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Asian Architecture  Case  Study  Paper   Final  paper  submission     BY:  MAHI  ABDUL  MUHSIN   0314421  


1.0 ABSTRACT  

  THE   INFLUENCE   OF   THE   SUSTAINABLE   FEATURES   OF   MALAYSIAN   VERNACULAR   ARCHITECTURE   AT   THE   PHASE   II   CHALETS   OF   BELUM   RAINFOREST   RESORT   IN   ACHIEVING  THERMAL  COMFORT         Vernacular   architecture   has   played   a   significant   role   in   shaping   modern   architecture   and   in   defining  percepJons  of  sustainability  in  Malaysia..  The  term  ‘vernacular’  is  constantly  evolving   and   is   not   limited   to   the   past   but   lives   on   in   contemporary   architecture.   Due   to   its   posiJve   impact   on   the   environment,   building   sustainability   has   become   the   aim   of   most   designers   today.   This   research   paper   highlights   important   aspects   of   sustainability   in   Phase   2   chalets   of   Belum   rainforest   that   are   adapted   from   TradiJonal   Malay   house.   It   also   elaborately   discusses   the   Extent   to   which   these   design   strategies   perform   in   achieving   a   favorable   thermal   comfort   level.       In  order  to  gain  a  deeper  understanding  of  how  these  chalets  personify  vernacular  architecture,   various   aspects   are   invesJgated   in   depth,   which   include   its   contextual   surrounding,   its   orientaJon   and   spaJal   arrangements,   its   use   of   fenestraJons   to   maximize   venJlaJon,   its   building  form,  its  use  and  applicaJon  of  locally  available  raw  materials  and  also  the  extent  to   which  vegetaJon  and  greenery  is  incorporated  into  the  building  design.  To  enhance  the  scope   of   research   and   to   determine   the   similar   adaptaJons   from   vernacular   architecture,     the   chalets   are  analyzed  in  relaJon  to  the  Kutai  House,  found  in  Perak.     In  validaJng  research  findings,  literature  reviews  of  varying  sources  are  thoroughly  studied  as   reference  in  order  to  enhance  the  research  procedure.  InformaJon  is  mainly  obtained  through   sources   from   the   internet   and   also   library   books   and   documentary   videos.   A   personal   experience  through  the  chalets  and  the  surrounding  landscape  was  also  obtained  via  a  trip  to   belum   rainforest   research   center   and   informaJon   collected   via   a   visual   presentaJon   by   the   research  officer  at  belum  rainforest  resort  Ahmad  Najmi  Bin  Nik  Hassan,  himself  .  Photographs   are  self  captured  and  the  building  is  well  analyzed  through  a  first  hand  experience.  In  order  to   strengthen  the  credibility  of  the  research,  informaJon  is  studied  through  a  micro  site  analysis   and  the  building  design  and  orientaJon  analyzed  with  some  quanJtaJve  weather  data  as  well.     In   conclusion,   the   Phase   II   chalets   of   Belum   are   successful   in   its   adaptaJon   of   vernacular   architecture   in   most   ways,   and   fail   to   do   so   in   a   few   aspects.   The   Present   Design   also   has   potenJal   of   improving   the   sustainability   and   venJlaJon   prospects   through   proper   vegetaJon   and  more  open  windows,  as  well  as  an  alternaJve  orientaJon  of  fenestraJons  in  order  to  make   the  design  compaJble  with  the  wind  path.  Nevertheless,  the  chalets  show  that  the  concept  of   merging  vernacular  architecture  and  contemporary  architecture  seems  promising.  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1  


CONTENT 1.0  Abstract       2.0  -­‐  IntroducJon  ...........................................................................................................................  1     2.1-­‐  Research  QuesJons…………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….2       3.0  -­‐    Vernacular  Architecture  ........................................................................................................  3       3.1  –  Rumah  Kutai  as  an  ideal  example  of  Malaysian  Vernacular  Architecture……………......…………4     4.0  Analysis-­‐  Sustainable  Features  of  Vernacular  Architecture  in  the   Chalets  ..................................................................................................  …………..............................  6       4.1  -­‐    Sun  Path  Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………….……….……9       4.1.1  =  OrientaJon  and  layout  in  response  to  sun  path…………………………………………………………..….10       4.2  -­‐  Wind  Analysis  .........................................................................................................................  11       4.3  -­‐  VenJlaJon………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………...12     4.3.1  raised  floor  level………………………………………………………………………………....…………………………….13     4.3.2  roof  venJlaJon…………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………14     4.3.3  –  cross  venJlaJon  …………………………………………………………………………….………………………………15     4.4  –  context  and  surrounding    ………………………………………………………………..………………………………..16     4.4.1  –  vegetaJon  integraJon  in  the  chalets  ……………………………………………………………………………..17     4.5  -­‐  usage  of  materials  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18     5.0  -­‐  conclusion    ..........................................................  ……………………..........................................…19       6.0  –  references    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture  


