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   For ICAO compliance

Henry Emery & Andy Roberts

SAMPLE UNIT

Sample only, final coursebook pages may differ from the sample pages included.


Introduction to Aviation English

Background ICAO is a United Nations organisation which was established to administer the Convention on International Civil Aviation. Following a series of highly publicised air accidents, ICAO responded to a request from its member states to investigate the potential causes. It was found that in several cases an inadequate knowledge of English could have been a contributing factor in the accident. From 5th March 2008, as a condition of licensing, all flight crew members and air traffic controllers involved in international traffic will be required to prove their competence in English to a standard equivalent to level 4 in the ICAO universal rating scales. (see page 5)

Who is the course for? This course is for aviation professionals – particularly pilots and air-traffic controllers – who wish to reach and maintain ‘operational’ Level 4 as measured by the ICAO Language Profile descriptors. We aim to increase the students’ confidence in their ability to communicate, and to equip them with the very specific skills described in the ICAO Level 4 language profile. These are the skills students will need not only to succeed in any Level 4 assessment, but also, by extension, to function effectively and safely in an aviation environment. It is not the function of the course to teach phraseology, but phraseology is included to provide a context for the plain English needed for communication between pilots and air-traffic controllers, and between pilots and pilots. Our main focus, however, is on the language needed to communicate in non-routine or/and emergency situations during flight operations. The course material is very flexible and can be used in different ways. This Student’s Book and accompanying CD-ROMs are completely self-standing and are all a student needs if studying independently. The answer key for all the exercises can be found at the back of the Student’s Book and the audio files for listening practice are on the Student’s Book CD-ROM.

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How does the course work? We based the course on ICAO Document 9835: Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements. Everything in it has been carefully designed to help the student develop the very specific skills described in the ICAO Level 4 language profile. To satisfy the requirements of this profile, students will need to achieve Level 4 in all of the following six categories:

   For ICAO compliance

Henry Emery & Andy Roberts

Pronunciation Structure Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension (Aural) Interaction

Since speaking and listening skills are the only ones measured, Aviation English does not teach reading and writing skills. The whole course is very much geared not just to improving the students’ ability to communicate, but also to giving them greater confidence in this ability. The Student’s Book and the CD-ROMs play separate but complementary roles in helping the students to achieve this and should be seen as parts of a whole.

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Components

What are the course components?

The full course consists of: Student’s Book and CD-ROMs pack Student’s Book CD-ROM Macmillan English Dictionary Pronunciation CD-ROM Teacher’s Book Class Audio CDs Companion website.

The full course with supporting pedagogical material will be of particular interest to teachers and institutions who need to deliver aviation English language training to groups of students or to individuals. The full course with supporting pedagogical material will be of particular interest to teachers and institutions who need to deliver aviation English language training to groups of students or to individuals.

Student’s Book

   For ICAO compliance

The Student’s Book contains the material for the course in the form of reading and listening texts, the primary purpose of which is to present new vocabulary and to provide a context for the exercises and language functions. There are lots of pair-work and group-work activities for speaking practice for the benefit of students using the course in a classroom situation. Each of the 12 units in the Student’s Book is divided into four twopage sections.

Henry Emery & Andy Roberts

Section 1 is based on a reading text or texts and provides an introduction to the main theme of the unit. Section 2 is based on a listening text or texts and provides sustained listening and pronunciation practice work. Section 3 is based on an emergency or non-routine flight operation scenario. It always contains a listening text or texts involving an R/T exchange with a mixture of phraseology and plain English. Section 4 is an extension section which includes further practice and consolidation of language taught within the unit. 3


CD-ROMs Student’s Book CD-ROM The interactive CD-ROM complements the print material by providing interactive simulations, detailed pronunciation and extra listening. The CD-ROM material is split into 12 units which match those of the Student’s Book. It has two sections. Section 1 contains further practice on pronunciation and listening. Section 2 contains animated interactive sequences in which students are encouraged to use the language taught in the corresponding unit of the book. Students can compare their own speech to model responses and take the role of any of the characters in the animation.

