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Reciprocity Zoning Mixed Housing Block

Year:

2009

Location: Downtown Dallas, Texas Site:

2.5 Acres

Client:

Dallas Mayor’s Office and RE-Vision Dallas

Program:

420 Housing Units Public Space Retail Space

Project Type: Open Competition Urban Design and Architecture Status: Conceptual Design

M a n u e l Ă v i l a Architecture + Urban Design manuelavilaprojects.com

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Reciprocity Zoning

As citizens of the city, we collect, consume, produce and dispose on a daily basis. We are part of an urban ecosystem, inseparable and complex, legible to us only to a certain extent. Attempting to design the “perfect� block, carbon-neutral, energy-independent and self sustained is indeed a noble task. It is also, in our view, a misguided one. Given the complexity of the relevant variables, it would be almost pretentious to claim self-sustenance, let alone carbon-neutrality. A city block is an integral part of the urban ecosystem, and should be designed as such, taking advantage of the different flows the city has to offer, social, economic and environmental.

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5000 ft


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RecipRociTy Zoning: an uRban sTRaTegy

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RecipRociTy Zoning: an uRban sTRaTegy

CENTRAL DALLAS RESIDENTIAL ARMATURE NEW TRINITY RIVER CORRIDOR

URBAN GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE

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In his book “The Next Industrial Revolution”, William McDonough considers the life cycle of a cherry tree, noting especially the fact that the waste the tree produces contributes, in one way or another, to the ecosystem it is part of. Industry, he continues, produces poisonous waste. Christopher Alexander’s “A City Is Not A Tree” immediately comes to mind, even though Alexander refers to a different kind of tree, a diagrammatic one that represents the operational structure of an ‘artificial’ city. Nonetheless, one cannot help but wonder what would be the most productive analogy in designing an innovative city block. Cities, like trees, but also like industry, produce waste. A city’s spatial waste, even if it is severely contaminated, provides the city with air. It dictates a rhythm of development that is not subject to market forces or rezoning efforts, but to a much slower, almost ‘natural’ rhythm. It does, however, provide us with an infrastructure of left-over spaces that can lend themselves to various needs of the urban ecosystem. By taking advantage of these spaces we can ‘stitch’ new projects into the grid without asking of them to be entirely independent in terms of energy production and consumption, waste processes and water cycles.


The housing block

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densiTy sTudy Models TaRgeT densiTy 170 uniTs/ acRe ツゥ Manuel

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The housing block

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Typology development study models


The housing block

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master plan layout study models ツゥ Manuel

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The following reciprocity matrix better explores the type of exchanges. The matrix contains 3 realms of resources the project draws on: Natural, Social and Programmatic. Multiple combinations can be created using different resources, each ‘Trio’ reflecting a potential initiative. The collective force of all initiatives is what creates the space of the project.

CITY AGRICULTURE

RESIDEN

CITY

012

T PU T U P

OU T IN

OU T IN

T PU T PU

FRESH WATER

SOLAR CITY PANELS

SOLAR PANELS

COM

COMMERCIAL

CITY

AGRICULTURE

COMMERCIAL

COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL

RESIDENTIAL

RESIDENTIAL

RESIDENTIAL

RESIDENTIAL

COMMERCIAL RETENTION POND COLLECTION COLLECTION BASINS BASINS

RETENTION POND

FRESH WATER GREY WATER

BLACK WATER ELECTRICITY

GREY WATER BLACK WATER

HEAT PUMP

WIND TURBINES HEAT PUMP

HEATELECTRICITY

PARKING AGRICULTURE

PARKING

WIND TURBINES

HEAT CONSUMABLE

AGRIC

EXTERNAL SO

CONSUMABLE COMPOSTABLE


We envision the 1502 Canton block in central Dallas as an opportunity for reciprocity. Through layout, design and programming, the block operates on varying scales, schedules and operations. Site proximities allow for new exchanges that feed new programmed spaces as well as existing neighboring services. Greater resiliency is created by coordinating the needs of the project with the wants.