2.0 INTRODUCTION   Since   Malaysia   is   a   country   with   a   hot   and   humid   tropical   climate,   maximum   energy   consumpJon   goes   to   venJlaJng   and   providing   cool   air   inside   the   building.   Due   to   lack   of   recycling   and   shortage   of   world’s   natural   resources,   energy   costs   have   been   significantly   rising.  Building  sustainability  and  the  integraJon  of  passive  design  features  has  thus  become   the  aim  of  most  designers,  not  only  in  Malaysia,  but  all  around  the  globe.     Sustainable  architecture  is  not  only  rewarding  for  the  environment,  but  is  also  cost  effecJve   as   it   significantly   minimizes   energy   usage.   Vernacular   architecture   evidently   shows   us   the   importance  of  designing  in  relaJon  to  site  context  and  as  a  mere  response  to  how  the  site  and   the   building   benefits   each   other.   whether   it   be   through   the   building   form,   usage   of   materials,   the   shape   of   the   roof,     or   simply   via   the   orientaJon   of   the   building   to   suit   the   best   condiJons   of  the  site.       The  most  important  elements  of  passive  design  are  micro  aspects  of  the  site,  orientaJon  and   layout,   fenestraJons,   thermal   mass   of   materials,   applicaJon   of   shading   devices   and   also   a   proper   venJlaJon   mechanism.   InsulaJon   and   thermal   mass   help   to   maintain   even   temperatures,   while   venJlaJon   provides   passive   cooling   as   well   as   improving   indoor   air   quality   .   All   of   these   features   work   alongside   each   other   and   therefore   should   be   applied   in   such   a   way   that   they   all   compliment   and   support   each   other.   For   example,   large   glass   windows  that  admit  high  levels  of  natural  light  will  possibly  also  result  in  excessive  heat  gain,   especially   if   they   cast   light   on   an   area   of   thermal   mass.   Similarly,   opening   windows   that   provide  venJlaJon  will  also  cause  some  level  of  noise  polluJon.       It   is   evident   that   many   designers   in   Malaysia   akain   influences   from   local   vernacular   architecture,   mostly   in   chalets   and   commercial   buildings   as   potenJal   means   of   promoJng   local  architecture  of  the  past.  Nevertheless,  these  beauJful  designs  that  personify  vernacular   architecture   and   gracefully   portrays   its   aestheJcs,   are   seldom   studied   and   analyzed   about   regarding   its   passive   designs   and   how   well   it   responds   to   its   climaJc   and   environmental   condiJons.      

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1  


2.0 INTRODUCTION    2.1  -­‐  RESEARCH  QUESTIONS   Revitalizing   cultural   heritage   is   always   a   posiJve   cause   of   design,   however   we   must   find   that   balance   between   aestheJcs   and   funcJon   of   space   and   building.   The   building   studied   in   this   research   paper   is   the   phase   2   chalets   of   Belum   Rainforest   Resort   in   Pulau   Banding,   Perak.   To   gain   a   thorough   understanding   of   the   topic   discussed,   the   tradiJonal   chalets   of   the   resort   are   analyzed   in   depth,   in   relaJon   to   the   sustainable   Vernacular   Features   of   the   tradiJonal   Kutai   house   by   addressing   the   following   quesJons:     1)  What  makes  the  tradiJonal  Malay  house  (  kutai  house  )  an  ideal  example  of   sustainable  vernacular  architecture?     2  )  how  does  the  phase  2  Chalets  of  Belum  Rainforest  Resort  portray  a  successful   adaptaJon  of  the  Kutai  House  in  terms  of  sustainable  vernacular  architecture?     3)  In  response  to  contextual  climate,  to  what  extent  does  the  Design  Strategies  of   Belum  rainforest  Chalets  manage  to  achieve  the  desired  sustainability?     4)How  does  each  of  these  features  act  as  a  soluJon  and  help  in  solving  the  problem  of   heat  gain?     5)How  can  the  design  be  further  improved  in  response  to  the  immediate  site  context?    

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2  


3.0 VERNACULAR  ARCHITECTURE                                                The  term  ‘vernacular’  is  derived  from  the  LaJn  word  vernaculus,  meaning   naJve,  and  is  most  widely  used  to  denote  indigenous  and  tradiJonal  architecture.  According   to   Chen   (‘Architecture’   The   Encyclopedia   of   Malaysia),   vernacular   house   forms   evolved   according   to   different   cultural   seongs   and   are   the   results   of   long-­‐term   modificaJon,   adaptaJons,  shared  experiences  and  various  innovaJons.  vernacular  architecture  is  a  style   of   architecture   exemplifying   the   commonest   building   techniques   based   on   the   forms   and   materials  of  a  parJcular  historical  period,  region,  or  group  of  people  (Ching,  1995).     TradiJonal  Malay  houses  are  typically  raised  on  Jmber  sJlts  and  made  of  materials  which   were   easily   available   from   the   tropical   forests   such   as   bamboo,   rakan,   tree   roots   and   coconut  palm  leaves.  The  houses  usually  have  pitched  or  sloped  roofs,  porches  in  front,  high   ceilings   and   lots   of   grand   openings,   mainly   for   venJlaJon   purposes   as   well   as   a   symbol   of   the   culture.   Although   these   characterisJcs   are   parJcularly   common   in   all   Malay   houses   throughout  the  Peninsular  Malaysia,  their  shapes  and  sizes  differ  from  state  to  state.         RESPONSE  TO  CLIMATE   Since   Malaysia   is   located   at   the   very   central   part   of   Southeast   Asia,   it   is   bordered   by   longitudes  100  degrees  and  120  degrees  east;  and  by  LaJtudes  of  the  Equator  and  7  degrees   North.  The  country  is  sunny,  hot  and  humid  all  year  round  with  temperatures  range  from  25   C  to  34  C.  Due  to  heavy  monsoon  rains,  the  roofs  of  the  Malay  vernacular  houses  are  built   rather  steep.  In  certain  areas,  heavy  rainfall  frequently  causes  flooding  and  damage  to  the   surrounding   vegetaJon.   To   solve   this   problem,   some   houses   have   used   Jmber   sJlts   to   elevate  the  building  significantly  above  the  ground  level.  The  warm  climate  also  effects  the   style  of  the  Malay  vernacular  architecture.  For  venJlaJon  purposes,  many  buildings  have  full   verJcal   openings   on   the   sides,   mostly   fixed   and   not   operable,   as   well   as   grilles   are   provided   at   high   level   in   gable   ends.   Houses   raised   on   sJlts   are   provided   with   beker   natural   venJlaJon  as  they  catch  wind  at  high  velocity  below  the  floor  level.     USAGE  OF  MATERIALS   Since   Malaysia   has   a   tropical   climate,   most   building   material   is   easy   accessible   from   local   forests  and  various  sites  as  the  most  abundantly  used  materials  is  Jmber,  rakan,  tree  roots,   bamboo   and   coconut   palm   leaves.   In   a   tradiJonal   Malay   house,   Jmber   is   used   for   the   building  structures,  rakan  and  tree  roots  are  used  for  tying  up  joints  whereas  bamboo  and   leaves  are  used  for  floors  and  walls.     Figure  3.0  –  design  strategies  in  a  tradiJonal  Malay  house    

