Page 1

Other Cartographies


mapping female cartographers’ experiences

women | cartographers | cartography | invisibility | body | belonging

Project by Kiara M Firpi CarriĂłn

Mentored by Diego Iglesias & Amparo LasĂŠn MACA 2016-2017

The Cartographer | Introduction page 07


The Others | Invisibility A. Inequality of subaltern inhabitants: women page 11 B. Female invisibility in different disciplines page 17 C. What, by whom, for who is cartography page 22 D. Reasons for no recognition in cartography and different platforms page 29

The Other Cartographies | Visibility A. Map Worlds: A History of female cartographers by Will C. Van Den Hoonard page 37 B. A different methodology in cartography | No truth in maps page 40 C. Feminist Geography and Feminist Cartography | The Other way page 44

The Others’ Proposal page 56 Conclusion page 59 Bibliography page 61


Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

The ‘cartographer’ | Introduction

Throughout History women have been recognised for their achievements at a precise moment, but written off in the historical context. Although movements for equal rights have prospered since the 20th century, in the interdisciplinary division, female cartographers fall into this kind of invisibility. Many have written about the oblivion of women in different disciplines but this master’s project will highlight what women have contributed to the field of cartography. Not only talk about them, but also about their maps. The objective is not to treat them as victims of this exclusion, but to recognise and highlight what they have achieved in the world of cartography. The urge to write about this topic came while I was researching about the term Pyschogeography. In Guy Debord’s1 words, it means:

“the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment, consciously organized or not, on the emotions and behaviour of individuals.” A female wandering around the city is called the flâneuse.2 Reading about the contribution the flâneuse have had in literature like Virginia Woolf3 and Anne Frank4, I asked myself if there were females mapping their experiences in the cartography field.

1 He was a French Marxist theorist, philosopher, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International, founder of a Letterist faction, and founding member of the Situationist International. 2 A female walker. A women who gets to know the city by wandering its streets. 3 “The streets gave her everything she needed. As she walked through the city, she would rewrite scenes in her mind”. She was an English writer who is considered one of the foremost modernists of the twentieth century and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device. 4 She was a German-born diarist. One of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust, she gained fame posthumously with the publication of The Diary of a Young Girl, which she documents her life in hiding from 1942 to 1944, during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. 7

The ‘Cartographer’ | Introduction

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

I stumble upon a book called Map Worlds: A History of female cartographers5 by Will C. Van Den Hoonard and realised the amount of work women have contributed in cartography parallel to men, and how pertinent it is to make emphasis and bring light to their work. In the article A Critical Cartography of Feminist Post-Postmodernism Rosi Braidotti6 explains how in the historical era of globalisation is the meeting ground on which sameness (patriarchy) and otherness (feminism/equality) or centre and periphery confront each other and redefine their inter-relation. This project seeks to combine and find a middle ground in a subject that’s considered taboo in the History of geography and cartography. Exclusion inspired female cartographers to succeed in the discipline, analysing it in a different perspective. Not only geographically, but introducing a new way of representing space through a feminist point of view, taking into account the body of the subaltern inhabitant in the territory. The outset methodology of finding these cartographers and cartographies was: 1. Creating a list of female cartographers and their cartographies 2. Reading articles talking about the female cartographers and their cartographies 3. Looking for platforms that have and haven’t acknowledged the contribution of female cartographers

The concluding methodology is: A Cartography of Cartographies, utilising the female cartographers’ cartographies. This is a practical project, and therefore it is crucial to generate a visual relation between this text and the Cartography of Cartographies. The project is divided in short texts related to female cartographers, their cartographies and their interdisciplinary invisibility and work. The cartographies are from different eras and countries. Each of them are categorised in five different themes explained in chapter II part C. As you keep reading you will notice the relation between the maps and the topic of each chapter. All the cartographies mentioned and described in the text will have assigned coordinates. The coordinates EX [ , ] will guide the reader to the image of the Cartography of the Cartographies. Although there’s a copy alongside the text, for more information, all the cartographies can be found in the official website of this project:


5 Go to chapter III to read more about the book and author. 6 She is a contemporary philosopher and feminist theoretician. Page 3. 8


Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences


The Others | Invisibility a. Inequality of subaltern inhabitants: women

“Within the human collectivity, women, among other genders, is a product developed by civilization… Woman is defined neither by her hormones nor by mysterious instincts but the way she grasps, through foreign consciousness, her body and her relation to the world…” The Second Sex page 856 by Simone de Beauvoir

The human body is a place, is a physical space. The way of representing ourselves to others and being perceived by them varies according to the place we occupy in each moment.1 According to Judith Butler2, the human body is also a cultural place with meanings of gender. It establishes a social construction between the self and the other, resulting in the creation of an identity. The creation of an identity through human bodies is something that contemporary feminist theories3 have been talking about since the 1800’s. The human body does not have one location or scale. It’s a concept where it embraces multiplicity at the interstices of power and patriarchy. Feminist theory draws on understandings of embodied experiences to fundamentally challenge bedrocks of Western social and political thought.4 1 Gender, identity and place; understanding feminist geographies by Linda McDowell. Page 59 2 She is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory. 3 Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. 4 Companion to feminist geography by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager. Page 2 10


The Others | Invisibility

The philosopher Simone de Beauvoir5 in her main thesis The Second Sex explain how women have been held in a relationship of long-standing oppression to men through their relegation to being men’s others.6 Resulting in an obstruction of defining, establishing and achieving political, economic, personal and social equality of sexes. The term other can be found in the most primitive societies. From village people viewing anyone that not belonged there as suspicious other to Jews being the others for Christians. Even the native of a country view as foreigners the inhabitants of other countries. But the author of Feminism and Geography, Gillian Rose says identity is relational; the self can only be constituted through comparison with the other, and the establishment of similarities and differences. The masculine needs, for its definition, the feminine, just as the white race needs the other races to build consciousness of their own identity, and in the same way that the bourgeois depends on the proletarian, the heterosexual of the homosexual, etc. The other is a product largely from the imagination and power of men. 1 This system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are larely excluded is called patriarchy.7 In the book The Gender Knot by author Allan G. Johnson8, he talks about how society has been

patriarchal to the degree that it is organized around an obsession with control and involves as one of its aspects the oppression of women. Whatever the variations between men and the extent of the changes experienced by the female condition of a few decades to this part, men, as a group, continue to be the privileged group on the basis of the distribution of power in contemporary societies. This also applies in academic institutions. 5 She was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist. 6 7 Defined by the Oxford dictionary. 8 He is an American writer and public speaker who works in the fields of sociology and gender studies. One of his nonfiction works is The Gender Knot: Unraveling our Patriarchal Legacy, about the detrimental effects of the patriarchy. 12