Macmillan English Dictionary Pronunciation CD-ROM MACMILLAN

This CD-ROM enables students to hear British and American recordings of every word in the award-winning Macmillan English Dictionary, to make sure they are being pronounced correctly. They can see at a glance how frequent a word is, with the straightforward red/black coding system: the most frequently used words in English are shown in red and graded with stars. Extra words specific to the aviation industry have been added in this special edition of the CD-ROM.

English DICTIONARY

FOR ADVANCED LEARNERS

S SECOND ECOND ED ITION EDITION

Version 2.0.0704 Impression 1

www.macmillandictionaries.com © Macmillan Publishers Limited 2007 Software © IDM, France 2007 This material is copyright and unauthorized copying is illegal. ISBN: 978-1-405-02629-1

Teacher’s Book As well as containing teaching notes, listening scripts and detailed answers for all the activities in the Student’s Book, the Teacher’s Book includes background information and advice to assist teachers in the delivery and context of the exercises. There is helpful information for both aviation experts with little experience of teaching, and teachers with little experience of aviation. There are additional photocopiable materials available for teachers both on the website and in the Teacher’s Book. TITLE Student’s Book & CD-ROMs Pack Teacher’s Book Class Audio CDs

ISBN 978 0230 02757 2 978 0230 02758 9 978 0230 02759 6

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ICAO Rating Scale The scale by which the language proficiency of pilots and controllers is measured

Level

Expert 6

Extended 5

Operational 4

PreOperational 3

Elementary 2

PreElementary 1

Pronunciation Structure Assumes a dialect and/or accent intelligible to the aeronautical community.

Structure

Relevant grammatical structures and sentence patterns are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.

Vocabulary

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though possibly influenced by the first language or regional variation, almost never interfere with ease of understanding.

Both basic and complex grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on a wide variety of familiar and unfamiliar topics. Vocabulary is idiomatic, nuanced, and sensitive to register.

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though influenced by the first language or regional variation, rarely interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled. Complex structures are attempted but with errors which sometimes interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics. Paraphrases consistently and successfully. Vocabulary is sometimes idiomatic.

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation and frequently interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns associated with predictable situations are not always well controlled. Errors frequently interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are often sufficient to communicate on common, concrete, or work-related topics but range is limited and the word choice often inappropriate. Is often unable to paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary.

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are heavily influenced by the first language or regional variation and usually interfere with ease of understanding.

Shows only limited control of a few simple memorized grammatical structures and sentence patterns.

Limited vocabulary range consisting only of isolated words and memorized phrases.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

From 5th March 2008 all flight crew members and air traffic controllers involved in international traffic will be required to prove their competence in English. It will be a condition of licensing that the professional pilot or air traffic controller should have demonstrated their proficiency in Plain English and English medium phraseology to a standard equivalent to level 4 in the ICAO universal rating scales. The level of the candidate above level 4 will be shown by an endorsement on the flying or air traffic control licence.

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y

Fluency

Comprehension

Interactions

Able to speak at length with a natural, effortless flow. Varies speech flow for stylistic effect, e.g. to emphasize a point. Uses appropriate discourse markers and connectors spontaneously.

Comprehension is consistently accurate in nearly all contexts and includes comprehension of linguistic and cultural subtleties.

Interacts with ease in nearly all situations. Is sensitive to verbal and non-verbal cues, and responds to them appropriately.

Able to speak at length with relative ease on familiar topics, but may not vary speech flow as a stylistic device. Can make use of appropriate discourse markers or connectors.

Comprehension is accurate on common, concrete, and work-related topics and mostly accurate when the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events. Is able to comprehend a range of speech varieties (dialect and/or accent) or registers.

Responses are immediate, appropriate, and informative. Manages the speaker/listener relationship effectively.

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work-related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require clarification strategies.

Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

Produces stretches of language, but phrasing and pausing are often inappropriate. Hesitations or slowness in language processing may prevent effective communication. Fillers are sometimes distracting.

Comprehension is often accurate on common, concrete, and work related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. May fail to understand a linguistic or situational turn of events.

Responses are sometimes immediate, appropriate, and informative. Can initiate and maintain exchanges with reasonable ease on familiar topics and in predictable situations. Generally inadequate when dealing with an unexpected turn of events.

Can produce very short, isolated, memorized utterances with frequent pausing and a distracting use of fillers to search for expressions and to articulate less familiar words.