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3  


3.0 VERNACULAR  ARCHITECTURE  

3.  1-­‐  RUMAH  KUTAI   In  this  paper,  focus  is  given  on  the  sustainable  features  present  in  vernacular  architecture  rather  than   its   cultural   influences,   hence   the   The   sustainable   features   of   the   Rumah   Kutai   is   analyzed   in   depth   as   a   comparison  for  the  phase  2  chalets  of  Belum  Rainforest  resort.  

   

Figure 4.0  –  exterior  perspecJve  of  a  kutai  house  

The Rumah  Kutai  or  kutai  house  is  a  tradiJonal  type  of  malay  house  that  is  indigenous  to  perak,  and   has   been   in   existence   since   the   1800’s,   hence   the   name   ‘kutai’   which   means   old   or   ancient.   The   historical   and   heritage   significance   of   the   Rumah   Kutai   cannot   be   denied.   It   was   the   only   type   of   house  where  locals  lived  more  than  200  years  ago  and  that  sJll  exists  today.    Every  Rumah  Kutai   faces   the   river   as   the   river   was   the   lifeline   of   the   community   back   the.   It   generally   has   the   same   design  and  measurements,  with  only  a  few  variaJons  in  the  quality  of  materials  and  ornamentaJon,   depending  on  the  owner’s  wealth.  It  is  possible  to  have  a  beker  understanding  of  the  lifestyle  and   culture  of  the  Malays  of  old  by  studying  the  Rumah  Kutai’s  unique  architecture.   PILLARS   The  Kutai  house  sits  on  12  or  16  main  pillars/columns  called  Jang  seri  or  Jang  adat.  These  are  made   of  cengal,  merbau  or  damar  wood  and  come  in  different  shapes  and  dimensions;  round,  square  or   octagonal.   Some   houses   have   straight   pillars   whereas   some   are   cut   so   that   the   bokom   of   the   pillar   is  bigger  than  the  top,  resulJng  in  a  more  stable  pillar.  The  fascinaJng  technique  of  the  pillars  are   that   they   are   not   planted   into   the   ground   but   just   laid   onto   a   base   made   of   cut   stone,   bricks   or   concrete.       THE  ROOF   The  Rumah  Kutai  has  a  long  and  high  roof  that  is  made  of  sago  (rumbia  )  or  nipah  palm.  Nowadays,  many   Rumah   Kutai   owners   have   replaced   the   palm   roof   with   zinc   roofing   as   it   is   easier   to   maintain.   The   roof   is   supported  by  small  tree  trunks  called  kayu  bulat  (  round  wood  )  And  wooden  posts.  Some  houses  also  have   hollow  bamboo  pieces  to  channel  The  flow  of  rain  water.    The  roof  of  the  kutai  house  is  sloped  to  as  much  as   30  to  45  degrees  resulJng  in  run-­‐off  rainwater  which  provides  a  soluJon  against  water  absorpJon,  seepage   and  subsequent  leaks  which  might  occur  if  water  was  collected  on  the  roof  overJme.  The  large  overhangs   provided  by  the  roof  also  acts  as  a  shading  device  in  the  home.  The  area  underneath  the  roof  overhang  is  leq   open  to  allow  for  venJlaJon  so  that  the  interior  of  the  house  is  neither  hot  nor  damp.  

           ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4  


3.0 VERNACULAR  ARCHITECTURE  

3.  1-­‐  RUMAH  KUTAI     FLOOR     The  floor  of  the  rumah  kutai  is  raised  to  about  two  metres  from  the  ground  and  is  usually  made   of  wood  from  the  Ficus  plant  species  or  wooden  plants  from  the  sawmill.  There  are  also  those   that  are  made  from  strips  of  cyrtostachya  lakka  (  pinang  )  palm  trunk  or  from  hollow  bamboo   about  5-­‐6  cm  wide.  These  strips  are  arranged  on  top  of  wood  of  strips,  there  are  gaps  of  about  2   cm   so   that   the   house   does   not   float   away   in   the   event   of   a   flood.   In   addiJon,   one   can   find   a   wooden  beam,  called  bendul  encirculed  for  the  floor,  as  well  as  withing  the  house,  serving  to   divide  the  house  into  its  various  rooms  and  secJons.          

