISD that the photographer encountered Pablo Picasso and Francis Bacon’s work, both

of which became perennial influences for

To this day, he remains most comfortable behind the camera, from which he pursues his subjects with a mix of curiosity and dread. “I Klein.

like them and I fear them — I do fear them,” he said, raking his fingers across the table. “But at the same time I desire them.”

He brought some of those mingled emotions to the “Time Capsule” exhibition. Organized

by Dasha Zhukova, the heat-seeking Russian art impresario, the installation of 9-foot-

by-16-foot panels was arranged in a circle

above spectators’ heads. Many guests were enthralled. “When you stand in the center

of the circle,” said Maria Pertsova, a young accountant, “it’s like you’re standing in the

center of the subject’s life.” He used to dig

holes in his backyard, he recalled, “trying to find clay and make things.” Encouraged by

his parents, he took up ceramics, eventually imparting his fresh skills to the residents of a nearby mental institution. “I saw them as people in cages,” he said.


Does he view his famous subjects in a similar

2017 Macallan's sixth Masters of Photography, Steven Klein

light? Not necessarily. He professes to feel

a strong empathy for his actors and models and, for that matter, “anybody who dares to sit in front of a camera.” In a way, he said, “they are putting their life in my eyes.”Mr.

Klein says that his work is collaborative, yet

his subjects are proverbial clay in his hands,

twisting themselves into pretzel formations to

accommodate his disquieting vision. “He tends

to push further than any of his contemporaries,” said Vince Aletti, the curator of “Weird Beauty: Fashion Photography Now,” a 2009 exhibition at the International Center of Photography that featured many of Mr. Klein’s images.

His work, said Mr. Aletti, who ranks him among a handful of world-class American fashion photographers, is an “expression of his genuinely dark vision.” Mr. Klein has in fact been expressing that vision for decades. He first took up a camera at the

Rhode Island School of Design, where as an art student in the mid 1970s, he began exploring

his disturbingly violent, erotically charged and,

some would say, unholy themes. His reputation rests in part on preternaturally polished images that owe a debt to Helmut Newton, whose

models were often trussed in prostheses, as

animated as blowup dolls. Mr. Klein’s celebrity portraits are sexier in a waxy sort of way.

Lara Stone shot by Steven Klein


magazine cover research


This cover is very sleek. Everything aligns on the left and right sides, making it look clean, but there is also variation going on in between these two sides, making it dynamic and exciting while still having symmetry and consistency.


This magazine has a nice use of color. It also uses a lot of organic shapes and has nice movement on the page.


This magazine does a good job of having a lot on it, but not making it feel too overwhelming. It uses the space nicely as well.


This cover is very simple, but has a very nice diagonal flow. It is black and white with just a pop of color, which I really like.


This cover is a lot like the first one I found. I am very drawn to the clean, left and right alined covers. It makes it seem like they are framed by the rest of the page, and also allows for room in between for movement.


I like this one because it doesn’t ust color, but stiil seems colorful. It has movement throughout it and has a mix of geometric and organic shapes.


I really like the colors in this cover. I also like the white text, which makes the colors seem brighter and pop more.


This cover has nice eye movement and a nice color pallette. I also like the fonts that are used.


I like this cover because the image and text really pop. It also goes from a really high quality image to really sketched out text, which I think looks interesting together and creates contrast.


I love the image used on this cover. Overall, this cover is simple and beautiful.I like the use of color and the minimal text on it.


This cover uses simple, pastel colors. It also has a mixture of sans serif and serif fonts that fit very nicely together. I like the layout of this cover and its overall scheme.


This cover has a very interesting logo, with all of the other text being very simple. All of this is condensed into a single corner, not distracting from the crazy image/layovers that consume the cover. This cover does a nice job of taking something crazy and pairing it with something simple, but not boring.


This cover is very intrigueing and grabs your attention. The type face fits with the graphic very well, and it feels like a very consistent cover.


I like this cover because it takes soft, blurred lines/colors and mixes them with a type face that has very harsh, hard lines, creating a nice contrast.


I like the typeface used on this cover and I like that the masthead is interactive with the rest of the cover.


cover designs


After doing my cover research, I realized I was drawn to very simple layouts that are still very unique. Since Klein has a very bold style, I attempted to merge these two styles together in my covers. I think that towards the end of making these original covers, I started to somewhat achieve what I was going for. The most difficult part of making this first round of covers was trying to figure out how big and where to place the secondary text.


eccentric VOL. 1 MARCH 2017


eccentric vol. 1, march 2017

featuring the work of: steven klein lee miller susan sontag


eccentric

featuring the photography of steven klein vol. 1 march 2017


eccentric


vol. 1 march 2017

eccentric


EC


VOL. 1 MARCH 2017 STEVEN KLEIN, LEE MILLER, SUSAN SONTAG

CCENTRIC


steven klein, lee miller & susan sontag

cirtnecce eccentric vol. 1 mar. 2017


eccentric steven klein, lee miller, susan sontag volume 1 march 2017


eccentric vol.1 mar 2017

ft. steven klein, lee miller, and susan sontag


eccentric.

vol. 1 mar. 2017

steven klein, lee miller, susan sontag


ECC ENT


ECCENTRIC steven klein lee miller susan sontag

volume 1 march 2017


e

f l


eccentric.

ft. the work of steven klein lee miller, and susan sontag


3 design directions for historical photographer


For my historical photographer spreads, I wanted to continue my theme of red. Since her images are all black and white, I had to do so through typography and typographic rules. The hardest part about these spreads was taking the amount of images I had to use and still placing them nicely and without the pages looking too crowded.


breaking

GLA


eccentric magazine

ASS following the lives of lee miller


If you were a screenwriter or playwright pitching a drama about an eventful mid-20th-century

life – a story along the lines of William Boyd’s

Any Human Heart, perhaps, but with a woman rather than a man at the centre – what would

you come up with? Difficult childhood (sexual abuse). Becomes a New York fashion model. Goes to Paris and joins surrealist movement.

Does photojournalism during second world war (is present for the liberation of Dachau; takes a

bath in Hitler’s abandoned house). Has first and only child at 40. Settles on a farm in Sussex. Reinvents herself as a gourmet cook. Too

A woman who was a fashion icon, a surrealist and a war correspondent? But this was the life of Lee Miller – or, to borrow the title of Antony Penrose’s 1988 book, implausible a storyline, surely.

Photograph of Lee Miller taken by Man Ray in 1930.


