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Macedonian rulers (especially Philip II) were mainly trusted Macedonians, a fact that can be easily corroborated by a review of their inner circle. Simply because Aristotle was educated in Greek and for a long time was absent from Macedonia, does not necessarily mean that he was Greek. We do not contend that Alexander did not speak Greek. Rather, we argue that he spoke it as a second language and that his mother tongue was Macedonian, a language quite different from Greek. It is simply not credible that the signatories, all classical scholars, were totally ignorant of the ancient testimonies attesting to the clear differences in the languages of the ancient Macedonians and that of the Greeks of that time. We will undertake this task in their stead. Proof of the difference between the ancient Macedonian and Greek languages can be found in a fragment of papyrus believed to be part of the lost “History of the Inheritors” by the abovementioned Greek historian Arrian (Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, who lived around 92 to 175 CE). In this work (PSI XII.1284), there is an episode from Macedonian history in which the distinctiveness of the Macedonian language is clearly evident. Here we read that the secretary to Philip and Alexander of Macedon, Eumenes, “…sent forward a man named Xenias, who spoke Macedonian …” to negotiate with the Macedonian army of Neoptolomeus. This event took place around 321 BCE. We have already noted that Arrian wrote a biography of Alexander the Great of Macedon, which is considered the oldest, complete biography of this Macedonian warrior. In this biography, Arrian fequently stresses the difference between the Macedonians and the Greeks. Here, we will limit our remarks to a description of the battle of Issus, in which thousands of Greeks fought on the side of Persia against the Macedonians. Arrian wrote that in this battle the most violent conflict occurred between the Macedonians and the Greeks, and that this was chiefly because of the great hatred between the two nations. Arrian put it this way:

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TIMELESS MACEDONIAN UNIQUENESS  
TIMELESS MACEDONIAN UNIQUENESS  

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