Figure 5.0  –  interior  view  of  a  kutai  house   walkway  with  illuminaJon  from  the   openings  

Figure 6.0  –  kutai  house  with  its  context  

Figure 7.0  –  Jmber  construcJon  details  of  Rumah  Kutai    

Structural Components     As   a   lightweight   Jmber   structure,   a   tradiJonal   Malay   house   regularly   uses   posts   and   a   lintel   Jmber   structure.   The   posts   rest   on   concrete  or  stone  fooJngs  without   any   foundaJon   required   (Yuan,   1987).   The   structural   framework   for   the   house   consists   of   several   posts   braced   by   floor   joists   and   the   r o o f   i s   c o n s t r u c t e d   U s i n g   prefabricated   methods   (   figure   7.0   )   where   all   the   structural   components   are   constructed   and   assembled   on   site.   this   allows   the   house   to   be   dismantled,   stored   down   and   reassembled   again   elsewhere  on  a  different  site.  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5  


4.0 ANALYSIS   the   sustainable   features   of   tradiJonal   Malay   Kutai   houses   are   summarized   below.   The   following   features  are  used  as  reference  in  invesJgaJng  the  sustainability  of  the  chalets  of  Belum  Rainforest   Resort.  

LAYOUT Random  and  scakered  arrangement  of   houses  to  ensure  that  wind  velocity  is  not   obstructed    

ORIENTATION

Orientated with   the   shorter   facades   facing   East-­‐west   to   minimize   exposure   to   the   sun.   For   religious   reasons,   most   tradiJonal   Malay   houses   are   oriented   to   face   Mecca   (east-­‐ west   direcJon),   which   indirectly   minimizes   the   area   of   exposed  walls  to  direct  solar  radiaJon  during  the  day  (Yuan,   2011)    

CROSS VENTILATION   Elongated  open  floor  plans  which  allow  easy   Air  passage  and  efficient  cross  venJlaJon  

ROOF SPACE  VENTILATION   Roof  spaces  are  properly  venJlated  using     VenJlaJon  joints  and  double  slope  roofs  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6  


4.0 ANALYSIS    

VENTILATION AT  BODY  LEVEL   Open  fenestraJons  such  as  full  length  windows   And  open  rooms  allow  venJlaJon  at  body  level  

MATERIALS

Is made  of  lightweight  materials  such  as  wood  and   other  natural  materials.  Their  low  thermal  capacity   holds  likle  heat  and  cools  adequately  at  night  

VEGETATION crop-­‐bearing   trees   such   as   coconut   trees   and   high-­‐   branched   fruity   trees   are   planted   .These   trees  have  various  funcJons,  such  as  to  indicate   individual  boundaries,  provide  fruits,  and  shade   the  pedestrian  walkways  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7  


4.0 -­‐  ANALYSIS  

OVERVIEW

 Sustainable  Features  of  Vernacular  Architecture  Adopted  at  the  phase  2  chalets  of  Belum   Rainforest  resort,  Perak.    

Figure 8.0  -­‐  An  Overall  birds  eye  view  of  the  Chalets  at  Belum  Rainforest  Resort  (Image   by  Mahi  Abdul  Muhsin)  

Cultural tourism   plays   an   important   role   in   the   architecture   industry   to   akract   visitors   and   promote   the   country's   heritage   through   design.   Although   Malaysia   has   given   less   akenJon   to   revitalizaJon   of   vernacular   architecture   in   the   past,   the   trend   of   mimicking   architecture   of   the   ‘past’  is  evidently  growing  lately  as  it  shows  potenJal  market  to  promote  culture.      According  to  the  website  of  Belum  rainforest  resort,  the  phase  2  chalets  or  ‘kampong  villa’s‘    of   the  resort  are  designed  with  ‘ecological  design  in  mind’.  based  on  the  talk  given  during  our  site   visit,   the   research   coordinator   specified   that   all   the   buildings   in   the   resort   were   designed   to   respond  to  the  immediate  context  of  the  site,  resulJng  in  an  ‘inJmate  relaJonship  with  nature’.   According  to  him,  the  ideas  evolved  around  the  scheme  of  the  resort  are  “rain,  sound,  aroma  and   sun.”    To  put  short,  the  buildings  of  the  resort  are  all  designed  to  be  sustainable.  This  research   will   study   the   the   features   menJoned   in   the   table   5.0   exhibited   by   Belum   rainforest   resorts   chalets   in   comparison   to   the   Kutai   House,   and   qualitaJvely   conclude   how   successful   the   vernacular  features  are  in  providing  sustainability.  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8  


4.0 -­‐  ANALYSIS  

4.1  –  SUN  PATH     A   building’s   sustainable   performance   is   greatly   influenced   by   its   orientaJon.   OrientaJon   is   a   factor  underlined  in  ‘basic  building  design’  to  promote  opJmum  thermal  comfort.  This  is  done  by   analyzing   the   micro   site   and   carefully   determining   where   open   fenestraJons,   courtyards,   balconies  of  a  building  should  or  should  not  be  placed,  in  response  to  the  site  analysis  of  sun  path   and  wind  path  of  a  parJcular  site.   in  clause  4.3  of  MS  1525  (Department  of  Standards   Malaysia,   2007),   it   is   stated   that   “   For   all   climaJc   zones   near   the   equator,   the   most   ideal   orientaJon   for   any   building   is   with   the   long   direcJonal   axis   of   the   design   facing   North-­‐South,   greatly   minimizing   the   East-­‐   West   orientaJon   of   the   building.”   It   is   also   advised   to   reduce   the   amount   of   openings   in   a   building   on   the   East   and   West   facades   of   the   building.   The   ideology   behind   this   is   to   greatly   eliminate  excessive  heat  gain  in  the  building.   Figure  9.0  -­‐    showing  opJmum  direcJon  of     OrientaJon  for  climaJc  zones  near  the  equator  