Comprehension is limited to isolated, memorized phrases when they are carefully and slowly articulated.

Response time is slow, and often inappropriate. Interaction is limited to simple routine exchanges.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

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Contents

Unit / Title

Section topic

1 People

2 Lost!

3

Automation

4 Animal world

5 Gravity

6 Health

Section focus

Functions

Pronunciation Pronunciation

macro

micro

1 Strange jobs

Reading and vocabulary

Long and short vowels

Describing jobs and work

Jobs and routines

2 Aerodrome layout

Listening and speaking

Word stress

Asking for and giving clarification

Aerodromes/vehicles

3 Runway Incursions

R/T

Tone groups

Collision

1 Across the Pacific

Reading and vocabulary

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Navigation

2 Finding Prochnow

Listening and speaking

Sentence stress

3 Lost in the mountains

R/T

Confirmation

1 Fly by wire

Reading and vocabulary

2 Automatic ATC

Listening and speaking

3 Electrical Failure

R/T

1 Snakes on a plane

Reading and vocabulary

1 Air race!

Listening and speaking

3 Engine failure/bird strike

R/T

1 Round-the-world gliders

Reading and vocabulary

2 Helicopter rescue

Listening and speaking

3 Hydraulic failure

R/T

1 Stress

Reading and vocabulary

2 Flying doctors

Listening and speaking

3 Medical Emergency

R/T

Past tense endings

Time of day Asking for and giving confirmation

Topographical features

Explaining how something works

Flight deck

Consonants Tonic stress

Information technology Giving instructions

Pronunciation Structure Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension (Aural) Interaction