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

These inequalities of subaltern groups can be validated in the lack of historical recognition. Most females’ work has been erased and censored from History. A few reasons are the devaluation and oppression of their work and the neglect and discrimination in schools, jobs and promotions. Although repressed by the system, women were always determined to be heard. In 1914 The National American Women Suffrage Association9 from the United States decided to design a cartography where it showed which countries women had the rights to vote. In November 6, 1917 the suffrage was granted for every USA women. The cartography Global Gender Gap: A world of inequality created by Abby Lois10 in 2015 talks about the inequality that still occurs between men and women in education, health, economy and politics. The cartography states that no country has reached full gender equality, though Iceland is the best place to live for women. One of the innumerable reasons is the concession to allow the participation of women in the labor market, being the highest percentage in the world (88%). Although not entirely associated to gender rights but with human rights, the professor of Geography at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, Regina Araujo de Almeida, is the world’s leading cartographer in Tactile Mapping for the visually impaired people. She works with different textures to distinguish earth and water, topography for raised areas and braille for the name of the places.11 9 It was formed on February 18, 1890 to work for women’s suffrage in the United States. It was created by the merge of two existing organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA). 10 She is a student at the University of Wisconsin. She designed this cartography in the Introduction to Cartography class for her final project. Fall 2015 semester. http:// 11 13

The Others | Invisibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

[1914, women as subject]

[2015, women as subject]

“Votes for women a success”

“Global Gender Gap: a world of inequality”

by the National Women Suffrage Association

by Abby Lois





Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

The Others | Invisibility


a. b. Female invisibility in different disciplines

Historically women have been excluded from major universities, institutions, activities and professions. Disciplines like arts, science, architecture… They have been allowed to participate but generally as second-class citizens.1 In the 19th century there were seminaries, academies, collegiate institutions, that provided a basic-level education for women. In the 20th century, women, like men, had a primary education. However, just few were allowed to do a degree in the University and the quality of the education women got was lower than men’s. Many were segregated of men, sitting in a corner of the classroom. Men were given the credit of the work done by the females… these are just a few examples of what women had to go through to get an education.

[1949, interdisciplinary subfield]

“Tactile mapping” by Regina Araujo de Almeida Global

One discipline that has forgotten the work of pioneer women is psychology. The thesis El olvido de las mujeres pioneras en la Historia de la Psicología written by Silvia García Dauder explains how women in psychology have been made invisible. They have had to face practices and structures that excluded them, they have been denied recognition and their activities have been underestimated, but what can not be affirmed in their absence. She explains how this invisibility determined in some cases the contents of their theories and their way of investigating and understanding science and its subjects. The urgency to respond to the daily exclusions led some to study social sexual differences and demolish myths about the inferiority of women, developing a scientific feminism that did not leave psychology immune. The presence of women psychologists, as a social group excluded as subjects of knowledge, allowed the visibility of the unquestioned, expanding the cognitive horizon of a blind and uncritical male scientific community to certain fields of ignorance. 1 A person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.



The Others | Invisibility

After the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865 an estimate of 620,000 (mostly males) lives were killed disrupting the gender balance resulting in servicing communities. The immigration and urban growth was booming also. The social workers Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr decided to create a house for people with different social backgrounds and class, naming it the Hull House1. It was also home to a number of educated women such as psychologists and to develop socio-political activism.

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

An artist and architect that keeps breaking the boundaries in the artistic field is Valerie Goodwin.7 The language of lines, shapes and patterns fascinates her. She creates fiber art inspired by realistic and abstract imagery of maps. When she began to make art quilts, she was intrigued by aerial views of places. In one of her works titled City Grid IV, she incorporated her own admiration for architecture to create a cartography of an imaginary abstract city.

A woman interested in psychology and sociology named Agnes Sinclair Holbrook2 designed in 1895 cartographies titled Nationalities Maps illustrating the nationalities of immigrants living near by the Hull House. The map itself asserts a progressive ideal of America: a nation that opens its arms to huddled masses, yearning to be free.3 Another discipline that has been dominated by men in the Western is Art. Despite the increasing exposure of female artists, the inequality persists. According to artists Micol Hebron’s on going Gallery Tally project4, 70% of the artists represented by the top galleries across USA are male. In a film created by Artsy in collaboration with Gucci5, five female artists6 reflect on the barriers that they have faced in the industry and the different networks that helped advance their cause. There’s galleries like A.I.R Gallery, established in 1972 in Plymouth St, Brooklyn, NYC, USA, which is the first all female artists cooperative gallery in the United States. 1 The Hull House was located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Nowadays the building itself is a museum, part of the College of Architecture and the Arts at the University of Illinois at Chicago. 2 She indicated that “the inhabitants, as the maps show, are chiefly foreigners,” and that the study area “includes east of the river a criminal district which ranks as one of the most openly and flagrantly vicious in the civilized world and west of the same stream the poorest, and probably the most crowded section of Chicago.” 3 4 It follows a strategically collaborative working model that has been common among feminists and activists for decades. A collaboration among artists results in the creation of a horizontal or rhisomatic labor structure, rather than a hierarchical (and patriarchal) one. 5 6 Barbara Zucker, Lynn Hershman Leeson, Faith Ringgold, Joan Semmel and Todd Levin. 18

7 She is fascinated by the language of lines, shapes and patterns. She is drawn to what she perceives to be the symbols and language found in maps and architectural drawings. 19

The Others | Invisibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

[1896, interdisciplinary subfield]