The Lives of Lee Miller. Penrose, son of Miller and the British artist

Roland Penrose, didn’t find her an easy mother.

She was often away and, because of depression and alcoholism, would be absent even when

home. But since her death in 1977, he has been diligently preserving and collating her work. Dis-

covered in the attic after her death, it consists of

over 60,000 original negatives, 20,000 prints and contact sheets, and thousands of original documents and manuscripts. Until now, the website that showcases her archive has featured only

a tiny fraction of this material. But from 23 April

(Miller’s birthday, as well as Shakespeare’s), the site is being relaunched, with an online library featuring around 3,000 images, many never previously shown in public.

The NSBs, as the website calls these images

(meaning Never Seen Befores), are fascinating for various reasons. First, there are her photos of artists. Picasso (who painted six portraits of her, the most memorable with a green mouth,

breasts like sails, and a vagina resembling an

eye), Man Ray, Cocteau. But also many others: Paul Eluard, Georges Braque, Virgil Thomson,

Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Saul Steinberg, Henry Moore, Oskar Kokoschka. There’s even one of

Miró with Desmond Morris and a snake. Many of these are intimate and off the cuff.

Photograph of Lee Miller taken by Man Ray in 1930.

A second batch of NSBs are the more formal

portraits Miller did for Vogue. There’s a set of Dylan Thomas, fag in hand, on a tipped-back chair. Mar-

got Fonteyn, beguiling in hat and gloves, looks over her left shoulder. The actress Gertrude Lawrence

poses in front of a vase of dried flowers. There are

also several intriguing shots of the young Dorothea Tanning, the surrealist painter who died last year

at the age of 101. Back then, “A woman had to be

a monster to be an artist,” Tanning wrote, “and one who married another artist was branded – like a cow.”

Tanning agreed to be branded, nevertheless, marrying Max Ernst. So did Miller, who after amicably divorcing her first husband, an Egyptian, married

her lover of 10 years, Penrose, whose infatuation with her is evident in his photos – these are the

third and in some ways most interesting tranche of NSBs. He portrays her in bed, one nipple prominent. Or crouching nymph-like by a stream. Or

standing next to a statue of a goddess (for once, it’s not Miller with the bare breasts). Best of all is

his footnote to Picnic, Miller’s famous 1937 photo of him with Eluard, Man Ray and their half-naked partners – a latter-day version of Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe.

Penrose’s complementary photo, shot from the

same angle and with the same empty bottle on the table, includes Miller smiling in the background –

the mistress of misrule restored to the proceedings.


“I looked like an angel, but I was a feind inside.� Crystal Ball, 1925

Photograph of Lee Miller taken by Man Ray in 1930.


ful, she was used to submitting to the male

gaze. First there was her father, a keen amateur

photographer who persuaded her to sit naked for him from the age of eight right into her 20s; then

the publisher Condé Nast, who bumped into her, literally, in Manhattan, was struck by her looks,

took her on as a model for Vogue, and made her

the face of Kotex tampon adverts; then Man Ray, whose mistress and pupil she became (Madame

She was proud of her looks, but ultimately frustrated by life in front of the lens. Man Ray, as she was known in Paris).

“I looked like an angel, but I was a fiend inside,”

she said, looking back. Angry with her for taking lovers, and jealous of Cocteau for using her in

his film The Blood of a Poet, Man Ray expressed his jealousy by doing violence to her face and body in his art.

A less spirited woman might have been crushed

by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist. First came her surrealist phase:

she not only outmanned Man Ray in creating her own works, but was instrumental in the invention of the “solarisation” technique (a partial reversal

of blacks and whites that creates a silvery aura). Then she set up a portrait studio in New York, with rich socialites her clientele.

1930 fashion shot of lee miller

Crystal Ball, 1925


In 1944 she became a correspondent accred-

ited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time Life photographer David E. SCHERMAN. She followed the US troops overseas on D Day + 20. She was probably the only woman com-

bat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and among her many exploits she

witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation

of Paris, the fighting in Luxembourg and Alsace, the Russian/American link up at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald and Dachau. She

billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wa-

chenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrating deep into

Eastern Europe, she covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post

war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy.

After the war she continued to contribute to

Vogue for a further 2 years, covering fashion

and celebrities. Some of her portraits of famous artists like PICASSO are the most powerful

portraits of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which

permeate all her work that she is best remembered Lee Miller died at Farleys in 1977.

Women In Fire Masks, Lee Miller

8th in the Esat, Lee Miller


br

eccentric ma


agazine presents

glass

reaking

following the lives of lee miller


If you were a screenwriter or playwright pitching a drama about an eventful mid-20th-century life – a story along the lines of William

Boyd’s Any Human Heart, perhaps, but with a woman rather than a man at the centre – what would you come up with? Difficult

childhood (sexual abuse). Becomes a New

York fashion model. Goes to Paris and joins surrealist movement. Does photojournalism during second world war (is present for the

liberation of Dachau; takes a bath in Hitler’s abandoned house). Has first and only child

at 40. Settles on a farm in Sussex. Reinvents herself as a gourmet cook. Too implausi-

A woman who was a fashion icon, a surrealist and a war correspondent? But this was the life of Lee Miller – or, to borrow the title of Antony Penrose’s 1988 book, The Lives of Lee Miller. ble a storyline, surely.

Penrose, son of Miller and the British artist Roland Penrose, didn’t find her an easy

mother. She was often away and, because of depression and alcoholism, would be absent even when home. But since her death in

1977, he has been diligently preserving and collating her work. Discovered in the attic after her death, it consists of over 60,000

original negatives, 20,000 prints and contact

sheets, and thousands of original documents and manuscripts. Until now, the website that showcases her archive has featured only a

tiny fraction of this material. But from 23 April (Miller’s birthday, as well as Shakespeare’s), the site is being relaunched, with an online

library featuring around 3,000 images, many never previously shown in public.

The NSBs, as the website calls these images (meaning Never Seen Befores), are fascinating for various reasons. First, there are her photos of artists. Picasso (who painted six

portraits of her, the most memorable with a

green mouth, breasts like sails, and a vagina resembling an eye), Man Ray, Cocteau. But also many others: Paul Eluard, Georges

Braque, Virgil Thomson, Max Ernst, Yves

Tanguy, Saul Steinberg, Henry Moore, Oskar Kokoschka. There’s even one of Miró with

Desmond Morris and a snake. Many of these

Photograph of Lee Miller taken by Man Ray in 1930.


are intimate and off the cuff.