Equipment failure

Capacity Diphthongs 1 Pausing

Comparing and contrasting

Words related to powered flight

Stating intentions

Malfunction

Verbs of physical/ mechanical activity Final consonants Intonation

Consonant clusters 1

Expressing preference

Sequencers

Stating reluctance and giving reasons

Manoeuvres and control surfaces

Describing cause and effect

Wellbeing

Making suggestions/giving advice

Accidents and injuries

The contents cover all the categories you will need to achieve Level 4

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Vocabulary

Symptoms


Unit / Title

7 Fire

8

Meteorology

9 Private Aviation

10

Environment

11 Space

12 Security

Section topic

Section focus

1 Wild fire

Reading and vocabulary

2 Firefighters

Listening and speaking

3 On-board fire

Pronunciation Pronunciation

macro

micro

Functions

Vocabulary

Fire and senses Giving orders and commands

Discourse markers

R/T

Announcing spontaneous decisions and actions

Fire-fighting equipment

1 Storm busters

Reading and vocabulary

Expressing feeling/ reassuring

Weather

2 Sailing the skies (balloon flight)

Listening and speaking

3 Wind shear/Icing

R/T

1 Luxury aviation

Reading and vocabulary

2 Jumbolair

Listening and speaking

3 Gear/braking problems

R/T

1 Aviation and the environment

Reading and vocabulary

2 Energy efficient?

Listening and speaking

3 Fuel shortage

R/T

1 Space tourism

Reading and vocabulary

2 Altitude records

Listening and speaking

3 Decompression

R/T

1 VIPs

Reading and vocabulary

2 Security personnel

Listening and speaking

3 Unlawful intervention

R/T

Quotation and parenthetical speech

Contrastive stress

Plurals

Voiced and unvoiced consonants

Climate and season Expressing consequence, Warning, Predicting

Weather equipment

Cabin Consonant clusters 2 Emphasis

Describing places

Prepositions of place

Prioritising and emphasising

Evacuation

Affixes (re-) Sentence stress 2

Long and short vowels

Nouns/verbs

Expressing nonunderstanding of a situation

Weights and measures

Asking for and offering assistance

Fuelling

Expressing obligation, prohibition and permission

Materials

Diphthongs 2

Life support systems Querying an action

Damage

Speculating and deducing

Dangerous/Illegal goods

Describing people and behaviour, reporting

Behaviour and feelings

Security Stress, Intonation and Pausing

Word stress 2: stress in longer words

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Student’s Book material

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Student’s Book material

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Student’s Book material

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Student’s Book material

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Student’s Book material

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Student’s Book material

Prochnow AUK ATC Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette

Prochnow

Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette

Mayday. Mayday. Mayday. Auckland Control. November four-five-alpha-charlie. I’m lost. I’m a Cessna 188 AgWagon. November four-five-alpha-charlie, Auckland centre roger mayday. Tango-echo-one-zero-three contacting November-four-five-alpha-Charlie. Tango echo one zero three contacting November four five alpha Charlie. November four five alpha charlie. Copy. November four five alpha charlie. We are a DC-10 en route from Fiji to New Zealand. We received news of your situation and we are offering assistance. Can you tell me what happened? Tango echo one zero three. Thanks. I took off from Pago Pago at three this morning. I wanted to have enough light to see my fixes and I filled the tanks to give me around 22 hours endurance. But during the flight the ADF stopped working correctly and took me off course. At the moment I know I’m off track and I can’t calculate my position. November four five alpha charlie. November four five alpha charlie. We are flying in your direction. You are not alone. We are going to try to establish VHF communication with you. Tango echo one zero three. Again, thank you. November four five alpha charlie. November four five alpha charlie. Turn towards the sun and report your heading. Wilco. My heading is two seven four degrees. November four five alpha charlie. We are facing the sun. Our heading is two seven zero. The difference is four degrees, which means you are south of our position. November four five alpha charlie. Now hold out your hand. How many fingers do you have between the horizon and the sun? About two and a half fingers. November four five alpha charlie. Two and a half fingers. We have four fingers. We believe you are south west of our position. Fly heading three one five. Heading three zero five. November four five alpha charlie. Maintain your position. We’re going to try to establish your position using the radio signal. We’re going to maintain our heading until we lose contact. Then we will then turn left to re-establish contact, and then try to box you in this way. We’ll contact you again very soon. *PAUSE*

Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette

Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow

November four five alpha charlie. It’s getting dark. What time is your sunset? The sun is setting now, and it zero seven five two zulu. November four five alpha charlie. Sunset on Norfolk Island is zero seven three zero zulu. That means you are five decimal six degrees east and three zero degrees south of Norfolk Island. Maintain your heading. You’re going to make it! Tango echo one zero three. I can see a light, yes it’s a light, it looks like a ship, no I think it’s an oil rig. November four five alpha Charlie. Your coordinates are 31°S 170° 21’E. We are on our way. You are one five zero miles from Norfolk Island. We’ll guide you to Norfolk Island. Maintaining heading three zero five. November four five alpha charlie.

2.2.1 Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Captain Vette

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Turn towards the sun and report your heading. Wilco. My heading is two-seven-four degrees. Sunset on Norfolk Island is zero seven three zero zulu. That means you are five decimal six degrees east and three zero degrees south of Norfolk Island. Your coordinates are three-one degrees south, one-seven-zero degrees two-one minutes east. You are one five zero miles from Norfolk Island.


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Teacher’s Book material

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22


Teacher’s Book material

Prochnow AUK ATC Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow

Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette

[PAUSE] Captain Vette Prochnow Captain Vette

Prochnow Captain Vette Prochnow

23

Mayday. Mayday. Mayday. Auckland Control. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. I’m lost. I’m a Cessna 188 AgWagon. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie, Auckland centre roger mayday. Tango-Echo-one-zero-three contacting November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Tango-Echo-one-zero-three contacting November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Copy. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. We are a DC-10 en route from Fiji to New Zealand. We received news of your situation and we are offering assistance. Can you tell me what happened? Tango-Echo-one-zero-three. Thanks. I took off from Pago Pago at three this morning. I wanted to have enough light to see my fixes and I filled the tanks to give me around 22 hours endurance. But during the flight the ADF stopped working correctly and took me off course. At the moment I know I’m off track and I can’t calculate my position. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. We are flying in your direction. You are not alone. We are going to try to establish VHF communication with you. Tango-Echo-one-zero-three. Again, thank you. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Turn towards the sun and report your heading. Wilco. My heading is two-seven-four degrees. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. We are facing the sun. Our heading is two-seven-zero. The difference is four degrees, which means you are south of our position. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Now hold out your hand. How many fingers do you have between the horizon and the sun? About two and a half fingers. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Two and a half fingers. We have four fingers. We believe you are south west of our position. Fly heading three-one-five. Heading three-zero-five. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Maintain your position. We’re going to try to establish your position using the radio signal. We’re going to maintain our heading until we lose contact. Then we will then turn left to re-establish contact, and then try to box you in this way. We’ll contact you again very soon. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. It’s getting dark. What time is your sunset? The sun is setting now, and it zero-seven-five-two-zulu. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Sunset on Norfolk Island is zero-seven-three-zero zulu. That means you are fivedecimal-six degrees east and three-zero degrees south of Norfolk Island. Maintain your heading. You’re going to make it! Tango-Echo-one-zero-three. I can see a light, yes it’s a light, it looks like a ship, no I think it’s an oil rig. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie. Your coordinates are 31°S 170° 21’E. We are on our way. You are one-five-zero miles from Norfolk Island. We’ll guide you to Norfolk Island. Maintaining heading three-zero-five. November-four-five-Alpha-Charlie.