[2007, interdisciplinary subfield]

“Nationalities Maps” Maps”

“City Grid IV” IV”

by Agnes Sinclair Holbrook

by Valerie Goodwin

Chicago, USA




The Others | Invisibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

It’s said that Columbus used this map or one like it to persuade Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile to support his exploration in the early 1490s.4

a. c. What, by whom, for who is cartography

It is undefined when the first cartography was ever made but it has been fundamental throughout History to understand the existence of spaces and territories. The Canadian Cartography Association defines cartography as the discipline dealing with the conception, production, dissemination and study of maps. Cartography is also about representation – the map. This means that cartography is the whole process of mapping1; from deciding what will be mapped, to the process and result of it. In Juie Nichols’s2 thesis titled Maps and Meanings: Urban Cartography

and Urban Design she explains how “a cartography refers to

the visual representation of earthly terrains as well as to the conceptualization and production of such visual representations in the form of maps.”3 Cartography exploded in 17th and 18th century with the purpose to dominate the world and order it. The main reason: European settlers wanted to conquer territories in America and having the latest navigation system was of advantage for them. The Henricus Martellus World map is an example of a historical map illustrated by a German cartographer in 1490. 1 2 Graduated from The University of Adelaide. School of Architecture, Landscape Architecture and Urban Design. 3 Page 60 22

This quest for producing truth5 documents has been the preoccupation for Western cartographers since the late Middle Ages; especially with the need for accurate cartographies with respect to navigation, fighting wars, and regulating property ownership. However, It was only in the 1950s that the first sustained attempts began to emerge in the USA to reposition and remold academic cartography as an entirely scientific pursuit. Although the academic cartography emerged in the 1950s, the CIA Cartography Centre6 began making vital contributions to the USA’s security, providing policymakers with information that cannot be communicated through words alone. The first female Intelligence Cartographer in the group was Marion Frieswyk. She was a 21-year-old graduate student at Clark University when she first started working for the CIA in 1942 until 1958.7 Important cartographies were designed while Frieswyk was working in the group. Taking for example the cartography The Russian front in review. During World War II cartographers pioneered many map production and thematic design techniques. It was key to the US war-planning strategy. But they were also used for the post-war reconstruction, turmoil in the Middle East and communist expansion. The cartography International Trade: Vegetable Tannins is a representation of production capabilities for that time. Daily analyses were prepared for the President and other selected senior US officials.8

4 5 Go to part E to read more. 6 The mission of the Cartography Center is to provide a full range of maps, geographic analysis, and research in support of the Agency, the White House, senior policymakers, and the IC at large. 7 8 23

The Others | Invisibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

Parallel to these new attempts of representing the world in cartographies, although with no recognition of their work, women have been transitioning in the geographical field since the 19th century. In North America one of the education for women in school was embroidering silk world globes. By the 20th century they continued more actively producing maps; from civil war propaganda to urban statistical data. A great example of these female cartographers is Marie Tharp. She was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer who worked side by side with Bruce Heezen. In 1971 they created the first map of the entire ocean floor. She drew the map from photographic data since Navy regulations barred Tharp from traveling on research vessels with her colleagues. It is very surprising how, with limited technology, she was able to defy boundaries. A female cartographer who embodied her black lineage in cartographies was Louise E. Jefferson. Following her father’s footsteps as a calligrapher and commercial illustrator, she became one of the greatest pictorial mapmakers of the early 20th century. She created in 1946 a cartography representing the contributions black people did at that time in the United States: black American scientists, scholars, inventors, writers, musicians, artists, steel workers, farmers, actors, athletes… they were all drawn and located in there respective geographies, including a brief description of their achievements and contributions.9

[1950, diverse political movements]

“The Russian front in review” by CIA Russia

9 24


The Others | Invisibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

[1950, interdisciplinary subfield]

[1971, inequality in the creation]

“International Trade Vegetable Tannins”

“The Ocean floor”

by CIA

by Marie Tharp Ocean floor




The Others | Invisibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

d. Reasons for no recognition in cartography and different platforms

According to the geographer, cartographer and map historian John Brian Harley in his book Gender in the History of cartography1, the invisibility of women in the History of cartography is a habitual silence. The unspoken assumptions about women in a male-dominated field are the results of creating the exclusion as normal and natural. Historians would not be inclined to look for female cartographers if they already believed that there were none. Although an assumption, silence was also established by historians intentionally erasing women from History. Female cartographers mentioned in History of cartography texts are often not listed in the index, making it difficult to do research on women’s accomplishments. He also confirms that these acts of intentional silencing become less intentional over time as their omissions are accepted as the History of cartography.

[1930, interdisciplinary subfield]

“Americans of negro lineage” by Louis Jefferson

Another main reason female cartographers haven’t been given their well deserved recognition is, when cartography began to surge, it was the era of family-run map-making ateliers. Women were engravers, colorists, and would stitch the leaves of a map into a book. Another reason is the inequality planted by society. There were barely women able to study geography, although many were involved in helping men in the illustration of geographical maps. Also, the freedom the female had to walk alone in the city was very limited at the early 20th century.


1 Page 1623 28


The Others | Invisibility

They risked being subject to assumptions about their sexual availability; even considered prostitutes. During and after World War II, women moved from the domestic environment to the public setting. They were needed to fill many male jobs and roles while men were battling at war. Not having the scientific technics nor the preparation as geographers, there were plenty of women interested in representing the world their way; creating their own rules of describing what they were observing and experiencing taking in consideration their identity as women, the territory and the influence it had on them. Although not named back then, they were pioneers of making cartographies as social constructions.2

“Mary Adela Blagg was a talented astronomer in two fields, but her work has been forgotten.”3 That’s the subtitle of an article written for the woman who made important contributions in two areas of astronomy, lunar nomenclature and variable stars at the International Astronomical Union.4 In the early 1900’s there were many miscalculations between the maps of the principal selenographers5. Mary Blagg was appointed by the International Association of Academies committee to collate the names given to all the lunar formations on existing maps of the moon. In 1920 the International Astronomical Union was formed and she was appointed to its Lunar Commission to continue that work. In 1935 the cartography of the names of the lunar formations was finished. The International Lunar Committee gave her name to a lunar crater.6 1