A second batch of NSBs are the

more formal portraits Miller did for

Vogue. There’s a set of Dylan Thomas, fag in hand, on a tipped-back chair. Margot Fonteyn, beguiling

in hat and gloves, looks over her

left shoulder. The actress Gertrude

Lawrence poses in front of a vase of

dried flowers. There are also several intriguing shots of the young Doro-

thea Tanning, the surrealist painter

who died last year at the age of 101. Back then, “A woman had to be a monster to be an artist,” Tanning

wrote, “and one who married another artist was branded – like a cow.”

“A woman had to be a monster to be an artist”

Tanning agreed to be branded,

nevertheless, marrying Max Ernst. So did Miller, who after amicably divorcing her first husband, an

Egyptian, married her lover of 10

years, Penrose, whose infatuation with her is evident in his photos –

these are the third and in some ways most interesting tranche of NSBs.

He portrays her in bed, one nipple

prominent. Or crouching nymph-like by a stream. Or standing next to a

statue of a goddess (for once, it’s not Miller with the bare breasts). Best of all is his footnote to Picnic, Miller’s famous 1937 photo of him with

Eluard, Man Ray and their half-na-

ked partners – a latter-day version of Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe.

Penrose’s complementary photo,

shot from the same angle and with

the same empty bottle on the table, includes Miller smiling in the back-

ground – the mistress of misrule re-

stored to the proceedings. Strikingly

beautiful, she was used to submitting to the male gaze. First there was her

father, a keen amateur photographer who persuaded her to sit naked for him from the age of eight right into her 20s; then the publisher Condé

Nast, who bumped into her, literally, in Manhattan, was

Fashion Photography by Lee Miller


struck by her looks, took her on as a model for Vogue, and made her

the face of Kotex tampon adverts;

then Man Ray, whose mistress and pupil she became (Madame Man

Ray, as she was known in Paris).

She was proud of her looks, but ultimately frustrated by life in front of the lens. “I looked like an angel, but I was a fiend inside,” she

said, looking back. Angry with her for

taking lovers, and jealous of Cocteau for using her in his film The Blood of

a Poet, Man Ray expressed his jealousy by doing violence to her face and body in his art.

8th in the Esat, Lee Miller

War Street Photography, Lee Miller

“A less spirited woman might have been crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist.”


A less spirited woman might have been

crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, un-

fazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist. First came her surrealist phase: she not only outmanned

Man Ray in creating her own works, but was

instrumental in the invention of the “solarisation� technique (a partial reversal of blacks

and whites that creates a silvery aura). Then

she set up a portrait studio in New York, with rich socialites her clientele.

In 1944 she became a correspondent accred-

ited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time Life photographer David E. SCHERMAN.

She followed the US troops overseas on D

Day + 20. She was probably the only woman

combat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and among her many exploits she witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris, the fighting in Luxembourg

1930 fashion shot of lee miller

and Alsace, the Russian/American link up

at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald and Dachau. She billeted in both Hitler and Eva

Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden

in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrating deep into Eastern Europe, she

covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy.

After the war she continued to contribute to

Vogue for a further 2 years, covering fashion and celebrities. Some of her portraits of

famous artists like PICASSO are the most

powerful portraits of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which permeate all her work that

she is best remembered Lee Miller died at Farleys in 1977.

SS Prison Guard, Buchenwald, April 1945 by Lee Miller


Crystal Ball, 1925

Lee Miller, Hitlers Bathrub, 1945


“She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender.�

Lee Miller in a military helmet made specially for taking pictures


eccentric magazine presents

breaking glass following the lives of lee miller


If you were a screenwriter or playwright pitching a drama about an eventful mid-20th-century life – a story along the lines of William Boyd’s Any Human Heart, perhaps, but with a woman rather than a man at the centre – what would you come up with? Difficult childhood (sexual abuse). Becomes a New York fashion model. Goes to Paris and joins surrealist movement. Does photojournalism during second world war (is present for the liberation of Dachau;

takes a bath in Hitler’s abandoned house). Has first and only child at 40. Settles on a farm

A woman who was a fashion icon, a surrealist and a war correspondent? But this was the life of Lee Miller – or, to borrow the title of Antony Penrose’s 1988 book, The Lives of Lee Miller. in Sussex. Reinvents herself as a gourmet cook. Too implausible a storyline, surely.

Penrose, son of Miller and the British artist Roland Penrose, didn’t find her an easy mother. She

was often away and, because of depression and alcoholism, would be absent even when home.

But since her death in 1977, he has been diligently preserving and collating her work. Discovered in the attic after her death, it consists of over 60,000 original negatives, 20,000 prints and contact sheets, and thousands of original documents and manuscripts. Until now, the website that

showcases her archive has featured only a tiny fraction of this material. But from 23 April (Miller’s birthday, as well as Shakespeare’s), the site is being relaunched, with an online library featuring around 3,000 images, many never previously shown in public.

Lee Miller, Hitlers Bathrub, 1945


The NSBs, as the website calls these images (meaning Never Seen Befores), are fascinating for

various reasons. First, there are her photos of artists. Picasso (who painted six portraits of her, the most memorable with a green mouth, breasts like sails, and a vagina resembling an eye), Man

Ray, Cocteau. But also many others: Paul Eluard, Georges Braque, Virgil Thomson, Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Saul Steinberg, Henry Moore, Oskar Kokoschka. There’s even one of Miró with Desmond Morris and a snake. Many of these are intimate and off the cuff.

A second batch of NSBs are the more formal portraits Miller did for Vogue. There’s a set of Dylan Thomas, fag in hand, on a tipped-back chair. Margot Fonteyn, beguiling in hat and gloves, looks over her left shoulder. The actress Gertrude Lawrence poses in front of a vase of dried flowers.

There are also several intriguing shots of the young Dorothea Tanning, the surrealist painter who died last year at the age of 101. Back then, “A woman had to be a monster to be an artist,” Tanning wrote, “and one who married another artist was branded – like a cow.”

Tanning agreed to be branded, nevertheless, marrying Max Ernst. So did Miller, who after amicably divorcing her first husband, an Egyptian, married her lover of 10 years, Penrose, whose

infatuation with her is evident in his photos – these are the third and in some ways most interest-

ing tranche of NSBs. He portrays her in bed, one nipple prominent. Or crouching nymph-like by a stream. Or standing next to a statue of a goddess (for once, it’s not Miller with the bare breasts). Best of all is his footnote to Picnic, Miller’s famous 1937 photo of him with Eluard, Man Ray and their half-naked partners – a latter-day version of Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe.

