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‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺸﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻰ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ »ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻴﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ؛ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻌﺼﺮ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ« ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 1389‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺩﻭﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺳﺎﺳﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﻟﺤﻰ ﻣﻴﻼﻧﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﺳﻤﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻰ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻑ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻳﻢ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﺗﺮ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﺟﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻯ ﺳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻼﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻏﻴﺮﺭﺳﻤﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻝ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻪ ﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻰ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻰ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻔﺮﺕ ﻭ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻔﻰ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻫﻨﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﻫﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ »ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺻﻠﺢ« ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺁﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻧﻤﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﻮﺩﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﺯ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﻰ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰ ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﻮﻝ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻰ ﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻨﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺧﻄﻰ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﻙ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻤﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪«.‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮﺍﻥ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﮔﺮﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻠﻲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮﺍﻥ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺣﻮﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻗﺸﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻛﺘﺮ ﺍﺷﻨﺎﻳﺒﺮگ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎً ﺍﺫﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪» :‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺣﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻫﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻗﺸﺮ ﻣﺤﺮﻭﻡ ﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﻮﻝ ﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪«.‬‬ ‫‪ 2,1‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻱ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻴﻖ ﺟﻴﻦ ﺟﻴﻜﻮﺑﺰ ﺣﺎﻛﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺑﻐﺮﻧﺞ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺌﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﻴﻞ ﻫﺎﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻭﻧﺪﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺮﺻﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺟﺮﺍﻳﻢ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬

‫ﻧﻘﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ‬

‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺟﺬﺍﺑﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺱ ﺧﻄﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﺮﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻩ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﺧﺒﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺮﻛﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺧﻴﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺍﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮﺷﻜﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﺬﺏ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻜﻮﺑﺰ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺍﻥ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻻﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ‪ :‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﻢ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺭﻏﺒﺖ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﻳﺪﻥ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺻﺤﻨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻛﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺟﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎً ﻛﻨﺪﻱ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻴﻚ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺭﻭ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺲ ﺍﺩﺑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺪﺑﺨﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻭ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ )ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻜﺎﺭﻯ( ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺗﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻰ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺘﻰ )ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﺮﻓﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻫﺒﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﭘﺮﻭﻓﺴﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻦ ﺍﺷﻨﺎﻳﺒﺮگ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺩ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻮﺭﺙ ﻭﺳﺘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻠﻴﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣ ً‬ ‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻭ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻳﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 1,1‬ﺗﻤﺎﺷﺎﭼﻴﺎﻥ ﺛﺮﻭﺗﻤﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻤﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺎًﺛﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺭﻏﺒﺖ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻛﻨﺴﺮﺕ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ) ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ( ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪) .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﺣﺘﻰ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ(‬ ‫‪ 1,2‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﺷﺎﭼﻴﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺛﺮﻭﺗﻤﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻓﻘﻴﺮﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﮕﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺫﺍﺋﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻱ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺮﻋﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻰ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﺯﻣﻮﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺩﻣﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﺮﻯ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﻛﻢ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺿﺎ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻗﺸﺮ ﻛﻢ ﺩﺭﺁﻣﺪﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺬﺕ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺛﺮﻭﺗﻤﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﮕﻲ ﻭ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ ﻓﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﺻﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﺑﻠﻮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ‬

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‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪،‬‬