Layout –  chalets  of  Belum  Rainforest  resort  

Layout –  kutai  house  

w

Figure 10  -­‐    showing  linear  and  concentric   layout  of  kutai  house    

The linear,   yet   scakered   arrangement   of   Malay  houses  indirectly  helps  to  reduce  the   risk   of   strong   winds   where   seklements   along   coastal   areas   experience   higher   wind   speed   than   inland   regions   (Hanafi,   1994).   The   characters   of   a   Malay   Kampong   are   detached,   and   dispersed   units   with   ample   external   spaces   between   them   to   allow   fresh  air  circulaJon  (Hanafi,  1994).      

E

Figure 11  -­‐    showing  linear  arrangement  of   The  Chalets,  facing  the  river    

In terms   of   the   orientaJon   and   layout,   the   Chalets  of  Belum  rainforest  follow  the  linear   arrangement   of   the   typical   Kutai   house,   overlooking   down   to   the   river   from   the   west.   It   is   also   orientated   with   its   longer   façade   facing   North-­‐South,   minimizing   the   East-­‐  West  orientaJon.        

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9  


4.0 -­‐  ANALYSIS    4.1.1  –  ORIENTATION  AND  LAYOUT  IN  RESPONSE  TO  SUN  PATH    

1

1 2  

Chalet 1  

E

3

W

Chalet2

OrientaJon of  Chalets  at  Belum  Rainforest  Resort     (floor  plans  –  courtesy  of  the  Resort  Website)  

Chalet 3  

Analyzing the   floor   plans   of   the   chalets   in   detail,   it   is   observed   that   there   are   variaJons   in   the   placement   of   windows   in   the   three   different   chalet   types.   The   chalets   are   also   orientated   in   a   slightly  south  west  direcJon.  In  the  1-­‐bedroom  chalet,  the  façade  with  the  most  openings  is  the   North-­‐west  façade,  while  in  the  2-­‐bedroom  chalet,  the  Southwest  façade  has  the  most  openings.   In   the   3-­‐   bedrooms   chalet,   the   most   openings   are   found   on   the   South-­‐east   façade   of   the   structure.       According   to   the   observaJon,   all   3   chalets   responds   to   the   sun   path   data   varyingly.   The   important  aspect  of  building  sustainably  in  relaJon  to  the  sun  path  analysis  is  to  have  the  longer   façade  facing  North  and  South  direcJon,  as  well  as  to  minimize  the  number  of  openings  on  the   East  and  West.  These  features  are  carefully  followed  by  the  1-­‐bedroom  and    3-­‐bedroom  chalet.   The   2-­‐bedroom   chalets,   however,   have   many   openings   on   the   West,   which   is   not   recommended   in   a   hot   tropical   climate   like   Malaysia.   However,   these   openings   are   aided   by   a   porch,   simultaneously   shaded   by   an   overhanding   roof,   which   could   be   the   reason   for   the   openings   in   the   2-­‐bedroom   chalet,   where   the   glazed   porJons   are   not   exposed   to   the   sun   due   to   the   shading   devices.  It  might  also  be  to  provide  the  best  views  in  response  to  the  site  analysis.     Other   than   the   purpose   of   aestheJcs,   it   is   also   possible   that   the   openings   of   the   2-­‐bedroom   chalet  are  more  responsive  towards  the  wind  rather  than  the  sun.    

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10  


4.0 -­‐  ANALYSIS    4.2  –  WIND  PATH  ANALYSIS  

E

1 2  

Chalet 1  

3

W

Chalet 2  

Chalet 3  

WIND ROSE  DIAGRAM,     PULAU  BANDING,  PERAK   (source  –  windfinder/     wind  path  on  website  )  

The wind-­‐rose   diagram   on   the   leq   (   pulau   banding)   shows   that   the   prevailing   winds   come   from   the   East-­‐Northeast   and   West-­‐Northwest   direcJons.   Based   on   this   informaJon,   it   is   suggested   that   openings   of   the   chalets   are   preferably   placed   on   the   North-­‐West   and   North-­‐East   facades.       Despite  not  all  the  chalets  equally  responding  to  the  sun  path  data,  it  is   quite   obvious   that   the   layout   of   the   chalets   are   orientated   in   West-­‐   Northwest  direcJon  in  response  to  the  wind  analysis  data.    