“A woman had to be a monster to be an artist”

SS Prison Guard, Buchenwald, April 1945 by Lee Miller


Penrose’s complementary photo, shot from the same angle and with the same empty bottle on the table, includes Miller

smiling in the background – the mistress of misrule restored to the proceedings. Strikingly beautiful, she was used to submitting to the male gaze. First there was her father, a keen amateur photographer who persuaded her to sit naked for him from the age of eight right into her 20s; then the publisher Condé Nast, who bumped into her, literally, in Manhattan, was struck by her looks, took her on as a model for Vogue, and made her the face of Kotex tampon adverts; then Man Ray,

She was proud of her looks, but ultimately frustrated by life in front of the lens. “I looked like an angel, but I was a fiend inside,” she said, looking back. Angry with her for taking lovers, and whose mistress and pupil she became (Madame Man Ray, as she was known in Paris).

jealous of Cocteau for using her in his film The Blood of a Poet, Man Ray expressed his jealousy by doing violence to her face and body in his art.

A less spirited woman might have been crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist. First came her surrealist phase: she not only outmanned Man Ray in creating her

own works, but was instrumental in the invention of the “solarisation” technique (a partial reversal of blacks and whites that creates a silvery aura). Then she set up a portrait studio in New York, with rich socialites her clientele.

Women In Fire Masks, Lee Miller

8th in the Esat, Lee Miller

“A less spirited woman might have been crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist.”


In 1944 she became a correspondent accredited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time Life

photographer David E. SCHERMAN. She followed the US troops overseas on D Day + 20. She was probably the only woman combat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and

among her many exploits she witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris, the fighting

in Luxembourg and Alsace, the Russian/American link up at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald

and Dachau. She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrat-

ing deep into Eastern Europe, she covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy.

After the war she continued to contribute to Vogue for a further 2 years, covering fashion and

celebrities. Some of her portraits of famous artists like PICASSO are the most powerful portraits

of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which permeate all her work that she is best remembered Lee Miller died at Farleys in 1977.

Lee Miller in a military helmet made specially for taking pictures

“She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender.�


3 refined cover designs


My three refined cover designs are all similar in regards to my concept. They all have an image of Steven Klein's, my featured photographer, on the front and an image of Lee Miller's, my historical photographer, on the back. Of these three, I think the first two are strongest. I like the placement of type better on the first one, but also like the sideways image on the back cover of the second.


ECC ENT


ECCENTRIC

C T

steven klein lee miller susan sontag

volume 1 spring 201


volume 1 march 2017

eccentric. ft. the work of steven klein lee miller, + susan sontag


vol. 1 mar. 2017

steven klein, lee miller, susan sontag

eccentric.


refined featured photographer spreads


For my next round of refining my featured photographer spreads, I really focused on the details of my type. I learned how to justify it, and made sure that everything we have been learning about type was used in my paragraphs. I also tried to move things around a bit more to keep a consistent hangline.


refined historical photographer spreads


My refined historical photographer spreads are much stronger than my original ones. I changed the design of the title, which looks much better. I also moved around which images go where, and added more scale across the spreads.


breaking glass eccentric magazine presents

following the “lives� of lee miller


If you were a screenwriter or playwright pitching a drama about an eventful mid-20th-century life – a story along the lines of William Boyd’s Any Human Heart, perhaps, but with a woman rather than a man at the centre – what would you come up with? Difficult childhood (sexual abuse). Becomes a New York fashion model. Goes to Paris and joins surrealist movement. Does photojournalism during second world war (is present for the liberation of Dachau; takes a bath in Hitler’s abandoned house). Has first and only child at 40. Settles on a farm in Sussex. Reinvents herself as a gourmet cook. Too implausible a storyline, surely.

her archive has featured only a tiny fraction of this material. But from 23 April (Miller’s birthday, as well as Shakespeare’s), the site is being relaunched, with an online library featuring around 3,000 images, many never previously shown in public. A second batch of NSBs are the more formal portraits Miller did for Vogue. There’s a set of Dylan Thomas, fag in hand, on a tipped-back chair. Margot Fonteyn, beguiling in hat and gloves, looks over her left shoulder. The ac

A woman who was a fashion icon, a surrealist and a war correspondent? But this was the life of Lee Miller – or, to borrow the title of Antony Penrose’s 1988 book, The Lives of Lee Miller. Penrose, son of Miller and the British artist Roland Penrose, didn’t find her an easy mother. She was often away and, because of depression and alcoholism, would be absent even when home. But since her death in 1977, he has been diligently preserving and collating her work. Discovered in the attic after her death, it consists of over 60,000 original negatives, 20,000 prints and contact sheets, and thousands of original documents and manuscripts. Until now, the website that showcases

Photograph of Lee Miller taken by Man Ray in 1930.


The NSBs, as the website calls these images (meaning Never Seen Befores), are fascinating for various reasons. First, there are her photos of artists. Picasso (who painted six portraits of her, the most memorable with a green mouth, breasts like sails, and a vagina resembling an eye), Man Ray, Cocteau. But also many others: Paul Eluard, Georges Braque, Virgil Thomson, Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Saul Steinberg, Henry Moore, Oskar Kokoschka. There’s even one of Miró with Desmond Morris and a snake. Many of these are intimate and off the cuff.

tress Gertrude Lawrence poses in front of a vase of dried flowers. There are also several intriguing shots of the young Dorothea Tanning, the surrealist painter who died last year at the age of 101. Back then, “A woman had to be a monster to be an artist,” Tanning wrote, “and one who married another artist was branded – like a cow.” Tanning agreed to be branded, nevertheless, marrying Max Ernst. So did Miller, who after amicably divorcing her first husband, an Egyptian, married her lover of 10 years, Penrose, whose infatuation with her is evident in his photos – these are the third and in some ways most inter

“A woman had to be a monster to be an artist”

War Street Photography, Lee Miller


esting tranche of NSBs. He portrays her in bed, one nipple prominent. Or crouching nymph-like by a stream. Or standing next to a statue of a goddess (for once, it’s not Miller with the bare breasts). Best of all is his footnote to Picnic, Miller’s famous 1937 photo of him with Eluard, Man Ray and their half-naked partners – a latter-day version of Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe. Penrose’s complementary photo, shot from the same angle and with the same empty bottle on the table, includes Miller smiling in the background – the mistress of misrule restored to the proceedings. Strikingly beautiful, she was used to submitting to the male gaze. First there was her father, a keen amateur photographer who persuaded her to sit naked for him from the age of eight right into her 20s; then the publisher Condé Nast, who bumped into her, literally, in Manhattan, was struck by her looks, took her on as a model for Vogue, and made her the face of Kotex tampon adverts; then Man Ray, whose mistress and pupil she became (Madame Man Ray, as she was known in Paris).