2 Go to part B in chapter II to read more. 3 4 It is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. 5 It is the study of the surface and physical features of the Moon. Historically, the principal concern of selenographists was the mapping and naming of the lunar Maria, craters, mountain ranges, and other various features. 6 30

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

“The little seen-maps and stories of women in cartography”

Nowadays in websites that have a great influence and impact in researchers like Wikipedia and National Geographic there’s barely or no information about the contribution female cartographers have made through out History. The information deficit in these pages is quite relevant, since in the web pages where they do talk about them, most of the titles emphasize that invisibility: 1. THE WOMEN WHO SHAPED THE WORLD WOULD IT SURPRISE YOU TO KNOW THAT ON WIKIPEDIA’S LIST OF CARTOGRAPHERS – OF THE 200+ NAMES, JUST 2 ARE WOMEN? 2. MAPPING OUT THE HIDDEN WORLD OF WOMEN CARTOGRAPHERS 3.THE HIDDEN HISTORIES OF MAPS MADE BY WOMEN: EARLY NORTH AMERICA


… and the list goes on.


The Others | Invisibility

This cartographic silence is pertinent to gender studies because gender is rarely considered in the discipline of cartography. They can be described in two types of map silences:

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

A professor of economics, Linda Loubelt, created a cartography titled Making History - GIS and Women in 2014 to recognize women for the role they play in GIS. It focuses in New England in an effort to visually document 10,000 women currently working in the GIS field around the globe.


Intentional silences: which are specific acts of political censorship and politically imposed secrecy rules were is designed to control the creation of cartographic knowledge and repress strategic or proprietary commercial information that might benefit the enemy or competitor.


Unintentional silences: which are unconscious omissions arising at the boundaries of an episteme or cultural of knowledge. They are grounded in the cultural, linguistic and epistemological boundaries of specific historical periods, delimiting the totality of experience, framing how a group of people perceive, conceive and interact with themselves, each other, and the surrounding world. This can also be considered as an epistemology of ignorance. Where we ignore aspects that do not fit with our view of the world.

In Harley’s analysis, the maps of a particular historical period reflect those things recognized as important to the people who control the production of cartographic knowledge, but the silences of these maps reveal the boundaries of their episteme as well. 1 John Brian Harley, says in his article Deconstructing the map that the absence of a social dimension in cartographic theory has led to a neglect of social issues in the content of maps and that together these deficiencies constitute a crisis of representation. Although women have been contributing in this absence, it is time to recognise their work. Cartography keeps redeveloping through out the years. With new methodologies and technologies, at this moment women are playing a major role in the world of Geographic Information Systems and Science (GIS) and digital mapping.



The Others | Invisibility

[1914, women as subject]

“GIS and women” by Linda Loubelt UK


Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences


The Other Cartographies a. Map Worlds: A History of female cartographers by Will C. Van Den Hoonard | Visibility

The only book that resumes the work of a few female cartographers is Map Worlds: A History of women in cartography by Will C. Van Den Hoonard. It is a book that captures the work of female cartographers from the thirteenth century to the present day. He examines the History of women in the profession, sets out the situation of women in technical fields and cartography-related organizations, and outlines the challenges they face in their careers. Since he is an active promoter of the equality of women and men, during four years, he sought to understand maps as hegemonic devices constructed by makers of maps, trying to see patterns in city maps, for example, that pushed women and children to the margins either by ignoring them altogether in maps or representing them in secondary ways. What’s interesting about this book is not only its content but how it uses it every website talking about cartography and female always use it as reference. It index approximately 28 female cartographers that contributed in the cartography world not only as geographers but also as females who represented the world to make a statement and make noticed the gender inequality at that time. Not only he mentions a few female cartographers, he also talks about the obstacles they faced in their education, their experiences in becoming cartographers and gender shifts. His approach is global, not restricted to any particular country, but is somewhat narrowed with his focus in those who consider themselves cartographers, although he takes a broader approach in historical chapters. His most



The Other Cartographies | Visibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

significant contribution is the interviews he conducted with contemporary women cartographers, with most working within traditional sites of cartography. Through his interviews, a sense of the small stories comes through, but not the practice of geography outside of the traditional venues.1 A fascinating women mentioned in his book is Ellen Churchill Semple. She was a major figure in the development of the theory Environmental Determinism2 and also the first woman president of the Association of American Geographers in 1921. She worked on numerous cartographies and theories. Her second book titled Influences of Geographic Environment, published in 1911, states that “climate and environment are the main causes of a person’s behavior – and therefore of the cultures that arise from human behavior and interaction.”3 In her publication she adds cartographies to justify her statement. One of the cartographies in her book, titled Distribution of Religions in the Old World, is representing the distribution of Christians, Mohammedans, Brahmans, Buddhists and Heathen around the world.

[1911, diverse political movements]

“Distribution of religion in the Old World” by Ellen Churchill Semple 1 Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era by Christina Dando 2 It is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. 3 38



Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

b. A different methodology in cartography | No truth in maps

Just like the human body, a map is in constant transition. A reality subjected to modification that has a relation, or not, to common law. There are other layers of information staying in a secondary plan and are not taken in consideration when creating a traditional cartography. Cartography being a social construction, it can also shift to a different approach of representation. The relationship with the body, the knowledge and the physical landscape emerges as a new method of cartographing. In the article of D Dorling, Human cartography: when it is good to map he acknowledges how there’s no neutral map of a place or of the world. For all the power they contain, maps are just pieces of paper or merely ephemeral pixels on a computer screen. It is people who order, draw, purchase, use and learn from maps. And it is people who will improve them.1 Maps are a form of intervening in the world and only one way of talking about it. Most of the maps represent the world in a more conventional way. However, there are other maps which have not been produced with traditional cartographic methodologies. Although cartography is academicaly and scientificaly used, it can be said it is also used for other fields. Maybe not integrated in the geographical practice, but women have been representing an alterate mapping throughout History.