AL RESIDENTIAL

COMMERCIAL

CITY

PARKING

OFF-SITE RECYCLING

AGRICULTURE

WIND TURBINES

T

CITY

EXTERNAL SOURCES

CONSUMABLE

COMPOSTABLE

RECYCLABLE

LANDFILL

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1 BEDROOM MARKET WORK-LIVE UNITS STUDIO UNITS HOTEL/SHORT TERM

3 BEDROOM AFFORDABLE UNITS

STUDIO UNITS

2 BEDROOM MARKET RATE UNITS

HOTEL/SHORT-TERM RENTAL UNITS

2 BEDROOM AFFORDABLE UNITS

LIVE-WORK UNITS

1 BEDROOM MARKET RATE UNITS

PARKING

1 BEDROOM AFFORDABLE UNITS

COMMERCIAL SPACE

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SUBMISSION NO. 132


ITS

NITS

ITS

a mixed housing block

PU

TOTAL RESIDENTIAL UNITS 420 3 BEDROOM AFFORDABLE UNITS

52

@ 1000 sq. ft. per unit

2 BEDROOM AFFORDABLE UNITS

16

@ 800 sq. ft. per unit

2 BEDROOM MARKET RATE UNITS

94

@ 800 sq. ft. per unit

1 BEDROOM AFFORDABLE UNITS

79

@ 550 sq. ft. per unit

1 BEDROOM MARKET RATE UNITS

58

@ 550 sq. ft. per unit

WORK-LIVE UNITS

60

@ 600 sq. ft. per unit

STUDIO UNITS

52

@ 450 sq. ft. per unit

HOTEL/SHORT TERM RENTAL UNITS 9

@ 450 sq. ft. per unit

015

STUDIO UNITS

INT

HOTEL/SHORT-TERM RENTAL UNITS

LIVE-WORK UNITS

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public space 7AM

8AM

9AM

10AM

11AM

12PM

6AM

7AM

8AM

9AM

10AM

11AM

12PM

ICAL COMPONENTS

DESIGN COMPONENTS

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SEPTEMBER 23_ FALL EQUINOX DECEMBER 21_ WINTER SOLSTICE

YEARLY SHADING STUDY

JUNE 21_ SUMMER SOLSTICE

MARCH 21_ SPRING EQUINOX

6AM

SUN TERRACES

ROOFTOP USAGE

Sun Terraces are designed to face south where possible and to overlap partially, so that they provide both a shaded area and a sunny area as often as possible.

Being the only space with unhindered sun exposure, much of the roof space is dedicated to Greenhouses that allow the cultivation of more delicate species like strawberries and tomatoes.

Additional roof spaces are used for collecting sto water which is diverted to the street-level retentio pond.

ROOF GREENHOUSE - MAXIMUM SUN EXPOSURE

PUBLIC SPACE

ORCHARD - HIGH SUN EXPOSURE

BUILDING CIRCULATION

ADJUSTABLE SOLAR FIELD - PARTIAL SUN EXPOSURE

PANELS

In order to maximize the productivity of solar panels, they need to be adjustable, supporting different angles for the different seasons. The panels are embedded in the southern facades shading system, providing flexibility for the users. Additional PV cells

SILENT URBAN TURB

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines can produce energy regardless of the wind direction, and start creatin electricity at as low as 5 mph (wind speed that exists throughout the year in Dallas). The QR turbines were specifically designed for a


1PM

2PM

3PM

4PM

5PM

6PM

1PM

2PM

3PM

4PM

5PM

6PM

GROUND LEVEL Based on the Shadow Analysis, areas that are often shaded are dedicated to water retention. The areas that receive partial sun light are used for field crops, and areas with ample sunlight contain a fruit orchard. The central strip of the block that receives maximum sun light is preserved as a public space, accessible from both sides of the block.

orm on

ng

an

SHADING STUDY HOURS7PM COLLAPSED INTO ONE SEASONAL IMAGE

SHADING STUDY SEASONS COLLAPSED INTO ONE YEARLY IMAGE PER HOUR

o

BINES

7PM

In addition to their agricultural productivity, the field and orchard provide a partial barrier, protecting the private residential areas from the central public space.

PUBLIC SPACE

STORM WATER CATCHMENT BASINS

BUILDING CIRCULATION

STORM WATER AND GRAY WATER RETENTION

DRIP-TAPE IRRIGATION Drip Irrigation provides accurate amounts of water to the exact location of the plant base with minimum loss of effort and water by evaporation and water loss. A main feeder pipe distributes the irrigation water

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