She was proud of her looks, but ultimately frustrated by life in front of the lens. “I looked like an angel, but I was

8th in the Esat, Lee Miller

a fiend inside,” she said, looking back. Angry with her for taking lovers, and jealous of Cocteau for using her in his film The Blood of a Poet, Man Ray expressed his jealousy by doing violence to her face and body in his art. A less spirited woman might have been crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist. First came her surrealist phase: she not only outmanned Man Ray in creating her own works, but was instrumental in the invention of the “solarisation” technique (a partial reversal of blacks and whites that creates a silvery aura). Then she set up a portrait studio in New York, with rich socialites her clientele. In 1944 she became a correspondent accredited to the US Army, and teamed up with Time

Lee Miller in a military helmet made specially for taking pictures


Life photographer David E. SCHERMAN. She followed the US troops overseas on D Day + 20. She was probably the only woman combat photo-journalist to cover the front line war in Europe and among her many exploits she witnessed the siege of St Malo, the Liberation of Paris, the fighting in Luxembourg and Alsace, the Russian/American link up at Torgau, the liberation of Buchenwald and Dachau. She billeted in both Hitler and Eva Brauns houses in Munich, and photographed Hitlers house Wachenfeld at Berchtesgaden in flames on the eve of Germanys surrender. Penetrating deep into Eastern Europe, she covered harrowing scenes of children dying in Vienna, peasant life in post war Hungary and finally the execution of Prime Minister Lazlo Bardossy. After the war she continued to contribute to Vogue for a further 2 years, covering fashion and celebrities.

1930 fashion shot of lee miller

SS Prison Guard, Buchenwald, April 1945 by Lee Miller


Some of her portraits of famous artists like PICASSO are the most powerful portraits of the individuals ever produced, but it is mainly for the witty Surrealist images which permeate all her work that she is best remembered Lee Miller died at Farleys in 1977.

“A less spirited woman might have been crushed by these alpha males, but Miller, unfazed, determinedly transformed herself from passive model to active artist.�

Lee Miller, Hitlers Bathrub, 1945


part 3


3 design directions susan sontag essay


On Photography An Excerpt Plato’s Cave Susan Sontag

Humankind lingers unregenerately in Plato's cave, still reveling, its age-old habit, in mere images of the truth. But being educated by photographs is not like being educated by older, more artisanal images. For one thing, there are a great many more images around, claiming our attention. The inventory started in 1839 and since then just about everything has been photographed, or so it seems. This very insatiability of the photographing eye changes the terms of confinement in the cave, our world. In teaching us a new visual code, photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe. They are a grammar and, even more importantly, an ethics of seeing. Finally, the most grandiose result of the photographic enterprise is to give us the sense that we can hold the whole world in our heads -- as an anthology of images. To collect photographs is to collect the world. Movies and television programs light up walls, flicker, and go out; but with still photographs the image is also an object, lightweight, cheap to produce, easy to carry about, accumulate, store. In Godard's Les Carabiniers (1963), two sluggish lumpen-peasants are lured into joining the King's Army by the promise that they will be able to loot, rape, kill, or do whatever else they please to the enemy, and get rich. But the suitcase of booty that Michel-Ange and Ulysse triumphantly bring home, years later, to their wives turns out to contain only picture postcards, hundreds of them, of Monuments, Department Stores, Mammals, Wonders of Nature, Methods of Transport, Works of Art, and other classified treasures from around the globe. Godard's gag vividly parodies the equivocal magic of the photographic image., Photographs are perhaps the most mysterious of all the objects that make up, and thicken, the environment we recognize as modern. Photographs really are experience captured, and the camera is the ideal arm of consciousness in its acquisitive mood.


“To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting oneself into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge -- and, therefore, like power�

y

To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting oneself into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge -- and, therefore, like power. A now notorious first fall into alienation, habituating people to abstract the world into printed words, is supposed to have engendered that surplus of Faustian energy and psychic damage needed to build modern, inorganic societies. But print seems a less treacherous form of leaching out the world, of turning it into a mental object, than photographic images, which now provide most of the knowledge people have about the look of the past and the reach of the present. What is written about a person or an event is frankly an interpretation, as are handmade visual statements, like paintings and drawings. Photographed images do not seem to be statements about the world so much as pieces of it, miniatures of reality that anyone can make or acquire. Photographs, which fiddle with the scale of the world, themselves get reduced, blown up, cropped, retouched, doctored, tricked out. They age, plagued by the usual ills of paper objects; they disappear; they become valuable, and get bought and sold; they are reproduced. Photographs, which package the world, seem to invite packaging. They are stuck in albums, framed and set on tables, tacked on walls, projected as slides. Newspapers and magazines feature them; cops alphabetize them; museums exhibit them; publishers compile them. For many decades the book has been the most influential way of arranging (and usually miniaturizing) photographs, thereby guaranteeing them longevity, if not immortality -- photographs are fragile objects, easily torn or mislaid -- and a wider public. The photograph in a book is, obviously, the image of an image. But since it is, to begin with, a printed, smooth object, a photograph loses much less of its essential quality when reproduced in a book than a painting does. Still, the book is not a wholly satisfactory scheme for putting groups of photographs into general circulation. The sequence in which the photographs are to be looked at is proposed by the order of pages, but nothing holds readers to the recommended order or indicates the amount of time to be spent on each photograph. Chris Marker's film, Si j'avais quatre dromadaires (1966), a brilliantly orchestrated meditation on photographs of all sorts and themes, suggests a subtler and more rigorous way of packaging (and enlarging) still photographs. Both the order and the exact time for looking at each photograph are imposed; and there is a gain in visual legibility and emotional impact. But photographs transcribed in a film cease to be collectable objects, as they still are when served up in books.