Figure 12  -­‐    climate  design  strategies  of  a  typical  Malay  house    

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11  


4.0 -­‐  ANALYSIS    4.3  –  VENTILATION  

VenIlaIon  is  the  introducJon  of  outside  air  into  an  enclosed  space.  VenJlaJon  is  mainly  used   to  control  the  indoor  air  quality  by  diluJng  and  displacing  indoor  pollutants.  It  is  mostly  used  for   purposes  of  thermal  comfort  or  dehumidificaJon.     The  level  of  how  efficiently  a  building  is  VenJlated  is  proporJonate  to  how  responsive  it  is  to   the  wind  analysis  of  the  parJcular  site  as  well  as  how  carefully  it  is  designed  to  doge  the  effects   of   excessive   solar   radiaJon   on   the   building.   The   size   of   the   openings,   growth   of   vegetaJon,   heights   of   sJlts,   as   well   as   the   roof   design   is   analyzed   further   in   the   paper   to   gain   a   deeper   understanding  of  the  chalet’s  venJlaJon  efficiency.       FENESTRATIONS  IN  THE  CHALETS  (  Images  of  chalets  taken  by  author  )    

Figure 13  -­‐  Full  length  windows  

Figure 14  –  open  deck  allowing  air  to  pass   Between  rooms  

Figure 15  –  shaded  porch  with  overhanding  roofs  

Figure 16  –  full  length  openings  and  raised  floor     Level  of  the  Kutai  house  

reason to  why  tradiJonal  Kutai  houses  are  so  successful  in  applying  natural  venJlaJon  is  due   to  their  full  length  windows  and  doors,  in  addiJon  to  them  being  raised  off  the  ground  by  sJlts.   As   seen   in   the   figures,   the   fenestraJons   of   the   Chalets   are   mainly   all   full   length   verJcal,   operabele   windows   with   Jmber   frames,   and   the   building   is   raised   about   30cm   by   steel   I   beam   sJlts  .    

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12  


4.3 VENTILATION   4.3.1  RAISED  FLOOR  LEVEL  BY  STILTS  

      What   fascinates   me   most   about   the   Malay   house   is   that   the   usable   floor   level   is   always   raised   off   the   ground  by  30cm  to  2m  in  height.  This  approach  of  building  design,  in  several  ways,  has  various  benefits   from   a   thermal,   funcJonal   and   safety   point   of   view   to   the   residents   and   also   the   building   itself.     The   raised   floor,   which   is   built   higher   than   the   ground,   is   built   in   such   a   way   as   to   catch   winds   of   a   higher   velocity   (Yuan,   1987:   71),   and   the   use   of   Jmber   planks   for   the   floor,   which   have   small   gaps   between   them,   can   bring   the   air   to   the   inner   space.   Hanafi   (1994)     suggests   that   moist   ground   requires   more   sunlight  to  dry,  and  a  raised  floor  is  one  of  the  soluJons  to  this  problem.       SJlt   heights   vary   between   Kutai   houses   located   in   the   northern   and   southern   regions   due   to   the   damage   caused  by  flooding  in  different  regions.  Research  findings  on  sJlt  heights  in  tradiJonal  Malay  houses  have   proved   those   in   the   northern   region   have   more   height   than   those   in   the   southern   region   (Figure   16).   The   underneath   space   allocated   by   the   raised   floor   provides   shelter   for   the   livestock,   working   space,   and   a   laundry-­‐drying  area  during  rainy  seasons.     Figure  17  -­‐  Rumah  Kutai  raised  on  wooden  sJlts  

Although the  raised  plaworm  of  The  chalets  Do  not  funcJon  as  storage  space,  the  same  concept  of   higher  nothern  Ground  is  applied  by  (  1.5m  )  high  sJlts  in  the  northern  chalets  compared  to  the   southern   chalets   (   raised   30   –   50cm   above   ground   )   of   Belum   Rainforest   Resort.   This   is   also   coincidentally   due   to   the   topography   of   the   site,   which   in   return   aids   in   providing   winds   at   high   velocity.    

Figure 18  -­‐  Southern  Chalets  (  300mm  sJlts  )                                                                figure  19  -­‐  northern  chalets  (  1.5m  –  2m    sJlts  )              ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13  


4.3 VENTILATION   4.3.2  ROOF  VENTILATION   Roof  spaces  in  local  kutai  house  is  sufficiently  venJlated  by  the  installaJon  of  venJlaJon  joints   and   panels   in   the   roof   construcJon   (Yuan,   1987:   75).   Figure   20   shows   the   roof   ’s   opening   on   either  sides  to  aid  wind  path  and  circulaJon  (Hanafi,  1994).  As  one  of  the  naJve  materials,  the   akap  roof  used  in  Malay  houses  has  a  low  thermal  capacity.  This  material  does  not  retain  heat   and   cools   within   an   extremely   short   amount   of   Jme.   Another   climaJc   responsive   design   of   a   double-­‐slope   roof   is   its   gable   ends.   Having   various   moJve   designs,   this   component   also   has   venJlaJon   panels   which   allow   air   to   flow   into   the   roof   space   and   cool   the   house   (Yuan,   1987:111).       The  roofs  also  have  Large  overhangs  and  the  low  exposed  verJcal  areas  (windows  and  walls)  in  a   tradiJonal  Kutai  house  provide  adequate  protecJon  against  driving  rain,  good  shading,  and  allow   the  windows  to  be  leq  open  most  of  the  Jme  for  venJlaJon.  

Figure 20  -­‐SecJon  of  Chalet,  Belum  Rainforest  Resort  

Figure 21  -­‐  VenJlaJon  Openings  in  the  Roof  of   TradiJonal  Malay  House  (KALAM,  1986)  

As seen  by  the  figures  below,  the  roofs  of  the  chalets  are  pitched  just  as  much  as  a  tradiJonal   Kutai   house,   however   does   not   have   the   feature   of   double   slope   like   that   on   a   Kutai   house   which   allows   venJlaJon   through   the   roof.   This   reduces   the   roof   venJlaJon   space.   Furthermore,   unlike   how   tradiJonal   Malay   houses   are   properly   venJlated   using   venJlaJon   joints,  this  characterisJc  is  not  present  in  the  chalets.  

