Issuu on Google+

II

X

IV

III

IV

II VI

IV

X

III

III

IX

II

II

II VI

II VI

IX

III

IV

IX

X

II

X

II VI

IV

IX

IX

III

II VI

X

II

I

V

V

V

V

V

XII

VI

VI

VI

VI

XI

I

XII XI

I

XII XI

I

XII XI

I

XII XI

VII

VII

VI

VII

VII

VII


TIME An indefinite and continuous duration regarded as that in which events succeed one another.


DO WE FULLY UNDERSTAND TIME? The present is the consciousness or awareness of recording of memory into the brain. Imagine two objects, one moving in orbit around the other, in space. Now suppose from our distant observation point of a fixed time, we observe time to get slower in the area where these two objects are moving. We expect to see slower motion? We also should observe proportionally weaker gravitational force; otherwise the objects will get pulled together. If we observed faster time, we expect to see faster motion and stronger gravity to keep the objects from flying apart. While with zero time, motion will freeze and gravity will become zero.

The increase or decrease in strength of gravity is only in relation to our fixed time from where we are making the observation. From the point of view (time) of the orbiting objects neither motion nor gravity has changed. As this thought experiment also can be extended to particles held together by electromagnetic forces we can say that time involves both motion and forces. Time involves all kinds of motion. The spin of particles and the motion of photons are dependent on time. Gravitational force and electromagnetic forces are all part of time as well, as is the motion of celestial bodies the atoms and all other motion.


CAN TIME BECOME OBSELETE?


The Speed of Light

In an article of the magazine Scientific American, Craig Callender compared time with motion. Time is a way to compare or describe different kinds of motions like speed of light, how fast heart beats or how frequently earth spins around its axis. But these processes could be compared directly without making reference to time. These graphs illustrate the difference between using seconds and heartbeats to measure the speed of light and the Earth’s rotation.

Time may just be a common unit of motion against which all other motions are measured, making the world easier to explain but having no independent existences from these other motions. This suggests the underlying mechanism that time is just the presence of motion. If someone would think about how different the world would be if we were to use these different measurements, they may be surprised at how miniscule the existing difference actually is.

The Earth’s Rotation


DISORDER IS I N C R E AS I N G Entropy is a term usually associated with thermodynamics, but can also be used in conjunction with time. Entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder and/ or chaos in a given system; the higher the entropy, the greater the disorder. This disorder usually refers to the number of different microscopic states a system can be in (the exact states of all of the molecules making up the system). The idea here is that even knowing the composition of a space (volume, energy pressure and temperature) doesn’t tell us much about the exact state of each molecule in the system. Due to the fact that we cannot see what state a system is in, people often like to say that entropy is a descriptive measure of how uncertain or ignorant one is about the exact, detailed, microscopic state of a system. As an example, suppose that you put a marble in a large box, and shook the box around, and you didn’t look inside afterwards. The marble could be anywhere in the box, so the marble in the box has a high entropy. Now suppose you put the marble in a tiny box and shook up the box. Now, even though you shook the box, you pretty much know where the marble is, because the box is small. In this case we say that the marble in the box has low entropy.


CONSIDER A SOLID OBJECT...

COMPOSED OF MILLIONS OF MOLECULES AND ATOMS HELD TIGHTLY TOGETHER AND HIGHLY ORDERED


...IF A PART OF THIS OBJECT IS DESTROYED ON A MOLECULAR LEVEL, THE SPACE THE OBJECT OCCUPIED WOULD BE MUCH EMPTIER AND SIMPLER...


BUT THE MOLECULES WOULD


D BE IN COMPLETE DISARRAY


So the length of a lifetime... 1 billion heartbeats. Not a human life alone, apparently the lifespan of all amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles can be counted in number of heartbeats, and that number is about 1 billion. How can that be? I will explain it to you, Humans live in average 65 years, hamsters in average 3 years and Artic whales as many as 150 years, but the number of heartbeats stay the same. Because whales can have as few as 10 heartbeats a minute and hamsters as many as 450, during a lifespan the number of beats averages, still, at about 1 billion.

At the rate of 70 beats per minute, humans shouldn’t be living past young adulthood, and that what true for most of our history and is still the case for many parts of the world, with life spans between 33 and 35 years. Developments in health treatments and sanitation have expended that to about twice as much, but the natural connection remains intact. These measurements started in the 1930s, work of Swiss-born chemist Max Kleiber. The Kleiber Ratio determines that for every creature, the amount of energy burned per unit of weight is proportional to that animals mass to the three-quarters power.

IS A LIFESPAN A BILLION HEARTBEATS ?


It is my feeling that Time ripens all things; with Time all things are revealed; Time is the father of truth. -Francois Rabelais


II

X

IV

III

IV

II VI

IV

X

III

III

IX

II

II

II VI

II VI

IX

III

IV

IX

X

II

X

II VI

IV

IX

IX

III

II VI

X

II

I

V

V

V

V

V

XII

VI

VI

VI

VI

XI

I

XII XI

I

XII XI

I

XII XI

I

XII XI

VII

VII

VI

VII

VII

VII


Time Editorial