“A photograph passes for “ incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened. The picture t may distort; but there is always a presumption that something exists, or did exist, which is like what's in the picture.� Photographs furnish evidence. Something we hear about, but doubt, seems proven when we're shown a photograph of it. In one version of its utility, the camera record incriminates. Starting with their use by the Paris police in the murderous roundup of Communards in June 1871, photographs became a useful tool of modern states in the surveillance and control of their increasingly mobile populations. In another version of its utility, the camera record justifies. A photograph passes for incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened. The picture may distort; but there is always a presumption that something exists, or did exist, which is like what's in the picture. Whatever the limitations (through amateurism) or pretensions (through artistry) of the individual photographer, a photograph -- any photograph -- seems to have a more innocent, and therefore more accurate, relation to visible reality than do other mimetic objects. Virtuosi of the noble image like Alfred Stieglitz and Paul Strand, composing mighty, unforgettable photographs decade after decade, still want, first of all, to show something "out there," just like the Polaroid owner for whom photographs are a handy, fast form of note-taking, or the shutterbug with a Brownie who takes snapshots as souvenirs of daily life. While a painting or a prose description can never be other than a narrowly selective interpretation, a photograph can be treated as a narrowly selective transparency. But despite the presumption of veracity that gives all photographs authority, interest, seductiveness, the work that photographers do is no generic exception to the usually shady commerce between art and truth. Even when photographers are most concerned with mirroring reality, they are still haunted by tacit imperatives of taste and conscience. The immensely gifted members of the Farm Security Administration photographic project of the late 1930s (among them Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Russell Lee) would take dozens of frontal pictures of one of their sharecropper subjects until satisfied that they had gotten just the right look on film -- the precise expression on the subject's face that supported their own notions about poverty, light, dignity, texture, exploitation, and geometry. In deciding how a picture should look, in preferring one exposure to another, photographers are always imposing standards on their subjects. Although there is a sense in which the camera does indeed capture reality, not just interpret it, photographs are as much an interpretation of the world as paintings and drawings are. Those occasions when the taking of photographs is relatively undiscriminating, promiscuous, or self-effacing do not lessen the didacticism of the whole enterprise. This very passivity -- and ubiquity -- of the photographic record is photography's "message," its aggression.


“As industrialization provided social uses for the operations of the photographer, so the reaction against these uses reinforced the self-consciousness of photographyas-art.�

Images which idealize (like most fashion and animal photography) are no less aggressive than work which makes a virtue of plainness (like class pictures, still lifes of the bleaker sort, and mug shots). There is an aggression implicit in every use of the camera. This is as evident in the 1840s and 1850s, photography's glorious first two decades, as in all the succeeding decades, during which technology made possible an ever increasing spread of that mentality which looks at the world as a set of potential photographs. Even for such early masters as David Octavius Hill and Julia Margaret Cameron who used the camera as a means of getting painterly images, the point of taking photographs was a vast departure from the aims of painters. From its start, photography implied the capture of the largest possible number of subjects. Painting never had so imperial a scope. The subsequent industrialization of camera technology only carried out a promise inherent in photography from its very beginning: to democratize all experiences by translating them into images. That age when taking photographs required a cumbersome and expensive contraption -- the toy of the clever, the wealthy, and the obsessed -- seems remote indeed from the era of sleek pocket cameras that invite anyone to take pictures. The first cameras, made in France and England in the early 1840s, had only inventors and buffs to operate them. Since there were then no professional photographers, there could not be amateurs either, and taking photographs had no clear social use; it was a gratuitous, that is, an artistic activity, though with few pretensions to being an art. It was only with its industrialization that photography came into its own as art. As industrialization provided social uses for the operations of the photographer, so the reaction against these uses reinforced the self-consciousness of photography-as-art.


N PHO TO GRA PH

An Excerpt Plato’s Cave Susan Sontag

Humankind lingers unregenerately in Plato's cave, still reveling, its age-old habit, in mere images of the truth. But being educated by photographs is not like being educated by older, more artisanal images. For one thing, there are a great many more images around, claiming our attention. The inventory started in 1839 and since then just about everything has been photographed, or so it seems. This very insatiability of the photographing eye changes the terms of confinement in the cave, our world. In teaching us a new visual code, photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe. They are a grammar and, even more importantly, an ethics of seeing. Finally, the most grandiose result of the photographic enterprise is to give us the sense that we can hold the whole world in our heads -- as an anthology of images. To collect photographs is to collect the world. Movies and television programs light up walls, flicker, and go out; but with still photographs the image is also an object, lightweight, cheap to produce, easy to carry about, accumulate, store. In Godard's Les Carabiniers (1963), two sluggish lumpen-peasants are lured into joining the King's Army by the promise that they will be able to loot, rape, kill, or do whatever else they please to the enemy, and get rich. But the suitcase of booty that Michel-Ange and Ulysse triumphantly bring home, years later, to their wives turns out to contain only picture postcards, hundreds of them, of Monuments, Department Stores, Mammals, Wonders of Nature, Methods of Transport, Works of Art, and other classified treasures from around the globe. Godard's gag vividly parodies the equivocal magic of the photographic image., Photographs are perhaps the most mysterious of all the objects that make up, and thicken, the environment we recognize as modern. Photographs really are experience captured, and the camera is the ideal arm of consciousness in its acquisitive mood.


To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting oneself into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge -- and, therefore, like power. A now notorious first fall into alienation, habituating people to abstract the world into printed words, is supposed to have engendered that surplus of Faustian energy and psychic damage needed to build modern, inorganic societies. But print seems a less treacherous form of leaching out the world, of turning it into a mental object, than photographic images, which now provide most of the knowledge people have about the look of the past and the reach of the present. What is written about a person or an event is frankly an interpretation, as are handmade visual statements, like paintings and drawings. Photographed images do not seem to be statements about the world so much as pieces of it, miniatures of reality that anyone can make or acquire. Photographs, which fiddle with the scale of the world, themselves get reduced, blown up, cropped, retouched, doctored, tricked out. They age, plagued by the usual ills of paper objects; they disappear; they become valuable, and get bought and sold; they are reproduced. Photographs, which package the world, seem to invite packaging. They are stuck in albums, framed and set on tables, tacked on walls, projected as slides. Newspapers and magazines feature them; cops alphabetize them; museums exhibit them; publishers compile them.

“To collect photographs is to collect the world.�

For many decades the book has been the most influential way of arranging (and usually miniaturizing) photographs, thereby guaranteeing them longevity, if not immortality -- photographs are fragile objects, easily torn or mislaid -- and a wider public. The photograph in a book is, obviously, the image of an image. But since it is, to begin with, a printed, smooth object, a photograph loses much less of its essential quality when reproduced in a book than a painting does. Still, the book is not a wholly satisfactory scheme for putting groups of photographs into general circulation. The sequence in which the photographs are to be looked at is proposed by the order of pages, but nothing holds readers to the recommended order or indicates the amount of time to be spent on each photograph. Chris Marker's film, Si j'avais quatre dromadaires (1966), a brilliantly orchestrated meditation on photographs of all sorts and themes, suggests a subtler and more rigorous way of packaging (and enlarging) still photographs. Both the order and the exact time for looking at each photograph are imposed; and there is a gain in visual legibility and emotional impact. But photographs transcribed in a film cease to be collectable objects, as they still are when served up in books.