‫ﻫﻨـــــــــــــــــــــــــــﺮ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺟـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺪ ﻛﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﻰ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﭘﻠﻴﺲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﻣﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫»ﺑﻬﺘﺮ« ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﻫﻢ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﻰ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﻣﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ »ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻯ« ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪) .‬ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‪(2005 ،‬‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻛﻛﻴﺎﺎ ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩﻯ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﺴﺎﺎ ﻣﺸﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺸﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻰ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ »ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﺎﻛﻴﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ؛ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﻴﻌﺼﺮ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ« ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 1389‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺩﻭﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﺰﻳﺰ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺱ ﺳﺎﺳﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﻟﺤﻰ ﻣﻴﻼﻧﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﺳﻤﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻰ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻑ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻌﻰ ﻛﺮﺩﻳﻢ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﺗﺮ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﺟﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻯ ﺳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻼﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﻏﻴﺮﺭﺳﻤﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻝ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﻛﻮﭼﻪ ﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻰ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻰ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻔﺮﺕ ﻭ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻔﻰ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺑﻜﺎﻫﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ »ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺻﻠﺢ« ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪:‬‬ ‫»ﺁﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻧﻤﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﻮﺩﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﺯ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﻰ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰ ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﻮﻝ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻰ ﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺧﻂ ﺧﻄﻰ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﻙ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻤﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪«.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻱ ﺑﺰﺭگ‪ ،‬ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﻭ ﭘﺎﻛﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﻴﻦ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﺼﺮﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺖ ﻛﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻠﻮﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎً ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺼﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﮔﻲ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺎ ﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺳﻌﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‪ ،‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﻫﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺮﺣﺬﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺩﻣﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺻﻤﻴﻤﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺷﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﺽ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﺶ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ ﻭ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻫﻨﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺗﺮﻗﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻬﺮﻭﻧﺪﺍﻥ ﺩﻟﺒﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﻫﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺰﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭ ﻱ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎً ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺯﻣﺪﺕ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﺼﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺶ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﻡ ﻭ ﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻤﻨﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻭ ﭘﺎ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺩﺭﺁﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺒﺎ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺷﻜﻮﻫﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺑﺴﺰﺍﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻠﻄﻴﻒ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺭﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﺷﻬﺮﻭﻧﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺶ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺍﻳﻔﺎﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻜﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮ ﺑﻴﻬﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻜﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺍﻳﻔﺎء ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻮ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺧﺮﺩﻩ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻗﺘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ‪،‬ﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻋﻘﺎﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺁﻧﺎﺭﻛﻮ‪ -‬ﭘﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺱ )ﺻﻠﻴﺐ( ﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺴﻴﻞ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺿﺪ ﺟﻨﮓ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﺭﺷﻴﺴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻴﻨﻴﺴﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺿﺪ ﻛﻤﻮﻧﻴﺴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻮﺷﻪ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻱ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﻃﻲ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﺩﻫﻪ‬ ‫‪ 70‬ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ ، 80‬ﻛﻤﭙﻴﻦ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻂ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻫﻨﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺎﻟﺮﻱ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻟﺞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺸﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺐ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺪﺍﺩ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﻨﺒﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺎﻛﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻳﺎ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻮ‪ ،‬ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﺒﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺪﺍﺭﮔﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭﻣﺤﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﻧﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻩ ﻧﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻩ ﻧﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻧﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻤﺎﻳﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﮔﻤﻨﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺿﺪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﺠﻜﺮﺯ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 1999‬ﺩﺭ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﻭ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 2004‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻭﻯ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﻭ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﭙﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﭙﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻰ‬ ‫ﻰ ﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﻴﺰﻳ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺭﺭﺍ ﺯﺍﺯ ﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻴ ﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﺭ ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺮ ﻳ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﺠﻜﺮﺯ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻯ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻙ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎ ﺑﺨﺸﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﻯ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻮﻋﻰ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻰ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﺪﺭ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺟﻨﺒﺶ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻂ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻏﺎﻟﺐ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ )ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﭼﭗ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﻃﻲ ﻭ ﺭﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﻃﻲ(ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻮﻟﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎﺑﺖ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﭙﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻠﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻜﺎﻝ‪ /‬ﺁﻟﺘﺮﻧﺎﺗﻴﻮ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﺷﻴﺴﻢ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺯﻳﺴﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻠﻴﺐ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻋﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻋﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪،‬ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺷﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺷﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻲ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻩ )ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ(ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﻓﺮﺍﺷﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﭼﻢ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺮﺯﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻌﺎﺑﺮ ﻣﺮﺯﻱ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺻﻠﺢ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻰ ﺑﺴﻂ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻰ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍﻳﻰ ﻗﻮﻳﺎ ﻧﻤﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺍﻧﻪ )ﺁﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﻚ( ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻴﻬﻦ ﭘﺮﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪﻯ)ﻟﻮﻳﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺎ( ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻨﮓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﻴﻤﺰ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻠﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻗﺮﻥ ﻫﻔﺪﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻣﻰ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻯ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺮﻟﻨﺪ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬


‫‪ 2,2‬ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺶ ﺍﻳﻨﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻰ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﺪ ‪» :‬ﺁﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻧﻤﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﻮﺩﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﺯ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﻰ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰ ﺗﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﻓﻮﻝ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻰ ﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻨﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺧﻄﻰ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﻙ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻤﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻠﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺧﻂ ﺧﻄﻰ ﻭ ﺧﺮﺍﺏ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ ﻏﻮﻝ ﭘﻴﻜﺮﺷﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻂ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﺮﭼﻨﮓ‪-‬ﻗﻮﺭﺑﺎﻏﻪ ﺍﻯ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻮﺱ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻰ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺗﻼﺷﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺴﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺗﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺨﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻢ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﺶ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻞ‪» ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ« ﭘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺻﻮﺭﺗﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺰﻧﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻧﻤﻰ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﻫﻴﺪ‪«.‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺳﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺻﻮﻟﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺸﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﻏﻴﺮﺭﺳﻤﻰ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺑﺨﺸﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻫﻴﭗ ﻫﺎپ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻰ ﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﻚ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻮﭼﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﭽﻪ ﺍﻯ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻬﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺭﻳﺸﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻨﮓ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻰ ﻏﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺘﻴﺒﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺎﻧﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﻮﻳﺴﻰ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻗﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻣﻰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻰ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻳﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺵ ﻣﻰ ﻛﺸﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺣﺎﻭﻯ ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺸﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻧﮕﻰ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻄﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﻰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻗﻰ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻟﺒﺮﻳﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﻫﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰﻩ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﺨﺼﻰ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻭ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺯﻳﺮﺯﻣﻴﻨﻰ ﻣﻰ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺮﺩﺳﺘﻰ ﻭ ﻳﺎﺩﮔﺎﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﺳﻦ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻰ ﺧﺎﺻﻰ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺪﻓﻬﻤﻰ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻧﮓ ﻭ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻰ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺷﺘﻦ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﭘﻴﺶ ﭘﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺧﻠﻖ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺷﻮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﻭﺭﭼﻴﻦ ﭘﺎﻭﺭﭼﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﻮﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﺭﺗﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭﻭﻍ ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻫﻨﺮﻯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﻋﺪﻩ ﺍﻯ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ؛ ﺑﻰ ﺧﻮﺩﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺟﺎﺭﻭﺟﻨﺠﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ ﻧﻴﺎﻧﺪﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻛﺲ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺤﺮﻭﻡ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺷﻜﺎ ﻝ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺮﺑﺎﺯ ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﻱ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺯﺍﻳﺶ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻦ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﭙﻴﺪﻩ ﺩﻡ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﻭ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻄﻦ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻱ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﺳﻴﻢ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺳﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺑﻂ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮓ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻀﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺷﻬﺮﻭﻧﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﻟﺒﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻃﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺲ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻱ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺰﻧﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎً ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﺯﻣﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺑﺰﺭگ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺑﻮﻡ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﭼﻮﺑﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﺎً ﺑﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻻﻟﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻠﺘﻲ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻛﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻲ ﺍﺛﺮ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﺍﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‬

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‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻣﺮﺩﻣﻰ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﻯ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺥ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺟﻮﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻴﺰﺍﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻟﺖ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻓﺎ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﺁﺷﻨﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻧﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﻭﻙ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﺮﺍﺱ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺟﻨﺐ ﻭ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺛﺮﻭﺕ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺩﺳﺮ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﻛﻰ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻﻥ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻣﻲ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺮﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﻚ ﺧﻼﻗﻴﺖ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻭﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺳﺰﺍﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻓﺘﺨﺎﺭ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺩﺍﺵ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻤﺮﺍﻫﻲ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﻢ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻓﺮﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻳﻪ ﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ ﺗﺎﺑﻠﻮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻰ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺷﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻰ ﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺭﺩ ﻣﻰ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﻣﻊ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ ﺳﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻰ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺖ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻰ ﺧﻴﺰﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺳﺮﺯﻧﺪﮔﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ ﻛﻮﺛﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﻌﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ »ﺩﺭﺁﻣﺪﻱ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻲ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﭘﺴﻨﺪ« ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ‪1388 ،‬‬‫ ﺣﺴﺎﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺼﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ »ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺮﻣﺖ« ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ ‪ :‬ﻧﺸﺮ ﺳﻤﺖ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺍﻭﻝ‪1388 ،‬‬‫ ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‪ ،Wall and Piece ،‬ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‪2005 ،‬‬‫ ﻓﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻳﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ »ﮔﻮﺭﻳﻞ ﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ« ‪2006 ،‬‬‫‪ -‬ﺭﺷﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ »ﻫﻨﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ«‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺩﻳﻮ ﻛﻼﻩ‪2006 ،‬‬

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‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻭﺭﻣﻴﺎﻧﻪ‬

‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‬

‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻭﺭﻣﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻢ ﻛﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻭ ﭘﺎ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﻫﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻰ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ ﻋﺮﺑﻰ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﺎپ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﻤﺸﻬﺮﻯ ﻣﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻰ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭼﺎپ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﻯ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﻯ »ﺍﻯ ﻭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻥ« ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮔﻮﺍﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﻋﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺣﺼﺎﺭ ﻛﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺮﻯ ﺍﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺒﻮﺑﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺧﺎﻃﺮﻩ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ ﺑﺒﻨﺪﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺷﻜﻞ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻓﺮﻡ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻨﺠﺎﺭ ﺷﻜﻨﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻞ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ ﮔﺎﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺖ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺠﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ ﺭﻳﺸﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﻓﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻮﺗﺒﺎﻝ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻙ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺟﺎﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﻛﺮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺑﻲ ﺛﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺟﻨﮓ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺣﺘﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﭼﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺭﻳﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺏ ﺟﺮﻡ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ‬ ‫)ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﻲ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﺭﻳﺴﻚ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ(‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺑﻲ ﺛﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻭ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ 70‬ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻏﺮﺏ ﻣﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻧﻮﭘﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﻋﻤﻴﻖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﭙﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ ، 70‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺧﻼﻑ ﭘﺎﻳﺘﺨﺖ ﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺧﻮﺵ ﺷﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻤﺒﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻭﭘﺎﮔﺎﻧﺪﺍ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ 80‬ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻭ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻓﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺠﻮﻡ ﺑﻴﻠﺒﻮﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﮕﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﺍﺧﻮﻥ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺗﻲ »ﺑﺮﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺭﺍ ﭘﺎﻛﻴﺰﻩ ﻧﮕﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﻢ« ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﮔﻮﺳﺖ ‪ 2004‬ﻛﻤﭙﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻃﺮﺡ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻫﺮ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻳﻤﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﻴﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﺍﺳﭙﺮﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻧﮓ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺟﻮﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺪﺋﻮ ﻛﻠﻴﭗ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻜﻮﻡ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴـــﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ)ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ( ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪» .‬ﺗﻮﻧﻞ«ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻤﭗ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺩﺍﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﮓ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ) ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻯ( ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﭘﻮﺳﺘﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺶ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﺮﻓﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺟﻠﻮﻱ ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻪ ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻼﻗﻴﺖ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﻠﻴﺲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺳﻴـــــﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺳﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻫﻨﺮﻣﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ » ﭘﻴﻮﺭ« ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺮﺑﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 1993‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻨﮕﺎﭘﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺭﻧﮓ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﻴﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﭙﺮﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺍﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﻠﻴﺲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﻞ ﭘﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﻪ ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﻨﮕﺎﭘﻮﺭ ﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺮﻡ ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﻴﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﻴﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺯﺩﻳﺪﻥ ﻋﻼﺋﻢ ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻧﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﻘﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ‪ 1966‬ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻨﮕﺎﭘﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺯﻧﺪﺍﻥ‪ 3500 ،‬ﺩﻻﺭ ﺳﻨﮕﺎﭘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﻪ ﻧﻘﺪﻱ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﺪﻧﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺲ ﺍﺩﺑﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺪﺑﺨﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺪﺍﻟﻴﺴﻢ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺗﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺷﻬﺮﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﺍﺩ ﻛﻮچ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﭙﻴﻨﻲ ﺧﺸﻤﮕﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪80‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﭙﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻙ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻗﻄﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺧﺘﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﺷﻬﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻞ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ ﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﺒﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺪﺍﺭﮔﺮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﺮﻣﻰ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻭﭘــــﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺟﻮﺧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻙ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺤﻼﺕ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪1992‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺎﻥ ﭘﺮﻭﺗﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﭘﺎﻙ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺮﻳﺮﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺗﺎﺭﻥ ﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻘﺎﺷﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺪﻗﺖ ﭘﺎﻙ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﺰﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺎﻧﺸﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ 1992‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻰ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﻨﻜﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﺮﺯﻯ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﺍﺷﻐﺎﻟﻰ‬

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Graffiti, Art or Crime?!  

Author: Kia Massoudi........................... Satrap Magazine, issue #3........................... (Persian Version)

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