The Other Cartographies | Visibility

It is true that in political geography and the History of geographical thought, you associate maps and power, especially in periods of colonial History. The interpretation of maps usually implies the search for geographical features. But the French urban sociologist, Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe in his study Paris et l’agglomération parisienne noted that

“an urban neighborhood is determined not only by geographical and economic factors, but also by the image that its inhabitants and those of other neighbourhoods have of it.” Rob Kitchin and Chris Perkins in their book Thinking about maps2 explain the different ways a cartography can be represented. Two of them are: 1.

Cartographies as truth: The cartography used for scientific purposes. It suppose to capture relevant features and spatial relations. It represents the world as it is with a known degree of precision.


Cartographies as social constructions: In late 1980s, the geographer, cartographer and map historian, John Brian Harley argues how most of the well-known cartographies often reinforce the interest of the powerful. He says that people should investigate the historical and social context in what mapping has been employed, by not only revealing knowledge but also creating it. The result of this rationalization is called critical cartography. 1

The psychoanalyst, cultural critic, and curator Suely Rolnik3 refers critical cartography as “the choice of new worlds, new societies. Here, the practice of the cartographer is immediately political”. Like explained before, cartographies are always political. What differentiates these types of cartography is whether you want to acknowledge or not the political character. A lot of cartographers have explored how maps are 2 Pages 6 - 12 3 She was born in Brazil in 1948 to Polish-Jewish parents. She participated actively in the reform movements of the 1960s, was arrested in 1970 and spent the years following her release in exile in Paris, where she lived until 1979.

1 Page 279 40


Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

The Other Cartographies | Visibility

political and how mapping can be a political act. There were avant-garde movements in 1950s and 1960s who radically transformed urban spaces by subverting cartography as part of a project of political resistance. Part of their critique was that modern society’s basis in consumer capitalism caused deep alienation. Guy Debord’s book The Society of the Spectacle acts as something of a guide by emphasizing that everything has become represented and thus devalued, everything is a media spectacle.4 Although a very common practice nowadays, it can be said that women were capable of bringing to the table these different ways of representing the world since the 10th century5, leading to the democratization of cartography. These different ways can be defined by taking in consideration the different methodologies described before. The combination of the invisibility of these women as a result of gender inequality and the cartographies as critical social constructions makes possible the result of a feminist geography. With this new way of representation, they create a parallel imaginary world, putting aside the traditional cartography. Feminist geography according to Joni Seager in the text Companion to feminist

geography6 anchored in the body, moves across scale, linking

the personal and quotidian to urban cultural landscapes, deforestation, ethno-nationalist struggles and global political economies.2 Cartographies like Shanawdithit’s, one of the last survival members of the Beothuk tribe in 1800’s, documenting her painful memories of her people’s encounter with white settlers are the ones that create an imaginary of how History has truly been.

[1810, multiple oppresions]

“Painful memories” by Shanawdithit 4 An introduction to critical cartography by Jeremy Crampton and John Krygier. Page 17 5 One of the earliest known maps by a woman, this mappa mundi was created by a 10th century illustrator and Spanish nun Ende and is part of the Girona Beatus manuscript. 6 Page 2 42



Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

c. Feminist Geography and Feminist Cartography

Men’s domination in the field has marginalized women in multiple levels. Gillian Rose in her the book Feminism & geography: the limits of geographical knowledge goes on to consider the gender of geography1 and its implications for feminism. She concludes by suggesting feminism offers an alternative space, a paradoxical space built not on conceptions of same and other, that acknowledges differences, and that can challenge the exclusions of “masculine” geography.2 She also states how

“geography is constructed as solid, science and factual but in reality, the grounds of its knowledge are unstable, shifting, uncertain and, above all, contested and there are other possibilities, other sorts of geographies, with different compulsions, desires and effects, complement and contest each other”.3 It is said that feminist geography emerge in North America and in the UK in the early 1970s, sparked by movements both within and outside the academy. Within geography, feminist critiques emerged as part of the ferment of “new” radical geographies – especially Marxism – that was raising challenges in the 1970s to the hegemonies of positivistic and corporatist geography.4 1 The science dealing with the areal differentiation of the earth’s surface, as shown in the character, arrangement, and interrelations over the world of such elements as climate, elevation, soil, vegetation, population, land use, industries, or states, and of the unit areas formed by the complex of these individual elements. 2 Page 141 3 Page 160 4 Companion to feminist geography by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager. Page 2 44

The Other Cartographies | Visibility

In comparison to other cognate social science fields, geography as a discipline was slower in developing and embracing feminist scholarship; this delayed engagement meant that the critical work already under way in disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, History, political philosophy, and economics was available to the early cohort of geographers who were pioneering feminist geography.5 Taking for example the work of economist Esther Boserup Women’s Role in Economic Development (1970), feminist research in historical disciplines like Annette Kolodny’s Lay of the Land (1975), Jane Jacob’s Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), etc. They helped inspire feminist geographers interested in gendered divisions between public and private, the state and democracy.6 Feminist geographers engaged in research and/or activism involving geospatial technologies and marginalized peoples, particularly women. They argued mapping technologies, such as geographic information systems, while tied to a masculine perspective, are not inherently masculine, that some aspects are strongly feminist, and that it can be used to create new ways of looking. Outside the academy the influence of women’s movements in feminist geography was very pertinent. They demanded accountability, visibility and equality in a patriarchy society. Within the field, they translated first into a project to add women, both as producers of knowledge and as subjects of analysis. Focusing on the life of women, the earliest feminist geography focused on mapping the spatial constrains women were facing. There was and still is an emphasis on the politics of knowledge of multiple oppressions from subaltern inhabitants.