Photographs furnish evidence. Something we hear about, but doubt, seems proven when we're shown a photograph of it. In one version of its utility, the camera record incriminates. Starting with their use by the Paris police in the murderous roundup of Communards in June 1871, photographs became a useful tool of modern states in the surveillance and control of their increasingly mobile populations. In another version of its utility, the camera record justifies. A photograph passes for incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened. The picture may distort; but there is always a presumption that something exists, or did exist, which is like what's in the picture. Whatever the limitations (through amateurism) or pretensions (through artistry) of the individual photographer, a photograph -- any photograph -- seems to have a more innocent, and therefore more accurate, relation to visible reality than do other mimetic objects. Virtuosi of the noble image like Alfred Stieglitz and Paul Strand, composing mighty, unforgettable photographs decade after decade, still want, first of all, to show something "out there," just like the Polaroid owner for whom photographs are a handy, fast form of note-taking, or the shutterbug with a Brownie who takes snapshots as souvenirs of daily life.

“A photograph passes for incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened.�

While a painting or a prose description can never be other than a narrowly selective interpretation, a photograph can be treated as a narrowly selective transparency. But despite the presumption of veracity that gives all photographs authority, interest, seductiveness, the work that photographers do is no generic exception to the usually shady commerce between art and truth. Even when photographers are most concerned with mirroring reality, they are still haunted by tacit imperatives of taste and conscience. The immensely gifted members of the Farm Security Administration photographic project of the late 1930s (among them Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Russell Lee) would take dozens of frontal pictures of one of their sharecropper subjects until satisfied that they had gotten just the right look on film -- the precise expression on the subject's face that supported their own notions about poverty, light, dignity, texture, exploitation, and geometry. In deciding how a picture should look, in preferring one exposure to another, photographers are always imposing standards on their subjects. Although there is a sense in which the camera does indeed capture reality, not just interpret it, photographs are as much an interpretation of the world as paintings and drawings are. Those occasions when the taking of photographs is relatively undiscriminating, promiscuous, or self-effacing do not lessen the didacticism of the whole enterprise. This very passivity -- and ubiquity -- of the photographic record is photography's "message," its aggression.


“Although there is a sense in which the camera does indeed capture reality, not just interpret it, photographs are as much an interpretation of the world as paintings and drawings are. Those occasions when the taking of photographs is relatively undiscriminating, promiscuous, or selfeffacing do not lessen the didacticism of the whole enterprise. This very passivity -- and ubiquity -- of the photographic record is photography's "message," its aggression.�

Images which idealize (like most fashion and animal photography) are no less aggressive than work which makes a virtue of plainness (like class pictures, still lifes of the bleaker sort, and mug shots). There is an aggression implicit in every use of the camera. This is as evident in the 1840s and 1850s, photography's glorious first two decades, as in all the succeeding decades, during which technology made possible an ever increasing spread of that mentality which looks at the world as a set of potential photographs. Even for such early masters as David Octavius Hill and Julia Margaret Cameron who used the camera as a means of getting painterly images, the point of taking photographs was a vast departure from the aims of painters. From its start, photography implied the capture of the largest possible number of subjects. Painting never had so imperial a scope. The subsequent industrialization of camera technology only carried out a promise inherent in photography from its very beginning: to democratize all experiences by translating them into images. That age when taking photographs required a cumbersome and expensive contraption -- the toy of the clever, the wealthy, and the obsessed -- seems remote indeed from the era of sleek pocket cameras that invite anyone to take pictures. The first cameras, made in France and England in the early 1840s, had only inventors and buffs to operate them. Since there were then no professional photographers, there could not be amateurs either, and taking photographs had no clear social use; it was a gratuitous, that is, an artistic activity, though with few pretensions to being an art. It was only with its industrialization that photography came into its own as art. As industrialization provided social uses for the operations of the photographer, so the reaction against these uses reinforced the self-consciousness of photography-as-art.


On Photography Humankind lingers unregenerately in Plato's cave, still reveling, its age-old habit, in mere images of the truth. But being educated by photographs is not like being educated by older, more artisanal images. For one thing, there are a great many more images around, claiming our attention. The inventory started in 1839 and since then just about everything has been photographed, or so it seems. This very insatiability of the photographing eye changes the terms of confinement in the cave, our world. In teaching us a new visual code, photographs alter and enlarge our notions of what is worth looking at and what we have a right to observe. They are a grammar and, even more importantly, an ethics of seeing. Finally, the most grandiose result of the photographic enterprise is to give us the sense that we can hold the whole world in our heads—as an anthology of images. To collect photographs is to collect the world. Movies and television programs light up walls, flicker, and go out; but with still photographs the image is also an object, lightweight, cheap to produce, easy to carry about, accumulate, store. In Godard's Les Carabiniers (1963), two sluggish lumpen-peasants are lured into joining the King's Army by the promise that they will be able to loot, rape, kill, or do whatever else they please to the enemy, and get rich. But the suitcase of booty that Michel-Ange and Ulysse triumphantly bring home, years later, to their wives turns out to contain only picture postcards, hundreds of them, of Monuments, Department Stores, Mammals, Wonders of Nature, Methods of Transport, Works of Art, and other classified treasures from around the globe. Godard's gag vividly parodies the equivocal magic of the photographic image., Photographs are perhaps the most mysterious of all the objects that make up, and thicken, the environment we recognize as modern. Photographs really are experience captured, and the camera is the ideal arm of consciousness in its acquisitive mood.