Figure 22  –    sloped  roof  designs  of  the  Chalets  of  Belum  Rainforest  Resort  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14  


4.3 VENTILATION   4.3.3  CROSS  VENTILATION     Openings   should   be   installed   on   opposite   walls   of   an   enclosed   space   for   opJmum   cross   venJlaJon   effecJveness.   In   cases   where   this   is   not   possible,   windows   can   be   placed   on   the   adjacent  Walls  as  well.  It  is  also  stated  that  in  the  placement  of  openings,  it  is  generally  best   not   to   place   them   directly   across   one   another   in   a   space   as   it   may   result   in   an   uneven   distribuJon  of  fresh  air.       According   to   the   author   of   the   website,  challengeforsustainability.org,   The   windward   wall   should  ideally  be  oriented  to  be  perpendicular  to  prevailing  wind;  perpendicular  orientaJon   may   not   always   be   possible   in   exisJng   buildings.   The   building   itself   should   ideally   be   relaJvely   narrow   to   ensure   fresh   air   is   distributed   throughout   the   building.   Extensive   internal  parJJons  will  inhibit  air  flow  and  render  cross  venJlaJon  impracJcal.  Assuming  a   building’s   locaJon   and   orientaJon   allow   for   adequate   cross   venJlaJon,   operable   windows/ openings  are  required  on  opposite  ends  to  ensure  effecJve  venJlaJon.  Also,  equal  inlet  and   outlet   areas   are   prefered   to   maximize   air   flow.   These   features   are   analyzed   in   the   floor   plans  of  the  Belum  Rainforest  Chalets.   1-­‐bedroom  chalet  

2-­‐bedroom chalet  

3-­‐bedroom chalet  

Analyzing the  floor  plan  ,  It  is  clearly  seen  that  cross  venJlaJon  .  However,  it  is  not  fully  uJlized.  In  the  3-­‐ bedroom   chalet,   for   instance,   cross-­‐venJlaJon   is   not   used   to   its   full   potenJal.   openings   are   not   directly   parallel   or   even   diagonally   placed   across   each   other.   In   the   other   two   chalets,   cross-­‐   venJlaJon   is   more   effecJve,   however   is   sJll   not   used   to   its   maximum   design   potenJal   in   response   to   the   prevailing   wind   direcJon.  Looking  at  the  placement  of  the  openings,  they  are  not  placed  directly  across  one  another,  which   help   distribute   the   air.   Unlike   what   is   suggested   by   MS   1525,   the   number   of   inlets   and   outlets   are   unequal   for  each  chalets  on  opposite  sides.  Also,  although  not  many,  there  is  a  few  obstrucJons  that  may  decrease   the   effecJveness   of   cross-­‐venJlaJon.   These   factors   decrease   the   effecJveness   of   cross   venJlaJon.   However,   in   the   2nd   and   3rd   chalet   design,   The   separaJon   of   the   rooms   with   the   open   deck   promotes   a   direct  flow  of  air  in  the  main  gathering  space.  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  15  


4.4 CONTEXT  

From the   site   plan,   it   is   clear   that   the   chalets   are   engulfed   by   a   beauJful   arrangement   of   plantaJon  down  a  sloping  contour.  Similarly  to  how  coconut  trees  and  other  crop  bearing  trees   are  used  as  a  natural  shading  device  around  tradiJonal  Malay  houses,  the  trees  surrounding  the   chalet,   Also  play  a  significant  role  in  providing  shade  to  the  users,  from  every  direcJon  of  sun  path.     In  comparison  to  the  local  Kutai  house,  trees  are  usually  arranged  at  quite  a  distance  from  one   another,   where   as   the   tradiJonal   kutai   house   has   a   courtyard   of   plantaJon,   the   trees   here   are   randomly  scakered.  The  reason  behind  this  is  to  allow  space  for  wind  to  travel  between  the  trees   hence  resulJng  in  more  effecJve  venJlaJon  and  also  for  means  as  providing  walkways  between   the  nature.  It  is  also  preferable  that  the  vegetaJon  around  a  building  be  grown  in  a  fashion  that  it   does  not  impede  air  circulaJon.       From   the   pictures   below,   it   is   evidently   seen   that   the   chalets   are   almost   camouflaging   with   the   surrounding  due  to  the  dense  growth  of  trees.  Since  the  trees  around  the  chalet  are  quite  densely   laid  out,  this  provides  adequate  shading  to  the  chalets,  as  well  as  a  fresh  supply  of  air.  

Figure 23  –    chalets  engulfed  in  a  dense  growth  of  vegetaJon  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16  


4.4 VENTILATION   4.4.1  VEGETATION  INTEGRATION   Figure  24  –    plants  are  grown  on  the  railings  and  walls  of  the  chalets  

Figure 25  –    plants  filling  up  the  empty  wall  spaces  

Figure 26  –    vegetaJon  in  the  open  garden  spaces          Figure  27–  sloped  roofs  peeking  above  the  vegetaJon              ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17  


4.0 -­‐  ANALYSIS   4.5  USAGE  OF  MATERIALS   THE  FOLLOWING  TABLE  OUTLINES  THE  MATERIALS  USED  IN  A  TRADITIONAL  KUTAI  HOUSE.   STRUCTURE  

MATERIAL

Columns, beams,   joists  

Cengal, Petaling,   Merbau,  Damar  Laut  

Walls, windows,   doors  

MeranJ, Bamboo  

Roof

Nipah, Bertam,   Rumbia  

KUTAI HOUSE  

Figure 28  -­‐  Floor  joist  with  gaps  between  them  

MeranJ panels   Concrete  

MeranJ weather   board   MeranJ  window   frames   Figure  29  –  birds  eye  view  of  chalets  showing  materials  