These perspectives destabilized sexual and gender categories, shifted understandings of space and place, and led to new methodological approaches and understandings in the field. 5 Companion to feminist geography by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager. Page 2 6 Companion to feminist geography by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager. Page 3 45

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

On the other hand, feminist geographers have continued to bring new and important perspectives to a variety of traditional subfields in geography. While a comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this introduction, examples of contributions by feminist geographers to various fields during the past decade include: economic and labor geography; political geography; cultural geography; critical development geography; environmental geography; geographies of migration; and geographic information science.7 Feminist geography is the result of a new space, inhabited by a new concept of identity, able to overcome the traditional opposition of man and woman. Teresa de Lauretis8 expresses for this critique, feminism must turn not only around sexual difference (in singular) but also around differences (in plural) marked by race, and by social class:

“the differences between women and better understood as differences within women ... the female subject is a site of differences, (it is) rather multiple than unified, and not so much divided as contradicted”.9 For a cartography to be able to be a feminist cartography, it has to take

in consideration the spaces that structure many dimensions. Social space can no longer be imagined simply in terms of territory or gender. It’s defined by the diverse spatiality and perspective of different women and/or subaltern inhabitants.

7 Companion to feminist geography by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager. Page 6 8 She is an Italian author and Distinguished Professor Emerita of the History of Consciousness at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Her areas of interest include semiotics, psychoanalysis, film theory, literary theory, feminism, women’s studies, lesbian and queer studies. 9 Feminism & Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge by Gillian Rose 46

The Other Cartographies | Visibility

Although feminism and the GIS10 have only recently begun working collectively, the feminist mapping subject is emerging across a variety of sites – academic, professional, and lay. However, it is most articulated in the work of critical GIS scholars. Both male and female, they are committed to nonpositivist practices of knowledge production and are sensitive to gender and other power hierarchies that produce social, economic, and cultural difference. These scholars have been creating feminist cartographies, practicing feminist visualization, and developing new mapping alternatives to mainstream cartographic and GIS representations.11 Two people that have been involved in feminist GIS representation are Mona Domosh12 and Joni Seager13. They created a book in 2003 called The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World. It presents a country-level data on women’s employment, women’s health, political rights, childcare, sex trade, literacy, migration, etc. These atlases unveil the different realities of women usually hidden behind average statistics that apply to entire populations. One of the cartography in the book is about illiteracy. Two-thirds of women are illiterate. There’s a higher rate of illiteracy for women not only because of poverty and limited educational opportunity, but also because of gender discrimination. The good news is that worldwide illiteracy rates have been steadily declining over the past three decades, largely the result of efforts to increase basic educational opportunities for girls. 10 A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographic information science (GIScience) to refer to the academic discipline that studies geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of geoinformatics. 11 Feminism and Geographic Information Systems: From a Missing Object to a Mapping Subject. Volume 1. Issue 3. May 3 2007 pages 583-606 Marianna Pavlovskaya, Kevin St. Martin. 12 She is a cultural-historical geographer, with research interests in four main areas: 1) exploring the cultural/historical geographies of the making of American empires; 2) examining in what ways ideas of femininity, masculinity, consumption, and “whiteness”. 13 She is Professor and Chair of Geography at Hunter College, City University of New York. She has achieved international acclaim for her work in feminist environmentalism and has won the Association of American Geographers 2005 Media Achievement Award for her success in bringing geographic work to the attention of wide audiences. 47

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

The Other Cartographies | Visibility

Given the complexity of feminist geography, in the point of view of Nelson and Seager in their book Companion to Feminist Geography,14 four themes of feminist geography emerge and re-emerge to distinguish it as an area of study. 1.

First, feminist geography is closely allied with diverse political movements and commitments. They say that feminism is defined by explicit political commitments against oppressions, or to making visible the workings of social power, and feminist geography follows these statements.

An example of a female making visible this diversity is Lady Gertrude Rosenblum Williams15. She was an economist and social strategist whose research and writing impacted on the foundation and development of the Welfare State in the United Kingdom from the 1940s. In 1945 she published a book titled Women in Work alongside Otto Neurath16, containing thirteen pictorial charts, making the statistics she provided more intelligible. 2.

Second, it is an innately interdisciplinary subfield. It not only reflects the historical emergences of the field but also a politicized intellectual stance. As feminist geography grew, the cartographers engaged in re-reading key theoretical approaches in a feminist point of view: in political and cultural geography, in urban and environmental research, in economic and migration literatures, and in methodological engagements. They contributed in fields far beyond conventional social sciences, they engaged with poststructural, psychoanalytic, critical race, postcolonial and in queer theory.

[2009, women as subject]

“Iliteracy� by Joni Seager Global


14 Companion to feminist geography by Lise Nelson and Joni Seager. Page 6 15 She was an economist and social strategist whose research and writing impacted on the foundation and development of the Welfare State in the United Kingdom from the 1940s. 16 He was an Austrian philosopher, philosopher of science, sociologist, and political economist. Before he fled his native country in 1934, Neurath was one of the leading figures of the Vienna Circle. 49

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

Ruth Taylor White17 used her cartographic illustration career to publish a significant number of pictorial maps from 1920s into the 1940s. She used bobble-headed cartoon characters to engaged in profound stereotyping with regard to culture, race, gender and class. They reveal not only the aesthetic and conceptual preferences of their maker but also the cultural biases of their middle-class, white American audience like in A gay geography Boston.18 3.

Third, the intersecionality of multiple oppressions. Feminist cartographers demonstrate how these oppressions are embedded. They try to find the ideological spaces of territory, nation and place. Asking where the oppression happens is fundamental is crucial into understanding the world in which we live, a world marked by differences including but not limited to gender. Asking “where” forces us to map the complex relationships between bodies, identities, places, and power, and represents an arena in which feminist geographers are making their most important contributions to feminist theory.