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Supplementary material

Macmillan has a wide range of supplementary material which is perfect to use alongside the Aviation English course.

Macmillan English Dictionary The most frequently used 7,500 words in English - the ideal vocabulary size for an advanced learner - are printed in red, graded with stars, and explained with extra detail about how you should use them.

Language Practice Series Grammar and vocabulary practice combined in one book, with clear presentation and practice of the language you really need to know.

NEW

Paul Emmerson

email English

Presentations in English Builds and improves your skills and knowledge and gives you conďŹ dence to make effective presentations in English.

Includes Phrase Bank

Email English

of useful expressions

Features a variety of exercise types and covers a wide range of topics to help you construct more effective emails.

Telephone English Teaches you how to build successful relationships on the phone. Includes a Phrase Bank and review lessons.

Macmillan Readers

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."$.*--"/

Around the World in Daisy Miller Eighty Days Henry James Jules Verne

Carefully graded levels from Starter to Upper Intermediate so you get the right reading material for your ability.

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For more information about Macmillan titles please contact: International Marketing, Macmillan Education, Between Towns Road, Oxford OX4 3PP, UK Tel: +44 (0)1865 405700 www.macmillanenglish.com/aviationenglish

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AUTHORS

Get to know more about the people who write for Macmillan. As well as reading full biographies, you can download presentations and watch video clips from some of our popular author talks.

RESOURCES

Macmillan English takes the hassle out of finding resources online. With an impressive choice of internetbased materials, you'll find everything you need to enrich your course. Take advantage of the regularly updated resources, exciting competitions and news and events on our range of dedicated resource sites.

Register for the weekly Macmillan English Update to receive e-lessons to suit your teaching needs straight to your inbox. www.macmillanenglish.com/register

www.macmillanenglish.com

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Aviation English is a new course in English language communication skills for pilots and air-traffic controllers. It is designed to help students achieve and maintain a Level 4 according to the ICAO language requirements. The CD-ROMs help students improve their interactive skills and work on their pronunciation in an authentic aviation environment, whilst the print material provides systematic language input. The course is a valuable aid to all students preparing for Level 4 assessment. It can be used as a self-study package for individuals or with groups in a classroom.

The Authors Henry Emery Henry is a teacher, teacher-trainer and examiner of plain English for aeronautical communication. He is co-director of a language consultancy (www.emery-roberts.co.uk), assisting aviation organizations around the world with the implementation of the ICAO language proficiency requirements. Henry joined the ICAO PRICESG Linguistic Sub Group to work on the Training Aid ‘Rated Speech Samples’ and he works closely with the International Civil Aviation English Association (ICAEA). He lives with his wife in Plymouth, United Kingdom.

Andy Roberts Andy has been working in the field of EFL for twenty years and has lived and worked in The Middle East, Russia and China. He is an experienced English language examiner, and aviation English test designer. As a partner in emery-roberts, Andy works throughout the world delivering aviation English teacher training, rater/interlocutor courses and aviation English communication workshops (www.emery-roberts.co.uk). He has three daughters and lives by the sea in Plymouth.

The Macmillan English Dictionary is a perfect supplement to the course, offering pronunciations of every word in British and American English, and a recording facility for you to practise your own pronunciation.

www.macmillanenglish.com/aviationenglish

9780230038455


Macmillan: Aviation English