STRUCTURE

MATERIALS

Exterior columns  

cengal

SJlts

Steel I  beams  

Window and  door   frames  

meranJ

wall

MeranJ panels,   concrete,  brick  

Flooring  

Merbau

roof  

MeranJ Panels  

Walls –  brick,  concrete,  meranJ  

merbau MATERIALS  USED  IN  THE  CHALETS   In  comparison  to  the  materials  used  in  the  Rumah  Kutai,   it   can   be   concluded   that   in   terms   of   of   the   usage   of   materias   the   chalets   are   quite   similar   to   the   tradiJonal   Malay   house.   The   materials   used   are   light   weight   and   has    

Steel I  beam  SJlts  

Floor joist  with  gaps  between  them  

         ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18  


5.0 -­‐  CONCLUSION                                        In  a  nutshell,  it  can  be  concluded  that  the  phase  2  chalets  of  the  Belum  Rainforest   personify   Malaysian   vernacular   architecture   to   a   very   high   extent.   There   are   many   ways   that   it   has   elaborated   on   the   features   and   some   where   it   has   fallen   short   of   using   the   features   as   means  of  responsing  to  the  site.  On  the  posiJve  side,  the  elevated  floors,  full-­‐length  windows   on  the  perimeter  walls  (all  the  windows  are  operable  and  can  be  shut  and  open  separately,   while  most  of  the  tradiJonal  kutai  house  uses  fixed  openings.  The  former  system  allow  airs  in   according   to   residents   needs   )   the   beauJful   arrangement   and   usage   and   integraJon   of   vegetaJon   plays   an   important   role   in   providing   effecJve   venJlaJon   to   the   users   of   the   chalets.   Although   the   chalets   are   built   inspired   by   the   vernacular   architecture   of   the   Kutai   house,   and   has   various   similariJes,   components   such   as   roof   venJlaJon   and   the   height   of   sJlts   of   the   chalets   do   differ   to   that   of   the   tradiJonal   Kutai   house.   The   roof   design   and   slope   is  one  less  effecJve  feature  of  the  chalets  compared  to  the  Kutai  house.       looking   at   the   sustainable   elements   that   were   invesJgated,   it   is   resolved   that   in   terms   of   response   to   the   sun,   the   chalets   were   not   fully   successful   due   to   the   placement   of   the   windows  and  fenestraJons.  Nevertheless,  In  terms  of  wind  analysis,  the  open  fenestraJons   are   installed   in   accordance   to   the   prevailing   wind   direcJon,   indicaJng   that   it   promotes   natural   venJlaJon.   However,   in   reference   to   cross-­‐venJlaJon,   it   sJll   has   potenJal   to   be   further  uJlized  to  provide  users  with  a  more  opJmum  comfort  level  than  the  current  design.   This  was  also  a  result  of  how  the  chalets  were  placed  on  the  site.  Finally,  the  materials  used   in   the   chalets   are   of   high   similarity   to   the   tradiJonal   Malay   house.   Kutai   house   uses   lightweight   materials   such   as   Jmber,   bamboo   and   akap   roofing   which   have   a   great   advantage   in   Malaysia’s   climate.   The   chalets   have   replaced   the   use   of   akap   with   Jmber   panel   roofs   and   flooring   and   wall   finishes   with   Cengal   and   meranJ   enhances   the   chalet’s   sustainable  performance.       The  implementaJon  of  modern  touches  alongside  local  vernacular  architecture  is  seemingly   not  so  popular  as  a  trend  in  Malaysia  however  the  idea  has  the  potenJal  of  being  a  rather   beauJful   and   successful   design   applicaJon   both   aestheJcally   and   funcJonally   if,   built   as   a   response  to  the  immediate  site.  

THANK YOU              ARC60403/ARC2234  Asian  Architecture                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19  


6.0 -­‐  REFERENCES   Ching.  F.D.K.  (1995).  A  Visual  DicIonary  of  Architecture.  New  York:  John  Wiley  &  Son     epartment  of  Standards  Malaysia.  (2007).  MS  1525:  Code  of  PracIce  on  Energy   Efficiency  and  Use  of  Renewable  Energy  for  Non-­‐ResidenIal  Buildings  .  Cyberjaya:   Department  of  Standards  Malaysia     Malaysia  Resorts  |  Belum  Rainforest  Resort  |  Banding  Island  |  Official  Site  (n.d).     from  hkp://www.belumresort.com     Firrdhaus  Sahabuddin  (2014  )  Vernacular  Architecture  in  Malaysia hkps://www.academia.edu/ 2377416Chapter_2_Malaysian_Vernacular_Architecture_and_Its_RelaJonship_to_Clima te     Lim.  J.  Y.  (1987).The  Malay  House:  Rediscovering  Malaysia's  Indigenous  Shelter  System   .  Kuala  Lumpur:  InsJtut  Masyarakat     Katherine,  S.  (1965)  My  Kampong  House  The  Straits  Times  Annual  1965  p.p.  74-­‐77.     Yuan,  L.J.  (1979)  Relief  of  Clima+c  Stress  in  Housing  in    Malaysia  Architect  Journal  Vol.   4:79  December  1979                      

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REFERENCES


REFERENCES

Vernacular architecture in belum rainforest resort  
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