In the cartography Locations and Wanderings of the Aboriginal Tribes created by Emma Hart Willard in the early 19th century, she used colors and vectors to show settlement and movement patterns of Native Americans in the Eastern U.S.. This tactic reflected and reinforced the existing assumption that Native Americans existed in a timeless space prior to the advent of human history.19


[1931, diverse political movements]

“Occupation of women by regions” by Lady Getrude Rosenblum UK


Fourth, the importance of foregrounding women as a subject and gendering as a social and spatial process. Taking women seriously needs conscious and continuous reassertion, since

17 An American cartographic illustrator who published a significant number of pictorial maps from the 1920s into the 1940s. 18 Griffin, Dori. 2015. Beautiful Geography: The Pictorial Maps of Ruth Taylor White. abs/10.1080/03085694.2017.1312117?src=recsys&journalCode=rimu20 19 Bliss, Laura. 2016. How Women Mapped the Upheaval of 19th Century America. 51

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

[1897, interdisciplinary subfield]

[1828, multiple oppresions]

“A gay geography Boston”

“Locations and wanderings of the aboriginal tribes”

by Ruth Taylor Boston, USA

by Emma Hart Willard USA



The Other Cartographies | Visibility

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

women’s lives are easily disappeared. A female cartogapher that incorporated significant women of New York City in a cartography is Molly Roy. She is the illustrator of City of Women for the atlas book titled Nonstop Metropolis published by Rebecca Solnit and Joshua Jelly-Schapiro. Where it uses the traditional New York City subway map to renamed every subway platform with the names of women who have shaped New York City from the beginning.

Although not part of the four themes of feminist geography, while analyzing the cartographies created by women, it can be said that another theme is detected. There were female cartographers working in the geographic field, creating traditional cartographies but there was inequality in the work environment. Taking for example Marie Tharp, mention in chapter I part C, where although she is representing in the cartography the physical spatial relations of the ocean floor, the process of how she developed it can be part of feminist theory. That’s why it’s important to take in consideration the process of the results in the cartographies created.

These fives themes of cartography are based in the work made by female cartographers and their feminist perspective. It is evident that Feminist Cartography have been occuring way before formalising in what it is today. [2016, women as subject]

“City of Women” by Molly Roy NYC, USA



Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences

The Others’ Proposal

How it will be done?

The Others’ proposal


2. Culturally we have been trained to assume that circumstances are male by default. It is shocking all the contribution females have made in History but not recognized or given enough credit. It is time to expose and map women’s experiences throughout History. A way of exposing female cartographers and the work they have done is by identifying the maps taken for granted and documenting them by their attributes and the relation they have. The result is to reduce the gap that exists with technical maps (maps as truth) and maps of experiences (feminist cartographies). Taking in consideration the five themes of feminist geography described in the last chapter, the Cartography of Cartographies was realised in the official platform of this master’s project. The official webpage is: Documenting the cartography was a task. It required digging in websites, books, images, talking to people about the topic…The result of the webpage is a collection of all the cartographies and cartographers found in these different platforms. It also acknowledges the inequality by expressing the different methodology in cartography that is feminist geography. This website will not only:


By creating a storyline through out the webpage to raise awareness of the lack of recognition female cartographers’ have had through out history. The main page focuses on trying to explain the purpose of the topic. Working with scale and colour, there are different keywords that will lead you to the Cartography of Cartographies. Making the webpage interactive for the user is very important too. They will be able to submit a cartography related to the subject of the project.

An inspiration through out this process is the newly developed website It is a platform where you can familiarise with 50 pioneering women and their work in American Architecture. The fifty women profiled are just a beginning of an effort that they hope will continue to expand as more women’s lives and careers are added to the historical record. Just like the female architects’ website, the Other Cartographies platform will be an on going project. This is the beginning of the many approaches these cartographers and cartographies can be exposed. Utilising platforms that formed a gender inequality to expose these females and their work is another way. Taking for example the initiative created by Patricia Horrillo1 at the Medialab Prado2 in Madrid, Spain called Wikiesfera-Wikimujeres.

The goal is to create an interaction with the user and use it as a primary source for information of female cartographers and their cartographies and to create an Archive of the cartographies found.

1 Initially, she studied a career in international relations in which she combined training in Philology (English and Spanish) and Humanities, with a specialization in Marketing and Advertising. She also acquired technical knowledge as a graphic designer and layout designer, in order to create her own design services company in Barcelona. Some years later, she gained a degree in journalism and worked for several newspapers as a journalist. Currently she is an independent journalist and collaborates with digital media. Since May 15th 2011, she has been in the front lines of the 15M movement, reporting on many demonstrations and popular assemblies via Twitter and posts on her blog. 2 It is a citizen laboratory of production, research and broadcasting of cultural projects that explores the forms of experimentation and collaborative learning that have emerged from digital networks. It is part of the Department of Culture and Sports (former Department of Arts, Sports and Tourism) of the Madrid City Council.



1. 2.

Expose and highlight their work But also bring awareness the lack of recognition of these cartographies and cartographers.

Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences


They are willing to reduce the gender gap that exists in the most consulted encyclopaedia on the Internet, Wikipedia. Their objectives are to: 1. 2. 3.

Incorporate more women in the edition of the articles, since at present only 13% female publish. Expand the content related to women’s biographies and the contributions to society in all disciplines. And working with a gender perspective to eliminate the androcentric bias in the production of content in defence of neutrality.3

The Cartography of Cartographies is a collection of the maps created by female Cartographers. As they are found, they are added to the compilation. The Cartography is classified by year and by the five themes of feminist geography described in the previous chapter. Each theme was assigned a different colour, according to the sensation the author felt while designing the Cartography. With the analysis made of each map, it was identified that not all the cartographies could have been assigned to just one theme. The thin lines represent the subrelations the cartographies have. This project has the vocation to continue growing in the future because it has the possible option to become a doctoral thesis. The task for this ongoing project is to go more in depth about the meaning of the cartographies, by analysing their symbols, their images, etc. There’s many ways of approaching this topic and a way of doing it is by creating different cartographies of different topics based on female cartographers. As more information is compiled, there will be more and different ways of distributing it. By creating this archive, the narration of these females can be visible forever in the Internet.


In general, there’s a lack of information throughout history about women and what they have achieved. Cartography is just one of the many fields were women have been erased and censored from history. There’s plenty of information, researches, thesis, websites, Congresses that dedicate their time to make visible their contributions, the problem is that there’s no main archive that can provide all that scattered information. Cartography has been fundamental to understand the territory and its spaces. With female cartographers’ work being overshadowed, it worked in their favour to start formalising a new way of approaching the discipline. In a way were subaltern groups are noticed and shown in the cartographies. The women being powerless gave them the power to express geography in a different perspective, theirs. Feminist cartography embraces different disciplines, making it interdisciplinary. From tracing statistics of women’s literacy around the world to making quilts and art for sell. The main focus was not treating women and their work as victim of the exclusion but to make evident that their work is more pertinent than their invisibility. The book Map Worlds: A History of female cartographers by Will C. Van Den Hoonard is an example of writing back in history the achievements and contributions ever made. Although is a book were it compiles only just a few female cartographers, it motivates people to keep digging and making the list longer.