To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting oneself into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge—and, therefore, like power. A now notorious first fall into alienation, habituating people to abstract the world into printed words, is supposed to have engendered that surplus of Faustian energy and psychic damage needed to build modern, inorganic societies. But print seems a less treacherous form of leaching out the world, of turning it into a mental object, than photographic images, which now provide most of the knowledge people have about the look of the past and the reach of the present. What is written about a person or an event is frankly an interpretation, as are handmade visual statements, like paintings and drawings. Photographed images do not seem to be statements about the world so much as pieces of it, miniatures of reality that anyone can make or acquire. Photographs, which fiddle with the scale of the world, themselves get reduced, blown up, cropped, retouched, doctored, tricked out. They age, plagued by the usual ills of paper objects; they disappear; they become valuable, and get bought and sold; they are reproduced. Photographs, which package the world, seem to invite packaging. They are stuck in albums, framed and set on tables, tacked on walls, projected as slides. Newspapers and magazines feature them; cops alphabetize them; museums exhibit them; publishers compile them.


y An Exerpt Plato’s Cave Susan Sontag

“To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting oneself into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge -- and, therefore, like power”


“Although there is a sense in which the camera

does indeed capture

reality, not just interpret it, photographs are as

much an interpretation

of the world as

paintings and drawings

are. Those occasions when the taking of

photographs is relatively

undiscriminating,

promiscuous, or self-

effacing do not lessen the didacticism of the

whole enterprise. This

very passivity -- and ubiquity -- of the

photographic record is

photography's "message," its aggression.”

For many decades the book has been the most influential way of arranging (and usually miniaturizing) photographs, thereby guaranteeing them longevity, if not immortality— photographs are fragile objects, easily torn or mislaid—and a wider public. The photograph in a book is, obviously, the image of an image. But since it is, to begin with, a printed, smooth object, a photograph loses much less of its essential quality when reproduced in a book than a painting does. Still, the book is not a wholly satisfactory scheme for putting groups of photographs into general circulation. The sequence in which the photographs are to be looked at is proposed by the order of pages, but nothing holds readers to the recommended order or indicates the amount of time to be spent on each photograph. Chris Marker's film, Si j'avais quatre dromadaires (1966), a brilliantly orchestrated meditation on photographs of all sorts and themes, suggests a subtler and more rigorous way of packaging (and enlarging) still photographs. Both the order and the exact time for looking at each photograph are imposed; and there is a gain in visual legibility and emotional impact. But photographs transcribed in a film cease to be collectable objects, as they still are when served up in books. Photographs furnish evidence. Something we hear about, but doubt, seems proven when we're shown a photograph of it. In one version of its utility, the camera record incriminates. Starting with their use by the Paris police in the murderous roundup of Communards in June 1871, photographs became a useful tool of modern states in the surveillance and control of their increasingly mobile populations. In another version of its utility, the camera record justifies. A photograph passes for incontrovertible proof that a given thing happened. The picture may distort; but there is always a presumption that something exists, or did exist, which is like what's in the picture. Whatever the limitations (through amateurism) or pretensions (through artistry) of the individual photographer, a photograph—any photograph—seems to have a more innocent, and therefore more accurate, relation to visible reality than do other mimetic objects. Virtuosi of the noble image like Alfred Stieglitz and Paul Strand, composing mighty, unforgettable photographs decade after decade, still want, first of all, to show something "out there," just like the Polaroid owner for whom photographs are a handy, fast form of note-taking, or the shutterbug with a Brownie who takes snapshots as souvenirs of daily life.


While a painting or a prose description can never be other than a narrowly selective interpretation, a photograph can be treated as a narrowly selective transparency. But despite the presumption of veracity that gives all photographs authority, interest, seductiveness, the work that photographers do is no generic exception to the usually shady commerce between art and truth. Even when photographers are most concerned with mirroring reality, they are still haunted by tacit imperatives of taste and conscience. The immensely gifted members of the Farm Security Administration photographic project of the late 1930s (among them Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Russell Lee) would take dozens of frontal pictures of one of their sharecropper subjects until satisfied that they had gotten just the right look on film—the precise expression on the subject's face that supported their own notions about poverty, light, dignity, texture, exploitation, and geometry. In deciding how a picture should look, in preferring one exposure to another, photographers are always imposing standards on their subjects. Although there is a sense in which the camera does indeed capture reality, not just interpret it, photographs are as much an interpretation of the world as paintings and drawings are. Those occasions when the taking of photographs is relatively undiscriminating, promiscuous, or self-effacing do not lessen the didacticism of the whole enterprise. This very passivity—and ubiquity—of the photographic record is photography's "message," its aggression.

Images which idealize (like most fashion and animal photography) are no less aggressive than work which makes a virtue of plainness (like class pictures, still lifes of the bleaker sort, and mug shots). There is an aggression implicit in every use of the camera. This is as evident in the 1840s and 1850s, photography's glorious first two decades, as in all the succeeding decades, during which technology made possible an ever increasing spread of that mentality which looks at the world as a set of potential photographs. Even for such early masters as David Octavius Hill and Julia Margaret Cameron who used the camera as a means of getting painterly images, the point of taking photographs was a vast departure from the aims of painters. From its start, photography implied the capture of the largest possible number of subjects. Painting never had so imperial a scope. The subsequent industrialization of camera technology only carried out a promise inherent in photography from its very beginning: to democratize all experiences by translating them into images. That age when taking photographs required a cumbersome and expensive contraption—the toy of the clever, the wealthy, and the obsessed—seems remote indeed from the era of sleek pocket cameras that invite anyone to take pictures. The first cameras, made in France and England in the early 1840s, had only inventors and buffs to operate them. Since there were then no professional photographers, there could not be amateurs either, and taking photographs had no clear social use; it was a gratuitous, that is, an artistic activity, though with few pretensions to being an art. It was only with its industrialization that photography came into its own as art. As industrialization provided social uses for the operations of the photographer, so the reaction against these uses reinforced the self-consciousness of photography-as-art.


final magazine


For my final magazine, I added a table of contents, because I felt that my magazine going from the cover to an opening spread seemed odd. This caused me to change the layout of my spreads, making my Susan Sontag spreads first, because they fit better with the table of contents. With my Susan Sontag spreads, I changed my images to have a red tint to continue on the red theme I have throughout my spreads. My Steven Klein spreads were in the middle, and were kept pretty similar to the last version of these spreads, except I fine tuned some small details. My Lee Miller spreads were last, and they were also fine tuned. Overall, before turning in my magazine I went through and checked every aspect of it to make sure there was consistency throughout. I moved things around to try and keep a consistent hang line through all spreads and made sure everything was locked to the baseline grid. For my cover, I changed the title on the front to red, and changed the back to have a red overlay. I am very happy with how my magazine turned out, and truly feel that I have grown a lot throughout this project and am starting to understand more and more what good design is.


thank you!

Magazine Process Book  

For this project, we had to make a magazine using a photographer of our choosing, a historical photographer, and an essay by Susan Sontag. H...

Magazine Process Book  

For this project, we had to make a magazine using a photographer of our choosing, a historical photographer, and an essay by Susan Sontag. H...

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