3 58


Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences


Like Gillian Rose says in her book Geography and gender, cartographies and

corporealities: It seems that the increasing diversity of feminisms

within geography is also producing a range of different approaches to geography itself; and surely this can only strengthen the feminist project within the discipline. Thanks to feminist geography/cartography, we are more aware of the many layers of the territory that are usually hidden with ideologies. The evolution of cartography has been beneficial, from white settlers using it to conquer native homelands to disrupting the traditions of mapping and reclaiming the power through feminism. Their work is to not represent a women or a man in a cartography, but to discover a plurality of genders in places where they are in constant change, uncertainty and fluidity.

The feeling of belonging in a space and territory is what drove these females to keep devoting their time and establishing an official alternative way of representing their context in a map.


Atwater, Tanya, Crews, Kimberly, Van Balgooy, Mary, Ayers, Lawrence and Smith, Kathleen. 2015. “Society of Woman Geographers Conferences”. wdesc.php?rec=6751 Barron Maps. 2017. “Scott Maps: The life and work of Alva Scott Garfield [1902-1993], 20th Century Female Cartographer”. Bliss, Laura. 2016. “How 20th-Century Women Put the ‘Art’ in Cartography”. https://www.citylab. com/design/2016/03/the-hidden-women-mapmakers-of-the-20th-century/474714/ Bliss, Laura. 2016. “How Women Mapped the Upheaval of 19th Century America”. https://www. Bliss, Laura. 2016. “The Hidden Histories of Maps made by Women: Early North America”. https:// Bolt, Barbara. 2004. Art Beyond Representation: The Performative Power of the Image. I B Tauris Braidotti, Rosi. 2005. A Critical Cartography of Feminist Post-postmodernism.: Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 20, No. 47 Bridger, Alexander J. 2013. Psychogeography and Feminist Methodology. United Kingdom: Sage Journals, 23 issue Brodersen, Lars. 2001. Maps and Communication: Theory and Methodology in Cartography. Denmark: National Survey and Cadastre Denmark Butler, Judith. 2011. Sex and Gender in Simone de Beauvoir’s Second Sex. Yale University Press CIA. 2016. “The Mapmaker’s Craft: A History of Cartography at CIA”. CIA. 2016. “Marion Frieswyk: The First Female Intelligence Cartographer”. https://www.cia. gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2016-featured-story-archive/first-female-intelcartographer.html Creason, Glen. 2015. “CityDig: Who map the World? Girls”. citydig-who-map-the-world-girls/



Other Cartographies | mapping female cartographers’ experiences


Creason, Glen. 2016. “CityDig: In 1940 Santa Monica was literally the Best Place Ever”. http://

Komedchikov, Nikolay N. 2005. The General Theory of Cartography under the aspect of Semiotics. Moscow: Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences

Dando, Christina E. 2017. Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era. Routledge

Longhurst, Robyn. 2000. Geography and gender: masculinities, male identity and men. New Zealand: University of Waikato

Daseger. 2013. “Schoolgirl Maps”. De Beauvoir, Simone. 1949. The Second Sex. Paris: Editions Gallimard De Diego, Estrella. 2008. Contra el Mapa: Disturbios en la Geografía colonial de Occidente. Madrid: Closas-Orcoyen Dempsey, Caitlin. 2015. “Celebrating 400 Years of Women in Cartography”. https://www. Doering, Zahava D., Kindlon, Audrey E. and Bickford, Adam. 1993. The Power of Maps: A Study of an Exhibition at Cooper_Hewitt, National Museum of Design. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Dorling, D. 1997. Human Cartography: when it is Good to Map. England: Department of Geography, University of Bristol, University Road England, Kim. 2006. Producing Feminist Geographies: Theory, Methodologies and Research Strategies.: London: SAGE Publications

Massey, Doreen. 1994. Space, Place and Gender: A Global Sense of Place. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press Mattern, Shannon. 2017. “Gaps in the Map: Why we’re mapping everything, and why not everything can, or should, be mapped”. Martin, Sarah. 2015. “My Psychogeography, not a Fucking Fraternity”. https:// McDowell, Linda. 1999. Gender, Identity and Places: Understanding Feminist Geographies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press Meek, David. 2012. Critical Cartography as Transformational Learning. Georgia: University of Georgia Press Molen, Patricia. 2001. “Geography and Map Division”.

Filgate, Michele. 2017. “Defying Boundaries: On Psychogeography and the Flaneuse”. http:// Firth, Rhiannon. 2015. “Critical Cartography”. García, Silvia. 2010. El olvido de las Mujeres Pioneras en la Historia de la Psicología. Valencia: University of Valencia Press Haraway, Donna. 1988. Situated Knowledge: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.: Feminist Studies, Inc. Huffman, Nikolas H. 1995. Silences and Secrecy in the History of Cartography: J.B. Harley, Science and Gender. Pennsylvania: Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University. Jaffe, Eric. 2013. “Why Historical Maps still Matter so Much, Even Today”. https://www.citylab. com/life/2013/05/why-historical-maps-still-matter-so-much-today/5537/ Johnson, Allan. 1997. The Gender Knot: Unravelling our Patriarchal Legacy. United States Kelly, Meghan. 2015. “Collectively Mapping Borders”. CollectivelyMappingBorders.html Kitchin, Rob, Perkins, Chris and Dodge, Martin. 2009. Chapter 1: Thinking about Maps. National University of Ireland and University of Manchester



​Other Cartographies: mapping female cartographers’ experiences  

TFM - Kiara Firpi

​Other Cartographies: mapping female cartographers’ experiences  

TFM - Kiara Firpi